Você está na página 1de 19

PRACTICAL 1: THE BASIC TYPES OF LIVING CELLS

Abstract:

This experiment examined between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells, both cells
were observed by using compound microscope. Slides were observed by adjusting the
magnification, either low or high magnification. 4x,10x and 40x magnification were used in
this experiment in order to observed organelles and structures of the cells. Staining is an
auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. It
enable better visualization of cells and cell parts under the microscope. By using
different stains, a nucleus or a cell wall are easier to view. Most stain scan be used on nonliving (fixed) cells, while only some types of stain can be used on living cells. In this
experiment, methylene blue was used to stain animal cells to make nuclei more visible. At the
end of the experiment, both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells were able to be
differentiate as there were different type of organelles in each of them.

Introduction:
The cell is the basic living unit organization for all organisms. There are two types of
cells which are prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Prokaryotic cells have DNA but it is not isolated from the rest of the cell in which it
exist as a single loop freely in the cytoplasm. In addition it often have small loops of DNA
called plasmids which can be transferred to other cells.
Eukaryotic cells generally are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They
have true nucleus containing the DNA a well as other membrane bound organelles. These
include mitochondria, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum(ER) and the nucleus.

Objective:
1. Define prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells.
2. Describe the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1.1.1 BACTERIAL CELLS
Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Clean slides
Coverslip
Compound microscope
Toothpick
Any commercial yoghurt cultures
Distilled water in dropper bottle

Methods
1. A drop water was placed on a clean slides.
2. The toothpick was used to dip into the yoghurt and placed onto slide and covered with
a cover slip.
3. The slide was observed under low and high magnification and drew.
4. The shapes that was observed and described.
5. A drop of methylene blue was placed at the side of the cover slip and it is allowed to
be drawn in.
6. Observation was continued.
1.1.2 CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE GREEN ALGAE)
Materials
1. Prepared slides of Oscillatoria
2. Coverslips
3. Compound microscope
Methods
1. The prepared Oscillatoria slide was observed under low magnification and a drawing
was made.
2. A short segment of the filament was drawn when changed to a higher magnification.

1.2.1.1 CHEEK EPITHELIAL CELLS


Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Clean slides
Coverslip
Compound microscope
Toothpick
Methylene blue stain
Distilled water in dropper bottle

Methods
1. The side of the cheek was scraped off with the blunt side of the toothpick to obtain
some epithelial cells.
2. The cell was placed into a drop of water on the slide and agitated it so the cells do not
clump up. The slide was then cover with a cover slip.
3. The amount of light entering the objective lens was decreased to view the almost
transparent cells.
4. The cells were found using low magnification. A drawing was made.
5. A detailed study of one cell was made when the magnification was changed to high.
The nucleus was found.
6. A drop of methylene blue stain was added to one edge of the coverslip without
removing it. The stain was then drawn under the coverslip by touching a piece of filter
paper to the opposite coverslip.
1.2.2.1 ELODEA LEAF CELLS
Material
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Clean slides
Coverslip
Compound microscope
Forceps
Methylene blue stain
Distilled water in dropper bottle
Elodea leaf

Methods

1. A thin layer was tore from surface of Elodea leaf provided, mounted it on a slide with
a drop of distilled water and cover with coverslips.
2. The leaf was examined under low magnification. Then, concentrate on study of few
cells when using a higher magnification.
3. The abundance of green bodies in the cytoplasm was observed. These were
chloroplasts that function in photosynthesis.
4. A drop of methylene blue was added and a drawing of the organelles was made.

1.2.2.2 ONION SCALE CELLS


Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Clean slides
Coverslip
Compound microscope
Forceps
Methylene blue stain
Onion bulb

Methods
1. An onion bulb was cut into quarters. One of the fleshy scale leaves was removed.
2. The onion scale was bent backward until it snaps and a ragged piece of epidermis was
produced.
3. Forceps was used to remove a small piece of epidermis and spreaded evenly in a drop
of water and observed under low magnification.
4. The cell wall and cytoplasm was identified.
5. The light source was adjusted to obtain a clear image of the nucleus.
6. The magnification was changed to higher, the structures that was saw were drew and
labelled.

Discussion:
1. Prokaryotic cell is 1-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or any other
membrane-bound organelles inside them. Prokaryotes include Archaea, bacteria and
cyanobacteria.
2. Eukaryotic cell is cell organism that have nucleus. They membrane-bounded nucleus
and other membrane-bounded organelle such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum
and Golgi apparatus.
3. The similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell are :
- They both have DNA as their genetic material.
- They both have ribosomes.
- They have similar basic metabolism.
4. The differences between eukaryotic cell are :
- Eukaryotes undergo mitosis while prokaryotes divide by binary fission (simple
-

cell division).
Eukaryotes have a nucleus, while prokaryotes do not.
The DNA of eukaryotes is much more complex than the DNA of prokaryotes.

Conclusion
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells were defined. The similarities and differences between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells were described.
Post-Lab Question 1

List two general similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells as seen
during the experiment
Eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells
Similarities
1.Vacuole is present

Nucleus is presence
Ribosome is larger in size

2.Vesicle is present
Differences
Nucleus is absent
Ribosome is smaller in size

List two general similarities and differences between animal and plant cells as seen during the
experiment
Animal cells

Plant cells
Similarities
1.Mitochondria is present

Cell wall is absent


Vacuole is smaller in size

2.Nucleus is present
Differences
Presence of cell wall
Vacuole is larger in size

Reference:

1)http://wizznotes.com/biology/the-cell/difference-between-plant-and-animal-cells.

(n.d.).

Retrieved October 2, 2015, from http://wizznotes.com/biology/the-cell/difference-betweenplant-and-animal-cells

2)http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell . (n.d.). Retrieved October 2,


2015, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell

3)http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell. (n.d.). Retrieved


October

2,

2015,

from

http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell

4)http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/ProkaryoticvsEukaryotic
.htm.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

October

2,

2015,

from

http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/ProkaryoticvsEukaryotic.
htm

5)http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellstructure/celldifferences/section1.rhtml.
Retrieved

October

2,

2015,

http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellstructure/celldifferences/section1.rhtml

(n.d.).
from

PRACTICAL 2: VIRUSES
Introduction:
Viruses were discovered by a Russian biologist, D.J. Iwanowski in 1852. Viruses are
not members of the Kingdom Monera. However, many viruses parasitize bacteria. Viruses
that use bacteria as host are called bacteriophages. The viruses enters the bacterial cell and
takes over the metabolic machinery of the cell to replicate new viral nucleic acids to produce
new viral proteins.

Abstract:
This experiment examined about virus, diagrams of different types of viruses were
being observed and distinguished throughout the experiment. Based on the diagrams ,
different shapes of virus can be observed and described. By using detailed diagram of the
structure of bacteriophage, the structure of bacteriophage can be observed clearly.
Bacteriophage is a virus which uses bacteria as their hosts. Lastly, the life cycle of
bacteriophage also able to be described by observing provided diagrams of life cycle of
bacteriophage.
Objectives
1. Define a virus
2. Describe different shapes of viruses
3. Describe the life cycle of the bacteriophage

Materials
1. Diagrams of different types of viruses
2. Detailed diagram of the structure of bacteriophage
3. Diagrams of life cycle of bacteriophage
Methods
1. The different shapes of virus were studied. Its basic structure was drawn.
2. Bacteriophages were drawn based on the diagram provided and the parts were
labelled.
3. The life cycle of the bacteriophage was studied from the diagram provided and how
they replicated was understood.

DISCUSSION

1. Virus is a poisonous and an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid
molecule in a protein coat. It is too small to be seen by light microscopy and is able to
multiply only within the living cells of a host.
2. There are four different shapes of virus which are helical, polyhedral/icosahedral,
complex combination and spherical shape.
3. Helical shape is like rod-shaped, polyhedral/icosahedral have many sided shaped,
complex combination have structures like tail and most enveloped virus have
spherical shape.
4. The bacteriophage life cycle consists of either the lytic cycle or the lysogenic cycle.
5. The lytic cycle consist of five stage which are attachment, penetration, replication and
synthesis, assembly and release.
6. Attachment stage A virus will attach to a suitable host cell.
7. Penetration stage - The whole virus or only the genetic material (nucleic acid) will
penetrate the cells cytoplasm. A bacteriophage capsid remains on the outside of the
bacterial cell whereas many viruses that infect animal cell enter a host cell intact.
8. Replication and synthesis stage - The viral DNA/RNA directs the host cell to produce
many copies of viral nucleic acids and proteins necessary for its replication.
9. Assembly stage The viral nucleic acids and proteins are assembled together to form
new infectious particles.
10. Release stage Newly generated viral particles are released from the host cell.
11. For lysogenic cycle, the infection will enter a latent period. The host cell is not killed
in this process, but the viral nuclei acid will undergo genetic recombination with the
host cells chromosome. This integrated structure is called prophage. When the
bacterial DNA replicates, the prophage also replicates.
Conclusion
1. A virus was defined.
2. Different shapes of viruses were described.
3. The life cycle of the bacteriophage was described.
Post-Lab 2 Questions

1. List several economically important viruses.


I.
Adenovirus
II.
Adeno-associated virus
III.
Bacteriophage T4
IV. Nuclear Polyhedrosis virus
V. Retrovirus
VI.
Vaccinia virus

2. List the various shapes of viruses that you have seen.


I.
Helical (rod shape)
II.
Polyhedral/ Icosahedral
III.
Complex combination of both helical and polyhedral structures
IV. Spherical shape

Reference:

1)http://biologyboom.com/viral-diseases-84-their-economic-importance/. (n.d.). Retrieved


October 2, 2015, from http://biologyboom.com/viral-diseases-84-their-economic-importance/

2)http://study.com/academy/lesson/shapes-of-a-virus-helical-icosahedral-prolate-complexenveloped.html.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

October

2,

2015,

from

http://study.com/academy/lesson/shapes-of-a-virus-helical-icosahedral-prolate-complexenveloped.html

4)http://viruses-bipin.blogspot.my/2010/12/economic-importance-of-viruses.html.

(n.d.).

Retrieved October 2, 2015, from http://viruses-bipin.blogspot.my/2010/12/economicimportance-of-viruses.html

5)http://wizznotes.com/biology/the-cell/difference-between-plant-and-animal-cells.

(n.d.).

Retrieved October 2, 2015, from http://wizznotes.com/biology/the-cell/difference-betweenplant-and-animal-cells

6)http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell . (n.d.). Retrieved October 2,


2015, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell

PRACTICAL 3: EUBACTERIA
Introduction:
Bacteria, including cyanobacteria are the simplest of organisms. Their cells are
prokaryotic and lack the organelles found in eukaryotic cells. For example, while prokaryotes
do contain DNA, they have no definite nucleus or chloroplast. Reproduction is primarily
asexual by fission. Bacteria exist in three shapes; coccus (spherical), bacillus (rods), and
spirillium (spiral). In addition to being differentiated by shape, bacteria can be separated
according to hoe they react to Gram staining. Gram-positive bacteria are purple after being
stained, while Gram-negative bacteria appear pink after Gram stain reaction.
Abstract:
This experiment examined about eubacteria. Different bacterial shapes can be
distinguished by observing provided slides such as slides of Escherichia coli, Bacillus
substilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Spirillium spp by using compound microscope. Those
different types of shapes were being drew later. Next, different types of grain-stained bacteria
were being differentiate by observing the different colour of bacteria. Lastly, Anabaena slide
was observed under compound microscope ,the structure of bacteria was drew later.
Anabaena was a cyanobacteria that live as symbionts within other organisms. The cell also
been observed under higher magnification, the size of cells were larger than the other cells.
The cells were called as heterocyst.
Objectives
1. To describe three different shapes of bacteria.
2. To distinguished between Gram-positive and Gram-negative.
3. To describe differences between eubacteria and cyanobacteria.

3.1.1 DIFFERENT BACTERIAL SHAPES AND GRAM STAINING


Materials
1. Gram-stained bacteria slide
2. Slides of Escherichia coli
3. Slides of Bacillus substilis
4. Slides of Staphylococcus aureus
5. Slides of Spirilium spp
6. Compound microscope
Methods
1. The demonstration slides given were examined. Drawings of the three basic bacterial
shapes were made.
2. The colour of the Gram stained bacteria. Drawings were made and the different types
of Gram-stained bacteria by using colours.
3.2 CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE GREEN ALGAE)
Materials
1. Slides of Anabaena
2. Compound microscope

Method
1. The Anabaena slide was observed under the compound microscope. A drawing was
made.
2. The cells were observed under high magnification.

DISCUSSION
1. The common shapes of eubacteria include bacillus, coccus and spiral.
2. Bacillus - This shape of bacteria can also form long chains called streptobacillus.
Another form is called coccobacillus, which describes a class of bacteria whose shape
is somewhere between that of the coccus and the bacillus.
3. Coccus - Cocci are spherically shaped bacteria that organize in several distinct
arrangements. For two cocci it is called diplococcus. The diplococcus arrangement is
characterized by cell division along one plane, where the bacteria will appear to form
chains.
4. Spiral It can form in three distinct sub-forms. The first one is a called a vibrio, in
which cells are characterized by a comma shaped rod. The second sub-form is called a
spirillium. This refers to a cell that forms a thick, stiff spiral. The last sub-form is
termed a spirochete, which is very closely related to the spirillium, but typically the
spiral form is thinner and more flexible than the former.
5. The differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria :
Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria
The bacteria remain colored with Gram The bacteria do not retain the stain when
staining even after washing with alcohol washed with alcohol or acetone.
or acetone.
Outer membrane is absent.

Outer membrane is present.

6. The differences between eubacteria and cyanobacteria :


Eubacteria
Smaller in size
May be autotrophic or heterotrophic
Spore formation is endogenous

Cyanobacteria
Larger in size
Usually autotrophic
Spore formation is not endogenous

Post lab 3 questions


How are Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria different in terms of cell wall
composition and resistance to antibiotics?
Bacteria
Cell wall composition

Gram-positive
1.Thick and single layered

Gram-negative
1. Thick and two layered

2.Low content of lipid but 2.High content of lipid but


Resistance to antibiotics

high content of Murein


More
susceptible

low content of Murein


to More resistant to antibiotics

antibiotics

1.What is the function of the heterocyst and which type of symbiosis explains association
between Anabaena and the water fern Azolla?
Function of heterocyst is for nitrogen fixation. Type of symbiosis between Anabaena and
Azolla is mutualism ,they get benefit from each other.

2. The water fern Azolla may be found in abundance in paddy fields. Explain why Azolla is
considered a natural fertilizer.
Water fern Azolla is considered as fertilizers as it grows faster and can be harvested. It
consider as natural fertilizers because it contain nitrates and other key minerals such as
phosphates.
Conclusion
1. There are three different shapes of bacteria that are bacillus, coccus and spiral.
2. The difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative was distinguished.
3. The differences between eubacteria and cyanobacteria were described.

Reference:

1)http://biologyboom.com/viral-diseases-84-their-economic-importance/. (n.d.). Retrieved


October 2, 2015, from http://biologyboom.com/viral-diseases-84-their-economic-importance/

2)http://study.com/academy/lesson/shapes-of-a-virus-helical-icosahedral-prolate-complexenveloped.html.

(n.d.).

Retrieved

October

2,

2015,

from

http://study.com/academy/lesson/shapes-of-a-virus-helical-icosahedral-prolate-complexenveloped.html

3)http://viruses-bipin.blogspot.my/2010/12/economic-importance-of-viruses.html.

(n.d.).

Retrieved October 2, 2015, from http://viruses-bipin.blogspot.my/2010/12/economicimportance-of-viruses.html