Você está na página 1de 8

The ignition process in any vehicle becomes the heart of the entire system as without

this stage the vehicle just wont start. To initiate the process, earlier we use to have the
circuit breaker unit for the required actions.

Nowadays a more efficient and long lasting mechanism has been developed for the
ignitions in vehicles, called the capacitor discharge ignition system. It incorporate an
electronic circuit precisely functions like the old contact breaker, but in a solid-state
electronic manner.
Lets learn the circuit operations with the following points:
Basically as the name suggest, ignition system in vehicles refers to the process in which
the fuel mixture is ignited for initiating the engine and the drive mechanisms.
This ignition is done through an electrical process by generating high voltage electrical
The above electrical arc is created through extreme high voltage passage across two
potentially opposite conductors through the enclosed air gap.
As we all know that for generating high voltages we require some kind of stepping up
process, generally done through transformers.
As the source voltage available in two wheeler vehicles is from an alternator, may not
be powerful enough for the functions.
Therefore the voltage needs to be stepped up many thousand folds in order to reach
the desired arcing level.
The ignition coil, which is very popular and we all have seen them in our vehicles is
especially designed for the above stepping up of the input source voltage
However the voltage from the alternator cannot be directly fed to the ignition coil
because the source may be low in current, therefore we employ a CDI unit or a

capacitive discharge unit for collecting and releasing the alternator power in succession
in order to make the output compact and high with current.

Referring to the above capacitor discharge ignition circuit diagram, we see a simple
configuration consisting of a few diodes, resistors, a SCR and a single high voltage
The input to the CDI unit is derived from two sources of the alternator.
One source is a low voltage around 12 volts while the other input is taken from the
relatively high voltage tap of the alternator, generating around a 100 volts.
The 100 volts input is suitably rectified by the diodes and converted to 100 volts DC.
This voltage is stored inside the high voltage capacitor instantaneously.

The low 12 voltage signal is applied to the triggering stage and used for triggering the
The SCR responds to the half wave rectified voltage and switches the capacitors ON
and OFF alternately.
Now since the SCR is integrated to the ignition primary coil, the released energy from
the capacitor is forcibly dumped in the primary winding of the coil.
The action generates a magnetic induction inside the coil and the input from the CDI
which is high in current and voltage is further enhanced to extremely high levels at the
secondary winding of the coil.
The generated voltage at the secondary of the coil may rise up to the level of many tens
of thousands of volts.
This output is appropriately arranged across two closely held metal conductors inside
the spark plug.
The voltage being very high in potential starts arcing across the points of the spark
plug, generating the required ignition sparks for the ignition process.
Parts List for the CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
R4 = 56 Ohms,
R5 = 100 Ohms,
C4 = 1uF/250V
SCR = BT151 recommended.
All Diodes = 1N4007

Coil = Standard two-wheeler ignition Coil

The following post describes a simple capacitive discharge ignition system which
derives its operating voltage from the battery instead of the alternator for generating
the igniting sparks. Since it works independently from the alternator voltage, it
functions more efficiently and consistently, enabling a much smoother ride of the
vehicle even at lower speeds.

A capacitive discharge ignition unit also called the CDI unit is the modern alternative for
the age old contact breakers, which were quite crude with their functions and
The modern CDI is an electronic version of the contact breaker which uses
sophisticated electronic parts for generating the required arching across the spark plug
The concept is not complicated at all, the section of the alternator provides the
required 100 to 200V AC to the CDI circuit, where the voltage is intermittently stored
and discharged by a high voltage capacitor through a few rectifying diodes.
These rapid bursts of high voltage discharges are dumped into the primary winding of
an ignition coil where its appropriately stepped up to many thousands of volts for
acquiring the required arcing, which ultimately functions as the igniting sparks across
the connected spark plug contacts.
I have already discussed the basic electronic CDI circuit in one of my previous
posts, though the circuit is extremely versatile, it depends and derives its operating
voltage from the alternator. Since the alternator voltage depends on the engine
speeds, the generated voltages tend to get affected with varying speeds.
At higher speeds it works fine, but at lower speeds, the alternator voltage also lowers,
this results in an inconsistent sparking forcing the alternator and the engine to stutter.
This inconsistency ultimately affects the functioning of the CDI and the whole system
starts getting hampered, sometimes even causing the engine to halt.
The circuit of an enhanced capacitive discharge ignition circuit which is discussed here,
eliminates the use of the alternator voltage for functioning, instead it utilizes the
battery voltage for generating the required actions.
The whole concept can be understood by studying the shown circuit diagram below:
The diodes, the SCR and the associated components form a standard CDI circuit.

The high voltage of around 200V which needs to be fed to the above circuit is
generated through an ordinary step down transformer connected the other way round.
The secondary winding of the transformer now becomes the primary and vice versa.
The low voltage primary winding is fed with high current pulsating DC generated by a
standard IC555 circuit via a power transistor.
This pulsating voltage is stepped up to the required 200V and becomes the operating
voltage for the attached CDI circuit.
The CDI circuit converts this 200V into bursts of high current for feeding the input
winding of the ignition coil.
These rapid high current bursts are further amplified to many thousands of volts by the
ignition coil and finally fed to the connected spark plug for the required arcing and the
initiating the ignition of the vehicle.
As can be seen the input voltage is acquired from a 12V DC source which is actually
the battery of the vehicle.
Due to this the generated sparks are very consistent without interruptions providing
the vehicle a constant supply of the required ignition sparks irrespective of the vehicle
The consistent sparking also makes the fuel consumption efficient, makes the engine
less prone to wear and tear and enhances the overall mileage of the vehicle.

Use a 1K resistor at the base of TIP122...... 100 ohm is incorrectly shown

If you want the above circuit to be triggered by the alternator, the above design may be
modified in the following way:

Use a 1K resistor at the base of TIP122...... 100 ohm is incorrectly shown, also remove the 1K resistor which goes
to positive.

The above configuration may be further modified as shown in the following diagram,
which appears to be the most appropriate way of implementing the proposed
enhanced CDI circuit for all 2 and 3 wheelers.

Finalized Design