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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment

Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)
1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
Issue Date: 25.06.2015
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NTPC Limited, the largest power generating company in the country contributes
about 25% of total Indias power generation with less than 20% of installed
capacity. The company is committed to generate and provide reliable power at
competitive prices in sustainable manner by optimising the use of multiple energy
resources with innovative eco-friendly technologies thereby contributing to the
economic development of the nation, social upliftment of the society and
promoting a healthy environment.
In view of the frequent power shortages and the goal to provide 24X7 power to
industry in the state, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh invited NTPC to consider setting up
a large capacity thermal power plant in the state. In pursuance for identification
of new green field site for setting up of large capacity thermal power plants, a site
contiguous to Special Economic Zone (SEZ) area near Pudimadaka village in
Atchutapuram & Rambilli Mandalas in Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh
(AP) developed by Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Limited
(APIIC) was shortlisted.
Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has issued Government Order (GO) MS No: 96 dated
04.09.2014 for allotment of land to an extent of 1200 acre acquired by APIIC in
Atchutapuram & Rambilli Mandals of Visakhapatnam District to NTPC on long
lease basis of 33 years. Further to the above G.O, APIIC vide letter dated
07.10.2014 informed regarding provisional allotment of land measuring to an
extent of 1200 acre to M/s NTPC for establishment of 4000 MW Super Thermal
Power Plant.
1.2

Purpose of the Report


As per Environmental Impact Assessment Notification dated 14th September,
2006 and 01.12.2009 commissioning or operation of thermal power plants (500
MW) falls under category A under project type 1(D) and requires Environmental
Clearance (EC) to be obtained from Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate
Change (MoEF&CC) before the commencement of ground activity.
Vimta Labs Limited, Hyderabad, has been assigned to undertake an
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study and preparation of Environment
Management Plan (EMP) for various environmental components, which may be
affected due to the impacts arising out of the proposed project.
The application for prior Environmental Clearance (Form-1) was submitted to
MoEF&CC and Terms of References (ToR) for preparation of the EIA Report was
accorded by MOEF &CC vide its letter No. J-13012/01/2014 IA.II (T) dated 25th
February 2015. The base line studies were carried out during Pre-monsoon
season 1st March 2015 to 31st May 2015 and additional studies were also carried
out as per TOR stipulations. This EIA/EMP report has been prepared based on the
TOR conditions recommended by MoEF&CC and project related technical details

Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

provided by NTPC. A copy of the TOR letter and its compliance with cross
referencing of the relevant section is enclosed as Annexure-IA and AnnexureIB respectively.
This EIA report has been prepared for assessing the environmental impacts due
to the proposed project and to obtain EC from MoEF&CC after public consultation.
This report will be made available to public for comments and concerns. Public
hearing will be conducted through APPCB and the EIA report will be further
upgraded on the basis of public consultation.
1.3

Identification of Project and Project Proponent


NTPC Limited, the largest power generating major in the country presently has
total installed capacity of 45,048 MW (including JVs) with NTPC owned 18 coalbased, 7 gas-based and 8 Renewable energy located across the country. In
addition under JVs (joint ventures), six stations are coal-based, and one station
uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. NTPC has also adopted a multi-pronged growth
strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects, expansion
of existing stations, joint ventures, subsidiaries and takeover of stations.
The company has been rechristened as NTPC Limited on October 28, 2005.
Further, on 21st May 2010, NTPC was conferred Maharatna status by the Union
Government of India.
The present proposal is for implementation of 4000 MW imported coal based
thermal power plant comprising of 4 (four) nos. super critical units near
Pudimadaka village, Atchutapuram & Rambilli
Mandals, in Visakhapatnam
District.

1.4

Brief Description of Project

1.4.1

Environmental Setting of the Site


The proposed site is located near Pudimadaka village, Atchutapuram & Rambilli
Mandals and is approximately 40 km from district headquarters Visakhapatnam.
The site is well connected through Pudimadaka road to NH-16 at a distance of
12.2 km and by SH-97 at a distance of 3.5 km. Gangavaram port is about 35 km
NE of the site and Vizag port is at a distance of 47 km from the site.
The Index map is shown in Figure-1.1 and the co-ordinates of the plant, ash dyke
and township are marked on toposheet and is shown in Figure-1.2. The basic
environmental setting of the proposed site is given in Table-1.1.

Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

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TABLE-1.1
ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF PROPOSED PLANT SITE
Sr. No.
1
2
3

5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13

14

15
16

Particulars

Details

Plant location

Pudimadaka Village, Atchutapuram & Rambilli


Mandals, Vizag District.
Topo sheet No.
65 K/14, K/15
Site Coordinates
Proposed Project Site Coordinates
Corner
Longitude
Latitude
A
8258'12" E
1730'36" N
B
8258'00" E
1730'00" N
C
8300'00" E
1729'24" N
D
8300'00" E
1730'36" N
Climatic conditions (IMD, Visakhapatnam)
Maximum temperature
37.70C
Minimum temperature
15.80C
Annual rainfall (total)
1296.4 MM
Relative humidity
81 %
Predominant
wind
directions SW, SSW
(Annual)
Plant site elevation above MSL
10 to 20 m
Nearest highway
NH-16 (12.2 km, WNW) & SH-97 (3.5 km,
WNW)
Nearest railway station
Elamanchili (12.9 km, WNW)
Nearest Airport
Visakhapatnam (40 km, NE)
Nearest major water bodies
Krishnampalem lake (0.6 km, WNW)
Sharada River (6.3 km, W)
Bay of Bengal (1.0 km, ESE)
Nearest village
Lalam Koduru (0.3 km ,WSW)
Pudimadaka (0.6 km ,ESE)
Nearest town/City
Visakhapatnam (40.0 km, NE)
Archaeologically important places
Nil
Protected areas as per Wildlife Nil
Protection
Act,
1972
(Tiger
reserve,
Elephant
reserve,
Biospheres,
National
parks,
Wildlife sanctuaries, community
reserves
and
conservation
reserves)
Reserved / Protected Forests
Pudimadaka RF (1.47 km)
Sitapalem R.F (1.50 Km)
Rambilli R.F (3.00 km)
Panchadarla RF (6.7 km)
Defence Installations
Nil
Seismicity
Zone-II

Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
Issue Date: 25.06.2015
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Propose
d Plant

FIGURE-1.1
INDEX MAP
Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
Issue Date: 25.06.2015
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FIGURE-1.2
STUDY AREA MAP
Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)
1.5

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Need for the Project


Pudimadaka STPP is a base load coal based Thermal Power Plant in
Vishakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It is proposed that 85% power will be
allocated to Andhra Pradesh State subject to approval of Ministry of Power. The
project is expected to start yielding benefits during early 13th Plan Period.
Demand-Supply Scenario (During 2017-18 to 2021-22)
The anticipated power supply position excluding Pudimadaka STPP is summarized
below in Table-1.2, Table-1.3 and Table-1.4.
TABLE-1.2
ALL INDIA DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (2017-18 TO 2021-22)
Description
Peak
Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy
Availability
Energy
Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit

Unit

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

MW
MW
MW
%

229287
214093
15194
7.10

241043.5
229465
11578.5
5.00

250229.3
246068
4161.3
1.70

270667.4
264041
6626.4
2.50

282206
283470
-1264
-0.40

MKWH

1615547

1721979.4

1796555.3

1879070

2001933.3

MKWH
MKWH
%

1450982
164565
11.30

1552008
169971.4
11.00

1660783
135772.3
8.20

1778109
100961
5.70

1904861
97072.3
5.10

(Source: CEA)

TABLE-1.3
SOUTHERN REGION DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (2017-18 TO 2021-22)
Description
Peak Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy
Availability
Energy
Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit

Unit
MW
MW
MW
%

2017-18
45824
61525
-15701
-25.50

2018-19
47224.1
66111
-18886.9
-28.60

2019-20
49890.1
71063
-21172.9
-29.80

2020-21
55227.3
76413
-21185.7
-27.70

2021-22
57282.2
82199
-24916.8
-30.30

MKWH

329479.8

336762.2

356540.8

387792.5

419507.9

MKWH
MKWH
%

384252
-54772.2
-14.30

412367
-75604.8
-18.30

442696
-86155.2
-19.50

475426
-87633.5
-18.40

510786
-91278.1
-17.90

(Source: CEA)

Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
Issue Date: 25.06.2015
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TABLE-1.4
ANDHRA PRADESH DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (2017-18 TO 2021-22)
DESCRIPTION
Peak Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy Availability
Energy Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit

UNITS 2017-18 2018-19


MW
9495.1
9540.2
MW
12154
13148
MW
-2658.9
-3607.8
%
-21.9
-27.4
MKWH 66207.4
67444.4
MKWH
70268
76018
MKWH
-4060.6
-8573.6
%
-5.8
-11.3

2019-20
9888.5
14224
-4335.5
-30.5
68955.9
82239
-13283.1
-16.2

2020-21
10809.2
15389
--4579.8
-29.8
73873.4
88975
-15101.6
-17

2021-22
11148.4
16651
-5502.6
-33
79086.7
96267
-17180.3
-17.8

(Source: CEA)

The anticipated power supply position including Pudimadaka STPP is summarized


below Table-1.5, Table-1.6 and Table-1.7.
TABLE-1.5
ALL INDIA DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (DURING 2017-18 TO 2021-22)
Description
Peak
Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy
Availability
Energy
Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
(Source: CEA)

Units

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

MW
MW
MW
%

229288.8
214093
15195.8
7.10

241045.3
229165
11580.3
5.00

251533.6
246068
5465.6
2.20

272948.5
264041
8907.5
3.40

283463.8
283470
1993.8
0.70

MKWH

1615562.1

1721994.4

1802199.8

1896454.7

2027519

MKWH
MKWH
%

1450982
164580
11.30

1552008
169986.4
11.00

1660783
141416.8
8.50

1778109
118345.7
6.70

1904861
122658
6.40

TABLE-1.6
SOUTHERN REGION DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (2017-18 TO 2021-22)
Description
Peak
Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy
Availability
Energy
Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit

Unit

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

2020-21

2021-22

MW
MW
MW
%

45824
61525
-15701
-25.5

47224.1
66111
-18886.9
-28.6

50411.1
71063
-20651.9
-29.1

56399.5
76413
-20013.5
-26.2

58584.6
82199
-23614.4
-28.7

MKWH

329479.8

336762.2

359934.4

396534.1

430203.9

MKWH
MKWH
%

384252
-54772.2
-14.3

412367
-75604.8
-18.3

442696
-82761.6
-18.7

475426
-78891.9
-16.6

510786
-80582.1
-15.8

(Source: CEA)

Chapter-1: Introduction

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


Rev No. 0
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TABLE-1.7
ANDHRA PRADESH DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENARIO (2017-18 TO 2021-22)
DESCRIPTION
Peak Availability
Peak Load
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit
Energy Availability
Energy
Requirement
Surplus/Deficit
Surplus/Deficit

UNIT
MW
MW
MW
%
MKWH

2017-18
9495.1
12154
-2658.9
-21.9
66207.4

2018-19
9540.2
13148
-3607.8
-27.40
67444.4

2019-20
10241.8
14224
3982.2
-28.00
70482.8

2020-21
11427.4
15389
-3961.6
-25.7
78584.7

2021-22
12031.6
16651
-4619.4
-27.7
86022.4

MKWH
MKWH
%

70268
-4060.6
-5.8

76018
-8573.6
-11.30

82239
-11756.2
-14.30

88975
-10390.3
-11.70

96267
-10244.6
-10.6

(Source: CEA)

1.5.1 Conclusion
From the above demand supply scenario it is observed that both Andhra Pradesh
and southern region are projected to experience peak and energy shortage by
end 13th plan without addition of the proposed project.
Considering the above, Pudimadaka (4 x 1000 MW), planned to be commissioned
during 13th Plan period, is justified from demand supply consideration.
1.6

Scope & Methodology of the Study


The EIA report is prepared based on baseline environmental quality data as per
the guidelines and requirements of MoEF&CC, Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB) and Andhra Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (APSPCB).
Environmental baseline monitoring has been carried out during study period and
used to identify potential significant impacts. Modelling exercises have been
carried out to predict and evaluate impacts due to proposed power plant. An
Environment Management Plan is included in this report.
The scope of the study is based on the TOR prescribed by MoEF&CC and broadly
includes:

To conduct literature review and to collect data relevant to the study area;
Field sampling of environmental attributes at various representative locations in
the study area to establish the baseline environmental status;
Collate and compile secondary data including socio-economic data from
published literature / government publications;
Estimate pollution loads that would be generated by the proposed project;
Predict incremental levels of pollutants in the study area due to the proposed
project;
Evaluate the predicted impacts on the various environmental attributes by using
scientifically developed and widely accepted Environmental Impact Assessment
Modelling Methodologies;

Chapter-1: Introduction

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Prepare an Environment Management Plan (EMP) to mitigate the predicted


impacts; and
Identify critical environmental attributes required to be monitored during the
project execution and to suggest post project monitoring.

The baseline status of the environment in the study area will be determined by
monitoring/ sampling of selected environmental attributes during the study
period. The details of the attributes to be monitored are given in Table-1.8.
TABLE-1.8
DETAILS OF MONITORING
Sr. No.
1

Attribute
Ambient air quality

Parameters
PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx,

O3 & Hg

Meteorology

Wind Speed, Direction,


Temperature,
Relative
Humidity, Rainfall, solar
radiation

Water quality

Physical, Chemical and


Bacteriological Parameters

Ecology

Noise levels

Existing terrestrial and


aquatic flora and fauna
Noise levels in dB(A)

Soil characteristics

Land use

Socio-economic aspects

Geology

10

Hydrology (Surface and


Ground)

11

Risk
Disaster
Plan and
Health and

Chapter-1: Introduction

assessment,
Management
Occupational
Safety

Soil profile, characteristics,


soil type and texture,
heavy metal, NKP value
etc
Land use for different
categories
Socio-economic
characteristics,
labour
force characteristics
Geological history
Drainage area and pattern,
nature of streams, aquifer
characteristics,
recharge
and discharge areas
Identify
areas
where
disaster can occur and
identify
areas
of
occupational hazards.

Frequency of Monitoring
The monitoring was carried out
at 4 locations and 24 hourly
samples collected at a frequency
of twice a week.
Once in a month on 8 hourly
basis
a] Continuous hourly recording
through setting up of site
meteorological station;
b]
Data
collected
from
secondary sources like IMD
station, Visakhapatnam.
Grab Samples are collected
monthly during the study from
3 surface, 3 ground
Twice during the study period
also based on secondary data
Twice during the study period at
10 locations
Twice during the study period at
10 locations.

Based on data published in


latest district census handbooks
and Satellite imagery
Based on data published in
latest district census handbooks
Based on
secondary
Based on
secondary

data collected from


sources
data collected from
sources

Based on pool fire modelling and


Risk assessment studies

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)
1.7

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Contents of the Report


The report has been divided into eleven chapters and presented as follows:
Chapter-1: Introduction
The chapter provides the purpose of the report, background information of the
power project, brief description of nature, size and location of project,
environmental setting of the project and scope of the study.
Chapter-2: Project Description
The chapter deals with the need of the project, location, details of power project,
other technical and design details and sources of pollution from the proposed
project and measures proposed to control pollution.
Chapter-3: Baseline Environmental Status
The chapter presents the methodology and findings of field studies undertaken to
establish the environmental baseline conditions, which is also supplemented by
secondary published literature.
Chapter-4: Anticipated Environmental Impacts
The chapter details the inferences drawn from the environmental impact
assessment of the proposed power project during, construction and regular
operation stages. It also describes the overall impacts of the proposed project
activities and underscores the areas of concern, which need mitigation measures.
The chapter also provides recommendations/ Environment Management Plan (EMP)
including mitigation measures for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of
the project.
Chapter-5: Analysis of Alternatives for Technology and Project Site
The chapter provides the details of alternative sites considered for setting up the
project and technology alternatives were also discussed.
Chapter-6: Environmental Monitoring Program
Environmental monitoring requirements for effective implementation of mitigatory
measures during operational phase have been delineated in this chapter.
Chapter-7: Additional Studies
The chapter describes various risks associated during operational stage of the
project such as storage of furnace oil and coal. A disaster management plan to
minimise the risks or to combat the associated risks is also discussed.
Chapter-8: Project Benefits
The chapter describes various benefits of the project to the community in the
vicinity and as well as to the region on the whole.

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Chapter-9: Environmental Management Plan


This chapter described the various environmental protection measures and
institutional setup for achieving it. Green belt development plan also provided.
Also describes the institutional arrangements for environment protection and
conservation during the operational stage of the Project.
Chapter-10: Summary and Conclusions
The chapter describes the summary and conclusions of the environment impact
over the study area.
Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants
The list of various experts involved in preparation of the present EIA/EMP report
is given along with brief introduction of the consultancy organisation involved in
EIA report.

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
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2.0

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PROJECT DESCRIPTION
This chapter addresses the details of the proposed 4000 MW power project in
context with the basic raw material requirement, processes & capacities, utilities
& services, infra-structural facilities, sources of pollution and proposed mitigation
measures.

2.1

Type of the Project


NTPC, is proposing to implement a coal based thermal power plant of 4000 MW
capacity consisting of four units of 1000 MW super critical boilers.
Primary fuel for the project would be 100% Imported coal. About 85% of the
power generated from the project is envisaged to be allocated to home State
(Andhra Pradesh).
The proposed Pudimadaka STPP will be a pulverized coal fired thermal power
project based on super critical boiler parameters. The main components of the
proposed plant include:











2.2

Steam Generator, Turbine Generator and Auxiliary Units;


Coal Handling System including Dust Extraction and Suppression System;
Once through open Cycle CW System;
Desalination Plant (SWRO Plant) & Effluent Treatment System;
Fire Protection System;
Air Conditioning & Ventilation System;
Electrostatic Precipitators;
Chimney;
Ash Handling System with Dry Ash Extraction, Storage and Wet Slurry
Disposal Facilities; and
Electrical Systems: Generator Bus Duct, Transformers, Switchgears, Switch
Yard etc.

Size or Magnitude of Operation including Resources


The capacity of total power plant will be 4000 MW, four (4) super critical
technology based boilers will be installed for power generation. The salient
features of proposed power plant are presented in Table-2.1.
TABLE-2.1
SALIENT FEATURES OF PROPOSED POWER PLANT
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Features
Capacity
Configuration
Technology
Fuel
Source of Coal
Coal Requirement
Sulphur content
Ash Content in Coal

Chapter-2: Project Description

Description
4000 MW
4X1000 MW
Super-Critical Technology
Coal
Imported Coal
13.7 MTPA
0.6 % (Max.)
12 %
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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
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Sr. No.
9

10
11
12
13

Features
Ash generation
Bottom ash
Fly Ash
ESP efficiency
Stack
Source of water
Water Requirement

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Description
1.68 MTPA
0.33 MTPA
1.35 MTPA
99.99%
Two twin flue stack of 275 m height
Sea water is from Bay of Bengal
6,69,675 m3/hr (Once through system)

2.2.1 Land Requirement


The total land required for the proposed Pudimadaka project would be
approximately 1500 acres out of which 1200 acres comes under Special Economic
Zone (SEZ) area of APIIC and is already under possession of NTPC, the remaining
300 acres is to be acquired for MUW corridor.
Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has issued Government Order (GO) MS No: 96 dated
04.09.2014 for allotment of land to an extent of 1200 acre acquired by APIIC in
Atchutapuram & Rambilli Mandals of Visakhapatnam District to NTPC on long
lease basis of 33 years. Further to the above G.O, APIIC vide letter dated
07.10.2014 informed regarding provisional allotment of land measuring to an
extent of 1200 acre to M/s NTPC for establishment of 4000 MW Super Thermal
Power Plant. The copy of the letter is enclosed as Annexure-II.
The area wise breakup of land required for project is given in Table-2.2.
TABLE-2.2
AREA WISE BREAKUP OF LAND REQUIRED FOR PROJECT
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Description
Main Plant and associated facilities
Ash dyke
Township
Green Belt and Afforestation
Make-up water (MUW) corridor
Total

Area in Acres
800
200
20
180
300
1500

Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Mapping

Physical demarcation of High Tide Line (HTL) and Low Tide Line (LTL) was carried
out by National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) which is an authorized agency by
MoEF&CC. Based on the survey, Pudimadaka site is located at about 1 km from
the HTL of open sea and about 0.1 km from the HTL of Pudimadaka creek. Hence,
the project site is compatible with the regulations of CRZ Notification, 2011.
Environmental Clearance (EC) and Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance for
the APSEZ site was accorded by MoEF&CC vide letter no. 21-379/2007-1A-III
dated 13th February 2012 and is enclosed as Annexure-III.

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2.2.2 Water Requirement


Water requirement for the project is to be met from sea by constructing suitable
intake well in the sea, which is about 2-3 km from the project. The total sea
water drawl for the project is estimated to be of the order of 6,69,675 m3/hr.
Desalination plant will be provided for meeting sweet water requirement.
Water required for construction purposes shall be drawn from APIIC facility
existing near to the project site.
2.2.3 Fuel Requirement and its Quality
2.2.3.1 Coal Requirement
Coal requirement for the project is estimated as 13.7 MTPA corresponding to 90%
PLF considering station heat rate of 2172.19 kcal/kWh taking in to consideration
imported coal of GCV ranges from 4600 - 5800 Kcal/Kg with sulphur content of
about 0.6 %.
2.2.3.2 Coal Transportation
The envisaged mode of coal transportation from the sea is through the existing
Gangavaram or Vizag port.
2.2.3.3 Coal Quality
Coal quality parameters considered for the proposed project based on proximate
analysis (as received basis) is given in Table-2.3.
TABLE-2.3
COAL CHARACTERISTICS
Total moisture (%)
Ash (%)
GCV (kcal/kg)
Sulphur (%)

30
12
4600 - 5800
0.6

2.2.3.4 Details of Auxiliary Fuel


Heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS) & LDO is proposed to be used as auxiliary fuel during
initial start-up, flame stabilization and low load operation. However, its quantity
will be very small.

Details of Fuel
HFO
LDO

Chapter-2: Project Description

Tank Capacity for Storage


(KL)
3700 KL
500 KL

Total no. of Tanks


(Nos.)
3
2

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2.2.3.5 Power Requirement


AP Transco has constructed a 220/132/33 kV substation for Brandex Apparel
approx 2.5 km from the proposed site and the same substation was charged in
Nov2007. The substation has incoming 220 kV feeder from AP Transco Kalpaka
S/S and two 132 kV feeders from Gajuwaka and Peddapuram as tie lines. One no.
220/132 kV 100 MVA transformer is commissioned. The construction power
requirement for the said project can be availed from the above substation.
2.2.3.6 Permanent Township
805 dwelling units including 5 nos of Bungalows for HOP & GMs, besides 112
dwelling units for support staff are envisaged for NTPC employees. Also envisaged
in the township are 96 nos. B type dwelling units for CISF along with Barracks for
90 accommodations.
Non-Residential Buildings
Non-residential facilities comprising of Training Centre, Trainees Hostel, General
Hospital with support facilities, Estate Office, Union/Association offices, Guest
House, Field Hostel, Auditorium, Parks, Space for religious Places and CISF
Armoury etc. shall be constructed at the project.
2.3

Proposed Commissioning Schedule


The Commercial Operation Date (COD) of First Unit will be achieved in 52 months
from the zero date indicated in the Investment Approval for commencement of
implementation of the project. The COD of the subsequent unit shall be at
interval of 6 months thereafter.

2.4

General Layout Plan


General Layout Plan for the project is developed and enclosed as Figure-2.1. GLP
for the project has been developed taking into consideration various aspects like
available land & shape, ground features & terrain, corridor for outgoing
transmission lines, road/rail approaches, prevailing wind direction, the water
drawl and the associated pipe corridor.
The main plant building arrangement for the proposed stage of the plant
envisages longitudinal disposition of TG set. The main power house will be 644 M
long and 47 m wide consisting of TG bay and heater bay. A road is provided along
A row for handling generator stator.
The switchyard orientation has been planned taking into consideration the
requirement of power evacuation. The main power house is along North-South
direction, with permanent facilities like workshop, permanent stores etc. located
close to the main plant. The chimney is towards east direction of main plant. The
ash slurry/ash water pump house is kept near chimney. The intake/discharge
ducts have been routed in the corridor between transformer yard and switchyard
and location of CWPH is chosen, so as to minimize the length of CW ducts. Space

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provision for FGD has been kept in the direction of east of main plant beyond
chimney.
Open cycle CW system has been shown with intake and discharge corridor from
sea. The water treatment plant and the DM water facilities are located close to
main plant. The coal handling plant and the coal stockyard are located in the
direction of west of the main plant considering the conveyor connectivity from
Sea port.
Service building for all four units is envisaged at the beginning of the unit # 1.An
interconnection walkway is also provided between Service Building and TG
building at operating floor level in AB bay for movement of personnel. Adequate
space provision has been kept in the layout for lay-down and pre-assembly
activities, open stores, contractors offices and stores etc. Construction offices
and storage sheds are located close to the main approach road to the plant.
Administration building is proposed to be located near the main approach road.
Thick green belt has been provided all along the periphery of the plant boundary.

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FIGURE-2.1
GENERAL LAYOUT PLAN
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Process Description and Technology

2.5.1 Process Description


In a thermal power plant, the chemical energy of the fuel (coal) is first converted
into thermal energy (during combustion), which is then converted into mechanical
energy (through a turbine) and finally into electrical energy (through a
generator). It has the following steps:
(1) The coal is transferred from the coal handling plant by conveyor belt to the
coal bunkers, from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills, which grind it to
fine powder. The finely powdered coal, mixed with air is then blown into the
boiler by a fan where it burns like a gas.
(2) The process of combustion releases thermal energy from coal. The boiler walls
are lined with boiler tubes containing high quality demineralized water (known
as boiler feed water). The combustion heat is absorbed by the boiler tubes
and the heat converts the boiler feed water into steam at high pressure and
temperature. The steam, discharged through nozzles on the turbine blades,
makes the turbine to rotate, which in turn rotates the generator coupled to
the end of the turbine. Rotation of generator produces electricity, which is
passed to the step-up transformer to increase its voltage so that it can be
transmitted efficiently. The power is evacuated via switchyard through a
Transmission System.
(3) During combustion, the non-combustible part of coal is converted into ash. A
small part of ash (about 20%) binds together to form lumps, which fall into
the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. This part of ash, known as bottom
ash is water quenched ground and then conveyed to pits for subsequent
disposal to ash disposal area or sale.
(4) Major part of the ash (about 80%) is in fine powder form, known as Fly Ash,
and is carried out of the boiler along with the flue gas. The flue gas, after heat
recovery, is passed through the electrostatic precipitators, where the ash is
trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity.
(5)The flue gases exiting from the Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) are
discharged through a tall chimney for wider dispersal of remaining ash
particles and gases. The ash collected in the ESP hoppers is extracted in dry
form and conveyed to dry ash storage silos from where it is supplied to user
industries. Unused part of fly ash shall be taken to ash ponds for disposal.
(6) The condenser contains tubes through which cold water is constantly pumped.
The steam passing around the tubes of condenser looses heat and condenses
as water. During this process, the steam gets cooled while cooling water gets
o

heated up (by about 10 C). Once through open channel CW system shall be
provided for cooling the hot water discharge back into the sea. It will be
ensured that the temperature of the discharge water does not exceed 70C
over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water body.

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2.5.2 Details of Technology


2.5.2.1 General
Steam generators shall be once through, water tube, direct pulverized coal fired,
top supported, balanced draft furnace, single reheat, radiant, dry bottom type,
suitable for outdoor installation. The gas path arrangement shall be single pass
(Tower type) or two pass type. The steam Generator and its auxiliaries shall be
designed for firing imported coal identified for this project. Steam Generator
design shall be suitable for variable pressure operation from 30% to 100% Boiler
Maximum Continuous Rating (BMCR).
The main parameters at 100% BMCR is given in Table-2.4.
TABLE-2.4
MAIN STEAM PARAMETERS
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4

Parameters
Main steam flow at super heater outlet
Pressure at super heater outlet
Temperature at SH outlet
Steam temperature at reheater outlet

Values
3100 T/Hr
256 to 279 kg/cm2 (a)
5680 C to 6030 C
5960 C to 6030 C

2.5.2.2 Furnace
The furnace will be radiant, dry bottom type with tangential or opposed wall firing
and enclosed by water cooled and all welded membrane walls. The furnace
bottom shall be suitable both for installation of water impounded bottom ash
system and submerged scrapper chain conveying system. Spray type
attemperator is envisaged to control the superheater outlet temperature for
varying loads. The superheater and reheater tubes will be a combination of
radiation and convection type. Economizer will be non-steaming type and shall
be of modular construction.
2.5.2.3 Steam Generator Circulation System
The steam generator start up system envisages boiler start up with SG start up
drain recirculation pump. Provision shall also be made in the startup system in
case of non-availability of start-up drain recirculation pump. Separator(s) will be
used during start up for separating the steam water mixture upto a load of 30%
BMCR, above which it will be running dry. Lower part of furnace / water wall will
consist of vertical plain/rifle tubes or wrap around /helical tubes.
2.5.2.4 Steam Turbine
The steam turbine shall be tandem compound, single reheat, regenerative,
condensing, multi cylinder design with separate HP, separate IP and separate LP
casing(s), OR combined HP-IP and separate LP casing(s), directly coupled with
the generators suitable for indoor installation. The plant would be designed to
operate as a base load station. However, continuous operation under two-shift
and cyclic modes during certain periods of the year is also envisaged. The
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turbine design shall cover adequate provision for quick start-up and loading of the
units to full load at a fast rate. The turbine shall be capable of operating on
variable pressure mode as well as modified sliding pressure mode. The turbine
shall be provided with suitable margins for VWO flow.
2.5.2.5 Condenser
Sea water cooled single pass or double pass condenser of tubes of Titanium B338 Gr-II shall be adopted. The condenser shall be with divided water box
construction. It shall be horizontal, surface type with integral air cooling section.
Condenser hot-well shall be sized for three (3) minutes storage capacity (between
normal and low-low level) of total design flow with the turbine operating at VWO
condition, 3% make-up, and design back pressure. The condenser shall be
adequately sized to cater to all the conditions of turbine operation including the
abnormal operating conditions such that condenser would not be a bottle neck at
any stage of operation. The exact condenser parameters shall be optimized on
the basis of site data and most economical combination of cooling surface and
circulating water quantity. The condenser shall be designed, manufactured and
tested in accordance with the latest applicable requirements of the Heat Exchange
Institute (HEI), USA. Provision of separate sponge rubber ball type condenser
on-load tube cleaning system for each CW Inlet pipe to the condenser shell
including ball circulation pumps, strainer, ball monitoring system etc. shall be
made.
2.5.2.6 Air Extraction System
Each unit shall comprise of (2x100%) vacuum pumps per condenser shell along
with all accessories and instrumentation for condenser air evacuation. The
vacuum pumps and accessories shall be used to create vacuum by removing air
and non-condensable gases from steam condenser during plant operation.
Vacuum pumps shall be of single/two stage liquid ring type with both stages (if
two-stage pump is selected) mounted on a common shaft. Vacuum pumps shall
be sized as per latest HEI requirements
2.5.2.7 Power Evacuation System
The power plant capacity being planned in this stage is 4x1000 MW and
evacuation voltage is likely to be 765 kV. As per planned grid network of
Southern region, Vemagiri 765/400 kV pooling station is being constructed by
PGCIL under Common Transmission System Associated with IPPs in Vemagiri area
having following high capacity corridors:
i. Vemagiri pooling station Cpeta Warangal Hyderabad 765 kV D/C line;
ii. Vemagiri Srikakulam Angul 765 kV D/C line
Considering project capacity of 4000 MW, provision of 6 nos of line bays has been
kept for power evacuation.
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2.5.2.8 Emergency Power Supply System


For the safe shutdown of the plant under emergency condition and in case of total
power failure, diesel generating sets shall be installed for feeding certain essential
application like battery charges emergency lighting, essential air conditioning
/ventilation and all auxiliaries necessary for barring operation of main and BFP
turbine etc. The unit emergency switchgear section shall be fed by one diesel
generator of adequate capacity.
2.6

Water System and Plant Utilities


Sea water is proposed to be used for meeting complete water requirement of the
project. Present environmental regulation permit installation of once through
circulating water system for coastal Thermal Power Stations with a stipulation
that the temperature of receiving water does not exceed 70C over and above the
ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Various options regarding
location of drawl of sea water and type of Circulating Water (CW) System i.e.
once through system and open re-circulating type CW system had been studied
for this project. Based on the study, once through cooling water system is found
to be an optimum choice. CW system and coal & ash handling plant will be met
directly from sea. Sweet water required for meeting the potable water, plant
service water, cycle makeup (DM water) etc. shall be produced through
Desalination Process from sea water.

2.6.1 Water Requirement


The total sea water drawl for the project is estimated to be of the order of
6,69,675 Cu.m/hr. About 6,65,200 cu.m/hr sea water will be used for condenser
cooling, auxiliary cooling water system, coal & ash handling plant. Sea water of
4475 cu.m/hr will be desalinated and used for DM plant make up and other soft
water requirements such as service, potable water, fire water, greenbelt etc.
The plant usage wise details for total water requirement for Pudimadaka STPP
(4x1000 MW) is given in Table-2.5. The water balance diagram presented in
Figure-2.2 also shows various plant water usages.

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FIGURE-2.2
WATER BALANCE DIAGRAM
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TABLE-2.5
WATER REQUIREMENT (ONCE THROUGH SYSTEM)
Plant Water Usages
Makeup for CW System
Makeup for HVAC System
Potable Water
CHP & Dust Suppression System
Ash Handling Plant
Plant Service Water
Make up to Boiler
AHP Miscellaneous & Vaccum Pump
* Rejects from DM Plant + RO +
Desalination Plant

Water Requirement (m3/hr)


6,64,000
250
250
385
1000
400
250
170
2970

* Industrial wastewater discharge

2.6.2

Circulating Water System


Once through open recirculating type (CW) cooling water system has been
envisaged for the project. Cold water shall be drawn from the proposed break
water in the sea (Bay of Bengal). One number CWPH for housing 9 nos. of CW
Pumps (8W+1S) for entire 4000 MW including forebay shall be constructed inside
plant area. The sea water upto CWPH forebay shall be drawn through open
concrete lined earthen channel outside plant boundary and through RCC channel
inside plant boundary. The CW pumps shall pump cold water to condensers and
hot water from the condensers to discharge pit/seal pit through steel lined
concrete encased CW ducts. 2 nos. of inlet duct & 2 nos. outlet duct of 4.25 m
internal diameter has been considered for each unit from CWPH upto discharge
pit/seal pit. The hot water from discharge pit/seal pit shall flow by gravity for
discharge into sea through RCC channel inside plant and open concrete lined
earthen channel outside plant boundary. A break water shall be constructed at
channel outlet into sea to avoid silt deposition at discharge point and to avoid
back flow during high tides / cyclones. CWPH, Forebay & Discharge pit shall be of
RCC grade M-30.

2.6.5 Water Treatment Systems


Water treatment system of the project comprises of Desalination Plant,
Condensate Polishing Plant, Electro-Chlorination Plants and Effluent treatment
Plant.
2.7

Ash Handling System

2.7.1 Ash Handling System


The boiler shall be of dry bottom type. The bottom ash extracted in dry form shall
be transported through conveyor to intermediate silos (common for all units) and
pneumatically transported to BA silos and mixed with fly ash for final disposal in
HSCD slurry form to ash dyke. The fly ash shall be conveyed in dry form from the
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electrostatic precipitator hoppers. This dry ash is taken to buffer hoppers for its
onward transportation in dry form to storage silos near plant boundary for
utilization. In case of non-utilization, fly ash shall be taken to HCSD system,
where in it shall be mixed in agitator tanks for its ultimate disposal in high
concentration slurry form to ash disposal area.
2.7.2 Bottom Ash Handling System
Bottom ash is extracted by using a continuously operating dry bottom ash
evacuation system.
The bottom ash extracted in dry form from each unit shall be crushed in primary
and secondary crusher to granular size of less than 6 mm and shall be collected
in an Intermediate Silos (IM silos). BA can be unloaded and transported through
trucks from this IM silo. In case of non-utilization of BA ash or disposal though
trucks, BA from IM silos shall be transported to a BA silos near High
Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD) pump house. This shall be further mixed
with fly ash and disposed off in form of HCSD slurry.
Economizer ash shall be handled in dry form through vacuum system. Two nos.
common buffer hopper and 4 nos. (2W+2S) vacuum pumps are envisaged for
4x1000MW units for eco ash conveying.
The BA extraction air compressor for conveying BA shall be used for conveying
Eco ash also to BA silo near HCSD pump house. This shall be further disposed off
in form of HCSD slurry.
2.7.3 Fly Ash Handling System
Pneumatic conveying system (either vacuum system or pressure system) shall be
employed for conveying of fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator hoppers and
APH hoppers in dry form. This dry ash shall be taken to buffer hoppers of each
unit. The dry ash buffer hoppers shall be located adjacent to the ESP. Dry ash
from buffer hoppers shall be transported either to HCSD silos to be located near
the chimney or to storage silos near the plant boundary. The transportation
system shall be provided for each unit for transportation from buffer hoppers to
the silos. The user industries shall take the dry fly ash from these storage silos
either in closed tankers or in open tankers.
Space provision shall be kept near storage silos for installation of dry fly ash
classification system, in future, for users for classified fly ash.
2.7.4 Ash Slurry Disposal System
2.7.4.1 Fly Ash, Bottom and Economizer Ash Disposal
The fly ash collected in HCSD silos near chimney and Economiser & BA ash from
BA silo shall be mixed with water in an agitator tank at controlled rate to obtain
the desired high concentration. This high concentration slurry shall be further
pumped to Ash dyke approximately 3 km from the plant by HCSD pumps. One
HCSD pump house is envisaged for 4x1000 MW units. There shall be Four (4)
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working streams (one for each unit) and two (2) standby streams of HCSD
pumps. All the pumping streams shall be provided with its individual disposal
pipes. No crossover is being envisaged in the disposal piping.
2.7.4.2 Ash Water System
There shall be no recirculation from dyke as the disposal of BA and FA system
shall be only by HCSD .Thus the plant make up shall be used for water
requirement of ash handling system throughout the life of the plant.
Sea water shall be used for ash sluicing and ash slurry applications. Accordingly it
is proposed that the MOC of the equipment, vessels, pumps, pipes & accessories
handling sea water & ash slurry shall be suitable for sea water application.
However for sealing purpose & cooling of auxiliaries sweet water shall be used. To
meet the requirement of the water for ash handling required number of ash water
pumps shall be provided which shall take suction from the ash water sump.
2.7.4.3 Ash Water Recirculation System
HCSD systems is supposed to have no excess water. However a recirculation
system is envisaged for pumping any excess decanted water from Dyke.
Decanted water from ash pond of HCSD pond shall be led to the plant area by
using 2x100% (30 cum/hr) capacity pumps and the same shall be conveyed
through one number steel pipe (suitable for sea water use) from ash dyke to
plant area. This water will be used further in the ash handling system.
2.8

Fuel Oil Handling Systems


Fuel Oil unloading and storage system shall be designed to handle both heavy oil
(HFO/LHS/HPS) and light oil (LDO). Light oil (LDO) shall be used for cold startup
and low part load (up to 7.5%) operation of the steam generator while firing coal.
The heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS) shall be used for start-up, warm-up and low load
(up to 30%) operation of the steam generator while firing coal.
Since there is no provision of railway siding within the plant premises. It is
proposed to transport both light oil (LDO) and heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS) to the
power plant by road tankers. The oil will be unloaded from road tankers by
gravity into the dedicated unloading header. From there it will be transferred to
oil storage tanks through a set of dedicated positive displacement pumps.
Provision shall be kept to unload five (5) nos. road tankers for light oil (LDO) and
twenty (20) nos. road tankers for heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS).
Since heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS) is to be used for startup, warm up and low load
operation, the specific oil consumption is assumed to be 3.5 ml/kWh. Accordingly
storage capacity equivalent to 30 days operation of the ultimate capacity shall be
provided. Three (3) nos. of fixed roof type storage tanks each of 3700 KL capacity
shall be provided for storage of heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS). Necessary provision for
heating of the unloading header and storage tanks shall be provided.
For storage of light oil (LDO) two (2) tanks each of capacity 500 kl shall be
provided.

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A set of pressurizing pumps shall draw the oil from the storage tanks for pumping
the oil to the steam generator units. The auxiliary boiler shall be designed for
firing light oil (LDO). A separate day oil tank of 100 kl capacity for auxiliary boiler
shall be provided. Oil shall be drawn from the main LDO storage tanks for feeding
to day oil tank.
The auxiliary boiler shall use either or both heavy oil (HFO/LHS/HPS) and light oil
(LDO) and the oil shall be drawn from the main storage tanks.
2.9

Pollution Control Measures


The various environmental measures, pollution control systems and mitigative
measures proposed to be adopted for the STPP are as follows:

2.9.1 Air Pollution Control System


o

High efficiency electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) of 99.9% will be installed to


limit control the Particulate. The precipitators will be designed to limit the
particulate emission to 50 mg/Nm3 under all design conditions;

To facilitate wider dispersion of pollutants and gaseous Pollutions after ESP


two twin flue reinforced concrete chimney of height 275 m above plant grade
level is envisaged for this project. The chimney shall be provided with
personal access doors and sampling ports for continuous online monitoring;

Space provision has been kept in the layout for retrofitting Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) system, if required in future;

The appropriate low NOx burners shall be adopted during the boiler design for
controlled NOx emission;

For control of fugitive dust emissions within and around the coal handling
plant, dust extraction / suppression systems would be provided. Dust
suppression system shall also be provided in the coal stockyard; and

Greenbelt will be developed in and around the project area.

2.9.2 Water Pollution Control System


A waste water management system which comprises a Central Effluent Monitoring
Basin (CEMB) for industrial effluent and Sewage treatment plant (STP) for
domestic effluent has been envisaged for the project for treatment of both
industrial & domestic effluent.
An effluent management scheme will be designed which includes adequate
treatment facilities for collection, treatment and recirculation / disposal of all the
effluents emanating from different points and process of power plant activity for
controlling water pollution as well as for optimizing the makeup water
requirement.

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The liquid effluents shall be collected and treated/ recycled as per the following
design philosophy:

The waste effluents from neutralization pits of DM Plant and Condensate


Polishing Plant shall be collected in the respective neutralization pits and
neutralized before pumping to the Central Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB)
before final disposal;

A coal particle settling pond shall be provided to remove coal particles from
coal handling plant waste. Decanted water shall be pumped to CEMB;

The plant shall have two different systems for ash disposal conventional wet
slurry disposal for bottom ash and High Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD)
for fly ash. HCSD system will require less quantity of water and the excess
decanted water from ash dyke shall be recirculated through ash handling
plant. Hence, there will be no effluent discharge from the fly ash disposal site;

All the plant liquid effluents shall be mixed in CEMB and disposed off to the
final disposal point;

The sewage from plant and township shall be treated in a common sewage
treatment plant. The treated sewage conforming to prescribed standards shall
be utilized for plantation/horticulture to the extent possible. The balance
effluent shall be discharged; and

An independent plant effluent drainage system would be constructed to


ensure that plant effluents do not mix with storm water drainage. Efficient
operation of various treatment schemes shall be ensured so that the quality of
treated effluent from CEMB conforms to relevant standards, prescribed by
regulatory agencies.

2.9.3 Noise Pollution Control Systems


The major noise generating sources in a thermal power plant are the turbines,
turbo-generators, compressors, pumps, fans, coal handling plant etc. from where
noise is continuously generated. Acoustic enclosures shall be provided wherever
required to control the noise level below 90 dB (A).
Wherever it is not possible technically to meet the required noise levels, the
personnel protective equipment shall be provided. Provision of green belt and
Afforestation will further help in reducing the noise levels. To protect the workers
within the construction area and plant area, adequate protective measures in the
form of PPEs such as ear-muffs/ ear plugs/ masks shall be provided, which will
minimize/eliminate adverse impacts.
2.9.4

Solid Waste Management


Ash will be the major solid waste generated from the power project. An ash
management scheme shall be implemented consisting of dry collection of fly ash,
supply of ash to entrepreneurs for utilization and promoting ash utilization to
maximum extent and safe disposal of unused ash. The plant shall have two
different systems for ash disposal conventional wet slurry disposal with ash

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water re-circulation for bottom ash and High Concentration Slurry Disposal
(HCSD) for fly ash. HCSD system will require less quantity of water.
2.9.5 Afforestation and Greenbelt Development
An action plan will be prepared for undertaking extensive afforestation and
plantation activities for various select species based on recreational and socioeconomic importance, nativity, capability for controlling pollution etc. in all
available spaces in the main plant and township area and raising shelterbelt
plantations along the vicinity of ash storage/ disposal sites and along boundary
walls.
2.10

Ash Utilization
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has issued a Gazette Notification dated
03-11-2009 which is an amendment to its earlier notifications dated 14-09-1999
and amendment dated 27-08-2003. The new notification stipulates that all coal
based power stations/ units commissioned after the date of issue of notification
have to utilize at least 50% of ash generated within 1 year, 70% within 2 years,
90% within 3 years and 100% within 4 years respectively from the
commissioning of the units.
The unutilized fly ash with respect to the target during a year, if any, shall be
utilized within next two years in addition to the targets stipulated for those years
and the balance unutilized ash accumulated during the first 4 years shall have to
be utilized progressively over next 5 years in addition to 100% utilization of
current generation of ash.
NTPC - a socially conscious utility considers utilization of ash produced at its coal
based power station as a thrust area of its activities. Pudimadaka Super Thermal
Power Project, (4x1000 MW) planned to be set up in Dist Visakhapatnam, Andhra
Pradesh. As per plan, imported coal having ash content of about 12% shall be
used at Pudimadaka STPP. It is estimated that about 1.68 MTPA of ash would be
produced in the power generation process. In order to have maximum ash
utilization in various areas and also to comply with the requirements of MOEFs
Gazette Notification on fly ash dated 03-11-2009, following actions are proposed
to be taken up by NTPC:
o

NTPC shall provide a system for 100% extraction of dry fly ash along with
suitable storage facilities. Provision shall also be kept for segregation of
coarse and fine ash, loading this ash in tankers/ bulkers and also for loading
fly ash into rail wagons. This will ensure availability of dry fly ash required for
manufacture of Fly Ash based Portland Pozzolona Cement (FAPPC) for cement
plants, Ready Mix Concrete plants & export.

NTPC shall make efforts to motivate and encourage entrepreneurs to set up


ash based building products such as fly ash bricks, blocks, tiles etc. and
export of fly ash from proposed power plant.

NTPC shall also set up fly ash brick manufacturing plant at proposed project,
fly ash brick thus produced shall be utilized for in-house construction works.

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All government/ private agencies responsible for construction/ design of


buildings, road embankment, flyover bridges and reclamation within 100 km
of the plant areas shall be persuaded to use ash and ash based products in
compliance of MOEFs Gazette Notification on fly ash dated 03-11-2009.

With all the efforts mentioned above, it is expected that fly ash generated at
proposed thermal power station shall be utilized in the areas of cement, concrete
& building products manufacturing, road embankment construction etc. However
in order to prepare realistic road map for 100% ash utilization, a detailed market
study shall be carried out. Based on recommendations of the study, detailed Road
Map for achieving 100% Ash Utilization in the line with MOEFs Gazette
Notification on fly ash dated 03-11-2009 shall be prepared.
2.11

Clean Development Mechanism


Sustainable power generation has been one of the prime objectives of NTPC
Limited since inception. Towards achieving this objective, various measures have
been introduced to ensure minimum degradation of the environment due to the
operation of the power stations. As a part of agreement under Kyoto Protocol the
CDM has been introduced to enable trading of Certified Emission Reductions
(CERs) between the developed countries and the developing countries.
It is envisaged to take up NTPCs proposed 4X1000 MW, coal based Pudimadaka
project, with higher steam cycle parameters with super critical technology as a
CDM project. Adoption of higher cycle parameters will improve power plant
efficiency and thereby reduce coal consumption per unit of electricity generation
with consequent reduction in CO2 emissions. The unit of this size will be first of
its kind in India.
CDM revenue is one of the prime considerations for the project. It is likely to
ameliorate the Internal Rate of Return & will help overcoming the various barriers
related to the project.
The project is an ideal case for CDM benefits, being environmentally benign with
less emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

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BASELINE ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS

3.1

Introduction

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This chapter illustrates the description of the existing environmental status of the
study area with reference to the prominent environmental attributes. The study
area covers 10 km radius from project boundary.
EIA notification requires that 10 km radius area surrounding the project site shall
be covered under the study to adjudge the existing baseline environmental
conditionand the same is denoted as study area. As part of the study, description
of biological environment and human environment such as environmental
settings, demography & socio-economics, land-use/land cover, ecology &
biodiversity have been carried out for entire 10 km radius. However, as a
universally accepted methodology of EIA studies, physical environmental
attributes such as meteorology, ambient air quality, water quality, soil &
sediment quality, noise levels, physiography, geology and hydrogeology, ecology
(terrestrial, aquatic and marine) have been studied at selective locations
representing rural/residential land sensitive locations including the densely
populated areas, agricultural lands, forest lands and other ecologically sensitive
areas, if any falling within 10 km radius study area.
This report incorporates the baseline primary data monitored on several
environment and ecological attributes for the period of three months (March 2015
May 2015) representing pre-monsoon season and secondary data collected
from various government and semi-government organizations.
3.2

Geology, Hydrogeology & Drainage

3.2.1 Geomorphology
Geomorphologically, the district can be divided into three regions, viz., northern
hilly terrain with valleys, middle pediplains and alluvial coastal plains. The
northern half of the district is mainly occupied by the structural hills and valleys,
which is part of the Eastern Ghats. The hill range trends parallel to coast. The
average altitude of hills is over 900 m amsl. The hills are densely forested. By
virtue of their topography, these hilly terrains largely form run off areas and are
not suitable for ground water development. The valley fill areas underlain by
weathered formations in the Araku and Paderu areas possess high infiltration and
high permeability. These areas form good to moderate aquifers depending on
their thickness. The hard rock terrain exposed in the Tandava-Varaha-SaradaGosthani river basins constitutes the vast denudational pediplains, exhibiting the
gradational phase of denudational-residual-inselbergpediment areas. Pediment
is well developed around the khondalite outcrops, whereas in the charnockite
outcrops, it is not extensively developed. The pediment area accelerates surface
run off with moderate to less infiltration along the jointed and weathered zone.
The Tandava, Varaha, Sarada and Gosthani rivers and their tributaries have
contributed to the formation of extensive flood plain areas. There is not much
surface drainage in the plains because of the high infiltration and permeable
characteristics of the sediments. The district has a coastline of about 132 km. The
coastal plain is a feature of the marine deposition, which is very extensive, wide
and even extends to several kilometers inland. The coastline is broken by a
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number of bold headlands, which protect the land against constant erosion by the
sea.
3.2.2 Rainfall & Climate
Climatologically the district experiences tropical sub-humid type of climate with
moderate summer and good seasonal rainfall. The southwest monsoon sets in the
second week of June and lasts till September end. October and November receive
rainfall from northeast monsoon. Winter season with cool and fine weather
prevails from December to February followed by summer season upto early June.
The average annual rainfall of the district is 1116 mm. and monthly rainfall
ranges from nil rainfall in January to 207.5 mm in October. October is the wettest
month of the year. The mean seasonal rainfall distribution is 673.5 mm. in
southwest monsoon (June September), 271.8 mm. in northeast monsoon
(October-December), 10.9 mm. rainfall in winter (Jan-Feb) and 159.6 mm in
summer (MarchMay). The percentage distribution of rainfall, season-wise, is
60.36% in southwest monsoon, 24.36 % in northeast monsoon, 0.97 percentage
in winter and 14.3 % in summer.
The annual rainfall ranges from 708 mm in 2002 to 1703 mm in 2010. The annual
rainfall departure ranges from-37% in 2002 to 53% in 2010. The southwest
monsoon rainfall contributes about 60 % of annual rainfall. It ranges from 459
mm in 2002 to 864 mm in 2006. The year 2002 and 2009 experienced drought
conditions in the district as the annual rainfall recorded in these two years is 37%
and 34% less than the long period average (LPA) respectively. The cumulative
departure of annual rainfall from LPA indicates that the rainfall departure as on
2011 is negative i.e. 40%, showing deficit rainfall. The annual rainfall during 2012
is 1218 mm.
3.2.3 Soils
The different soils in the district are red loams, sandy loams, sandy soils and
black cotton soils. Red loamy soils are predominate and occupy about 70% in the
district. Sandy loamy soils are largely confined to the coastal areas and to certain
stretches in the interior mandals of Chodavaram, Narsipatnam, K.Kotapadu and
Madugula. Black cotton soils occur in parts of K.Kotapadu, Devarapalli,
Chedikada, Paderu and Hukumpeta mandals.
3.2.4 Drainage
The most important rivers drained in the district are Machikund, Tandava,
Varaha, Sarada and Gostani. Most of the rivers are ephemeral in nature.
However, some of the tributaries of Machikund are perennial with indications of
substantial ground water discharge. Almost all the rivers and streams experience
flash floods during rainy season. A good number of springs exist in Paderu and
Araku areas. The district is characterized by sub-dendritic to dendritic nature of
drainage pattern and is of coarse texture. In general the density is in the range of
0.6 to 1/Km2. Many of the hill streams in Paderu valley disappear on entering the
plains due to high permeability of the pediment gravels. The disappearance of
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streams in and along the hill slopes is contributing to the ground water, which is
again discharged through the silty soils at lower elevations.
3.2.5 Geology
The district forms a part of Easter Ghat Mobile Belt exposing all the characteristic
lithounits of the Eastern Ghat Supergroup such as the Khondalite, Charnockite
and migmatite. The Khondalite group is represented by Khondalite (QuartzFeldspar-garnet sillimanite-graphite gneiss), calc granulite and quartzite which
occur as impersistent bands within the khondalite. The Charnockite group
consists of acid, intermediate, and basic varieties. The migmatite group consists
various rock types including leptynite. Porphyroblastic gneiss, quartzo felspathic
mobilesates and other associated hybrid rocks. Bauxite laterite occupies several
flat topped and gently sloping hills at elevation of 1000 m and above. Laterite are
mostly developed on khondalites and rarely on charnockites. Tirupathi, sandstone
of Gonwana Supergroup occurs unconformably over the Archaean Crystallines.
This is represented by coarse sandstone and clays exposed close to the coast.
Quaternary sediments in the district are of both fluvial and marine regimes. The
fluvial sediments are restricted to inland valleys of Sarada, Tandava and Gosthani
rivers, in the form of flood plains mostly comprising brown silty clay. Channel
bars and active channels contain brown silts and coarse sand. The marine
sediments of active beach and tidal flat are seen in the narrow coastal plain. The
coastal plain south of Elamanchili is rocky, scarp faced and believed to be fault
controlled. The rocks along the coast bear the impressions of sea level
fluctuations up to an elevation of 130 m. above m.s.l. The structural grain of the
lithounits is defined by foliation which is considered to have developed because of
first phase of folding and uniformly shows parallelism with the primary layering
wherever preserved. The strike of the foliation varies form NE-SW to NW-SE with
moderate to steep dips. The rocks have been subjected to tight isoclinals folding
having a regional trend of NE-SW. As a result of cross folding on NW-SE axis
structural domes and basins have been formed in the area. These are well
developed in the proximity of the ridges around Visakhapatnam. Faults and
lineaments trending mostly NE-SW and NW-SE are seen in the area.
3.2.6 Hydrogeology
The hydrogeological studies to understand the local geology, geomorphic
features, drainage network, aquifer characteristics and yield of water.
Accordingly, various components controlling the hydrogeological regime. The
hydrogeological map of the Visakhapatnam District is shown in Figure-3.2.1.

Occurrence of ground water

Ground water occurs in almost all geological formations. From the ground water
point of view, the aquifers in the district can be broadly classified into hard
formations (khondalites, charnockites, granitic gneisses etc.) and soft formations
(sand stones and alluvium). Ground water occurs under unconfined to semiconfined conditions in the hard formations, while it occurs under unconfined to
confined conditions in soft formations. The yields in the weathered zones of hard
formations range from 25 to 100 m3/day. The bore wells drilled in the hard
formations, generally tap the fractured and fissured zones. The yields of the bore
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wells in these formations range between 5 to 25 m 3/hr. Sand stones are exposed
in the small isolated places around Nakkavanipalem and Elamanchili. In these
formations, ground water occurs under both unconfined and confined conditions.
The depth of dug wells in alluvium formations ranges from 2 to 10 m bgl and the
yields generally ranges from 40 to 250 m3/day. The depth of filter
points/tubewells varies from 9 to 35 m with discharges ranging from 15 to 30
m3/hour.
The transmissivity values of the aquifers in the consolidated formations generally
vary from 1 to 772 m2/day, whereas specific capacity ranges from 1 to 290
lpm/mdd.

Depth to Water Levels

As per the CGWB report, September-2013. The Pre-monsoon (May, 2012) depth
to water levels, in general, the water levels are deep particularly in the hilly area
of the district. Depth to water levels varies from 5 to 10 m bgl, except at
Chintapalli, where water level recorded 15.78 m bgl. In the southern part of the
district i.e., near to the coast, the water levels are comparatively shallow (<5.00
m) except in Payakaraopeta and Nakkapalli mandals where it is in between 5 and
10 m bgl.
During the post monsoon period (November, 2012), in general, the water levels
follow nearly same trend. Water levels in the most part of northern area show
less than 5 m. except at Potinamallaya Palem (5.80 m). The Shallow water levels,
<2 m, were observed in South-Western part of the district. The shallow water
level was recorded at Addaroddu (0.30 m). The shallow water levels in the area
might be due to location of wells close to surface water bodies/in topographic low
levels. From the trend of both pre and post monsoon levels it can be safely
concluded that the area, in general, is not prone to water logging.
The project site is located in Atchutapuram and Rambilli mandals of
Visakhapatnam District. As per the CGWB report September-2013. The depth to
water levels in Rambilli Mandal ranges from 2 to 10 m bgl in pre-monsoon season
(May-2012) and in post monsoon season (November-2012) the depth to water
level ranges from <2 to 5 m bgl.
The seasonal water level fluctuation varies from 0.03 m. (G.K. Veedhi) to 14.22
m. (Chintapalli). In general, the seasonal fluctuation is more in the hilly area
compared to coastal plains.
Water level fluctuation between decadal mean of May (20012010) Vs May 2012
shows a total number of 34 wells show rise in water levels between 0.03 m to
4.65 m and water level fall in 03 wells between 0.20 m to 4.00 m.
Water level fluctuation between decadal mean of November (2001-2010) Vs
November, 2012 shows water level rise in 15 wells ranging from 0.02 m to 1.37
m and fall in 19 wells ranging from 0.10 in to 3.69 m.

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3.2.7 Ground water resources

Ground Water Recharge

The main source of ground water recharge is by the rainfall by direct percolation
to the zone of saturation. A significant part of the rainfall is lost as runoff from
area while a limited percentage of rainfall therefore reaches zone of saturation
and becomes the part of ground water storage after meeting the evaporation and
evapo-transpiration losses. There is also ground water recharge from the return
flow of irrigation water from dug wells and tube wells operated by the cultivators
and from canals.
The dynamic groundwater resources of Visakhapatnam District has been
estimated jointly by CGWB and SWID. Govt of Andhra Pradesh, following the
norms laid down by GEC-1997 methodology and projected as on 31.03.2009.
As per the present ground water resource estimation (2008-2009) the total
annual ground water recharge in the district is estimated to be 78,383 ham.
(Command area = 11,794 ham and Non Command area = 66,689 ham) and the
net annual ground water availability in the district after allowing the unavoidable
natural discharges is 71689 ham (command area 10683 ham. and in Noncommand area 61,006 ham). The gross ground water draft for all purposes is
estimated as 23,100 ham out of which 6300 ham is in command area and 16,800
ham is in Non-Command area. Thus the ground water available for future
irrigation needs after allocating the ground water for future domestic and
industrial needs is 38,264 ham in the entire district, which is 3,282 ham in
command area and 34,982 ham in Non-command areas of the district.
The project site is located in Atchutapuram and Rambilli mandals of
Visakhapatnam District. As per the present ground water resource estimation
(2008-2009) the net annual ground water availability in the Rambilli mandal after
allowing the unavoidable natural discharges is 1243 ham (command area 142
ham and in Non-command area 1101 ham). The gross ground water draft for all
purposes is estimated as 554 ham out of which 83 ham is in command area and
471 ham is in Non-Command area. Thus the ground water available for future
irrigation needs after allocating the ground water for future domestic and
industrial needs is 689 ham in the entire Rambilli mandal, which is 59 ham in
command area and 630 ham in Non-command areas of the Rambilli mandal and
the stage of ground water development is 45% Safe category.

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Project Site

FIGURE-3.2.1
HYDROGEOLOGY MAP OF VISAKHAPATNAM DISTRICT
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Land Use Studies


Studies on land use aspects of eco-system play important roles for identifying
sensitive issues, if any, and taking appropriate actions for maintaining the
ecological balance in the development of the region.

3.3.1 Objectives
The objectives of land use studies are:

To determine the present land use pattern;

To analyze the impacts on land use due to plant activities in the study area;
and

To give recommendations for optimizing the future land use pattern vis-a-vis
growth of plant activities in the study area and its associated impacts.

3.3.2 Methodology
For the study of land use, literature review of various secondary sources such as
District Census Handbooks, regional maps regarding topography, zoning
settlement, industry, forest etc., were taken. The data was collected from various
sources like District Census Handbook, Revenue records, state and central
government offices and Survey of India (SOI) Topo sheets and also through
primary field surveys. Classification of landuse is done based on latest satellite
imagery (13th March 2015) for the study area.
3.3.3 Land Use Based on Satellite Imagery
The methodology adopted for preparation of land use/ land cover thematic map is
monoscopic visual interpretation of geocoded scenes of IRS-P6 satellite LISS-III
and field observations taken. The various steps involved in the study are
preparatory field work, field survey and post field work.
Also, literature review of various secondary sources such as District Census
Handbooks, regional maps regarding topography, zoning settlement, industry,
forest etc were taken.
3.3.3.1 Land Use/Land Cover Classification System
The present land use / land cover maps were prepared based on the classification
system of National standards. For explanation of each of the land use category the
details as given in Table-3.3.1 were considered.
TABLE-3.3.1
LAND USE/LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Sr. No.
1

Level-1
Built-up Land

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Level-2
Town/cities
Villages
Institution/Industry/Godown etc
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Level-1

Agriculture Land

Forest

Wastelands

Water Bodies

Others

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Level-2
Plotted Area/Layout
Crop Land
Plantations
Fallow
Evergreen/Semi evergreen
Deciduous
Forest Plantation
Rocky/Stony Waste
Land with /without scrubs
Saline/sandy & Marshy/swampy
River/Stream
Lake/Reservoir/Tanks
Orchard/Other Plantation
Shifting cultivation
Salt Pans, Snow covered/Glacial
Barren/Vacant Land

3.3.3.2 Pre-field Interpretation of Satellite Data


The False Color Composite (FCC) of IRS-P6 satellite data at 1:1,55,000 scale
procured on 13th March 2015 is used for pre-field interpretation work. Taking the
help of topo-sheets, geology, geomorphology and by using the image elements the
features are identified and delineated the boundaries roughly. Each feature is
identified on image by their image elements like tone, texture, colour, shape, size,
pattern and association. A tentative legend in terms of land cover and land use,
physiography and erosion was formulated. The sample areas for field check are
selected covering all the physiographic, land use/land cover feature cum image
characteristics.
Ground Truth Collection
Both topo-sheets and imagery were taken for field verification and a transverse
plan using existing road network was made to cover as many representative
sample areas as possible to observe the broad land use features and to adjust the
sample areas according to field conditions. Detailed field observations and
investigations were carried out and noted the land use features on the imagery.
Post Field Work
The base maps of the study area were prepared, with the help of Survey of India
Topo-sheets. Preliminary interpreted land use and the land cover features
boundaries from IRS-P6 False Colour Composite were modified in light of field
information and the final thematic details were transferred onto the base maps.
The final interpreted and classified thematic map was cartographed. The
cartographic map was colored with standard colour coding and detailed description
of feature with standard symbols. All the classes noted and marked by the standard
legend on the map.

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Final Output
The final output would be the land use/land cover map on 1:1,55,000 scale,
numerals were given different colour code for each category as shown in map.
Area estimation of all features of Land use/Land cover categories was noted.

Observations

The following are the main interpreted land use/land cover classes of the study
area and their respective areas are given in hectares in Table-3.3.2 for the year
2015. The thematic map and land use pattern within 10 km radius based on IRS-P6
for 13th March 2015 are shown in Figure-3.3.1 and Figure-3.3.2 respectively.
TABLE-3.3.2
LAND USE BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGERY
Sr.
No.

Built-up Land
1
Forest
2
Agricultural
land
3
Waste Land
4
Water Body
5
Wetlands
6
Others
7

Land Use
Level-II

Area
(Hectares)

Area
(%)

Settlements
Industry/Institutional Land
New Development/Layout
Dense/Open Forest
Degraded Scrub
Forest Blank
Plantation

892
617
690
1655
243
5
1692

2.13
1.47
1.65
3.95
0.58
0.01
4.04

Irrigated/Double Crop
Other Agriculture Land/Single Crop

3089
6301

7.38
15.05

3282
6300
16
72
191
824
17
15196
20
7
197
229
322
41856

7.84
15.05
0.04
0.17
0.46
1.97
0.04
36.31
0.05
0.02
0.47
0.55
0.77
100.00

Level-I

Fallow Land
Land with/without Scrub
Rocky/Stony/Barren Land
Quarry/Mining Land
Stream/River/Canal
Reservoir/Tank/Pond
Water Logged
Bay of Bengal
Mudflats/Marshy Land
Mangroves
Aquaculture Ponds
Salt Pans
Coastal Sand/Sand dunes
Total

Conclusions

As per satellite imagery, majority of the study area is occupied by water body i.e
Sea (Bay of Bengal) (38.77 %), followed by agricultural land (34.32 %) and
waste land (15.26 %). Built-up land and forest land occupy 5.25% and 4.55 %
respectively.
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

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FIGURE-3.3.1
SATELLITE IMAGERY
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FIGURE-3.3.2
LAND USE BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGERY
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Soil Characteristics
It is essential to determine the potentiality of soil in the area and to identify the
impacts of urbanization on soil quality. Accordingly, the soil quality assessment
has been carried out.

3.4.1 Data Generation


For studying soil quality in the region, sampling locations were selected to assess
the existing soil conditions in and around the plant area representing various land
use conditions. The physical, chemical and heavy metal concentrations were
determined. The samples were collected by ramming a core-cutter into the soil up
to 90 cm depth.
Ten locations were identified within the study area for soil sampling. At each
location, soil samples were collected from three different depths viz. 30 cm, 60
cm and 90 cm below the surface and homogenized. The homogenized samples
were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Samples were taken
once during the study period.
The details of the sampling locations are given in Table-3.4.1 and are shown in
Figure-3.4.1. The soil quality for all the locations during the study period is
tabulated in Table-3.4.2(A) and (B). The results are compared with standard
classification as given in Table-3.4.3.
TABLE-3.4.1
DETAILS OF SOIL SAMPLING LOCATIONS
Code
No
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10

Location
Project Site
Vesilipalem
Pallwanpuram
Lalamkoduru
Narasapuam
Near Gokivada
Chinnapudi
Pudimadaka
Rambilli
Kavalapalli

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Distance
from Plant Boundary
(km)
0.2
0.3
3.4
7.0
1.3
0.7
4.9
5.5

Direction w.r.t
Proposed Plant
Boundary
W
WSW
WNW
NW
ENE
ESE
SW
WSW

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FIGURE-3.4.1
SOIL QUALITY SAMPLING LOCATIONS
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

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TABLE-3.4.2 (A)
SOIL ANALYSIS RESULTS
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Parameters
pH
Conductivity
Texture

UOM
-s/cm
--

Sand
Silt
Clay
Bulk Density
Exchangeable Calcium as Ca
Exchangeable Magnesium as Mg
Exchangeable Sodium as Na
Available Potassium as K
Available Phosphorous as P
Available Nitrogen as N
Organic Matter
Organic Carbon
Water soluble Chloride as Cl
Water soluble Sulphate as SO4
Sodium Absorption Ratio
Aluminium
Total Iron
Manganese
Boron
Zinc

%
%
%
g/cc
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
Kg/ha
Kg/ha
Kg/ha
%
mg/kg
mg/kg
%
-%
%
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg

S1
7.1
78.7
Sandy
clay
45
21
34
1.13
400
121.4
22.5
126.7
40.6
24.9
0.39
0.23
70.8
87.8
0.25
0.35
0.46
105.4
<0.1
30.1

S2
7.6
2770
Silty
clay
32
48
20
1.21
3196
1212.1
1530
677.7
73.7
20.2
0.3
0.17
5316.3
1929.5
5.84
1.03
1.05
105.1
<0.1
26.3

S3
6.8
50.1
Sandy
clay
47
21
32
1.17
300
121.3
14.6
112.0
78.2
21.3
0.32
0.19
70.8
133.1
0.18
0.10
0.23
26.2
<0.1
30.6

S4
7.0
160.7
Sandy
clay
43
26
31
1.09
3601.5
364.2
300.6
564.6
215.2
100.8
1.65
0.95
102.1
212.2
1.28
1.95
1.78
245.3
<0.1
20.1

S5
7.4
385.0
Sandy
clay
30
45
25
1.25
799.6
242.6
477.0
102.9
86.8
29.3
0.42
0.24
424.0
117.9
3.79
0.90
1.31
125.0
<0.1
2.69

TABLE-3.4.2(B)
SOIL ANALYSIS RESULTS
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

Parameters
pH
Conductivity
Texture

UOM
-s/cm
--

Sand
Silt
Clay
Bulk Density
Exchangeable Calcium as Ca
Exchangeable Magnesium as Mg
Exchangeable Sodium as Na
Available Potassium as K
Available Phosphorous
Available Nitrogen as N
Organic Matter
Organic Carbon
Water soluble chloride as Cl
Water soluble sulphate as SO4
Sodium Absorption Ratio
Aluminium
Total iron
Manganese
Boron
Zinc

%
%
%
g/cc
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
Kg/ha
Kg/ha
Kg/ha
%
mg/kg
mg/kg
%
-%
%
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

S6
6.9
131.7
Sandy
clay
44
20
36
1.15
900.9
182.2
59.1
286.4
144.9
61.9
0.96
0.56
141.5
152.9
0.47
0.87
1.59
200.4
<0.1
5.65

S7
6.5
103.8
Sandy
clay
44
20
36
1.03
599.4
121.3
27.3
229.4
121.3
42.5
0.73
0.43
106.1
108.2
0.27
0.66
1.25
209.9
<0.1
14.82

S8
7.5
551.0
Sandy
clay
42
20
38
1.18
2096.5
302.9
508.2
860.4
418.6
27.5
0.42
0.24
708.3
399.2
2.75
0.64
1.28
199.1
<0.1
9.23

S9
7.2
183.4
Sandy
clay
46
21
33
1.20
2001.3
303.6
188.7
308.5
92.4
73.6
1.09
0.63
70.6
382.0
1.04
2.03
3.09
235.2
<0.1
31.72

S10
7.6
643.0
Sandy
clay
44
22
34
1.11
2401.4
242.9
559.7
1693.2
261.0
80.1
1.28
0.75
708.0
882
2.91
1.30
2.33
395.2
<0.1
54.94

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3.4.2 Baseline Soil Status


Based on the results obtained from the different soil samples, it is evident that
the soil samples are predominantly sandy clay type. The pH of the soil samples
ranged from 6.5 to 7.6 indicating the neutral. The electrical conductivity of the
soil samples varied from 50 S/cm to 2770 S/cm. Based on the conductivity
results it can be concluded that the ionic content of the soil samples are within
the limits that does not harm the crops. Bulk densities of the soil samples varied
from 1.03 to 1.25 g/cc.
Available nitrogen in the soil samples varied from 20.2 kg/ha to 100.8 kg/ha and
indicating less category in the soil samples. Available phosphorus in the region
varied from 40.6 kg/ha to 418.6 kg/ha revealing the distribution from medium to
more than sufficient quantities.
Available potassium levels in the samples ranged from 102.9 kg/ha to 1693.2
kg/ha, which indicates less category to more than sufficient quantity in the soil
samples.
Soluble chlorides in the region varied from 70.6 mg/kg to 5316.3 mg/kg. Organic
matter concentrations ranged from 0.3% to 1.65%. Organic carbon
concentrations ranged from 0.17% to 0.95%.
Based on the above, the soil in the region has been found to have sufficient
quantities of nutrients for crop growth.
TABLE-3.4.3
STANDARD SOIL CLASSIFICATION
Sr. No.
1

Soil Test
pH

Salinity Electrical Conductivity


(mmhos/cm)
(1 ppm = 640 mmho/cm)

Organic Carbon

Nitrogen (kg/ha)

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Classification
<4.5 Extremely acidic
4.51- 5.50 Very strongly acidic
5.51-6.0 moderately acidic
6.01-6.50 slightly acidic
6.51-7.30 Neutral
7.31-7.80 slightly alkaline
7.81-8.50 moderately alkaline
8.51-9.0 strongly alkaline
9.01 very strongly alkaline
Upto 1.00 Average
1.01-2.00 harmful to germination
2.01-3.00 harmful to crops (sensitive
to salts)
Upto 0.2: very less
0.21-0.4: less
0.41-0.5 medium,
0.51-0.8: on an average sufficient
0.81-1.00: sufficient
>1.0 more than sufficient
Upto 50 very less
51-100 less
101-150 good
151-300 Better
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Soil Test

Phosphorus (kg/ha)

Potash (kg/ha)

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Classification
>300 sufficient
Upto 15 very less
16-30 less
31-50 medium,
51-65 on an average sufficient
66-80 sufficient
>80 more than sufficient
0 -120 very less
120-180 less
181-240 medium
241-300 average
301-360 better
>360 more than sufficient

Source: Handbook of Agriculture, ICAR, New Delhi

3.4.3

Soil Infiltration Test


Water entering the soil at the surface is called infiltration. It replenishes the soil
moisture deficiency and the excess moves downward by the force of gravity
called deep seepage or percolation and builds up the groundwater table. The
maximum rate at which the soil in any given condition is capable of absorbing
water is called its infiltration capacity. Infiltration often begins at a high rate and
decreases to a fairly steady rate as the input continues. Infiltration rate at a site
can be measured using double ring infiltrometer.
A double ring infiltrometer with a diameter of 0.5 m for the outer ring and 0.28 m
for the inner ring placed one inside the other was pressed into the soil up to a
depth of 10 cm. The rings were driven without tilt or undue disturbance of the soil
surface and with constant annular space between the rings in all directions.
Study carried out at Experimental Locations
Long duration infiltration rate measurements were carried out at 10 locations at
ash pond area and selected villages in the NTPC Pudimadaka area. Each test was
carried out till stabilized infiltration rate is reached at the site. The water column
height in inner and outer rings is maintained at the same level (10 cm)
throughout the experiment at all the sites. The infiltration curves for 10 sites are
shown in Figure-3.4.2 and summary of the tests are given in Table-3.4.4.
Infiltration tests at individual sites is enclosed as Annexure-IV.
TABLE-3.4.4
SUMMARY OF INFILTRATION TESTS
Site
No.
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5

Name of the Village

Ash Pond Area


Ash Pond Area
Ash Pond Area
Ash Pond Area
Daraipalem Village

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Duration
(minutes)
180
160
180
160
160

Initial
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
790
341
614
975
321

Final
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
59
18
48
121
13

Average
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
193
66
142
248
71

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No.
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10

Name of the Village

Near
Near
Near
Near
Near

Gurujapalem Village
Krishnampalem Village
Appanapalem Village
Goropudi Village
Lalamkoduru Village

Duration
(minutes)
140
180
160
130
180

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Initial
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
712
653
156
712
282

Final
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
8
23
60
692
51

Average
Infiltration
Rate
(mm/h)
107
108
108
587
94

Conclusions

The infiltration rate curves indicate that at all the sites except at site no 9, stabilized
infiltration rate is reached.
In the ash pond area, the infiltration rate varies from 66 mm/h to 248 mm/h
In the villages around NTPC, the infiltration rate varies from 71 mm/h to 587 mm/h

FIGURE-3.4.2
INFILTRATION CURVES IN ASH POND AREA
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

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FIGURE-3.4.2 (Contd)
INFILTRATION CURVES IN SURROUNDING VILLAGES
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Meteorology
The meteorological data recorded during the study period is very useful for proper
interpretation of the baseline information regarding project site area and
surrounding area for air quality dispersion. Historical data on meteorological
parameters will also play an important role in identifying the general
meteorological regime of the region.
The year may broadly be divided into four seasons:

3.5.1

Winter season
Pre-monsoon season
Monsoon season
Post-monsoon season

:
:
:
:

December to February
March to May
June to September
October to November

Methodology
The methodology adopted for monitoring surface observations is as per the
standard norms laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS : 8829) and India
Meteorological Department (IMD). On-site monitoring was undertaken for various
meteorological variables in order to generate the site-specific data. Data was
collected every hour continuously from 1st March2015 to 31st May2015.

3.5.1.1 Methodology of Data Generation


The Central Monitoring Station (CMS) equipped with continuous weather
monitoring equipment was installed on top of a building near to the project site
at a height of 10 m above ground level to record wind speed, direction, relative
humidity and temperature. The meteorological monitoring station was located in
such a way that it is free from any obstructions and cloud cover was recorded by
visual observation. Rainfall was monitored by rain gauge.
3.5.1.2 Sources of Information
Secondary information on meteorological conditions has been collected from the
nearest IMD station at Visakhapatnam. The available meteorological data of IMD,
Visakhapatnam station has been collected for the period of 10 years (1991-2000)
and analyzed.
IMD data from Visakhapatnam has been collected for pressure, temperature,
relative humidity, rainfall, evaporation, wind speed and direction. The data at IMD
is usually measured twice a day viz., at 0830 and 1730 hr. The monthly
maximum, minimum and average values are collected for all the parameters
except wind speed and direction is tabulated in Table-3.5.1.

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TABLE-3.5.1
CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA-STATION: IMD, VISAKHAPATNAM (1991-2000)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Annual
Pre monsoon

Temperature
Min
15.8
18.1
22.3
24.2
26.6
26.7
25.3
25.4
24.5
24.1
19.9
15.9

(0c)
Max
30.3
33.7
35.4
36.2
37.7
35.5
35.1
34.1
33.5
33.6
32.3
30.3
Range

Relative Humidity (%)


08.30
17.30
80
66
77
65
72
65
68
68
68
70
72
70
78
74
79
74
81
79
77
77
72
70
71
63

Rainfall

63-81
65-72

1296.4
94.9

15.8-37.7
22.3-37.7

11.9
13.2
5.0
20.0
69.9
132.8
116.8
233.4
201.5
337.2
147.4
7.3

Wind Speed/Direction - IMD - Visakhapatnam

Generally, light to moderate winds prevail throughout the year. Winds were light
and moderate particularly during the morning hours. While during the afternoon
hours the winds were stronger. The wind roses for the study period representing
pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons along with annual wind
roses are shown in Figure-3.5.1 to Figure-3.5.3 and presented in Table-3.5.2.

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

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1.0% W C-1.0%
W
WS
0%

3.0% S

SW
%

SS
W
35.
8%

0.7% S

N 0%
N
N NE 0.
E
4%
0.
3%

.6

N 0.5%
NN
E0
%
N
E
2.
3%

26.2% S

SS
W

%
E0
EN
C-4.8%
E 3.3%

8%
0.
SE E 0.9%
SS

ES
E3

SW
%W

9.5% S

5.1

2
10.

SW

SW

SW

Monsoon
8-30hrs

SCALE

Monsoon
17-30hrs

18.
2

41

.0

32

.3

%S

11.
3%
.5
%

SW

18

WN
W

7.4% W

0%
SE E 0%
SS

%S
SW

0%
2.

5.8
%

%
E0
EN
C-13.3% E 0.3%
ES
E0
%

9.2% W

Pre Monsoon
17-30hrs

NW
%N
0.9
W
N

42

.7%

.7%

W
NN
0%
W
N

9%
2.

%W
NW

SW

ES
E4

7%
2.

E3
SS

Pre Monsoon
8-30hrs

2.9

.0%
E1
EN
E 3.0%

SE

W
WS

W
8%
21.

N 0.3%
N
N NE 0.
E
3%
0%

N 0%
NN
N E 0%
E
0.
7%

W
NN
W
N

1.0
%W
NW

%
E0
EN
C-10.7% E 0.5%
ES
E0
.5%

5%
0.
SE 0%
E
SS

0%
20.

7%
0.

5.7% W

W
NN

W
N

%W
NW

0%

0%

6%
2.
2.0

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5%

SPEED CALM
1.0

11

19

>19 Km/hr

FIGURE-3.5.1
PRE MONSOON & MONSOON WINDROSE - IMD VISAKHAPATNAM
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

.2%

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E1
2.5
%

4.6% S

SW
SS
W

0%

3.0
%

2.
E
N

10
.8
%
N

N 0%
NN
E0
.8%
N
E
2.
7%

6.
0%

E5
.7%
NN

SW
4%
3.

ES

E1

SS
W

9.9
%

0%
10.

5%

11

19

>19 Km/hr

13.3% S

N 3.5%
0.7% S

%S
SW

SW

N 1.3%
NN
E1
.5%

12
.9
%

NN

0% S

%S
SW
1.0

0.7

2%

5.

.5%

SCALE
SPEED CALM
5

SE

Winter
8-30hrs

1.0

.1%
E8
E 32.4%

E1

0%

E0
%

EN

5.7
%

0% W C-2.7%
W
WS
0%

SS

2.

ES

0%
SE E 0%
SS

SW
%W

E 2.8%

E1

5%

C-37.7%

0%
WN
W

ES

4.

SW

SE

EN
6.6% W

W
NN
W
0%
N
0%

W
NN

W
N

.7%
E3

.0%

%
5.0

%
WN
W

2.0

E2

0%

SS

4.

E 4.5%
E0
%

Post Monsoon
17-30hrs

.6

0%

1%
15.

E 29.0%

Post Monsoon
8-30hrs

10

13.

E
EN

0.5% W C-9.0%
W
WS
.5%

0%
SE E 0%
SS

SW
%W

3.0

W
NN W
N

C-17.0%
ES

0.5
%W
NW

%
4.5

E
EN
6.5% W

0%

WN
W

0%

W
N

NW
%N

%
0%

N 8.6%

.0

4.5

11
10.

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Winter
17-30hrs

FIGURE-3.5.2
POST MONSOON & WINTER WINDROSES IMD VISAKHAPATNAM
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

5.
5%

E4
.6%

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N
E

W
NN

W
N
WN
W

NN

%
2.4

8%

6.
7.0% W

SS
W

SW
%W

1%
0.
SE E 0%
SS

.0%
E2
EN
C-19.7%
E 2.0%
ES
E0
.1%

1.0% S

7.0
%

N 3.2%

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Annual
8-30hrs

WN
W

N 0.4%
NN
E0
.7%
N
E
3.
4%

W
NN
W
N

7%

0.
1.9
%

1%

22

.4

SW

4.5
%

7
11.

.0%
E6
EN

C-4.4%

2.2% W

3.

E1

3%

E2

SS

ES

SE

SW
%W
2.7

E 16.9%

0.8
%

16.
7

%S
SW

14

13.4% S

.2

SW

.1%
Annual
17-30hrs
SCALE

5%

SPEED CALM
1.0

11

19

>19 Km/hr

FIGURE-3.5.3
ANNUAL WIND ROSE (IMD- VISAKHAPATNAM)
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TABLE-3.5.2
SUMMARY OF WIND PATTERN-IMD VISAKHAPATNAM
Season

First Predominant
Wind Direction (%)
0830
1730
WNW
E
(13.0)
(32.4)

Winter

Second Predominant
Wind Direction (%)
0830
1730
NW
ESE
(10.6)
(19.9)

PreMonsoon

SW (42.5)

SSW
(35.8)

WSW
(20.0)

S
(26.2)

Monsoon

SW
(41.0)

SW
(32.3%)

WSW
(21.8)

SSW
(18.2)

PostMonsoon

NE
(12.9)

E
(29.0)

NNE
(12.5)

ESE
(15.7)

Annual

SW
(22.4)

E
(16.9)

WSW
(11.7)

SSW
(16.7)

Predominant Wind
Speeds (kmph)
0830
1730
1.0-5.0
5.0-11.0
5.0-11.0
11.0-19.0
11.0-19.0
19.0->19.0
19.0->19.0
5.0-11.0
11.0-19.0
11.0-19.0
19.0->19.0
19.0->19.0
5.0-11.0
5.0-11.0
11.0-19.0
11.0-19.0
19.0->19.0
19.0->19.0
5.0-11.0
5.0-11.0
11.0-19.0
11.0-19.0
19.0->19.0
19.0->19.0
5.0-11.0
5.0-11.0
11.0-19.0
11.0-19.0
19.0->19.0
19.0->19.0

Calm (%)
0830
37.7

1730
2.7

10.7

1.0

13.3

4.8

17.0

9.0

19.7

4.4

Note: Figures in parenthesis indicates % of time wind blows

3.5.1.3 Analysis of Meteorological Data Recorded at the Proposed site (Primary Data)
The recorded meteorological data during study period i.e. pre-monsoon season,
2015 has been processed for calculating the monthly averages and presented in
Table-3.5.3.
1) Temperature
It was observed that the maximum temperature of 43.0oC was recorded in the
month of May 2015 and minimum temperature was recorded during the month of
March 2015 as 21.7oC.
2) Relative Humidity
During the period of observation the Relative Humidity ranged from 58%-73%.
The humidity was observed to be very less in the month of March, whereas the
higher humidity levels were also observed during the month of May2015.
3) Rainfall
Total Rain fall observed during the study period is 25 mm.
4) Cloud Cover
Mostly clear skies were observed during the study period.

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TABLE-3.5.3
SUMMARY OF THE METEOROLOGICAL DATA GENERATED AT SITE
Month

March, 2015
April, 2015
May, 2015

Temperature
(0C)
Max
Min
36.4
38.2
43.0

21.7
23.5
26.9

Relative
Humidity (%)
Max
Min
71
68
73

58
61
62

Rainfall
(mm)

Atm
Pressure
hPa

Solar
Radiation

1001.1
1000.9
1001.4

4.0
4.1
4.3

0
19
6

Kwh/m2

5) Wind Speed and Direction during the Study Period


Study Period (Pre-monsoon Season)
The study on meteorological parameters has been carried out during premonsoon season 2015 covering three months. The wind rose ploted for three
month separately based on the wind speeds and wind direction are presented in
the following section. The site specific data representing pre-dominant wind
directions during study period is presented in Table-3.5.4 and the site wind rose
diagram is shown in Figure-3.5.4.
TABLE-3.5.4
SITE SPECIFIC METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Parameters
First Predominant Wind Direction
Second Predominant Wind Direction
Third Predominant Wind Direction
Predominant Wind Speeds (kmph)
Calm Conditions (%)

Pre monsoon Season 2015


SW (24.0)
SSW (21.0)
S (8.4)
5.0 - 19
4.6

Observations
Pre-monsoon Season - 2015
The predominant wind directions observed during the pre-monsoon season, 2015
are SW (24.0%), SSW (21.0%) followed by S (8.4%), W (8.3%), WSW (5.8%),
NNE (4.6%), SSE (4.1%), N (3.6%), SE (3.0%), NW (2.9%), WNW (2.7%), E
(1.6%), NNW (1.6%), ENE (1.5%), ESE (1.4%), and NE (0.9%). The prevailing
calm condition has been observed 4.6%.

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W 8.3%

NN
E4
.6%
N
E

9%
2.

WN
W2
.7%

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0.
9%

.6%
W1
NN

W
N

N 3.6%

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.5%
E1
N
E

C-4.6%

E 1.6%

ES
E1
.4%

SE

.8%
W5
S
W

0%
3.

.1%
E4
SS

SS
W2
1.0
%

SW

24
.0
%

S 8.4%

SCALE
SPEED

5%

CALM
1.0

11

19

>19

Km/hr

FIGURE-3.5.4
SITE WIND ROSE (PRE-MONSOON SEASON, 2015)
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Comparison of Primary and Secondary Data

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) records the data at two times a day
viz. 0830 hr and 1730 hr while the site specific data has been recorded at an hourly
interval. On comparison of site specific data generated for study period vis--vis
the IMD data, slight variations were found. The following observations are brought
out:

The predominant wind directions observed at the project site during pre
monsoon were SW for 24.0 % followed by SSW 21.0 % and S 8.4% of the
total time.

The temperature recorded on site when compared vis--vis the IMD data, slight
variations was found. The minimum and maximum temperatures recorded at
site during the study period were 21.7C and 43.0C, whereas the minimum and
maximum values recorded at IMD-Visakhapatnam during the same period are
22.3C and 37.7C respectively; and

The Relative Humidity was observed to range from 58 % to 73% during the
study period at the site, whereas according to IMD-Visakhapatnam the Relative
Humidity was observed to be in the range of 65 % to 72% during the same
season.

The data generated at the site when compared with the data recorded at IMD, it is
observed that the data generated at the site is broadly in comparison with regional
meteorology, except minor variations as described above. The minor variations are
there because the site data is recorded continuously for 24 hours where as the IMD
data is recorded only twice a day at 0830 and 1730 hours.

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Ambient Air Quality


The ambient air quality with respect to the study zone of 10 km distance around
the proposed project boundary forms the baseline information. The prime objective
of the baseline air quality study was to assess the existing air quality of the area.
This will also be useful for assessing the conformity to standards of the ambient air
quality during the project operations.
This section describes the selection of sampling locations, methodology adopted for
sampling, analytical techniques and frequency of sampling. The ambient air quality
was monitored at four locations in and around the proposed project site. The air
quality monitoring was conducted as per revised NAAQ standards 2009.

3.6.1

Methodology adopted for Air Quality Survey


The baseline status of the ambient air quality has been assessed through a
scientifically designed ambient air quality monitoring network. The design of
monitoring network in the air quality surveillance program has been based on the
following considerations:

Meteorological conditions on synoptic scale;


The methodology for conducting the baseline environmental survey and
selection of sampling locations considered the guidelines given in the EIA
manual of the MoEF&CC;
Topography of the study area;
Representatives of regional background air quality for obtaining baseline status;
and
Representatives of likely impact areas.

Ambient air quality monitoring (AAQM) stations were set up at four locations with
due consideration to the above mentioned points. Table-3.6.1 gives the details of
environmental setting around each monitoring station. The location of the selected
stations with reference to the proposed project boundary is given Table-3.6.1 and
shown in Figure-3.6.1.
TABLE-3.6.1
AIR QUALITY SAMPLING LOCATIONS

3.6.2

Station
Code

Name of the
Station

AAQ1
AAQ2
AAQ3
AAQ4

Pudimadaka village
Rambilli village
Tallapalem village
Achutapuram village

Distance from
the Boundary of
Project Site (km)
0.7
4.9
2.1
5.9

Direction w.r.t.
the Boundary
of Project Site
ESE
SW
NE
N

Environmental
Setting
Cross wind
Up wind
Down wind
Cross wind

Frequency and Parameters for Sampling


Ambient air quality monitoring has been carried out with a frequency of two days
per week during study period. The duration of sampling of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and
NO2 was each twenty four hourly continuous sampling per day and CO and Ozone
was sampled for 8 hours continuous thrice in 24 hour duration monitoring. The

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baseline data of air environment was monitored for parameters mentioned below
as per latest Gazette Notification of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on
NAAQ dated 18th November 2009. The ambient air quality parameters along with
their frequency of sampling are given in Table-3.6.2.
TABLE-3.6.2
MONITORED PARAMETERS AND FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING
Parameters
Particulate Matter(PM10)
Respirable Particulate
Matter(PM2.5)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Ozone (O3)
Ammonia, NH3
Benzene, C6H6
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)
Arsenic (As)
Nickel (Ni)
Lead (Pb)
Mercury (Hg)

Sampling Frequency
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly samples twice a week for three months
24 hourly samples twice a week for three months
8 hourly samples for 24 hour twice a week for three months
8 hourly samples for 24 hour Once in month
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
24 hourly sample twice a week for three months
8 hourly samples for 24 hour Once in month

The details of method of sampling and analysis adopted are given in Annexure-V.
The applicable Environmental Standards are given in Annexure-VI.
3.6.3

Method of Analysis
The air samples were analyzed as per standard methods specified by Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB), IS: 5184 and American Public Health Association
(APHA). The techniques used for ambient air quality monitoring and minimum
detectable levels are given in Table-3.6.3.
TABLE-3.6.3
TECHNIQUES USED FOR AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING
Parameters
Respirable Particulate
PM10
Particulate Matter, PM2.5
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen dioxide (NOx)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Ozone (O3)
Ammonia, NH3
Benzene, C6H6
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)
Arsenic (As)
Nickel (Ni)
Lead (Pb)
Mercury (Hg)

Test Method
Matter,

Respirable Dust Sampling /High Volume


Sampling (Gravimetric)
FRM Method/Low Volume sampling
(Gravimetric)
Modified West and Gaeke Method
Sodium Arsenite method
Adsorption and extraction followed by
GC-MS analysis
Spectrophotmetric method
Indo-phenol Blue Method
Adsorption and desorption followed by
GCMS analysis
Solvent Extraction followed by GC-MS
AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling on
EPM Filter paper
AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling on
EPM Filter paper
AAS/ICP-MS method after sampling on
EPM Filter paper
USEPA method- IO 3.2

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Low Detection Limit


(g/m3)
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
50
2.0
20.0
GCMA 0.001
GCMS 0.001
GFFA/ICP-MS-0.001
GFFA/ICP-MS-0.001
GFFA/ICP-MS-0.001
0.001

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Presentation of Primary Data Baseline Air Quality


Various statistical parameters like 98th percentile, average, maximum and
minimum values have been computed from the observed raw data for all the AAQ
monitoring stations. The summary of these results for pre-monsoon season is
presented in Table-3.6.4.
The results of monitoring carried out for three months are presented in AnnexureVII. These are compared with the standards prescribed by the Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB) for rural/residential and commercial zone.

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NN
E4
.6%
N
E

WN
W2
.7%
W 8.3%

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0.
9%

.6%
W1
NN
9%
2.
W
N

N 3.6%

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.5%
E1
EN

C-4.6%

E 1.6%

ES
E1
.4%

SE

.8%
W5
WS

0%
3.

.1%
E4
SS

SS
W2
1.0
%

SW

24
.0
%

S 8.4%

SCALE
SPEED

5%

CALM
1.0

11

19

>19

Km/hr

FIGURE-3.6.1
AIR QUALITY SAMPLING LOCATIONS

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TABLE-3.6.4
SUMMARY OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY RESULTS (PRE-MONSOON SEASON, 2015)
Station
Code
AAQ1
AAQ2
AAQ3
AAQ4

Locations
Min
Pudimadaka village
Rambilli village
Tallapalem village
Achutapuram village
Range

Station
Code

Locations

AAQ1
AAQ2
AAQ3
AAQ4

Pudimadaka village
Rambilli village
Tallapalem village
Achutapuram
village
Range

PM10 (g/m3)
Max
Avg

46.8
35.8
38.7
51.6

Min
274
202
296
331

53.4
41.4
49.2
60.8
35.8

CO (g/m3)
Max
Avg
418
326
420
481

344
280
377
410

202 - 481

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

50.4
38.8
44.5
55.8
60.8

98th
%le
411
326
417
479

98th
%le
53.2
41.2
49.2
60.4

Min
3.5
2.3
2.3
4.1

Min
23.2
14.4
19.7
26.1

PM2.5 (g/m3)
Max
Avg
27.6
17.9
25.7
30.6
14.4

O3 (g/m3)
Max
Avg
6.2
4.9
6.4
6.9

4.9
3.8
4.3
5.4

2.3 6.9

26.0
16.5
22.4
28.2
30.6

98th
%le
6.1
4.9
6.4
6.8

98th
%le
27.6
17.9
25.2
30.6

Min
9.5
9.2
11.4
11.6

SO2 (g/m3)
Max
Avg
11.8
10.8
13.6
13.8
9.2

10.5
9.9
12.4
12.9
13.8

98th
%le
11.7
10.8
13.6
13.8

Min
12.3
11.7
13.0
14.1

NOx (g/m3)
Max
Avg
14.3
14.9
15.8
16.9
11.7

13.3
13.3
14.3
15.7
16.9

98th
%le
14.3
14.8
15.8
16.8

NH3
(g/m3)

C6H6
(ng/m3)

BaP
(ng/m3)

As
(ng/m3)

Ni
(ng/m3)

Pb
(ng/m3)

<20.0
<20.0
<20.0
<20.0

<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0

<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0

<0.2
<0.2
<0.2
<0.2

<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1

<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05

<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001

<20.0

<1.0

<1.0

<0.2

<0.1

<0.05

<0.001

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Summary of Observations

The results of the monitored data indicate that the ambient air quality of the region
in general is in conformity with respect to rural/residential and commercial norms
of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of CPCB, with present level of
activities.
1]

PM10: The maximum value for PM10 is observed at Achutapuram village


(AAQ4), as 60.8 g/m3 with the minimum value observed at Rambilli village
(AAQ2), as 35.8 g/m3 during the study period.

2]

PM2.5: The maximum value for PM2.5 is observed at Achutapuram village


(AAQ4) station, as 30.6 g/m3 with the minimum value observed at Rambilli
village (AAQ2) station as 14.4 g/m3 during the study period.

3]

SO2: The maximum value for SO2 is observed to be 13.8 g/m3 at


Achutapuram village (AAQ4) station with the minimum value observed at
Rambilli village (AAQ2) station as 9.2 g/m3 respectively during the study
period.

4]

NOx: The maximum value for NOx is observed at Achutapuram village


(AAQ4) station, as 16.9 g/m3 with the minimum value observed at Rambilli
village (AAQ2) station as 11.7 g/m3 during the study period.

5]

CO: The maximum value for CO is observed at Achutapuram village


(AAQ4), as 481 g/m3 with the minimum value observed at Rambilli village
(AAQ2) station as 202 g/m3 during the study period.

6]

O3: The maximum value for O3 is observed at Achutapuram village (AAQ4),


as 6.9 g/m3 with the minimum value observed at Rambilli village (AAQ2)
station as 2.3 g/m3 during the study period.

7]

Lead (Pb): Lead concentrations were observed <0.05 ng/m3 in all the
sampling locations.

8]

Arsenic (As): Arsenic values in all the locations are observed to be <0.2
ng/m3.

9]

Nickel (Ni): Nickel values in all the locations are observed to be <0.1
ng/m3.

10]

Ammonia (NH3): Ammonia concentration observed in all the locations is


<20.0 g/m3.

11]

Mercury (Hg): Hg values observed in all the locations are <0.001 g/m3.

12]

Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP): BaP values observed in all the locations are


<1.0 ng/m3.

13]

Benzene (C6H6): Benzene concentration was observed in all the


locations are <1.0 ng/m3.

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Water Quality
Selected water quality parameters of surface and ground water resources within 10
km radius of the study area has been studied for assessing the water environment
and evaluate anticipated impact of the project. Understanding the water quality is
essential in preparation of environmental impact assessment and to identify critical
issues with a view to suggest appropriate mitigation measures for implementation.
The purpose of this study is to:
Assess the water quality characteristics for critical parameters;
Evaluate the impacts on agricultural productivity, habitat conditions, recreational
resources and aesthetics in the vicinity; and
Predict impact on water quality by this project and related activities.
The information required has been collected through primary surveys and
secondary sources.

3.7.1

Methodology
Reconnaissance survey was undertaken and monitoring locations were finalized
based on:

Drainage pattern and surface water bodies;


Location of residential areas representing different activities/likely impact
areas; and
Likely areas, which can represent baseline conditions.

The ground water and surface water sources covering 10 km radial distance were
examined for physico-chemical, heavy metals and bacteriological parameters in
order to assess the effect of industrial and other activities on surface and ground
water. The samples were analyzed as per the procedures specified in 'Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater' published by American
Public Health Association (APHA).
Samples for chemical analysis were collected in polyethylene carboys. Samples
collected for metal content were acidified with 1 ml HNO3. Samples for
bacteriological analysis were collected in sterilized glass bottles. Selected physicochemical and bacteriological parameters have been analyzed for projecting the
existing water quality status in the study area.
3.7.2

Water Sampling Locations


Three ground water samples and three surface water samples were collected thrice
from the study area during the pre-monsoon season (once in a month i.e. March,
April and May). These samples were taken as grab samples and were analyzed for
various parameters to compare with the standards for drinking water as per IS:
10500 Specifications for Drinking Water. The water sampling locations are
identified in Table-3.7.1 and shown in Figure-3.7.1.

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TABLE-3.7.1
WATER SAMPLING LOCATIONS
Code

Location

Surface Water
SW1
Saradha river near Kummarapalli village
SW2
Sea water near Loyapalem
SW3
Pond near Krishnapalem
Ground Water
GW1
Pudimadaka village
GW2
Rambilli village
GW3
Lalamkoduru

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Distance from
Plant Boundary
(km)

Direction
w.r.t. Plant
Boundary

6.7
3.4
1.6

W
SSW
WNW

0.7
4.9
0.3

ESE
SW
WSW

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FIGURE-3.7.1
WATER SAMPLING LOCATIONS
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TABLE-3.7.2
SURFACE WATER QUALITY
Sr. No

Parameter

IS: 10500
Limits
6.5 8.5 (NR)

Units
-

7.9

5(15)

Hazen

$
500(2000)
-

SW3

SW1

April 2015
SW2

SW3

SW1

May 2015
SW2

SW3

7.9

8.1

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.4

7.6

7.7

S/cm
mg/l

15370
8920

57300
37354

553
274

14840
9650

55580
36130

612
405

15100
9815

58100
37765

535
360

4.6
36.2
278.3
890

2.8
28.6
240
3120

5.6
208
1120
64

5.0
69.5
250.2
809.0

3.6
64.2
225.0
2873.0

5.9
296.0
1080.0
73.0

5
72.6
235.5
853

3.5
59.5
212.8
3258

5.8
315.6
1145
60

SW1

March 2015
SW2

pH

Colour

3
4

Conductivity

5
6
7
8

Dissolved Oxygen
BOD ( 3 days at 27oC)
COD

Total Hardness (as


CaCO3 )

200(600)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

Total Alkalinity as
Calcium

200(600)

mg/l

188.9

128.6

144.7

177.0

132.0

151.0

186

136

146

TDS

10

Calcium (as Ca)

75(200)

mg/l

60

152.0

11.2

54.5

141.8

13.5

59.2

165.4

10.8

11

Magnesium (as Mg)

30(100)

mg/l

179.8

665.8

87

163.5

612.0

9.6

171.4

691.2

8.1

12

Chlorides (as Cl)

250(1000)

mg/l

4612

17786

65.2

4502.0

17650.0

78.6

4567

17650

60.2

13
14
15
16
17

Free residual Chlorine

0.2(1)
200(400)
1.0(1.5)
45(NR)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

<0.2
0.36
882.3
0.72
0.03

<0.2
0.253
3240
1.15
0.08

<0.2
0.149
35.4
0.17
0.27

<0.2
0.45
810.0
0.8
0.1

<0.2
0.32
3190.0
1.4
0.1

<0.2
0.21
40.1
0.2
0.5

<0.2
0.39
854
0.7
0.1

<0.2
0.26
3225
1.3
0.2

<0.2
0.22
31.8
0.2
0.4

18
19

Sodium as Na
Potassium as K

$
$

mg/l
mg/l

3072
92

11395
584

89
14.2

2990.0
84.6

11150.0
525.0

97.2
16.1

3028
89.5

11480
609.6

86.4
13.4

Phosphate as PO4

Sulphates (as SO4)


Fluorides (as F)
Nitrates (as NO3)

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report for


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20
21

Boron (as B)
Cyanides(as CN)

22

Phenolic Compounds(as
C6H6oH)

23
24
25

Oil and grease

26

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0.5(1)
0.05 (NR)

mg/l
mg/l

4.7
<0.02

5.6
<0.02

6.6
<0.02

5.1
<0.02

6.08
<0.02

6.9
<0.02

4.9
<0.02

5.5
<0.02

6.1
<0.02

0.001(0.002)

mg/l

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

0.003 (NR)
0.01 (0.05)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

<0.1
<0.003
<0.01

Copper (as Cu)

0.05 (1.5)

mg/l

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

27

Lead (as Pb)

0.01 (NR)

mg/l

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

28

Iron (as Fe)

0.3(NR)

mg/l

0.11

1.14

0.19

0.19

1.23

0.26

0.15

1.56

0.21

29

Total Chromium (as Cr)

0.05(NR)

mg/l

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

30

Selenium (as Se)

0.01(NR)

mg/l

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

31

Zinc (as Zn)

5(15)

mg/l

0.45

0.86

0.04

0.65

1.02

0.09

0.54

0.92

0.09

32

Aluminum (as Al)

0.03(0.2)

mg/l

0.15

2.08

0.132

0.17

2.18

0.17

0.21

1.95

0.20

33

Mercury (as Hg)

0.001(NR)

mg/l

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

34
35
36

SAR
Insecticides

mg/l
mg/l

44.8
Absent
Absent

88.7
Absent
Absent

4.84
Absent
Absent

45.7
Absent
Absent

90.5
Absent
Absent

4.9
Absent
Absent

45.1
Absent
Absent

87.5
Absent
Absent

4.9
Absent
Absent

37

Total Coliforms

MPN/
100 ml

10

12

12

16

10

12

14

10

Cadmium (as Cd)


Total Arsenic (as As)

Anionic Detergents(as
MBAS)

0.2 (1.0)
10

$ Limits not specified as per IS code.

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TABLE-3.7.3
GROUND WATER QUALITY
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21

Parameter

pH
Colour
Taste
Odour
Conductivity
Turbidity
TDS
Total Hardness
(as CaCO3 )
Total Alkalinity
as Calcium
Calcium (as Ca)
Magnesium (as
Mg)
Free residual
Chlorine
Boron (as B)
Chlorides (as Cl)
Sulphates (as
SO4)
Fluorides (as F)
Nitrates (as NO3)
Sodium as Na
Potassium as K
Phenolic
Compounds(as
C6H6oH)
Cyanides(as CN)

IS:10500
Limits

Units

6.5 8.5 (NR)


5(15)
Agreeable
Agreeable
$
1(5)
500(2000)
200(600)

Hazen
uS/cm
NTU
mg/l
mg/l

GW1
7.6
2
Agreeable
UO
2280
02
1198
106

200(600)

mg/l

478.4

209

430

408

220

75(200)
30(100)

mg/l
mg/l

14.4
17.0

21.6
63.2

52.0
54.9

13.6
15.2

20.8
55.4

0.2(1)

mg/l

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

0.5(1)
250(1000)
200(400)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

1.03
264
258.4

0.956
1278
500

0.671
1020
492.3

0.98
243.6
232.5

1.0(1.5)
45(NR)
$
$
0.001(0.002)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

1.15
<0.02
471
5.8

0.16
0.16
982
76.6

0.14
0.14
712
389.3

<0.001

<0.001

<0.02

<0.02

0.05 (NR)

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

mg/l

March 2015
GW2
GW3
7.5
8.0
3
2.5
Agreeable Agreeable
UO
UO
5100
4800
02
03
3024
3200
314
356

GW1
7.5
4
Agreeable
UO
1825
2
1215
88

May 2015
GW2
7.6
4
Agreeable
UO
5025
2
3200
298

GW3
7.8
5
Agreeable
UO
4910
3
3185
371

460

376

228

455

56.4
61.8

12.8
13.5

21
59.7

53.8
57.4

<0.2

<0.2

0.1
1220
482

0.8
1065
515.2

0.89
221.5
212.3

0.11
1250
492

0.59
1036
503.6

1.1
0.1
412
4.6

0.3
0.3
960
69.4

0.2
0.3
734
408.2

1.0
0.1
378.2
4.1

0.3
0.2
976
72.4

0.1
0.3
721
401.2

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.001

<0.02

<0.02

<0.02

<0.02

<0.02

<0.02

<0.02

GW1
7.7
3
Agreeable
UO
1995.0
3
1330
97

April 2015
GW2
GW3
7.4
7.9
4
4
Agreeable Agreeable
UO
UO
4920.0
5025.0
2
3
3200
3300
280
395

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report for


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Sr.
No.
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Parameter

Anionic
Detergents(as
MBAS)
Mineral Oil
Cadmium (as
Cd)
Total Arsenic (as
As)
Copper (as Cu)
Lead (as Pb)
Manganese (as
Mn)
Iron (as Fe)
Total Chromium
(as Cr)
Selenium (as Se)
Zinc (as Zn)
Aluminum (as
Al)
Mercury (as Hg)
Pesticides
E. Coil
Total Coliforms

IS:10500
Limits

Units

0.2 (1.0)

mg/l

0.5 (NR)
0.003 (NR)

mg/l
mg/l

0.01 (0.05)

mg/l

0.05 (1.5)
0.01 (NR)
0.1 (0.3)

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Page 40 of 67

GW1

March 2015
GW2

GW3

GW1

April 2015
GW2

GW3

GW1

May 2015
GW2

GW3

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.2

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01
<0.001

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01
<0.01

<0.01

0.18

<0.01

<0.01

0.21

<0.01

<0.01

0.24

<0.01

0.3(NR)
0.05(NR)

mg/l
mg/l

<0.01

0.024

0.036

<0.01

0.03

0.04

<0.01

0.02

0.03

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

0.01(NR)
5(15)
0.03(0.2)

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

<0.01
0.29

<0.01
0.42

<0.01
0.54

<0.01
0.26

<0.01
0.51

<0.01
0.63

<0.01
0.18

<0.01
0.76

<0.01
0.59

<0.01

<0.01

0.03

<0.01

<0.01

0.03

<0.01

<0.01

0.04

0.001(NR)
Absent
Absent
10

mg/l
mg/l

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<0.001
Absent
Absent

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

<2

MPN/10
0 ml

<0.01
<0.001

$ Limits not specified as per IS code: 10500

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Presentation of Results
The results of the water quality monitored during the study period representing
pre-monsoon season are given in Table 3.7.2 and Table-3.7.3.

3.7.3.1 Surface Water Quality


March 2015:
The analysis results indicate that pH is found to be in the range of 7.9-8.1, which is
well within the specified standard 6.5-8.5. The TDS was observed to be in the
range of 274 - 37354 mg/l. Dissolved Oxygen was observed to be in the range of
2.8 5.6 mg/l. The chlorides and sulphates were found to be in the range of 65.2 17786 mg/l and 35.4 - 3240 mg/l respectively.
April 2015:
The analysis results indicate that pH is found to be in the range of 7.7 - 7.9, which
is well within the specified standard 6.5-8.5. The TDS was observed to be in the
range of 405 - 36130 mg/l. Dissolved Oxygen was observed to be in the range of
3.6 5.9 mg/l. The chlorides and sulphates were found to be in the range of 78.6 17650 mg/l and 40.1 - 3190 mg/l respectively.
May 2015:
The analysis results indicate that pH is found to be in the range of 7.4 - 7.7, which
is well within the specified standard 6.5-8.5. The TDS was observed to be in the
range of 360 - 37765 mg/l. Dissolved Oxygen was observed to be in the range of
3.5 5.8 mg/l. The chlorides and sulphates were found to be in the range of 60.2 17650 mg/l and 31.8 - 3225 mg/l respectively.
3.7.3.2 Ground Water Quality
March 2015:
The analysis results indicate that the pH ranges in between 7.5 to 8.0, which is well
within the specified standard of 6.5 to 8.5. Total hardness was observed to be
ranging from 106 to 356 mg/l. The hardness was found to be well within the limit
of 600 mg/l at all locations.
Chlorides at all the locations is ranging in between 264 to 1278 mg/l. Fluorides
were observed to be ranging in between 0.14 to 1.15 mg/l and are found to be
within the permissible limit. Nitrates are found to be in range of <0.02 0.16 mg/l.
The heavy metal contents were observed to be in well within the limits.
April 2015:
The analysis results indicate that the pH ranges in between 7.4 to 7.9, which is well
within the specified standard of 6.5 to 8.5. Total hardness was observed to be
ranging from 97 to 395 mg/l. The hardness was found to be well within the limit of
600 mg/l at all locations.
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Chlorides at all the locations is ranging in between 243.6 to 1220 mg/l. Fluorides
were observed to be ranging in between 0.2 mg/l and 1.1 are found to be within
the permissible limit. Nitrates are found to be in range of 0.1 0.3 mg/l. The heavy
metal contents were observed to be in well within the limits.
May 2015:
The analysis results indicate that the pH ranges in between 7.5 to 7.8, which is well
within the specified standard of 6.5 to 8.5. Total hardness was observed to be
ranging from 88 to 371 mg/l. The hardness was found to be well within the limit of
600 mg/l at all locations.
Chlorides at all the locations is ranging in between 221.5 to 1250 mg/l. Fluorides
were observed to be ranging in between to 0.1 mg/l and 1.0 are found to be
within the permissible limit. Nitrates are found to be in range of 0.1 0.3 mg/l. The
heavy metal contents were observed to be in well within the limits.
3.8

Noise Level Survey


The physical description of sound concerns its loudness as a function of frequency.
Noise in general is sound which is composed of many frequency components of
various loudness distributed over the audible frequency range. Various noise scales
have been introduced to describe, in a single number, the response of an average
human to a complex sound made up of various frequencies at different loudness
levels. The most common and universally accepted scale is the A weighted scale
which is measured as dB (A). This is more suitable for audible range of 20 to
20,000 Hz. The scale has been designed to weigh various components of noise
according to the response of a human ear.
The impact of noise sources on surrounding community depends on:

Characteristics of noise sources (instantaneous, intermittent or continuous in


nature). It can be observed that steady noise is not as annoying as one which is
continuously varying in loudness;

The time of day at which noise occurs, for example high noise levels at night in
residential areas are not acceptable because of sleep disturbance; and

The location of the noise source, with respect to noise sensitive land use, which
determines the loudness and period of exposure.

The environmental impact of noise can have several effects varying from Noise
Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) to annoyance depending on loudness of noise. The
environmental impact assessment of noise due to construction activity, and
vehicular traffic can be undertaken by taking into consideration various factors like
potential damage to hearing, physiological responses, annoyance and general
community responses. Noise monitoring has been undertaken for 24 hours duration
at each location.
3.8.1

Identification of Sampling Locations


A preliminary reconnaissance survey has been undertaken to identify the major
noise generating sources in the area. Noises at different noise generating sources

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have been identified based on the activities in the village area and ambient noise
due to traffic.
The noise monitoring has been conducted for determination of noise levels at ten
locations during the study period. The noise levels at each of the locations were
recorded for 24 hours.
The environment setting of each noise monitoring location is given in Table-3.8.1
and shown in Figure-3.8.1.
3.8.2 Methodology of Data Generation
3.8.2.1 Method of Monitoring
Sound Pressure Level (SPL) measurements were measured at all locations. The
readings were taken for every hour for 24 hours. The day noise levels have been
monitored during 6 am to 10 pm and night levels during 10 pm to 6 am at all the
locations covered in 10 km radius of the study area.
TABLE-3.8.1
DETAILS OF NOISE MONITORING LOCATIONS
Location
Code
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
N7
N8
N9
N10

Location
(Village)
Project site
Lalam Koduru
Krishnampalem
Moturupalem
Achutapuram
Tallapalem
Chinnapudi
Pudimadaka
Gorapudi
Rambilli

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Distance from
Boundary
(km)
0.3
1.9
1.1
5.9
2.1
0.7
0.7
1.9
4.9

Direction w.r.t
Plant Boundary

Present Settings

WSW
W
N
N
NE
NE
ESE
SW
SW

Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential
Commercial
Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential
Rural/Residential

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FIGURE-3.8.1
NOISE MONITORING LOCATIONS
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3.8.2.2 Parameters Measured During Monitoring


For noise levels measured over a given period of time interval, it is possible to
describe important features of noise using statistical quantities. This is calculated
using the percent of the time certain noise levels are exceeding the time interval.
The notation for the statistical quantities of noise levels are described below:

L10 is the noise level exceeded 10 per cent of the time;


L50 is the noise level exceeded 50 per cent of the time; and
L90 is the noise level exceeded 90 per cent of the time.

Equivalent Sound Pressure Level (Leq):


The Leq is the equivalent continuous sound level which is equivalent to the same
sound energy as the actual fluctuating sound measured in the same period. This is
necessary because sound from noise source often fluctuates widely during a given
period of time.
This is calculated from the following equation:
Leq = L50

(L10 - L90)2
+ -----------60

Lday is defined as the equivalent noise level measured over a period of time during
day (6 am to 10 pm).
Lnight is defined as the equivalent noise level measured over a period of time during
night (10 pm to 6 am).
A noise rating developed by E P A for specification of community noise from all the
sources is the Day-Night Sound Level, (Ldn).
Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn):
The noise rating developed for community noise from all sources is the Day-Night
Sound Level (Ldn). It is similar to a 24 hr equivalent sound level except that during
night time period (10 pm to 6 am) a 10 dB (A) weighting penalty is added to the
instantaneous sound level before computing the 24 hr average.
This night time penalty is added to account for the fact that noise during night
when people usually sleep is judged as more annoying than the same noise during
the day time.
The Ldn for a given location in a community may be calculated from the hourly Leq's,
by the following equation.
Ldn = 10 log {1/24[16(10 Ld/10) + 8 (10(Ln+10)/10)]}
Where Ld is the equivalent sound level during the day time (6 am to 10 pm) and Ln
is the equivalent sound level during the night time (10 pm to 6 am).

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3.8.2.3 Presentation of Results


The statistical analysis is done for measured noise levels at ten locations for once
during study period. The parameters are analyzed for Lday, Lnight, and Ldn. These
results are tabulated in Table-3.8.2.
TABLE-3.8.2
NOISE LEVELS IN THE STUDY AREA IN dB(A)
Location
Code
N1
N2
N3
N4
N5
N6
N7
N8
N9
N10

Locations
Project site
Lalam Koduru
Krishnampalem
Moturupalem
Achutapuram
Tallapalem
Chinnapudi
Pudimadaka
Gorapudi
Rambilli

Area
Code
A
B
C
D

Category of Area
Industrial Area
Commercial Area
Residential Area
Silence Zone

L10

L50

L90

Leq

Ld

Ln

Ldn

46.3
43.8
45.2
49.7
56.1
48.7
46.3
47.8
42.9
39.8

42.6
39.9
41.4
46.1
52.2
45.0
42.7
44.0
39.2
35.9

39.0
36.1
37.9
42.4
48.4
41.4
39.0
40.5
35.6
32.1

43.5
40.9
42.3
47.0
53.2
45.9
43.6
44.9
40.1
36.9

44.2
42.8
42.9
47.5
54.2
46.4
44.1
45.7
40.8
38.8

40.0
38.1
39.9
43.5
50.3
43.5
41.0
42.5
36.6
34.1

47.3
45.6
46.9
50.8
57.5
50.5
48.0
49.5
43.9
41.6

Ambient Noise Standards


Noise Levels dB (A) Leq (Limits)
Day time
Night time
75
70
65
55
55
45
50
40

3.8.2.4 Observations
a)

Day time Noise Levels (Lday)

The daytime noise levels at the residential locations ranged between 38.8 - 47.5 dB
(A). The maximum value of 47.5 dB (A) was recorded at Moturupalem village (N4)
and the minimum value of 38.8 dB (A) was recorded at the Rambilli village (N10).
It is observed that the day time noise levels at maximum residential locations are
within the prescribed limit of 55 dB (A).
The day time noise level at the commercial location is 54.2 dB (A) observed at
Achutapuram village (N5). It is observed that the day time noise level at
commercial location is within the prescribed limit of 65 dB (A).
b)

Night time Noise Levels (Lnight)

The night time noise levels were ranged between 34.1 to 43.5 dB (A). The
maximum value was recorded at Moturupalem (N4) and Tallapalem village (N6)
and the minimum value was recorded at the Rambilli village (N10). It is observed
that the night time noise levels at maximum residential locations are within the
prescribed limit of 45 dB (A).
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The night time noise level at the commercial location is 50.3 dB (A) observed at
Achutapuram village (N5). It is observed that the night time noise level at
commercial location is within the prescribed limit of 55 dB (A).
3.9

Ecology and Biodiversity

3.9.1 Introduction
Ecological evaluation aims at developing and applying methodologies to assess
the relevance of an area for nature conservation. As such, it is to support the
assessment of the impact of a proposed development by providing guidance on
how to describe the ecological features within the area affected, how to value
them, and how to predict the value losses caused by the development. The
evaluation of the ecological significance of an area can be undertaken from
different perspectives and consequently with different objectives. One of such
perspectives focuses on the conservation of the biological diversity or
biodiversity. Among the human activities that pose the highest threat to the
conservation of biodiversity are the developmental projects in particular. Such
projects represent artificial elements that cut through the landscape and interfere
with the natural habitat and its conditions by emissions that may be solid, liquid
and or gaseous. This in turn influences the abundance and distribution of plant
and animal species, i.e., the biodiversity of the areas impacted.
Most of the background data needs to be acquired from the governmental
agencies or the scientific literature. This information is typically complemented by
field visit, site surveys and sample collection. The description of the actual
ecological assessment provided by the ecological baseline study serves to set a
reference for the subsequent impact analysis. Moreover, it helps decision-makers
and EIA reviewers to become familiar with the environmental features and the
needs of the study area
3.9.2 Objectives of the study
The present study was undertaken with the following objectives to assess both
terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the study area:

To assess the nature and distribution of vegetation in and around the proposed
project site;
To assess the Flora and fauna in the study area;
To understand the ecology of the water bodies;
To ascertain the migratory routes of fauna, presence of breeding grounds and
sensitive habitats in the study area, if any;
To assess the presence of protected areas in the study area;
To review the information from secondary sources and discuss the issues of
concern with the relevant authority and stakeholders; and
Impact prediction based on primary and secondary data sources to formulate
mitigation measures.

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3.9.3 Methodology
To achieve the above objectives a detailed study of the area was undertaken with
the existing plant site as its centre. The different methods adopted were as
follows:

Generation of primary data by undertaking systematic ecological studies in


the study area;
Primary data collection for flora through random sampling method for trees,
shrubs and herbs from the selected locations to know the vegetation cover
qualitatively.
To spot the fauna in the study area and also to identify the fauna by
secondary indicators such as pugmarks, scats, fecal pellets, calls and other
signs.
For ecological information, the secondary sources such as local officials,
villagers and other stakeholders were interviewed.
Sourcing secondary data with respect to the study area from published
literature.

The list of Terrestrial and Aquatic sampling locations in the study area is
presented in Table-3.9.1 and shown in Figure-3.9.1.
TABLE-3.9.1
LIST OF ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING LOCATIONS
Code

Name of the Locations

Terrestrial Location
TE-1
Core area
TE-2
Near Rambilli village
TE-3
Near Gokivada village
TE-4
Near Dopperla village
Aquatic Location
AE-1
Sharada River Near Kotturu
AE-2
Sharada River Near Rajala

3.9.4

Distance from
Plant Site (Km)

Direction w.r.t.
Proposed Plant Site

Within the proposed plant site


4.9
SW
7.0
WNW
8.7
NE
6.8
7.3

W
WNW

Secondary Data from Published Literature


From Records of Botanical Survey of India
The coastal vegetation of Andhra Pradesh is divisible into two sub-divisions viz.
Strand and Estuarine. The strand vegetation is characteristic with open, mat
forming pioneer species followed by pioneer species scattered herbs, shrubs and
trees dispersed along the relief beyond the high tide limits or the back shore
region. This is further divisible into two substrata types, namely strand sand
strand rock.

Strand vegetation; and


Strand sand.

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FIGURE-3.9.1
ECOLOGICAL SAMPLING LOCATIONS
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The strand sand vegetation along the sandy beaches exhibits zonations
distinguishable into open pioneer, closed herbaceous, middle mixed and inner
woodland zones.

Open Pioneer Zone

This zone is the first in the supra tidal region immediately preceding the drift line.
In this, vegetation is rather sparse with a few plants like Ipomea pes-carpae,
Cyperus arenarius, Lannea saarmentosa, Trachy muricata and Zoysia sp.

Closed Herbaceous Zone

Vegetation attains a little more densely with some mat forming herbaceous
plants, which Ipomea pes-capre, Crotalaria herbecarpa, Trachy muricata, Tribulus
terrestris, Portulacca oleracea, Portulacca quadrifida, Perotis indica Phyla
nudiflora, Mollugo nudicaulis, Gisekia pharmaceoides, Fimbrystylis polytrichoides,
Solanum surrattense and Spinefex littoreus are common.

Middle Mixed or Bushy Zone

There is mingling of herbaceous plants with some sub-shrubby/bushy plants


giving rise to a mixed vegetation in this zone. The commonly noticeable
herbaceous plants are Euphorbia rosea, Synostemon bacciforme, Geniosporum
tenuiflorum, Phyllanthus rotundifolius, Borreria articularis, Zornea gibbosa,
Coldenia procumbens, Allmania nodiflora, Boerhavia diffusa and Asystasia
gangetica. Sub-shrubby/ bushy plants found in the zone include Crotalaria
linifolia, Crotalaria verrucosa, Tephrosia hirta, Tephrosia purpurea, Opuntia
dillenii, Calotropis procera, Solanum trilobatum, Carissa spinarum, Jatropha
gossypifolia, Dodonaea viscosa and Clerodendrum inerme.

Inner Woodland Zone

This is chiefly dominated by tree species like Borassus flabellifera and Prosopis
cineraria. Some climbers like Gloriosa superba, Leptadenia raticulata, Pergularia
daemia and hemidesmus indicus grow in this zone. This zone gradually merges
into wastelands and the cultivated fields in the hindered land region in the coastal
belt.

Strand Rock

This particular type of habitat is much limited to small strips at Waltair and
Pudimadaka where inland hillocks and their rocky promontories project into the
sea. The vegetation and flora are mostly a mixture of coastal and inland plants
occurring in the following zones.

Inland, Gravelley/Rocky Habitat

The vegetation in this zone resembles a scree type characterized by spiny


thicketes and herbs. Carissa spinarum, Toddalia asiatica, Zizyphus oenoplia,
Dichrostachys cinerea, Maytenus emerginatus etc. are the dominant shrubby
species. The common herbaceous plants are Hybanthus enneraspermus, Pavonia
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zeylanica, Acanthospermum hispidum, Echinops echinatus, Caralluma attenuata


and Acalypha indica. The common climbers in the zone are Tylophora asthamatica
and Cissus quadrangularis.
3.9.5

General Ecology of the Study Area


The great plant wealth and diversity of Vishakhapatnam is due to immense
variety of climate, altitude and edaphic factors. Vegetation of the region can be
broadly divided into the following categories.

Coastal vegetation;
Vegetation of the interior plains; and
Vegetation of the hills.

Coastal Vegetation
The soil is sea sand often blown and accumulating in low dunes with adequate time,
but poor in nitrogen and mineral nutrient. Most of these have been converted into
different commercial plantations. These plantations have been carried out as wind
breakers and protection from natural hazards. The natural vegetation around the
project site consists of plant species Borasus flabellifer, Anacardium occidentale,
Lannia coromandalica, Opuntia dellenii, Cassia auriculata, Sesuvium portulacastrum,
Cyperus arenarius.
Terrestrial Ecosystem
Natural vegetation is mostly restricted to shrub layer having drought resistance.
Borassus flabelifera, Phoenix aculis,Cocus nucifera, Azadirachta indica, Ficus sp.
Cassia tora, Cassia occidentlis, Eupatorium odarattum, Abution indicum,
Achyranthes aspera, Parthenium hysterophorus, Tephrosia purpurea which are
mainly restricted to wastelands and cultivable waste lands
Near the villages and in case of agricultural lands the areas are represented by
Azadirchta indcia, Cocos nucifera, Psidium guava, and Tamarindus indica.
Agriculture and Agronomy
Agriculture, being the major occupation of the community, the economy of the
community is dependent upon it to a great extent. Based on the seasonality of
the region, two main crop seasons are recognized which include the first crop
season during the rainy season and the second crop season during the winter and
early pre-monsoon seasons. The major crop of the first season is paddy,
sugarcane, groundnut, finger millet and jowar. Of the, finger millet and jowar are
grown in dry lands with low irrigation facility. The crop of second season consists
of Green gram, and vegetable crops like tomato, bhendi, and other leafy
vegetables. Besides these crops lot of commercial crops are grown which includes
papaya, banana, cashew. The irrigation facilities in the study mainly by South
West monsoon, tanks and tube wells.

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3.9.6 Forest Blocks in Study Area


The details of the forest blocks in 10 km radius from proposed plant are
presented in Table-3.9.2. To control the bank erosion due to floods in the rivers
and rivulets in this area, forest department had planted several rows of Casuarina
equisetifolia (Sarugudu, Causurina Sp).
As per the letter received from District Forest Officer, Visakhapatnam, there are no
ecologically sensitive areas such as Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Park, Biosphere
Reserves, Marine Sanctuaries and Protected areas exists in and around 10 Km
radius of the proposed Pudimadaka STPP. Letter from DFO is enclosed as
Annexure-VIII.
TABLE-3.9.2
DETAILS OF FOREST BLOCKS IN STUDY AREA (10 KM RADIUS)
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6

3.9.7

Name of the Forest Block


Panchadarla R.F
Gokivada R.F
Kalavalapalli R.F
Rambilli R.F
Pudimadaka R.F
Reserve forest Near Dopper
village

Distance (km)
6.7
6.0
4.8
2.5
1.2
9.3

Direction
N
WNW
WSW
WSW
E
NE

Flora of the Core Zone


The plants commonly occurring in the Core area are Borassus flabellifer, Cocus
nucifera, Cashew, Casuarina equisetifolia, Phoenix aculis and shrubs like Cassia
auriculata, Calotropis gigantea, prosopis juliflora. The list of Observed plant species
in proposed power plant are presented in Table-3.9.3.
TABLE-3.9.3
FLORA OF THE CORE ZONE
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Scientific Name
Azadiractha indica
Borassus flabellifer
Cocos nucifera
Anacardium occidentale
Casuarina eqisetifolia
Cassia auriculata
Ficus reilgiosa
Prosopis juliflora
Phoenix aculis
Sena auriculata
Mimosa pudica
Hybanthus
enneaspermus

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Common Name
Vepa, Neem
Toddy Palm
Coconut
Cashew Nut
Sarugudu, Casuarina
Tangedu
Raavi
Mulla Tumma
Drawf Date Palm
Tanners Cassia
Touch me not
Ratna Purusha

Family
Meliaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Anacardiaceae
Casuarinaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Moraceae
Fabaceae
Arecaceae
Ceasalpinaceae
Mimosaceae
Violaceae

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Fauna of the Core Area


The species observed in the core zone were of common occurrence, mostly
common birds such as common crow, Jungle crow, Common sparrow and egrets.
The commonly observed mammals were mongoose, and squirrels. The list of
animal species recorded in core area is presented in Table-3.9.4.
TABLE-3.9.4
FAUNA OF THE CORE AREA
Sr. No.

Scientific Name

1
Acridotheres tristis
2
Passer domesticus
3
Mesophoyx intermedia
4
Bubulcus ibis
5
Egretta garzetta
6
Corvus macrorhynchos
7
Corvus splendens
Amphibians & Reptiles
8
Bufo melanosticus
9
Rana tigrina
10
Calotes versicolor
11
Bungarus sp
Mammals
12
Bandicota indica
13
Funambulus sp
14
Herpestes edwardsii

Common Name
Common myna
House Sparrow
Median egret
Cattle egret
Little egret
Jungle crow
House crow

Conservation as
per WPA (1972)
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-V

Common frog
Bull frog
Common garden lizard
Krait

Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV

Greater Bandicoot
Squirrel
Mongoose

Sch-V
Sch-IV
Sch-II

3.9.9 Flora (Buffer Zone)


The study area is under different land uses such as agriculture land, Semi
urbanized habitation, Commercial crops land, plantation, forest, open scrubland,
and fallow land. The vegetation in the study area is mostly covered by
Commercial and agriculture plant species. The natural vegetation is mostly
restricted to Reserve forest area. The list of animal species recorded in core area
is presented in Table-3.9.5.
TABLE-3.9.5
FLORA OF THE BUFFER ZONE
Sr. No
Scientific Name
Plantations
1
Alstonia scholaris
2
Aegle marmelos
3
Bignonia sp
4
Causurina equisetifoloa
5
Delonix regia
6
Anthocephalus cadamba
7
Eucalyptus globulus
8
Peltrophorum
pterocarpum
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Common Name
Saptaparni
Maredu
Crossvine
Sarugudu
Gulmohar
Kadamba
Niligiri
Copper Pod, Petlophorum

Family
Apocynaceae
Rutaceae
Bigniniaceae
Casuarinaceae
Fabaceae
Rubiaceae
Myrtaceae
Fabaceae

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Scientific Name
9
Pongamia pinnata
10
Swietenia mahogani
11
Terminalia arjuna
Natural Vegetation
12
Acacia nilotica
13
Anacardium occidentale
14
Albiziza lebbeck
15
Argemone mexicana
16
Acyranthes aspera
17
Borasus flabellifer
18
Cassia auriculata
19
Cassia tora
20
Caryota urens
21
Calotropis gigantea
22
Cocos nucifera
23
Crotalaria juncia
24
Datura metel
25
Ficus benghalensis
26
Ficus religiosa
27
Garuga pinnata
28
Ficus racemosa
29
Flacourtia indica
30
Gloriosa superba
31
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
32
Ipomea aquatica
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Ipomea carnea
Adhatoda vasica
Jasmimum arborens
Jatropha gossypifolia
Lantana camara
Mangifera indica
Mallotus phillipensis
Malvastrum
coramandelianum
Melia azadirach
Mollugo hirta

43

Moringa oleifera

44
45
46
47

Ocimum sanctum
Oogeinia oojeinensis
Opuntia dilleni
Pithcellobium dulce

48

Polyalthia longifolia

49
50
51
52
53

Phoenix aculis
Punica granatum
Psidium guajava
Syzgium cumini
Sapindus emerginatus

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Common Name
Kanugua
Mahogani
Arjuna

Family
Fabaceae
Meliaceae
Combertaceae

Nalla Tumma
Cashew Nut
Siris
Bhramadandi
Uttareni
Toddy Palm
Tangedu
Chinnakasinda
Fish Tail Palm
Giledu, Milkweed
Coconut
Janumu, Sum hemp
Dhatura, Umettha
Raavi Chettu
Marri Chettu
Konda Vepa
Medi Chettu
Kanru
Adavi Nabhi
Mandaram, Hibiscus
Tutikura, Water Morning
Glory
Pink Morning Glory
Addasarum
Jasmine
Nepalam
Lantana
Mango
Kusum Chettu
False Mallow

Mimosaceae
Anacardiaceae
Mimosaceae
Papavaraceae
Amaranthaceae
Arecaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Caesalpinaceae
Arecaceae
Asclepidaceae
Arecaceae
Fabaceae
Solanaceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Burseraceae
Moraceae
Flacourtiaceae
Liliaceae
Malvaceae
Convolvulaceae

Turka Vepa, Persian Lilac


Thella
Poraku,
Lotus
Sweet Juice
Drumstick tree, Mulaga
Chettu
Tulasi
Vandanam, Sandan
Nagajamudu
Seema Chinta, Vilayati
Imli
Naramamidi,
False
Ashoka
Eeatha Chettu
Pomegranate, Dhanimma
Guava
Nerudu, Jamun
Soapnut Tree, Kunkudu
Chettu

Meliaceae
Aizoaceae

Convolvulaceae
Acanthaceae
Oleaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Verbanaceae
Anacardiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Malvaceae

Moringaceae
Labiatae
Papillionaceae
Opuntiaceae
Mimosaceae
Annonaceae
Arecaceae
Puniaceae
Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
Sapindaceae

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55
56
57
58
59
60
Grasses
61
62
63
64
65

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Scientific Name
Saraca indica
Tephrosia purpurea
Tamarindus indica
Terminalia catappa
Tectona grandis
Zizyphus jujuba
Thesepsia populnea

Common Name
Ashoka Tree
Pili Pisara, Sarpunkha
Chinta, Tamarind
Jangli Badam
Teku, Teak
Regi, Drawf Jujuba
Portia Tree, Ganga Raavi

Family
Caesalpinaceae
Fabaceae
Casealpinaceae
Combretaceae
Verbinaceae
Rhamnaceae
Malvaceae

Cenchurus ciliaris
Apluda mutica
Cyonodon dactylon
Dichanthium annulatum
Themeda quadrivalvis

African Foxtail Grass


Mauritian Grass
Nut Grass, Dharbha
Marvel Grass
Kangaroo Grass

Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae

Importance Value Index (IVI)

The Importance Value Index (IVI) is a statistical quantity which gives an overall
picture of the importance of the species in the vegetative community. It considers
the relative values of density, frequency and basal area of every species in given
area. It thus incorporates three important parameters which are measures of
diversity and productivity of every species. In any community structure, the
quantitative value of each of the frequency, density and basal area and basal
cover has its own importance. But the total picture of ecological importance
cannot be obtained by one of these vegetation structure in respect to varying
environmental factors can also be studied through such study of basal area,
density and frequency of the community. The Importance Value Index as such,
gives the total picture of sociological structure of species in a community but it
does not give the dimension or share of relative values of frequency, density and
dominance. The dominant plant species observed in all sampling locations are,
Borasssus flabellifer, prosopis juliflora, Seena auriculata, Abutilon indicum,
Tephrosia purpurea, Parthernium hysterophorus, Anacardium occidentale,
Calotropis, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, and Ficus sp. The details of IVI
are presented in Table-3.9.6.
TABLE-3.9.6
DETALS OF IMPORTANCE VALUE INDEX IN STUDY AREA

Location
Proposed plant site
Near Rambilli village

Range of IVI
2.50-20.82
1.21-27.78

Near Gokivada village


Near Dopperla village

1.65-27.70
1.55-19.54

Highest IVI
Borassus flabellifer
Anacardium
occidentale
Borassus flabellifer
Cocos nucifera

Lowest IVI
Abutilon indica
Zizyphus jujube
Prosopis juliflora
Ailanthes excelsa

Plant Diversity

Diversity means variety or variability. Species diversity therefore refers to the


variation that exists among the different living forms. It is estimated that there are
more than 50 million different species of living organisms on the earth. With the
growing concern of species going extinct at a very rapid pace, identification of the
different species of plants and animals and conserving them is of primary
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importance. Species indicates the extent of biodiversity in the ecosystem. Species


diversity is a statistical abstraction with two components. These are the number of
species or richness and evenness or equitability. For better understanding of plant
diversity, the Shannon Weaver index of diversity was used. The index considers two
important characters of vegetation, i.e. floristic richness and proportional abundance
of the species. Diversity index increases with the floral spectra (more species means
that more wide species diversity) which show the undisturbed scenario of ecosystem.
The index is given as:
H' = - sum (Pi ln Pi)
Where Pi = Proportional abundance of the I
H= Shannon-Weaver diversity index

th

(individual) species

The species diversity indices for four sampling locations are presented in Table3.9.7.
TABLE-3.9.7
SPECIES DIVERSITY INDICES IN STUDY AREA

Location

Diversity Index
2.72
3.14
2.65
2.04

Core area
Near Rambilli village
Near Gokivada village
Near Dopperla village
3.9.10 Fauna (Buffer Zone)

The study area shows many different land uses thus the forests of the region are
fragmented due to villages and agricultural land as well as recent developmental
activities in the region.
The avifaunal species were mostly prevalent in the forest areas only. Amphibians
are mainly restricted to open waste land and marshy areas. Frogs and toads were
present in this area. No tailed amphibians were cited in the survey. Cultivated
lands provide ample of microhabitat and food for many bird species in the study
area.
The observed major wildlife from the buffer zone of the study area is presented in
Table-3.9.8.
TABLE-3.9.8
FAUNA OF THE BUFFER ZONE
Sr.
No

Scientific Name

Avifauna
1
Acridotheres tristis
2
Corvus splendens
3
Corvus machrorhynchos
4
Coracious bengalensis
5
Dicrurus macrocerus
6
Bubulcus ibis
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

Common Name

Common myna
House crow
Jungle crow
Indian roller
Black drongo
Cattle egret

Conservation Status as per


Indian Wildlife Protection
Act (1972)
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-V
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
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8
9
10
11
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Scientific Name
Ardeola grayii
Haliastur indicus
Columbus livia
Alcedo atthis
Eudynamys scolopacea
Anas acuta
Milvus migrans
Quills contronix
Saxicoloides fulicata
Apus affinis
Ploceus phillippinus
Egretta garzetta
Vanellus indicus
Vanellus malabaricus

20
Phalacrocorax niger
21
Streptopelia chinensis
22
Accipiter badius
23
Laurus ridibundus
24
Dendrocitta vagabunda
Reptiles
22
Calotes versicolor
23
24
25
26
27

Ptyas mucosus
Naja naja
Vipera russelli
Bangarus caerleus
Lepidochelys olivacea

Amphibians
27
Rana hexadactyla
28
Rana tigrina
29
Bufo melanosticus
Mammals
30
Hystrix indica
31
Funambulus palmarum
32
Sus scrofa
33
Bandicoota indica
34
Rattus sp.
35
Herpestis edwardsii

Common Name
Pond heron
Brahminy kite
Rock pigeon
Common king fisher
Koel
Common teal
Common kite
Grey quail
Indian Robin
House swift
Weaver bird
Little egret
Red-wattled lapwing
Yellow
wattled
lapwing
Cormorant
Spotted Dove
Shikra
Seagull
Indian Treepie

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Conservation Status as per


Indian Wildlife Protection
Act (1972)
Sch-IV
Sch-I
Sch-V
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-I
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-I
Sch-IV
Sch-IV

Common garden
lizard
Rat snake
India cobra
Russels viper
Krait
Olive Ridley Sea
Turtle

Sch-IV

Frog
Bull frog
Common toad

Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-IV

Porcupine
Squirrel
Wild Boar
Greater Bandicoot
Rat
Common Mongoose

Sch-IV
Sch-IV
Sch-III
Sch-V
Sch-V
Sch-II

Sch-II
Sch-II
Sch-II
Sch-IV
Sch-I

Fresh Water Ecosystem


The impact of pollution on aquatic ecosystem manifests itself first on the biotic
aquatic communities. The species composition of aquatic organisms in natural
communities is directly influenced by ambient water quality. The responses of plants
to pollutants, when measured quantitatively give an insight about the conditions of
existing aquatic ecosystem. The biological species specific for a particular
environmental conditions are the best indicators of environmental quality. This
includes different biological species such as phytoplankton and zooplankton.
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Diatoms, desmids and dinophyceaen members are indicative of clean water


conditions. Increasing dominance of diatoms, ciliates, flagellates, chlorophycean
and cyanophycean species indicates progressively increasing trophic conditions.
Presence of Euglenophyceae indicates high eutrophic conditions. Planktonic
rotifers are usually more abundant in fresh water than estuarine waters. It is
believed that when crustacean and insect out number other groups the situation
reflects the enriched organic conditions of water
Mangroves
Mangroves are part of the coastal ecological zone. They are rich ecosystems,
which are very productive and act as buffer between fresh water and saline
water. There are spawning and nursery grounds for varieties of fish, especially
prawns. Mangroves protect the coastal belt from erosion. The Mangroves species
of Rhizophora mucronata were observed in the salt-pans and adjoining creeks of
the Pudimadaka village. These mangrove saplings were also seen grown in the
salt pans mixed with brackish water, for replanting and ecological restoration of
the mangrove forests. Supported with Photograph of the site location where
mangroves were found.

Mangrove (Rhizophora mucornata)


Mangrove plants in the Creek near Pudimadaka village
Phytoplankton: Phytoplankton forms the basis of food chain in any aquatic
water body. The diversity and abundance of phytoplankton mainly depends on
the region, type of water body, either lentic or lotic, the nutrient flux in the
system and the sunlight available for photosynthesis. These factors together form
the dynamics of phytoplankton productivity over the seasons. The phytoplankton
of a given water body determines the zooplankton populations and the fish
productivity of the ecosystem.
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Zooplankton: The zooplanktons of the aquatic water body are the primary
consumers and also in cases secondary producers which play an important role
for the fisheries of that system. The diversity and abundance of zooplankton also
depends on whether the water body is eutrophic or oligotrophic. They also are
good representatives of the ecosystem health. The amount and type of pollutants
in the water body determine the type of zooplankton species. Species of copepod
will usually dominate in the tropical region while more eutrophicated waters with
high nutrient or organic loads will harbor high number of crustaceans and
arthropods. The less polluted waters will have more of cladocerans and rotifers.
TABLE-3.9.9
LIST OF OBSERVED PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Phytoplankton
Aphanocapsa SP
Chroococus sp
Closterium sp
Dictylum sp
Eudorina sp
Enteropmorpha sp
Fragilaria sp
Navicula sp
Melosira sp
Oscillatoria sp
Oedogonium sp
Pediastrum sp
Pleurosigma sp
Surirelia sp
Scenedesmus sp

Zooplankton
Cyclops sp
Ceriodaphnia sp
Ciliates
Moina sp
Nauplius sp

Marine Ecosystem
Among the marine states of East Coast, Andhra Pradesh finds unique place with
980 km. Coastal length and a Continental shelf of 3.30 Million hectares. The list
of Marine water sampling locations Sediment characteristics and list of Fishes
presented in Table-3.9.10, 3.9.11 and 3.9.12.
Marine Turtles
The presence of Olive Ridley Turtles were observed in the Pudimadaka beach,
which are notified
Schedule I species of Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972,
based on the Skeletal evidence found in the study area of the Pudimadaka beach,
upon observation of the shell, it is been confirmed about the presence of the
Olive Ridley turtles near Pudimadaka sea coast area, and also the local fishermen
also reported their presence in the Pudimadaka beach area. The occasional
occurrence of Olive Ridley Turtles was reported in the fishing gear of the
fishermen of the Pudimadaka area. The Secondary data also supports the
presence of Olive Ridley turtles along the coast of the Yarada ranges of
Visakhapatnam sea coast.
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TABLE-3.9.10

LIST OF MARINE SAMPLING LOCATIONS


Code

Name of the Locations

Marine Sampling Location


MW-1
Near Pudimadaka village
MW-2
Near Lovapalem village

Distance from
Plant Site (Km)

Direction w.r.t.
Proposed Plant Site

2.1
4.1

SSE
SSW

TABLE-3.9.11
WATER AND SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF MARINE
(SEA WATER) SAMPLE MW1
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Parameter
Water Temp.
Salinity
DO
Free co2
Total Alkalinity
Water PH
Turbidity
Conductivity
Total Hardness
Total Dissolved Solids
Sediment Ph
Sediment Organic Carbon

Unit
o
C
PPT
mg/l
mg/l
NTU
Umhos/cm
mg/l
mg/l
%

Quality
26.9
32.4
4.2
Nil
136
8.0
22.0
43600
5980
40142
8.2
1.02

TABLE-3.9.12
LIST OF FISHES IN THE STUDY AREA
Sr. No.
Fish
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Scientific Name
Thunnus albacores
Spyraena jello
Thunnus obesus
Setapinna breviceps
Lactarius lactarius
Parastromateus niger
Eulomia spallomonza
Epinephalus undulosus
Arius macalatus
Anchoveilla commersonii
Johnius axillaarius
Johnius dussermieri
Arius thalassinus
Protonibea decanthes
Upeneus sp
Rhynochobatus diddenis
Mugil cephalus
Sphyma zygaema
Caranogoides malabaricus

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Local Name
Yellow fin tuna
Barracuda
Big-eye-tuna
Anchovy
Big-jawed jumper
Black pomfret
Black tip shark
Brownines reed cod
Cat fish
Commersony, anchovy
Croaker
Dhoma
Giant marine catfish
Ghol
Goat fish
Guitar fish
Grey mullet
Hammerhead shark
Horse mackerel
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Scientific Name
Conger cinereus
Psettodes erumei
Rasterliger kanagurta
Sarinella longiceps
Megalops cypernoides
Nemipterus japonicas
Rhinoptera javanica
Sciaena aneus
Sillago sihama
Priaeanthus sp
Scomboberodies lysan
Euthynnus affinis
Saurida tumbili
Saurida undosquaris
Canos charios
Decapterus russlii
Eutroplus surattensis
Latjanus malabaricus
Trichiurus lepturus
Epinephalus latifasciatus
Epinephalus tauvina
Dussumeiria hasseltii
Sardinella gibbosa
Sardinella fimbriata
Tachysurus sp
Scomoberomorus commerson
Drepane punctata
Chirocentrus dorab
Peneaus semisulcatus
Metapeneaus affinis
Peneaus japonicas
Scylla serrata
Thenus orientalis
Neptunus pelagicus
Peneaus monodon
Peneaus indicus
Chrbdis cruciata
Loligo duvancell
Musculus strigatus
Sepia aculeate
Sepia pharaonis
Sepia prashadi
Sepia birostrata

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Local Name
Indian conger eel
Indian halibut
Indian mackerel
Indian oil sardine
Indian tapon
Japanese thredfin bream
Javanese cowaray
Jew fish
Lay fish
Leather fish
Leather skin
Little tunny
Lizard fishq
Lizard fish
White mullet
Nakedbreast traverly
Parlay spot
Red snapper
Ribbon fish
Rock perch
Rock perch
Round herring
Sardine
Sardine
Sea catfish
Sea fish
Sickle fish
Silver barfish
Flower prawn
King prawn
Marine shrimp
Mud crab
Sand lobster
Sea crab
Tiger prawn
White prawn
Sea crab
Squids
Squids
Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish

Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton group were evaluated from the samples that were represented by
centric and pinnate diatoms, dino flagellates, blue-green algae and silico
flagellates/radiolarians. The highest percent group abundance was of blue-green
algae (32%) followed by centric diatoms (30%) while the lowest was by
silicoflagellates/radiolarians (1%). The highest total dominance of the entire
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community was at MW2 (1210 nos/ml) and lowest was at MW1 (1115nos/ml).
The station wise group abundance is given in Table-3.9.13.
Some of the prominent phytoplankton species within the observed groups were
Oocystis sp., Nitzschia sp., Chlorella sp., Noctiluca sp. And Euglena acusformis
being present at many locations. The other species which made their
representation in large number were Skeletonema costatum, Leptocylindricu ssp.,
Rhizosolenia crassispina, and Chaetoceros sp.).
TABLE-3.9.13
PHYTOPLANKTON GROUP ABUNDANCE (NOS/ML) FROM THE STUDY AREA
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Group
Centric Diatoms
Pinnate Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Blue-green algae
Silicoflagellates/
Radiolarians
Total

MW1
348
172
384
211

MW2
352
108
174
536

Avg.
350
140
279
373

Percent
30
19
19
32

1115

1210

1142

100

3.9.11 Zooplankton
Altogether 11 diverse groups represented the zooplankton community from the
study area. The total zooplankton abundance ranged from minimum of
3257nos/m3 up to 9910nos/m3. The average was 5782nos/m3. Copepods
dominated the numerically at all the sampled locations with an average
dominance of 91%.
The second most dominant group was Cladocerans contributing 4% of the total
zooplankton. The other two groups that had subsequently high percent
contribution were Amphipods and Other larvae with 2% contribution each.
The most important species that dominated the copepod community were
Oithona sp., Temoradis caudata, Oitho narigida, Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella
sp., Macrosetella sp. Sagitta sp., Centropages furcatus, Oncea sp., Rhincalanus
sp., Metacalanus sp., Eucalanus sp., Acartiadanae, Acartia sp., Penilia avirostris,
Evadne tergestina with other crustacean zoea, proto-zoea, bivalve & gastropod
veligers also represented the total diversity of the zooplankton community.
Some of the gelatinous zooplanktons contributed at some locations with low
numbers but with very high biomass due to their relatively large bodied
representation. These gelatinous zooplankton were represented by cnidarians,
chaetognaths, appendicularians, siphonophores, ctenophores and tunicates.
Mostly the gelatinous species tend to show a swarming behavior or blooming
characteristics apparently overwhelming the entire water column but during the
present study no such occurrence was noted. There was no indication of any
jellyfish bloom in the water column. The zooplankton recorded at all the locations
is given in Table-3.9.14.
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TABLE-3.9.14
ZOOPLANKTON GROUP ABUNDANCE (NOS/M 3) FROM THE STUDY AREA
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Group
Copepods
Cladocerans
Amphipods
Euphausiids
Ostracodes
Apendicularians
Siphonophores
Decapod larvae
Ctenophora
Tunicates
Other Larvae*
Total Abundance

MW1
2590
360
98
34
48
0
0
66
7
1
53
3257

MW2
3830
20
46
8
36
0
0
8
0
0
231
4179

Avg.
3210
190
72
21
42
0
0
37
7
1
142
3729

Percent
91
4
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
100

Other Larvae*: Includes molluscan, cnidarian and echinoderm larvae etc.


3.9.12 Benthos
Meiobenthos
The meiobenthic community in the region was dominated by nematodes followed
by herpacticoid copepods, polychaetes, turbellarians and amphipods and isopods.
The highest total abundance of meiobenthos occurred at ME1 with
1571nos/10cm2 and the lowest was ME2 with 925nos/10cm2. The average
meiobenthic abundance was of 1273nos/10cm2. The abundance of each
meiobenthic group at all the sampling locations is given in Table-3.9.15.
TABLE-3.9.15
MEIOBENTHIC GROUP ABUNDANCE (NOS/M3) FROM THE STUDY AREA
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Group
Copepods
Nematodes
Polychaetes
Turbellarians
Nemertins
Foraminifera
Kinorynchs
Halacarids
Others
Total

MW1
74
1427
22
45
0
0
0
1
2
1571

MW2
23
796
81
0
5
0
3
0
17
925

Avg.
48
1111
51
45
5
0
3
1
9.5
1273

Macro Benthos
The highest macro benthic abundance was at location MW1 with 1930nos/m 2
while the lowest was at MW2 with 1263nos/m2. The average macro benthic
abundance was 1659 nos/m2. Polychaetes dominated the macro benthic group at
all the stations with an average of 1530nos/m 2 followed by Molluscs with
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122nos/m2. The other groups that represented macro benthos were less than 100
nos/m2.
The group others was represented by cumaceans, capelins, stomatopods,
decapods, priapulids, ophiuroids, holothurians and other minor phyla. The macro
benthic Sgroup abundance at all the stations is given in Table-3.9.16.
TABLE-3.9.16
MACROBENTHIC GROUP ABUNDANCE (NOS/M 3) FROM THE STUDY AREA
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Group
Polychaetes
Molluscs
Cumceans
Amphipods
Isopods
Cnidarians
Oligochaetes
Tanaidacea
Others
Total

MW1
1697
43
23
94
3
2
54
2
12
1930

MW2
786
256
65
32
73
0
10
7
34
1263

Avg.
1241
149
44
126
38
2
32
4.5
23
1659

Conclusion:
There are no rare and endangered and vulnerable species of fishes in the study
area.
Among birds Accipiter badius (Shikra) and Haliastur indicus (Brahminy Kite) and
Milvus migrans (Common Kite) only three bird species figuring the Schedule I of
Indian Wildlifes Protection Act, 1972, are found in the study area.
Amongst reptiles Olive Ridley turtles only are listed in the Schedule I found in the
study area, and rest of the remaining reptiles, sea birds, terrestrial birds and
mammals are listed in the Schedules of II, II, and III , IV and V of the Indian
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
Incidentally there is no presence of endangered botanical flora in the study area,
which is listed in the Schedule VI of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
3.10

Demography and Socio-Economics


The demographic and socio- economic conditions prevailing in the 10 km radius of
the proposed project area Lalam koduru village in Rambilli and Atchutapuram
mandals, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh is analyzed. The socio-economic
data forms the basis for developing a suitable enterprise social responsibility plan to
address the needs of the population.

3.10.1 Methodology Adopted for the Study


The methodology adopted for the study mainly includes review of published
secondary data (District Census Statistical Handbooks- 2011 and Primary Census
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Abstract of Census-2011) with respect to population, density, household size, sex


ratio, social stratification, literacy rate and occupational structure for 10 km radius
study area.
3.10.2 Review of Demographic and Socio-Economic Profile-2011
The village wise demographic data of one Municipality 37 villages falling within 10
km radius of the project site as per the 2011 census is given in Annexure-IX. The
salient features of the demographic and socio-economic conditions are analyzed and
described in the following sections.
3.10.3 Demography
Distribution of Population
As per 2011 census the study area consisted of 75572 persons inhabited in study
area. The distribution of population in the study area is shown in Table-3.10.1.
TABLE-3.10.1
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
Particulars
No. of Households
Male Population
Female Population
Total Population
Male Population (0-6 years)
Female Population (0-6 years)
Total Population (0-6 years)
% of 0-6 years population
Average Household Size
% of males to the total population
% of females to the total population
Sex Ratio (no of females per 1000 males)
Density
Source: District Census Hand Book 2011

0-3 km
5715
11497
11370
22867
1396
1283
2679
11.72
4.00
50.28
49.72
989
512

3-7 km
6909
13400
13256
26656
1512
1355
2867
10.76
3.86
50.27
49.73
989
412

7-10 km
6593
12967
13082
26049
1439
1392
2831
10.87
3.95
49.78
50.22
1009
347

0-10 km
19217
37864
37708
75572
4347
4030
8377
11.08
3.93
50.10
49.90
996
410

Average Household Size

The study area has a household size of 3.93 as per 2011 census.
Population Density
The density of population reveals that the study area has an overall density of
410 people per km2 (People per km2) as per 2011 census reports. In comparison
the study area density is more than to Andhra Pradesh state and Visakhapatnam
district density. As per the 2011 census the density of population of Andhra
Pradesh state is 308 and Visakhapatnam district is 384 people per sq.km.
Sex Ratio
The configuration of male and female indicates that the males constitute to about
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50.10% and females to 49.90% of the total population as per 2011 census
records. The study area on an average has 996 females per 1000 males as per
2011 census reports. In comparison to the Visakhapatnam district rural sex ratio
(1025) the study area has recorded less sex ratio. The sex ratio in the study area
indirectly reveals certain sociological and cultural aspects in relation with female
births.
3.10.4 Social Structure
In the study area, as per 2011 census, 5.94% of the population belongs to
Scheduled Castes (SC) and 0.19% to Scheduled Tribes (ST). Overall the data of
social stratification reveals that the SC and ST % to population is more than 6%,
The SC and ST community are marginalized and they are at considered at low
level of social strata and calls for a special attention in Social Impact Management
Plan for improving their socio-economic status apart from preservation and
protection of their art, culture and traditional rights of livelihood. The distribution
of population by social structure is shown in Table-3.10.2.
TABLE-3.10.2
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Particulars
0-3 km
3-7 km
Schedule caste
874
1557
% To the total population
3.82
5.84
Schedule Tribes
16
61
% To the total population
0.07
0.23
Total SC and ST population
890
1618
% To total population
3.89
6.07
Total population
22867
26656
Source: District Census Hand Book 2011

7-10 km
2055
7.89
64
0.25
2119
8.13
26049

0-10 km
4486
5.94
141
0.19
4627
6.12
75572

3.10.5 Literacy Levels


The data of study area reveals that literacy rate of 57.32% as per 2011 census,
which is found to be more than the district rural rate of literacy (Visakhapatnam
rural 53.7%). The distribution of literate and literacy rate in the study area is
given in Table-3.10.3.
TABLE-3.10.3
DISTRIBUTION OF LITERATE AND LITERACY RATES
Particulars
Male Population
Female Population
Total Population
Male Population (0-6 years)
Female Population (0-6 years)
Total Population (0-6 years)
Total Population above 7 years
Male literates (7+ years)
Female literates (7+ Years)
Total literates (7+ Years)
Male literacy rate (%) to the total literates
Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

0-3 km
11497
11370
22867
1396
1283
2679
20188
6075
4671
10746
56.53

3-7 km
13400
13256
26656
1512
1355
2867
23789
7961
6227
14188
56.11

7-10 km
12967
13082
26049
1439
1392
2831
23218
7617
5962
13579
56.09

0-10 km
37864
37708
75572
4347
4030
8377
67195
21653
16860
38513
56.22

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Particulars
Female literacy rate (%) to the total literates
Average Male Literacy to the total population (%)
Average female Literacy to the total population (%)
Total Literacy rate (%) to the total population

0-3 km
43.47
30.09
23.14
53.23

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3-7 km
43.89
33.47
26.18
59.64

7-10 km
43.91
32.81
25.68
58.48

0-10 km
43.78
32.22
25.09
57.32

Source: District Census Hand Book 2011

The percentage of male literates to the total literates of the study area works out
to be 56.22%. The percentage of female literates to the total literates, which is
an important indicator for social change, is observed to be 43.78% in the study
area as per 2011 census records.
3.10.6 Occupational Structure
The occupational structure of residents of work participation rate in the study
area is studied with reference to main workers, marginal workers and nonworkers. The main workers include 10 categories of workers defined by the
Census Department consisting of cultivators, agricultural laborers, those engaged
in live-stock, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying; manufacturing, processing
and repairs in household industry; and other than household industry,
construction, trade and commerce, transport and communication and other
services.
The marginal workers are those workers engaged in some work for a period of
less than six months during the reference year prior to the census survey. The
non-workers include those engaged in unpaid household duties, students, retired
persons, dependents, beggars, vagrants etc.; institutional inmates or all other
non-workers who do not fall under the above categories.
Total work participation in the project study areas is 45.52% and the non-workers
constitute 54.48% of the total population respectively. The distribution of workers
by occupation indicates that the non-workers are the predominant population.
The main workers to the total workers are 71.94% and the marginal workers
constitute to 28.06% to the total workers. The occupational structure of the study
area is shown in Table-3.10.4.
TABLE-3.10.4
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
Particulars
Total Population
Total workers
Work participation rate (%)
Total main workers
% of main workers to total workers
Marginal workers
% of marginal workers to total workers
Non-workers
% of non-workers to total population
Source: District Census Hand Book-2011

Chapter-3: Baseline Environment Status

0-3 km
22867
10162
44.44
7238
71.23
2924
28.77
12705
55.56

3-7 km
26656
11834
44.40
9301
78.60
2533
21.40
14822
55.60

7-10 km
26049
12401
47.61
8207
66.18
4194
33.82
13648
52.39

0-10 km
75572
34397
45.52
24746
71.94
9651
28.06
41175
54.48

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4.0

ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

4.1

Introduction
This chapter presents identification and appraisal of various impacts from the
proposed power plant in the study area. Generally, the environmental impacts
can be categorized as either primary or secondary. Primary impacts are those
which are attributed directly to the project and secondary impacts are those
which are indirectly induced and typically include the associated investment and
changed patterns of social and economic activities by the proposed action.
Quantification of assessments in terms of measurable units would be the ideal
method for impact assessment. Mathematical models are the best tools to
quantitatively describe cause-effect relationships between sources of pollution and
different components of environment. However, due to lack of information/data,
uncertainties involved and complex interrelationships between various sectors of
environment, it is not always possible or at least not easily achievable. In such
cases, only qualitative predictions have been made based on experience and
judgements.
The affected environmental attributes in the region are air quality, water quality,
soil, land use, ecology and public health. The management action plan aims at
controlling pollution at the source level to the extent possible with the available
and affordable technology followed by treatment measures before they are
discharged. The proposed project would create impact on the environment in two
distinct phases:

During the construction phase which may be regarded as temporary or short


term; and

During the operation phase which would have long term effects.

The construction and operational phase of the proposed project comprises various
activities each of which will have an impact on some or other environmental
parameters. Various impacts during the construction and operation phase on the
environmental parameters have been studied and mitigation measures for the
same are discussed briefly below and elaborated in the subsequent sections.
4.2

Impacts during Construction Phase


This includes the activities related to leveling of site, construction of main plant
and other related structures, erection of boilers, turbines and other related
equipment. The probable impacts during construction phase on various sectors of
environment (such as air, water, soil, biotic, socio-economic environment etc.)
have been identified and listed in Table-4.1.

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TABLE-4.1
IDENTIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
AND PROBABLE IMPACTS
Construction Activities
A) Long Term Impacts

Sector

Probable Impacts

Land

Socioeconomics

Land Acquisition

B)

Direct Change in Land Use Pattern


Change in land use pattern in the
vicinity
Displacements and Loss of livelihood

Short Term Impacts


Air

Site clearing and Levelling


(cutting, stripping,
excavation, earth
movement, compaction)

Water
Land
Ecology

Air

Transportation and Storage


of Construction Material/
Equipment

Water

Soil

Public Utilities

Air
Civil Construction Activities

Mech. & Elec. Erection


Activities

Influx of Labour &


Construction of Temp.
Houses

Water

Air

Water

Socioeconomics

Land
Water

Transportation and Disposal


of Construction Debris

Air

Chapter-4: Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures

Fugitive Dust Emissions


Noise/
Air
Emissions
from
construction
equipment
&
Machinery
Run-off from construction area
Loss of fertile top soil
Change in Drainage Pattern
Loss of vegetation/ habitat
Topographic Transformations
Noise and Air Emissions from
Vehicles
Fugitive Dust Emissions due to
Traffic Movement
Spillage and fugitive emissions of
construction materials
Spillage of construction material and
flow into streams
Run-off from storage areas of
construction Material
Deposition of spilled construction
material on soil
Increased flow of traffic
Congestion on roads
Noise and Air Emissions from
Construction Machinery
Fugitive Dust Emissions due to
Movement of Traffic
Run-off from Construction Areas
containing Construction Material
Noise
&
Air
Emissions
from
Machines/ activities
Run-off
from
Erection
Areas
containing Oils, Paints
Stress on infrastructure
Stress on social relations
Change in land use pattern of the
area in labour colonies
Sanitary
effluents
from
labour
colonies
Noise and Air Emissions from
Transport Vehicles
Fugitive Dust Emissions due to
Movement of Traffic
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Soil

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Probable Impacts
Spillage and fugitive emissions of
debris materials
Spillage/ spread of debris material
and flow into streams
Run-off from Disposal Areas
Spillage/ spread/ deposition of
debris
Conversion of land into waste land

4.2.1 Impact on Land use


Land to be acquired for the project comes under SEZ area developed by APIIC
and hence, the construction activities such as cutting, stripping, excavation,
levelling, landscaping, loss of vegetative cover and erection of structures will
cause insignificant changes in the land use pattern of the proposed plant area as
well as in the vicinity. The impact on land use will be long term and permanent
but will be on a smaller scale. Construction of plant will lead to permanent
change in land use pattern at the site as a direct impact
The ponds located in ash pond-1 area will be relocated to an area where the
water will be retained, in consultation with irrigation and flood control
Department of the State Govt. Out of seven (7) ponds, two (2) ponds are
planned for shifting/relocation with in the project boundary, two (2) ponds are
located in the proposed greenbelt area which shall not be affected and remaining
three (3) ponds shall be retained along with natural drain.
The construction activities would attract a sizeable population and influx of
population is likely to be associated with construction of temporary hutment for
construction work force. However, this will be only a temporary change and shall
be restricted to construction period. As soon as the construction phase is over,
the land use pattern modified to meet the requirement of construction phase
shall be reversed. Development activity also induces changes in land use pattern
of the adjoining areas because of the increased availability of infrastructural
facilities, increase in commercial value of land etc.


Mitigation Measures

Although, the impact on land use will be long term and permanent it can be
considerably reduced by taking following measures:

Minimise clearance of trees by appropriate attention during finalizing layout;


Enforcement of restriction on encroachments of forest for timber and waste
disposal etc.; and
The excavation material should be dumped in low lying areas so as to reduce
visual impact.

4.2.2 Impact on Soil


Construction activities involving levelling, excavation and removal of existing
vegetation would invariably disturb the soil of the area. The impacts on soil
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during construction phase shall be mainly due to loss of top soil in the
construction areas and contamination of the soils of surrounding area due to
construction materials such as cement, sand, oils, etc. The disturbances would be
more pronounced during the summer and monsoon seasons with strong rains.
However, it shall be temporary and shall be confined to the areas of construction
only. Generally, such disturbances are confined to the area of activity i.e. the
main plant, township and ash disposal area. Appropriate soil conservation
measures associated with improved construction techniques would minimize such
impacts. Timely afforestation activities would also contribute positively towards
soil conservation.
Apart from localized construction impacts at the plant site, no adverse impacts on
soil in the surrounding area are anticipated.
4.2.3 Impact on Air Quality
Impacts of construction activities on air quality are cause for concern mainly in the
dry months due to dust particles. The main sources of emission during the
construction period are the movement of equipment at site and dust emitted during
the levelling, grading, earthworks, foundation works and other construction related
activities. The dust emitted during the above mentioned activities depend upon the
type of soil being excavated and the ambient humidity levels. The dust generated
during the construction activities will however, settle quickly. Therefore, the impact
will be for short duration and confined locally to the construction site. The
composition of dust in this kind of operation is, however, mostly inorganic and nontoxic in nature.
The impact will be confined within the project boundary and is expected to be
negligible outside the plant boundaries. Exhaust emissions from vehicles and
equipment deployed during the construction phase is also likely to result in marginal
increase in the levels of SO2, NOx and PM. Proper upkeep and maintenance of
vehicles, sprinkling of water on roads and existing lush green plantation would
greatly reduce the impacts during the construction phase.
4.2.4 Impact on Water Quality
Effluents from the construction area mainly contain suspended solids mainly
resulting from site leveling, excavation etc. while the sanitary waste emanating
from the labour colonies contains suspended as well as organic matter. The loose
construction material like sand, cement etc. and excavated earth/construction
debris may get washed off during heavy precipitation and finally reach the nearby
nala. This may increase the suspended solid of the receiving water body.
Adequate arrangements for proper drainage and disposal of wastewater and
routing of the effluents from construction area through sedimentation basins and
provision of proper sanitary facilities with treatment will eliminate these problems
of water pollution. Moreover, these impacts will be temporary in nature.

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4.2.5 Impact on Noise Levels


The major sources of noise during the construction phase are vehicular traffic,
construction equipment like dozers, scrapers, concrete mixers, cranes,
generators, pumps, compressors, rock drills, pneumatic tools, saws, vibrators etc.
The operation of these equipment will generate noise ranging between 70-85
dB(A). The noise produced during the construction will have significant impact on
the existing ambient noise levels. The construction equipment may have high
noise levels, which can affect the personnel, operating the machines. Use of
proper personal protective equipment will mitigate any significant impact of the
noise generated by such equipment. Similarly, as the major work will be carried
out during the day time, the impact on the neighbourhood due to the activity will
be negligible.
4.2.6 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology
The initial construction works at the project site involving land clearance/cutting,
falling and levelling will cause loss of agricultural land and loss of vegetation to
some extent. The removal of herbaceous vegetation from the soil and loosening of
the top soil generally causes fugitive emission.
Deposition of fugitive dust on pubescent leaves of nearby vegetation may lead to
temporary reduction of photosynthesis. Such impacts would, however, be confined
mostly to the initial periods of the construction phase and would be minimized
through adoption of control measures such as paving and surface treatment, water
sprinkling and plantation schemes. The impact would be restricted within the plant
boundary. Thus, the impacts of construction activities will be marginal in scale.
The increase in vehicular traffic due to construction coupled with higher noise level
due to various constructional activities may drive away the local fauna from project
site to neighbouring area. However, project site/area does not harbour fauna of
significant importance. Hence, the impact on fauna expected to be minimal.
4.2.7

Marine Environmental Impacts


Marine environmental impacts during the construction phase may potentially
manifest in the form of (i) changes in physical processes (bathymetry, circulation
pattern, littoral transport); (ii) degradation in water quality and sediment texture;
(iii) destruction of biotic communities of localized subtidal and intertidal areas. Even
though the effect may not be detrimental, but will appear to be objectionable to the
public. The main areas of influence include (i) physical disturbance (ii) release of
contaminants (iii) depleted oxygen supplies and (iv) increase in water turbidity.

4.3

Impacts during Operational Phase


Probable impacts on various sectors of environment during operation and
operation phase are given in Table-4.2. However, the significance of most of
these impacts is envisaged to be low, as discussed in the following sections.

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TABLE-4.2
IDENTIFICATION OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
ACTIVITIES AND PROBABLE IMPACTS
Operation and
Maintenance Activities
Transportation of Coal/ Oil

Sector
Air

Probable Impacts
Noise and Air Emissions from Vehicles
Fugitive Dust Emissions due to Traffic

Movement
Spillage and fugitive emissions of coal/

oil
Water

Unloading, Crushing and


Storage of Crushed Coal/
Unloading and Storage of
Oil

Burning of Fuel
Water Treatment for
various uses

Spillage

Public
Utilities
Air

Water

Air
Water

Equipment Cooling
Transportation, Storage &
Use of Chemicals/ Cl2
Transportation and
Disposal of Ash
Operation of Transformers
and Switchyard
Maintenance (Cleaning,
Over-haul, Oil Change,
Lubrication etc.)
Domestic Use of Water in
Plant and Township

of coal/ oil and flow into


streams
Increased flow of traffic
Congestion on roads
Noise and Air Emissions from Vehicles
Fugitive Dust Emissions from Coal
Handling Areas
Effluents for CHP/ Oil Storage Areas
Effluents
from
Dust
Extraction/
Suppression Systems
Run-off from Coal Stock Yard
Stack emissions (PM, SO2, NOx)
Rejects from Desalination plant & R.O
Plant;
Generation of effluents from CHP, plant
service water
Discharge of Hot Water containing
chemicals/ biocide
Risks of Accidental spillage/ waste of
chemicals
Land requirement for ash disposal
Fugitive Emissions
Generation of effluents containing oil

Water/
Ecology
Air/ Water

Land
Air
Water

Water

Generation of effluents containing oil/

chemicals
Water

Generation of sanitary effluents

4.3.1 Impact on Soil


The impact on soil during operation of the project could result due to deposition
of residual particulate matter and gaseous emissions on the soil. The impact on
the soil due to operation of the power plant and gaseous emissions would be
negligible as the resultant GLCs of PM, SO2 and NOx levels are observed within
limit. However, it is advisable to undertake periodic monitoring of soils at the
maximum impact zone of the pollutants mentioned above.

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4.3.2 Impact on Air Quality


The impact on air quality is assessed based on emissions from the proposed
power plant. Particulate Matter (PM), Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Dioxides
(NOx) are the important pollutants emitting from the proposed project.


Details of Mathematical Modelling

For prediction of maximum Ground Level Concentrations (GLCs), the air


dispersion modeling software (AERMOD version 7.1.0) was used. AERMOD is
steady state advanced Gaussian plume model that simulates air quality and
deposition fields upto 50 km radius. AERMOD is approved by USEPA and is widely
used software. It is an advanced version of Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3)
model, utilizes similar input and output structure to ISCST3 sharing many of the
same features, as well as offering additional features. The model is applicable to
rural and urban areas, flat and complex terrain, surface and elevated releases
and multiple sources including point, area, flare, line and volume sources.
Dispersion modeling using AERMOD requires hourly site specific meteorological
data like wind direction, wind speed, temperature etc. Site specific data recorded
during Premonsoon 2015 at site is used for executing modeling studies. The site
specific meteorological data is processed using AERMET processor.


Model Set-up

The model set-up details are presented in Table-4.3 below:


TABLE-4.3
MODEL SET-UP
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Parameter
Model Name
Model Type
Topography
Averaging Time
Source Type
Boundary Limits
Co-ordinate System
Receptor Height
Anemometer
Surface meteorological data
Upper air Data

Details
AERMOD (Version 7.1.0)
Steady state Gaussian Plume Air
Dispersion model
Rural, Flat
24 hours
Point Source
10 km X 10 km
Uniform Polar Grid
0
10 m
Site Specific data processed by AERMET
Upper air Estimator using AERMET
processor

Model Input Data

The details of proposed stack emissions are given in Table-4.4.

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TABLE-4.4
DETAILS OF PROPOSED STACK EMISSIONS
Parameters
Stack Height
No. of Stacks

Units
M
No.

Flue Diameter
Flue gas velocity/ flue
Flue Gas Temperature/ flue
Volumetric Flow Rate
coal combustion
Sulphur
Estimated Emission Rates
Sulphur di oxide
NOx @ 510 mg/Nm3
Particulate Matter @ 50 mg/Nm3

M
m/sec
K
Nm3/sec/unit
Tonne/h/unit
%

Values
275
02
(twin flue)
9.0
22-25
398
956
355
0.6

g/s/unit
g/s/unit
g/s/unit

1250
487.5
47.8

The simulations have been carried out to evaluate SO2, NOx and PM likely to be
contributed by the proposed project. For the short-term simulations, the
concentrations were estimated to obtain an optimum description of variations in
concentrations over the site in 10 km radius covering 16 directions. The predicted
results for PM, SO2 and NOx are presented in Table-4.5 and isopleths showing
the incremental concentrations are shown in Figure-4.1 to Figure-4.3.
TABLE-4.5
PREDICTED SHORT-TERM MODELLING RESULTS (24-HOURLY)
Pollutants

Maximum Incremental
Levels (g/m3)

Particulate Matter
Sulphur dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides

1.8
48.7
18.9

Distance
(km)
5.5
5.5
5.5

Direction
NE
NE
NE

Resultant Concentrations after Implementation of Project

The resultant concentrations after the implementation of the proposed project are
given in Table-4.6.
TABLE-4.6
RESULTANT GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATIONS (24-HOURLY)
Pollutant
PM
SO2
NOx

Baseline Max
60.8
13.8
16.9

Concentrations (g/m3)
Incremental
Resultant
1.8
62.6
48.7
62.5
18.9
35.8

NAAQS Limits
100
80
80

The incremental concentrations when superimposed over the existing baseline


concentrations, the resultant concentrations are observed to be within the
permissible levels for residential/rural conditions.
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PROJECT TITLE:

0.80
1.2
0

0.6
0

1.40

1.20
1.40

0.80

2000

0
0.2

0
0.2

0
0.4

0.20

-2000

0.60

0.20

-8000

-6000

0.2
0

-4000

Y-Direction [m]

1 .6

0.40

4000

6000

0.60

0.8
0

0.20

8000

Incremental Concentration for PM

-10000

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

X-Direction [m]
PLOT FILE OF HIGH 1ST HIGH 24-HR VALUES FOR SOURCE GROUP: ALL

0.200

0.400

0.600

COMMENTS:

0.800
SOURCES:

1.000

1.200

1.400

ug/m^3

1.600

1.800

2.000

COMPANY NAME:

2
RECEPTORS:

MODELER:

441

M. Janardhan
Mr. Kishore Kumar

OUTPUT TYPE:

SCALE:

Concentration

MAX:

DATE:

1.86282 ug/m^3

6/27/2015

AERMOD View - Lakes Environmental Software

1:140,980
5 km
PROJECT NO.:

D:\AERMOD Modeling_KK\NTPC Pudimadaka\So2\NOx\PM\PM.isc

FIGURE-4.1
ISOPLETH SHOWING INCREMENTAL CONCENTRATION FOR PM
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PROJECT TITLE:

15

20

30

25

10

20

2000

35
5

15 10

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

Y-Direction [m]

40

25

4000

15
30

40

6000

35

20

8000

Incremental Concentration for SO2

-10000

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

X-Direction [m]
PLOT FILE OF HIGH 1ST HIGH 24-HR VALUES FOR SOURCE GROUP: ALL

5.000

10.000

15.000

COMMENTS:

20.000

25.000

SOURCES:

30.000

35.000

ug/m^3

40.000

45.000

50.000

COMPANY NAME:

2
RECEPTORS:

MODELER:

441

M. Janardhan
Mr. Kishore Kumar

OUTPUT TYPE:

SCALE:

Concentration

MAX:

DATE:

48.71395 ug/m^3

6/27/2015

AERMOD View - Lakes Environmental Software

1:140,980
5 km
PROJECT NO.:

D:\AERMOD Modeling_KK\NTPC Pudimadaka\So2\SO26\SO26.isc

FIGURE-4.2
ISOPLETH SHOWING INCREMENTAL CONCENTRATION FOR SO2
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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
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(4 X1000 MW)
PROJECT TITLE:

12

2000

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

Y-Direction [m]

16

12

4000

6000

8000

12

Incremental Concentration for NOx

-10000

-8000

-6000

-4000

-2000

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

X-Direction [m]
PLOT FILE OF HIGH 1ST HIGH 24-HR VALUES FOR SOURCE GROUP: ALL

2.000

4.000

COMMENTS:

8.000
SOURCES:

12.000

ug/m^3

16.000

20.000

COMPANY NAME:

2
RECEPTORS:

MODELER:

441

M. Janardhan
Mr. Kishore Kumar

OUTPUT TYPE:

SCALE:

Concentration

MAX:

DATE:

18.99845 ug/m^3

6/27/2015

AERMOD View - Lakes Environmental Software

1:140,980
5 km
PROJECT NO.:

D:\AERMOD Modeling_KK\NTPC Pudimadaka\So2\NOx\NOx.isc

FIGURE-4.3
ISOPLETH SHOWING INCREMENTAL CONCENTRATION FOR NOx

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4.3.2.1 Impact on Air Quality - Fugitive Emissions


The fugitive dust emissions expected are from coal storage yards, coal conveyor
belt area, ash dumping areas, transportation of fuel and solid waste.
In the proposed project coal handling plant will be properly operated with EMP
suggested in this report, no major fugitive dust emissions are envisaged.
Similarly, HCSD system of ash stacking will be practiced and hence, no dust
emissions are envisaged from ash dump areas. The fuel will be received through
rail line and the solid waste will be sent to dyke areas through pipeline. Hence, no
dust emissions from transportation are envisaged. Further, internal roads are to
be asphalted to further reduce fugitive dust emissions.
The dust emissions, if any, from the above areas will be fugitive in nature and
maximum during summer season (when the wind velocities are likely to be high)
and almost nil during the monsoon season. The dust emissions are likely to be
confined to the place of generation only. The quantification of these fugitive
emissions from the area sources is difficult as it depends on lot of factors such as
dust particle size, specific gravity of dust particles, wind velocity, moisture content
of the material and ambient temperatures etc. Also, there is a high level of
variability in these factors. Hence, these are not amenable for mathematical
dispersion modelling. However, by proper usage of dust suppression measures,
dust generation and dispersions will be reduced.
The impact of fugitive dust emissions from the proposed power plant on air
quality of the region is insignificant.
4.3.2.2 Mitigation Measures
The mitigative measures recommended in the plant are:

High efficiency electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) will be installed to limit the


particulate emission to 50 mg/Nm3;
To facilitate wider dispersion of pollutants two stack with twin flue of height
275 m above plant grade level will be provided;
Space provision will be kept in the layout for establishing Flue Gas
Desulphurisation (FGD) system, if required in future; and
For control of fugitive dust emissions within and around the coal handling
plant and coal / stockyard dust extraction / suppression systems will be
provided.
All the internal roads have been asphalted during the implementation of the
existing plant. Therefore, vehicular movement may not generate fugitive dust.
However, water spraying will be practiced frequently at all dust generating
areas during construction period.
The emissions from the stack will be continuously monitored for particulate
matter, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.
The concentration of PM, SO2 and NOx in the ambient air quality will be
monitored as per the direction of the State Pollution Control Board.

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Impact on Water Resources and Water Quality


No ground water source will be tapped for meeting the water requirements during
operation of power plant. The entire water requirement of the project will be met
from the sea. Hence, no adverse impact on ground water sources is envisaged.

4.3.3.1 Impact on Surface Water


The water balance and wastewater generation details have been described in
Chapter-2. Once through open channel cooling system shall be adopted for the
proposed power plant. About 6,67,675 m3/hr will be discharged back into the sea.
It will be ensured that the temperature of the discharge water does not exceed
70C over and above the temperature of the receiving water body. No discharge is
envisaged into any surface river water bodies; hence, no impact is envisaged on
surface river water quality.
The storm water in the project area will be collected through storm water drains
and collected in the storm water tank. The stored storm water will be utilized in
the plant operation resulting in conservation of fresh water.
4.3.3.2 Impact on Ground Water Quality
Water required for construction purposes shall be drawn from APIIC facility
existing near the project
As no groundwater is proposed to be used for plant and township during
operation phase, there will be no impact on the ground water potential of the
study area during operation phase of the plant.
4.3.3.3 Impact on Drainage Pattern
Wastewater generated from the premises after treatment shall be discharged
back into the sea. All appropriate efforts will be made for diversion of natural
nala/small drains for linking the storm water runoff from project area to the
relocated/shifted ponds. Hence, no impact on the drainage pattern of the study
area is anticipated.
4.3.3.4 Mitigation Measures
An effluent management scheme will be designed which includes adequate
treatment facilities for collection, treatment and recirculation / disposal of all the
effluents emanating from different points and process of power plant activity for
controlling water pollution as well as for optimizing the makeup water
requirement.
The liquid effluents shall be collected, treated and discharged as per the following
design philosophy:

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The R.O rejects from the desalination plant shall be routed through Central
Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and finally discharged to the CW return
channel.
The waste effluents from neutralization pits of DM Plant and Condensate
Polishing Plant shall be collected in the respective neutralization pits and
neutralized before pumping to the CEMB before final disposal;
A coal settling pond shall be provided to remove coal particles from coal
handling plant waste. Decanted water shall be pumped to CEMB;
The plant shall have two different systems for ash disposal conventional wet
slurry disposal for bottom ash and High Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD)
for fly ash. HCSD system will require less quantity of water and the decanted
water from ash dyke will be recycled/reused for ash handling system. Hence,
there will be no effluent discharge from the fly ash disposal site;
All the plant liquid effluents emanating from different point shall be treated
and mixed in Common Central Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and disposed
off to the final disposal point; and
The sewage from plant and township shall be treated in a common sewage
treatment plant. The treated sewage conforming to prescribed standards shall
be utilized for plantation/horticulture to the extent possible. The balance
effluent shall be discharged.

Impact on Noise Levels


The main noise generating stationary sources from the power plant will be
pumps, compressors along and boilers. The noise levels at the source for these
units will be in the range of 75-90 dB(A). The noise dispersion from the plant
units has been computed based on the mathematical model. The major noise
generating sources from the proposed plant are identified and listed in Table4.7. These are considered as input to the noise model.
TABLE-4.7
MAJOR NOISE GENERATING SOURCES
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4

Sources
Turbine units
Air compressors
Transformer
Boilers

Noise Level in dB(A)


[1-m away]
90
90
75
90

Nature of Noise
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous

4.3.5.1 Presentation of Results


The incremental noise levels are computed at proposed project site at 200 mX200
m grid intervals over an area of 1 km X 1 km area. The predicted results of
incremental noise levels at each grid points are used to draw noise contours. The
predicted noise contours around proposed sources are shown in Figure-4.4.
The predicted noise levels at the boundary due to various plant activities will be
ranging in between 31 to 39 dB(A). The incremental noise levels will be less than
40 dB(A) at all the surrounding habitations. It is seen from the simulation results
that the incremental noise levels will be well within the National Ambient Air
Quality Standards with respect to Noise.
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-1000
1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

200

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400

600

800

1000
1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

-200

-200

-400

-400

-600

-600

-800

-800

-1000
-1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

200

400

600

800

-1000
1000

FIGURE-4.4
NOISE DISPERSION CONTOURS
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4.3.5.1 Impact on Work Zone


Boilers and turbo generator are the high
proposed power plant. However, impacts
expected to be significant on account of the
which means that workers will be exposed
intermittently.

noise generating equipment in the


on the working personnel are not
high level of automation of the plant,
for short duration only and that too

The noise generation during operational phase would be at source itself through
different measures such as inspection, operation and maintenance at regular
intervals. The occupational noise exposure to the workers in the form of 8-hourly
time weighted average will be maintained well within the prescribed OSHA
standards (<90 dB (A)). Hence, the impact on occupational health of workers
would be insignificant.
4.3.5.2 Impact on Community
As per the location of power plant, the minimum distance available between
proposed major noise sources and the outer periphery of the project site would
be more than 500-m. The cumulative incremental impact of all noise sources at
boundary will range in between 31 to 39 dB (A). As the ambient noise levels are
higher than the predicted noise levels, due to masking affect no increase in
ambient noise levels during construction and operation phase are envisaged.
4.3.5.3 Mitigation Measures
The recommendations to mitigate higher noise levels are:

Equipment should be designed to conform to noise levels prescribed by


regulatory authorities;

Provision of acoustic barriers or shelters in noisy workplaces;

Provision of hoods to noise generating equipment like pumps;

Provision of thick greenbelt to attenuate the noise levels;

Provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as earplugs, earmuffs to


the workers working in high noise level area; and

Implementation of greenbelt, landscaping with horticulture at power block areas


to reduce noise impacts.

4.3.6 Impact on Ecology


There are six reserve forests in the study area, the predicted incremental
concentrations are falling in the direction of NW at distance of 5.5 km from the
project site.

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During the operation phase, since the predicted ground level concentration of
pollutant in ambient air is well within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards,
the impact on the surrounding agricultural fields and trees will be slightly
negligible.
Marine Ecology
Water intake for the cooling system may affect a localized zone of the marine
ecosystem where the intake structure is located. Primary impacts of concern are
impingement of marine life on the intake screens and entrainment of marine
species in the cooling water system. An intake bar screen will be used to prevent
large fish from being entrained in the system.
Further, cooling water will be discharged back to sea through open channel. It will
be ensured that the temperature of the discharge water does not exceed 70 C
over and above the temperature of the receiving water body.
Mitigation Measures

Effective management of ash pond area to ensure a blanket of water will


significantly reduce fugitive emissions and hence minimal impact is expected on
surrounding flora and fauna due to deposition of fly ash.
The leaf surface acts as reaction centres for removing atmospheric pollutants.
So the plant having leaves of large surface areas are suggested for
development of green belt.
Extensive plantation of pollutant resistant trees in and around the project area
will serve as pollution sink and noise barrier.
All the air pollution control measures should be installed and operated
efficiently.

4.3.6.1 Impact on Aquatic Ecology


No industrial effluents shall be discharged into natural drains. Therefore, no
significant impact on the aquatic eco-system is envisaged.
Mitigation Measures

4.4

The surface run off originating from various construction activities should be
collected and treated;
Sanitation facility should be provided to construction labourers at the site; and
Efficient effluent treatment and recycling and reuse of wastewater to the
maximum extent possible to minimise the impact on aquatic fauna should be
adopted.

Socio Economic Aspects


Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Limited (APIIC) has allotted
the land to NTPC on long lease basis of 33 years. APIIC has duly compensated
the Project affected families and then handed over the land to NTPC. Hence,
Resettlement and Rehabilitation for the proposed project is not applicable.

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The impacts on demography and socio-economic status of the area due to


construction and operation will be positive as well as negative in nature. These
impacts may be broadly classified into two groups.
o
o
o
o

Direct impact due to acquisition of land;


Change in socio-economic scenario of the area;
Increased stress on public utilities and resources of the area; and
Indirect impacts due to Immigration of work force.

4.4.1 Impacts Due to Immigration of Construction Workforce


The immigration of work force for construction phase (including contract labours)
would have marginal impact on demography (e.g. changes in total population,
sex ratio, literacy level, main workers etc.) of the immediate vicinity area. In
addition, the socio-economic status of the area may also get affected due to flow
of men, material and money. The positive impacts are following:

Increase in employment opportunity to unemployed population in the study


area as unskilled and semi-skilled workers to the contractors / subcontractors;
Growth of services and increase in employment and trade opportunities in
service sector;
Influx of persons with higher spending power and different socio-cultural
background will improve the socio-cultural environment of the area, though
occasional tension as a result of this influx cannot be totally ruled out; and
Increase in per capita income and overall economic upliftment of the area and
improvement in transport, communication, health and educational services.

The negative impacts could be summarised as:

Strain on civic amenities (like road, transport, communication, water supply


and sanitation, power supply, health care, education and recreational utilities
etc.) due to increase in population;
Further urbanization of the area leading to appreciation of land cost and house
rents, increase in labour rate;
Increase in consumer prices of indigenous services and produces like egg,
fish, vegetables, milk, etc;
Interference with the rural life of neighbouring villages and social conflicts be
between the guest and host communities; and
Loss of open space and visual impairment to the residents in the contiguous
areas.

It is difficult to assess the above impacts quantitatively on a measurable scale.


However, most of these impacts will be short term and limited to the construction
period only. While increase in employment opportunities (project and service
sector) and overall economic upliftment of the area is certain to happen, the
negative impacts would be limited to construction phase. The infrastructural
facilities shall be augmented / strengthened during construction of the project, if
necessary.

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Majority of the people living in this area are involved in agricultural and auxiliary
activities. The tribal people depend on forests and other natural resources for
their livelihood and sustenance perspective but also with livelihood perspective.
Many a times, these indigenous tribal populations remain marginalised. This is a
major developmental challenge both in terms of economic growth and, more
importantly, socio-cultural perspective.
Mitigation Measures
During the construction phase, labour colony will be constructed at the earmarked
space for the labour force. The labour colony shall be provided drinking water and
sanitation facilities. Temporary toilets as per PHED norms will be constructed for
the work force during construction period. Suitable septic tanks and soak pits of
appropriate capacities will be constructed for treatment of sewage before
disposal.
NTPC proposes to implement the community development programmes under
Corporate Social Responsibility for surrounding villages like capacity building,
infrastructure development, provision of drinking water and sanitation, women
empowerment, irrigation, agricultural development, education and health services
etc. This problem will be solved by capacity building of local youth by vocational
training, development of ITI. Other facilities include self employment
opportunities in the form of small contracts like vehicles, gardening etc. through
PAP Cooperatives, Shops and other services in township, Employment
opportunities with Contractors will be provided to develop confidence in local
people regarding employment. NTPC will provide necessary training to affected
woman for self employment like stitching, weaving, tailoring, making house hold
items etc. will be provided for self development & employment for women.
Emphasis would be given to increase girl education in the affected area.

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5.0

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SITES AND TECHNOLOGY

5.1

Description of Alternative Sites


Three alternate sites for the proposed super thermal power project were
identified based on siting criteria of MoEF&CC and following considerations:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Availability of suitable and adequate land;


Distance from reliable source of water;
Road and railway access;
Availability of infrastructural facilities; and
Environmental aspects.

The details of these three sites are as follows:

I. Site near Pudimadaka in Atchutapuram and Rambilli Mandals, Visakhapatnam


district;

II. Site near Nakkapali Mandal, Visakhapatnam district; and


III. Site near Nayudupeta, Nellore district.
5.1.1 SITE I: Near Pudimadaka in Atchutapuram (Visakhapatnam district)

Location & Approach

The site is located having Latitude of 170 30 38 to 170 31 48 N and Longitude


of 820 57 48 to 820 59 35 E respectively. The project site is surrounded by
villages Lalamkoduru, Rambilli, Veduruvada and Pudimadaka in Atchutapuram
and Rambilli Mandals. Nearest railway station is Anakapalli about 15 km on
Vijayawada Kolkata section and same is double track, broad gauge electrified
line. Visakhapatnam airport is located at about 40 km from site. Gangavaram
Port is located at about 30 km in North East direction of the site. Yelamanchali
town is located at about 20 km from site. The vicinity map showing the details of
the site is shown in Figure-5.1.

Land

About 5221 acres of land is under possession of APIIC, which has been allotted to
some industrial units. As per discussion with Dy. Zonal Manager, APIIC, about
1500 acres of land was identified for establishing power plant. The land identified
for the proposed project is dry in nature. The land is already acquired and
villagers are compensated. It was learnt that topo-graphical survey was carried
out by APIIC and the data can be made available from Hyderabad head office
once the formalities for allocating the said land in name of NTPC gets completed.

Water

Water for the project has to be drawn directly from sea by constructing a suitable
intake well in the sea, which is about 2-3 km from the proposed site. However,
for meeting sweet water requirement desalination plant is proposed. Sweet water
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can be made available from Yelluru canal (18 km) and pipeline has been laid by
APIIC for supplying water to SEZ units but availability of sweet water for power
project is difficult. Commitment for water needs to be obtained.

Coal

Imported coal is proposed as fuel. Import of coal shall be explored to meet coal
requirement. Coal could be brought to the Gangavaram port through the sea
route. Gangavaram port is located about 30 km. The port has cargo handling
facility for coal and iron ore.
Coal can also be brought to the Visakhapatnam port through the sea route and
same is located about 50 km from site. Presently M/s Vedanta is operating coal
handling activities with capacity of 6 MT per month. However, availability of coal
for the project needs further elaboration.

Power Evacuation

AP Transco has constructed a 220/132/33 kV substation for Brandex Apparel


approx 2.5 km from the proposed site and the same substation was charged in
Nov2007. The substation has incoming 220 kV feeder from AP Transco Kalpaka
S/S and two 132 kV feeders from Gazuwaka and Pedapuram as tie lines. One no.
220/132 kV 100 MVA transformer is commissioned.
The construction power requirement for the said project can be availed from the
above substation.

Environmental Aspects

The land identified is dry land. The site is 500 m away from railway line, river
and National Highway. The land identified is 2-3 Km away from the sea coast.
Panchadarla RF, Pudimadaka RF, Rambilli RF and Gokivada RF are located within
10 km radius.
5.1.2 SITE II: Near Nakkapali Mandal (Visakhapatnam District)

Location

The site is located at a distance of 8 km from NH-5 and about 18 km from Tuni
town. Nearest railway station is Tuni about 18 km on double track, broad gauge
electrified line in Vijayawada Kolkata Section and Yelamanchali railway station
is located at about 20 km from site. Vishakhapatnam airport is at a distance of
100 km. A vicinity plan indicating the site is shown in Figure-5.2.

Land

About 4500 acres of land is being acquired by APIIC, out of which APIIC informed
that for setting of 4000 MW plant capacity, they can identify about 2000 acres
land. Around 2000 acres of land is earmarked for this project. The area has
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commercial crops viz. coconut and cashew plantation and has permanent
settlements with 4 to 5 villages mainly Rajyyapeta (approx population 4500),
Chandanada (approx population 2300), Bughiraju Peta (approx population 1300)
and their hamlets. There are 5-6 hillocks in the area and the ground level is
varying from 5 m to 60 m with lots of undulations.

Water

Sea water can be drawn to meet the water requirement by constructing suitable
intake well in sea which is 1-2 km from the proposed project site. Sweet water
may not be available for the proposed project as informed by APIIC officials.
Further, suitable desalination plant shall be installed in the plant to meet plant
and township requirement.

Coal

Imported coal is proposed as fuel. Import of coal shall be explored to meet coal
requirement. Gangavaram port at a distance of 75 km and Vishakhapatnam port
at a distance of 110 km may be explored for imported coal through the sea route.

Environmental Aspects

The site is 500 m away from railway line, river and National Highway. The area
comprises of dry and wet land and there are commercial crops like coconut,
cashew and palm trees. The site is surrounded by Payakaraopeta RF and
Vempadu RF within 10 km radius. Social forest is existing near Rajayyapeta
village. The land identified is along the sea coast and CRZ demarcation is to be
carried out for the project land. There is a salt pan near village Rajayyapeta
village. There is a creek passing through Chandanada village connecting to sea.
HETERO drug is the major Industry existing in the vicinity.
5.1.3 Site-III: Near Nayudupeta (Nellore district)

Location and Approach

APIIC is developing an Industrial Park area and MPSEZ in Menakur, Palachuru,


Athivaram villages in an area extent of 4568 acres. The nearest town is
Nayudupeta which is approximately 10 Km from the proposed site. The National
Highway is approximately 10 km. The nearest railway line is at a distance of 10
km i.e Chennai-Howrah South Central Railway electrified and Board Guage. The
Krishnapatnam sea port is located approximately at a distance of 70 km from the
proposed site. The Chennai airport is located at a distance of 140 km.
Krishnapatnam-Chennai-Bangalore Industrial corridor connectivity has been
proposed which will likely to pass nearby this area. A vicinity plan indicating the
site is shown in Figure-5.3.

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Land

The Industrial Park area is already allotted to various industries and few of them
are fully established and in operation. The area shown to NTPC is the main
MPSEZ area which is around 2550 acres. Out of which, about 100 acres has been
already allotted to M/S PEL and the manufacturing unit of transformers fully
established and is in operation. Another plot of 33 acres is allotted to another
unit which is in the agreement stage. The total area is boundary walled by APIIC
(leaving the non-processing and open space). All other surrounding villages area
are totally agricultural land and under cultivation. This land is acquired under
MPSEZ notification. This land needs to be de notified from SEZ before allotment
to some other purpose. This de-notification is to be done through Ministry of
Commerce, Government of India.

Water

Water has to be drawn directly from sea by constructing a suitable intake well in
the sea, which is about 40 km from the proposed site. However, for meeting
sweet water requirement desalination plant is proposed.
The Swarnamukhi River (Rain fed) is flowing in the vicinity. There are small
ponds and reservoirs are available which are feeding mainly for cultivation in the
area. APIIC has got an allocation of 1 TMC of water from Kandeluru reservoir
which is about 70 kms away from this industrial area. Availability of sweet water
for power project is difficult.

Coal

Imported coal is proposed as fuel. Krishnapatnam port has cargo handling facility
for coal. Coal could be brought to the Krishnapatnam Port through the sea route.
However, availability of coal for the project needs further elaboration.

Environmental Aspects

The identified land is dry land. All other surrounding villages area are totally
agriculture land and under cultivation. The cooling water and sweet water
requirements is to be drawn from sea which is about 40 km away. Being a
comparatively heavily populated zone and large industrial developments in the
region getting a corridor for water and ash disposal is difficult. The site is
surrounded by Rosanuru RF, Venumbaka RF within 10 km radius.
The comparative summary of the three alternate sites proposed for STPP is
detailed under Table-5.1.

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TABLE-5.1
COMPARISON OF ALTERNATE SITES
Sr.
No.
1

Description
Land

Site#1
Pudimadaka
Dry Land.
Identified
in
APSEZ
area
of
1500 Acres.

Water

Fuel
Imported coal
Imported coal
Environmental Sensitive Zones (within 10 km)
National Parks
Nil
Nil

4
5

Sea Water (Bay of


Bengal)

Site#2
Nakkapalli
Dry
and
Wet
land.
Around
2000
acres
(to
be
acquired by
APIIC)
Sea Water (Bay
of Bengal)

Site#3
Nayudupeta
Dry land.
An area of 2550
acres of land is
identified in the
MPSEZ.
Sea water
(Bay of Bengal)
Imported coal
Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Wildlife
Sanctuaries
Monuments

Nil

Nil

Nil

Hills / Valleys

Nil

Yes

Nil

Rivers/sea

Nearest railway
station
Nearest Airport

10
11
12
13

Bay of Bengal

Anakapalli,
15 km
Visakhapatnam, 40
Km.
Nearest town
Atchutapuram,
4 km
Nearest
Sea Gangavaram, 30
Port
Km
Nearest forest
Panchadarla RF,
Pudimadaka RF,
Rambilli RF &
Gokivada RF

Bay of Bengal
Tuni,
18 km
Visakhapatnam,
100 Km.
Tuni,
18 Km
Gangavaram,
75 Km.
Payakaraopeta
RF and Vempadu
RF

Swarnmukhi River/
Bay of Bengal
Nayudupeta,
10 Km.
Chennai,
140 Km
Nayudupeta,
10 Km
Krishnapatnam,
70 Km
Rosanuru PF and
Venumbaka RF

5.1.4 Conclusion
The site near Pudimadaka at Atchutapuram (Site-I) was preferred and selected
after examining the following advantages & facts over the site near Nakkapali
Mandal (Site-II) and Nayadupeta (Site-III).

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Site-I


The land has already been acquired by APIIC and in their position. The
compensation has been already paid to the villagers. No Rehabilitation and
Resettlement is involved for this land;

The land use of site near Pudimadaka is completely dry land (identified in
SEZ) and also free from any forestland;

The land identified near Pudimadaka is about 2-3 km away from the sea
coast; and

Hence, the proposed site is most suitable for setting up of the power project.

Site-II


The land has been identified and to be acquired by APIIC;

The site near Nakkapali comprises of 4 to 5 villages mainly Rajyyapeta,


Chandanada, Bughiraju Peta and their hamlets;

Land use of Nakkapali site comprises of dry and wet land with some
commercial crops like coconut, cashew and palm trees etc. and also
surrounded by Payakaraopeta and Vempadu Reserved Forest;

About 5-6 hillocks are located near Nakkapali site and the ground levels are
highly undulated ranging from 5 m to 60 m;

The land identified near Nakkapali site is along the sea coast and attracts
CRZ demarcation study from the sea coast;

The site near Nakkapali is having a salt pan near village Rajayyapeta; and

Hence, the proposed site is not suitable for setting up of the power project.

Site-III


The land has already been acquired by APIIC under MPSEZ Notification and is
in their position. The compensation has already been paid to the villagers. No
Rehabilitation and Resettlement is involved for this land;

The river Swarnmukhi is passing very close to the site;

The site near Nayudupeta comprises of 2 to 3 villages mainly Paluchuru,


Menuaru, Avithram and their hamlets;

Land use of Nayadupeta site comprises of dry and wet land with some
agricultural crops;

Site is surrounded by Rosanuru Protected forest and Venumbaka Reserved


Forest;

The source of water i.e. Bay of Bengal is located at a distance of about 40 km


from the proposed site and thus construction of makeup water a corridor
may be difficult due to heavy population and large industrial development in
these zones.

Hence, the proposed site is not suitable for setting up of the power project.

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FIGURE-5.1
MAP SHOWING SITE-I
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FIGURE-5.2
MAP SHOWING SITE-II
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FIGURE-5.3
MAP SHOWING SITE-III
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Super Critical Technology


Power generation in India is dominated by thermal power generation, which is
predominantly based on subcritical coal fired technology. Efficiency of a coal
based unit strongly depends upon the steam parameters being used. With
sufficient operating experience gained through operation of 500 MW subcritical
units in the country, it was thought prudent to further raise the steam
parameters. Next logical step was to go for super critical technology.
A super critical plant uses super critical steam parameters at the super heater
outlet. By definition of critical point of steam, a super critical plant uses main
steam pressure more than 256-279 kg/cm2 and temperature higher than 568603OC. As main steam temperature used in thermal power plants, even in the sub
critical plants, is already above 568OC since quite a long time, a super critical
plant can be conveniently defined as the one operating at a main steam pressure
higher than 256- 279 kg/cm2 and main steam temperature higher than 568OC.
Main steam pressures of 256-279 kg/cm2 and main steam temperatures of
568OC-603OC and reheat steam temperature of 596OC-603OC are quite common
for super critical plants now a days.
Super critical technology has many advantages over sub-critical technology.
Plants with super critical technology have better efficiency due to higher steam
parameters resulting in lesser coal consumption than the sub-critical plants.
Lower amount of coal burnt in the power plant for same amount of electrical
power being produced means lesser CO2 and SOx emissions. Carbon-dioxide
emissions, a major cause of concern today due to its global warming potential
causing climate change are reduced. This has been a major factor for adoption of
supercritical technology.
Capital cost of a super critical plant is higher than that of sub-critical plant due to
its higher operating pressure and also because of use of superior materials in
boiler and turbine. This additional capital cost depending on fuel cost, may be
offset by saving in fuel cost. If the fuel cost is high, then saving due to efficiency
improvement is more. This saving in operational expenses may compensate the
increased capital expenditure of supercritical units. Further, techno-economy for
supercritical units may be achieved by increasing the unit size, which provides
economy of scale. Generally Techno-Economics justifies the use of supercritical
parameters where fuel prices are high. Furthermore, modern super-critical plants
are also known to have better load following capabilities as once-through design
of these boilers have fewer thick section components than the conventional drum
type boilers used for sub-critical plants.
Considering the advantages mentioned above, NTPC has moved forward in
adopting super critical technology (steam parameters 256-279 kg per cm2/
568oC/603oC). Adoption of super critical technology with steam parameters of
256-279 kg per cm2/ 568oC/603oC will increase the efficiency by approximately 1
% point, while the carbon emission would reduce by approximately 2.6% per
kwhr.

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To improve the efficiency, second step is to move forward by adopting further


improved parameters (256-279 kg per cm2/ 568oC/603oC) for other project. Use
of these advanced super critical parameters will increase the efficiency by
approximately 2% point, while the carbon emission would reduce by
approximately 5.4 % per kwhr (approximately 198 million Kg per year per 660
MW unit).
Adoption of super critical parameters results in savings of natural resources such
as coal and water. Coal saving due to adoption of 247 kg per cm2/ 537oC/565oC
will be of about 0.14 MTPA and water saving of 5000 cubic meter/hr. Similarly
saving in coal consumption will be about 0.29 MTPA and saving in water of about
10500 cubic meter/hr for further improved parameters of 247 kg per cm2/
565oC/593oC.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM

6.1

Objectives

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Regular monitoring of the critical environmental parameters is essential to take into


account the changes in the status of environment during plant operation. The
monitoring program for the proposed super thermal power project will serve as an
indicator for any change in environment quality so that suitable mitigatory and
effective corrective measures could be taken in time to safeguard the environment.
The main objectives of environmental monitoring are:


6.2

To assess the change in the environmental conditions; and


To monitor the effectiveness of implementation of mitigation measures.

Environmental Monitoring and Control


Monitoring of environmental components during operation phase is a part and
parcel of the environmental mitigation measures. Only frequent monitoring can
assess the functioning and efficiency of all pollution control equipment and helps
in planning suitable mitigatory steps that could be taken in time to safeguard the
environment. Thus, the project proponent has to establish a separate full-fledged
environmental laboratory to monitor air, water, noise level in the impact zone.
For this purpose a strategic post project monitoring plan will be developed and
shall be implemented by the project proponent.
Monitoring activity is mainly envisaged for

6.3

Meteorology;
Air Quality (stack missions & ambient air including fugitive missions) ;
Water Quality (treated and untreated effluents);
Soil Quality;
Impact on ecology & green belt cover; and
Noise level.

Proposed Monitoring Program

6.3.1 Air Quality Monitoring


Air quality monitoring shall be carried out as per Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB) guidelines at four locations in the study area in consultation with Andhra
Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (AP SPCB). Air quality monitoring includes
ambient air quality monitoring, stack gas emissions. It is recommended that a
full-fledged meteorological station and continuous AAQ monitoring stations shall
be installed in and around site to generate on site meteorological and AAQ data
during operation phase as per TABLE-6.1

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TABLE-6.1
AIR QUALITY MONITORING SCHEDULE
Sr.
No.
1

Discipline of
Monitoring
Meteorology

Ambient
Quality

Air

Stack Emission

Number of
Frequency of
Monitoring Stations
Monitoring
One observatory in the Daily/ continuous
Plant area

4 (four)
locations in
consultation
with
APSPCB

Continuous
hourly)

(24

Two

On-line Continuous
(24 hourly)

Parameters to be
Analysed

Wind speed (min. &


max.), Wind
Direction,
Temperature:

Relative Humidity,
Atmospheric
Pressure:

Rainfall
PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx and
Hg
SPM, SO2, NOx and Hg
emission from stack

6.3.2 Water Quality Monitoring


Water quality monitoring includes source surface water, ground water, plant
effluent and sewage characteristics. The monitoring will be carried out as per
CPCB guidelines and in consultation with AP SPCB. The monitoring schedule with
monitoring plan during operation phase of Pudimadaka STPP are summarized in
TABLE-6.2.
TABLE-6.2
WATER AND WASTEWATER MONITORING SCHEDULE
Sr.
No.
1

Discipline of
Monitoring
Surface Water
Quality

Number of
Monitoring Stations
2 to 3 locations near
project area and ash
pond area

Parameters to be
Analyzed
Physico-chemical and
Bacteriological
parameters: Monthly
Heavy metals: Quarterly.
2
Ground Water
2 to 3 locations,
Monthly/
As per parameters
Quality
around ash pond
Quarterly
specified under IS:10500
Physico-chemical and
Bacteriological
parameters: Monthly,
Heavy metals: Quarterly
3
Plant
Main plant effluent
Fortnightly/
In accordance with EPA
Effluents*
from Central Effluent
quarterly
Rule, 1986 or guidelines
Monitoring Basin.
of AP SPCB.
Physio-chemical
Heavy metals
4
Sanitary
Treated water quality
Once in a
As per EPA rule 1986,
effluents
from STP
month
Physio-chemical and
Bacteriological parameters
* All Plant discharges including boiler blow down, ash pond effluent etc. are routed to
Central Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB)

Chapter-6: Environmental Monitoring Programme

Frequency of
Monitoring
Monthly/
Quarterly

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6.3.3 Noise
The ambient noise monitoring should be carried out at six locations in nearby
villages around the plant boundary twice a year.
The noise levels should be monitored for the work environment. The noise level
inside the power plant near noise generating equipment shall be monitored
continuously for 8 hours. The Leq value and frequency analysis should be done.
The noise monitoring has to be done once in six months at all the individual
equipment, which produces more than 90 dB (A) noise level.
6.3.4 Soil
The soil monitoring program will include monitoring of physical and chemical
parameters, including organic content and heavy metals. Soil sampling and
analysis will be carried out at selected locations near the ash disposal site and onsite hazardous waste storage areas. Soil quality of nearby villages will also be
assessed once in a year.
6.3.5 Ecology
Impact on ecology of the greenbelt and surrounding area will be undertaken once
in three years.
The records of the monitored values have to be properly maintained. The
monitoring reports have to be submitted to regional office of MoEF&CC every six
months. Additionally, the monitoring results have to be part of environmental
statement audit report to be submitted to CPCB/ MoEF&CC every year.
6.4

Infrastructural Requirements for Monitoring


It is recommended that the proposed unit should have a separate environmental
laboratory for purpose of carrying out regular post-project monitoring. Basic
equipment like ambient air quality samplers, on line stack monitoring equipment,
weighing balance (milligram level), colorimeters/ spectrophotometer are required
for environmental laboratory. In case some part of monitoring/ analysis has to be
outsourced to outside laboratories, only those recognized by MoEF&CC/ AP SPCB/
NABL should be employed.

6.4.1 Laboratory Equipment for Monitoring


a) Air Quality and Meteorology
Following equipment and consumable items should be made available for
monitoring by the project proponent to implement the monitoring program:

Particulate matter monitoring system;


Respirable dust samplers (PM10 & PM2.5 compatible);
Online stack monitoring equipment (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx and Hg); and
Meteorological observatory station.

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b) Water and Wastewater Quality


The sampling and analysis will be done as per the standard procedures laid down
by BIS: 2488 and APHA. Following equipments should be procured:
Accordingly, water & wastewater laboratory needs to be established with proper
equipment, apparatus, glass wares, reagents, etc.

BOD incubator;
COD reflux set up;
Refrigerator;
Oven;
Single pan balance;
Thermometer;
pH meter;
Titration set;
Dissolved oxygen analyzer;
Conductivity meter; and
Relevant chemicals for air and water analysis.

C) Noise levels
An integrating sound level meter to record noise levels in different scales like
weighting with slow and fast response options should be procured.
6.5

Environmental Cost
The cost of setting up the laboratory for regular monitoring of various
environmental parameters will be approximately Rs. 1.5 Crores including the cost
of online stack and ambient air quality monitoring systems with their installations.

6.6

Environmental Organizational Setup


The post operational monitoring program will be under the supervision of the
Environmental Management Group (EMG) at the project site. The EMG at site will
interact with Andhra Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (AP SPCB) and other
environmental regulatory bodies for all environmental related issues during
operation of the station.
An Environmental Management Group (EMG) will be setup at Pudimadaka STPP.
Addl. General Manager (EMG) would head this group who will be assisted by a
Senior Manager (EMG) and other supporting staff. EMG will be responsible for the
performance of environmental management systems at the plant for the
protection of environment. EMG will have sufficient trained manpower and
equipment for monitoring and other environmental related activities to ensure
that statutory requirements are complied.

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6.6.1 Functions of Environmental Management Group at Site










6.7

Obtaining consent from AP SPCB;


Environmental monitoring;
Analysis of environment data, reports, preparations and transmission of report
to statutory authorities, Corporate Centre etc.;
Compliance with guidelines and statutory requirements;
Coordination with statutory bodies, functional groups of the station, Corporate
EMG / Engineering etc;
Interaction for evolving and implementation of modification programs to
improve the availability / efficiency of pollution control devices / systems;
Environmental appraisal (internal) and environmental audit; and
Formulating strategy for ash utilization & compliance to MoEF&CC guidelines.

Submission of Monitoring Reports to MoEF&CC


As per the requirements, the status of Environmental Clearance (EC) stipulation
implementation will be submitted to Regional MoEF&CC in hard and soft copy by
1st December for the period from April to September and by 1st June for the
period from October to March of every year. The conventional pollutants will be
monitored on monthly basis and reports will be submitted to AP SPCB as per the
requirements.

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ADDITIONAL STUDIES
This chapter describes the public consultation for the proposed project, social
impacts assessment, details of land to be acquired and action plan, Rehabilitation
& Resettlement (R&R) Plan, Socio-economic development activities, Risk
assessment due to plant operation and Disaster management plan etc.

7.1

Public Consultation
The public hearing for the proposed project will be conducted through Andhra
Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (APSPCB) at the project site. The public
hearing will be conducted inline with the EIA Notification dated 14th September
2006 and subsequent amendments. The public hearing notice will be published in
2 leading newspapers widely circulated in the region, one in English and one in
Telugu language indicating the date and venue. In addition, the nearby villagers
will be informed about the public hearing in local language (Telugu) by loud
speakers. After completion of the public hearing, the Public Hearing minutes
along with its action plan will be incorporated in the Final EIA report.

7.2

Risk and Hazard Assessment

7.2.1 Introduction
An industrial disaster arises when a major accident occurring in the factory
becomes uncontrollable and its consequences go out of the factory boundaries.
Hazards are inherent to all industrial operations since they involve handling of
hazardous materials (flammable, explosive, corrosive and toxic materials).
Risk assessment is a methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by
analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that
could pose a potential threat or harm to people, property, livelihoods and the
environment on which they depend.
Risks are inherent in proposed thermal power plant operations since they involve
working with;

High pressure super-heaters, re-heaters, economizer units exchanging heat


with the hot flue gases;
Turbines that utilize the HP steam to generate power;
Fuel oil handling units;
Hydrogen as a coolant in turbo generators drawn from hydrogen cylinders ;
and
Switchyard including transformers and isolators.

Nevertheless, a properly designed and operated plant will have a very low
probability (to a level of acceptable risk) of accident occurrence. Subsequently, a
properly designed and executed management plan can further reduce the
probability of any accident turning into an on-site emergency and/or an off-site
emergency. The four major steps in risk assessment are hazard identification,
dose response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization.
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Hazard identification is a process that determines the potential human


health effects that could result from exposure to a hazard. This process
requires a review of the scientific literature. The literature includes
information published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
federal or state agencies, and health organizations. Identification of causes
and types of hazards is the primary task for planning for risk assessment.
Hazard can happen because of the nature of chemicals handled and also
the nature of process involved. So, for risk analysis first step is to identify
the hazardous chemicals which are to be studied for risk analysis.
Identification of Hazardous Chemicals is done in accordance with The
Manufacture, Storage and import of Hazardous Chemical Rules,
1989. Schedule 1, of the Rule provides a list of the Toxic and Hazardous
chemicals and the flammable chemicals. It defines the flammable
chemicals based on the flash point and boiling point.
"Major Accident Hazards (MAH) installations" is defined as the
isolated storage and industrial activity at a site handling (including
transport through carrier or pipeline) of hazardous chemicals equal to or in
excess of the threshold quantities.

ii)

Dose-response or toxicity assessment is the determination of how


different levels of exposure to a hazard or pollutant affect the likelihood or
severity of health effects. Responses/effects can vary widely since all
chemicals and contaminants vary in their capacity to cause adverse
effects. The dose-response relationship can be evaluated for either
carcinogenic or no carcinogenic substances.

iii)

Exposure assessment is the determination of the magnitude of


exposure, frequency of exposure, duration of exposure and routes of
exposure by contaminants to human populations and ecosystems. There
are three components to this step.
1. Identification of contaminants being released;
2. Estimation of the amounts of contaminants released from all sources or
the source of concern; and
3. Estimation of the concentration of contaminants.

iv)

Risk characterization is the final step in which toxicology and exposure


data/information are combined to obtain a qualitative or quantitative
expression of risk.

7.2.2 Approach
Risk involves the occurrence or potential occurrence of some accidents consisting
of an event or sequence of events. The risk assessment study covers the
following:

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Site assessment;

Identification of potential hazard areas;

Identification of representative failure cases;

Visualization of the resulting scenarios in terms of fire (thermal radiation) and


explosion;

Assess the overall damage potential of the identified hazardous events and the
impact zones from the accidental scenarios;

Assess the overall suitability of the site from hazard minimization and disaster
mitigation point of view;

Furnish specific recommendations on the minimization of the worst accident


possibilities;

Preparation of broad Disaster Management Plan (DMP), On-site and Off-site


Emergency Plan; and.

Preparation of the Occupational Health Safety Plan.

Hazard Identification
Identification of hazards is of primary significance in the analysis, quantification
and cost effective control of accidents involving chemicals and processes. A
classical definition of hazard states that it is the characteristic of system/process
that presents potential for an accident. Hence, all the components of a
system/process need to be thoroughly examined to assess their potential for
initiating or propagating an unplanned event/sequence of events, which can be
termed as an accident.
Estimation of probability of an unexpected event and its consequences form the
basis of quantification of risk in terms of damage to property, environment or
personnel. Therefore, the type, quantity, location and conditions of release of a
toxic or flammable substance have to be identified in order to estimate its
damaging effects, the area involved, and the possible precautionary measures
required to be taken. Based on the areas and unit operations involved in
generation of power various hazards are identified which are given in Table-7.1.
TABLE-7.1
POTENTIAL RISK AREAS DUE TO PROPOSED THERMAL POWER PLANT
Sr. No.
1
2
3

Blocks/Areas
Coal storage in open yard
Coal Handling Plant including
Bunker area
Boilers

Chapter-7: Additional Studies

Hazards Identified
Fire, Spontaneous Combustion
Fire and/or Dust Explosions
Fire (mainly near oil burners), steam;
Explosions, Fuel Explosions
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Blocks/Areas
Turbo-Generator Buildings

5
6

Power Transformers
Switch-yard Control Room

7
a
b

Hydrogen Plant
Hydrogen and oxygen holders in
Open
Hydrogen Cylinders in R.C.C.
building
Oxygen cylinders in R.C.C. building
Tank Farms
HFO
LDO
Water Treatment

8
a
b
9
a
b
10

Pre-treatment plants
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Steam turbine

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Hazards Identified
Fires in a) Lube Oil systems
b) Cable galleries
c) Short circuits in
i) Control Rooms
ii) Switchgears
Explosion due to leakage of Hydrogen and
fire following it.
Fire in Oil Drum Storage
Explosion and fire
Fire in cable galleries and
Switchgear/Control Room
Explosion and/or fire, Physical dangers

Fire

Release of Chlorine - Toxicity


Corrosive
Hydrogen and lube oil leak leading to
fire/smoke

7.3.1 Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)


PHA is based on the philosophy "Prevention Is Better Than Cure". Safety is
relative and implies freedom from danger or injury. But there is always some
element of danger or risk associated during the operation phase. This calls for
identification of hazards, quantification of risk and further suggests hazardmitigating measures, if necessary.
The purpose of the preliminary hazard analysis is to identify at the outset the
potential hazards associated with design process, or inherent in a process design,
thus eliminating costly and time consuming delays caused by design changes
made later. This also eliminates potential hazard points at design stage itself.
Hence, preliminary hazard analysis is more relevant when a plant is at
design/construction stage. This analysis fortifies the proposed process design by
incorporating additional safety factors into the design criteria.
An assessment of the conceptual design has to be conducted for the purpose of
identifying and examining hazards related to feed stock materials, major process
components, utility and support systems, environmental factors, proposed
operations, facilities, and safeguards.
In the proposed plant, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium Hydroxide and Chlorine will be
stored in tanks and cylinders to meet its requirement.
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The major hazards associated with the plant (Table-7.2) have to be carried out
followed by consequence analysis to quantify these hazards. Finally the
vulnerable zones have to plotted for which risk reducing measures will be
deduced and implemented.
The following scenarios have been considered for the PHA:

Spillage of chemicals while handling; and


Leakage of chlorine.
TABLE-7.2
PHA FOR PROPOSED POWER PLANT
PHA Category
Environmental
factors

Description of
Plausible Hazard
Spillage of chemicals
while
handling
(HCl,
NaOH)
Spillage of chemicals or
baths into trench

Chlorine leakage

Recommendation
The spillage should be treated as per
MSDS of each chemical. A copy of MSDS
should be kept in chemical laboratory and
stores
 The source of the spillage should be
immediately identified and plugged;
 The spilled chemical should be
washed with copious water and the
washed water should be collected in
floor wash tank; and
 The washed water in floor wash tank
should be treated as per waste
treatment
procedure
till
it
is
exhausted.
 An automatic chlorine leak absorption
system should be provided for
chlorination
plant
to
neutralise
chlorine leakage;
 Chlorination plant shall be provided
with required chlorine containers,
instrumentation panels, chlorine leak
detectors etc.;
 Use ammonia spray or swab for
identifying leakage. (A white cloud
indicates Chlorine leakage);
 For persistent leakage connect a
flexible hose pipe and put the pipe in
the tank containing Caustic soda; and
 Isolate the area until the gas has
dispersed.

7.3.2 Classification of Major Hazardous Units


Hazardous substances may be classified into three main classes; namely
flammable substances, unstable substances and toxic substances. The ratings for
a large number of chemicals based on flammability, reactivity and toxicity have
been given in NFPA Codes 49 and 345 M. The major hazardous materials to be
stored, transported, handled and utilized within the facility have been
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summarized in the Table-7.3. The fuel storage details and properties are given in
Table-7.4 and Table-7.5 respectively.
TABLE-7.3
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORED, TRANSPORTED AND HANDLED
Materials
LDO

Hazardous Properties
UN 1203. Dangerous Goods class 3 Flammable
Liquid
Dangerous Goods class 3 - Flammable Liquid

HFO

TABLE-7.4
CATEGORY WISE SCHEDULE OF STORAGE TANKS
Sr.
No.
1
2

Material
LDO
HFO

No. of
Tanks
2
3

Design
Capacity (KL)
500 (each)
3700 (each)

Classification
Non-dangerous Petroleum
Non-dangerous Petroleum

TABLE-7.5
PROPERTIES OF FUELS USED IN THE PLANT
Chemical
HFO
LDO
TLV
:
MP
:
UEL
:

Codes/Label

TLV

Flammable
5 mg/m3
Flammable
5 mg/m3
Threshold Limit Value
Melting Point
Upper Explosive Limit

FBP
c
350
400
FBP
FP
LEL

MP
-26
:
:
:

FP

UEL
LEL
%
66
6.0
0.5
32 - 96
7.5
0.6
Final Boiling Point
Flash Point
Lower Explosive Limit

7.3.3 Model Used for Fire Radiation Analysis


Storage cylinders at the plant area store HFO and LDO. The gas/liquid released in
the vicinity of the storage area may be as a result of rupture in cylinders,
mechanical defect and external interference. Radiation Pool fire model has
been used to estimate radiation intensity distances for Furnace Oil.
Damage Criteria
The fuel storage and unloading at the storage facility may lead to fire and explosion
hazards. The damage criteria due to an accidental release of any hydrocarbon arise
from fire and explosion. The vapors of these fuels are not toxic and hence no effects
of toxicity are expected.
Tank fire would occur if the radiation intensity is high on the peripheral surface of
the tank leading to increase in internal tank pressure. Pool fire would occur when
fuels collected in the dyke due to leakage gets ignited.

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Fire Damage

A flammable liquid in a pool will burn with a large turbulent diffusion flame. This
releases heat based on the heat of combustion and the burning rate of the liquid. A
part of the heat is radiated while the rest is convicted away by rising hot air and
combustion products. The radiations can heat the contents of a nearby storage or
process unit to above its ignition temperature and thus result in a spread of fire.
The radiations can also cause severe burns or fatalities of workers or fire fighters
located within a certain distance. Hence, it will be important to know beforehand the
damage potential of a flammable liquid pool likely to be created due to leakage or
catastrophic failure of a storage or process vessel. This will help to decide the
location of other storage/process vessels, decide the type of protective clothing the
workers/fire fighters need, the duration of time for which they can be in the zone,
the fire extinguishing measures needed and the protection methods needed for the
nearby storage/process vessels.
Table-7.6 tabulates the damage effect on equipment and people due to thermal
radiation intensity.
TABLE-7.6
DAMAGE DUE TO INCIDENT RADIATION INTENSITIES
Sr.
No.
1

Incident
Radiation
(kw/m2)
37.5

25.0

19.0

12.5

4.5

Minimum energy required to


ignite wood at indefinitely long
exposure without a flame
Maximum
thermal
radiation
intensity allowed on thermally
unprotected adjoining equipment
Minimum energy to ignite with a
flame; melts plastic tubing
--

1.6

--

Type of Damage Intensity


Damage to Equipment
Damage to People
Damage to process equipment

100% lethality in 1 min.


1% lethality in 10 sec.
50% Lethality in 1 min.
Significant injury in 10 sec.
--

1% lethality in 1 min.
Causes pain if duration is
longer
than
20
sec,
however blistering is unlikely (First degree burns)
Causes no discomfort on
long exposures

Source: Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards by World Bank

Damage Distances

The level of damage caused by heat radiation due to fire is a function of duration
of exposure as well as heat flux (i.e. radiation energy onto the object of
concern).This is true both for the effect on building and plant equipment and for
the effect on personnel. However the variation of likely exposures times is more
marked with personnel, due to possibility of finding shelter coupled with
protection of the skin tissue (clothed or naked body). Further, it is assumed that

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everyone inside the area by the pool fire will be burned to death (100% lethality)
or will asphyxiate.
The damage and fatality (percentage of the exposed people to be killed) due to
the exposure time is very important in determining the degree of fatality and
corresponding effect distance. It is observed that the exposed persons normally
find shelter or protection from the heat radiation (e.g. against a wall) within 10
seconds. However, exposure time of 30 seconds is normally assumed for
pessimistic calculation which applies if people do not run away immediately or
when no protection is available.
For planning purposes, the various damage effects of flammable gas releases
must be converted to a common unit of measure. Since spacing allowances are
the main design tool, a damage distance is defined for this purpose as the
distance within which damage exceeds a specified threshold level.
Ignition of a flammable vapour leak may cause a fire, explosion, or boiling liquid
expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). Damage or death may occur due to blast
overpressures, fire or radiation effects or projectiles.
Bulk storages for furnace oil and storage of raw materials are separately located.
Three nos. of heavy oil (HFO) storage tank of capacity 3700 KL & two numbers of
LDO tank of 500 KL capacity is located to store the fuel oil. Raw materials will be
received in drums/bags either by rail or road pipeline and would be pumped into
storage tanks. Failure of hose pipe or catastrophic failure of any storage tanks
can result in spread out of the contents. The details of release of HFO and LDO
from the storage facilities are presented in Table 7.7. If these vapours come in
contact with source of ignition, it can result in a major fire and intensities of
radiation of this fire are computed to know the damage distances and to assess
the risk involved. The damage distances for HFO and LDO have been estimated
for instantaneous spill, the results are presented in Table-7.8 and Table-7.9 and
are shown in Figure-7.1 and Figure-7.2 respectively.
TABLE-7.7
RELEASE OF HFO AND LDO FROM THE STORAGE FACILITIES
Scenario
One storage tank on fire
Catastrophic rupture of
storage facility

Release of quantity
HFO
LDO
3700 KL
500 KL
11100 KL
1000 KL

TABLE-7.8
RADIATION INTENSITIES VS. DISTANCE FOR HFO
Radiation Intensities
(kw/m2)
37.5
25
19.0
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Distance from the Centre of the pool


(m)
56.0
70.6
82.6
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4.5
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Distance from the Centre of the pool


(m)
104.8
187.6
338.3

TABLE-7.9
RADIATION INTENSITIES VS. DISTANCE FOR LDO
Radiation Intensities
(kw/m2)
37.5
25
19
12.5
4.5
1.6

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Distance from the Centre of the Pool


(m)
28.0
35.3
41.3
52.4
93.8
169.1

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FIGURE-7.1
RADIATION CONTOURS - HFO
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FIGURE-7.2
RADIATION CONTOURS - LDO
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Risk Assessment
The risk assessment determines whether the risks are tolerable or if risk
mitigation measures are required to reduce the risk to a level which can be
considered to be As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). UK standards are
generally followed here. Risk assessment depends on failure frequency of the
system and probability of ignition and explosion. These are assessed below.
Failure Frequency
The range of possible releases for a given component covers a wide spectrum
from a pinhole leak upto a catastrophic rupture (of a vessel) or full bore rupture
(of a pipe). It is both, time consuming and unnecessary to consider every part of
the range; instead, representative failure cases are generated. For various types
of component and for each of the representative failure frequencies are
summarized in below in Table-7.10.
TABLE 7.10
FAILURE FREQUENCY
Type
Pipe Damages

Liquid Storage Tank


Pressurized Vessel

Failure Case
Leaks
Holes
Ruptures
Significant Leak

Ignition Probability
Ignition probability data is important in quantification of risks. Historical data on
ignition of flammable releases are used as a basis for determining suitable
ignition probabilities. As probability of ignition depends upon availability of source
of ignition, it also depends on the maintenance of safety level.
Estimated Risk Level
Tank fire will take place mostly due to occurrence of leak at rim and subsequent
Struck by lightning. Tank fire and Dyke fire will take place due to full rupture of
liquid outlet and then delayed ignition. As described before Risk level will be
decided on two important parameters of failure frequency and ignition probability.
For Chlorine dispersion it will take place due to failure of pressurized vessel or
some leak at the inlet outlet pipes.
Limitation of the Risk Assessment Study
Any mathematical expression of physical events has some limitations. The
properties of chemicals, release conditions, meteorological data are all used as
ideal data which can have variation in the actual condition. Therefore the
consequences of hazardous incidents will have varying accuracy. Many types of
hazardous incidents can only be assessed by making a variety of simplifying
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assumptions. Many times an ideal simple mode of failure could not be identified in
real disaster event.
Thus Risk Assessment and consequence analysis have a lot of subjective input
and should not be considered an end in itself. These results should be used in
judicious manner utilizing practical knowledge and common wisdom.
7.5

Fire Detection & Protection System


A comprehensive fire detection and protection system is envisaged for the
complete power station. This system shall generally be as per the
recommendations of TAC (India)/ IS: 3034 & NFPA- 850/equivalent standard.
The following protection systems are envisaged:

i)

Sea water after desalination process shall be used for supply to fire water
tank. Two numbers of Steel tanks each of 2130 m3 capacity shall be provided.
for storage of fire water shall be provided. Fire water pumps shall be located
in the fire water pump house and horizontal centrifugal pumps shall be
installed in the pump house for hydrant and spray system and the same shall
be driven by electric motor and diesel engines as per the regulations of TAC.
The water for foam system shall be tapped off from the hydrant system
network;

ii)

For the above fire water pumping station, automatic pressurization system
consisting of jockey pumps shall be provided;

iii)

Hydrant system for complete power plant covering main plant building, boiler
area, turbine and its auxiliaries, coal handling plant, all pump houses and
miscellaneous buildings of the plant. The system shall be complete with
piping, valves, instrumentation, hoses, nozzles, hose boxes/stations etc.;

iv)

Automatic high velocity water spray system for all transformers located in
transformer yard and transformers having oil capacity of 2000 liters and
above located within the boundary limits of plant, Main and unit turbine oil
tanks and purifier, Oil canal, generator seal oil system, lube oil system for
turbine driven boiler feed pumps, boiler burner fronts, fuel oil station rack in
boiler, etc. This system shall consist of QB detectors, deluge valves,
projectors, valves, piping & instrumentation;

v)

Automatic medium velocity water spray system for cable vaults and cable
galleries of main plant, switchyard control room and ESP control room
consisting of smoke detectors, linear heat sensing cable detectors, deluge
valves, isolation valves, piping, instrumentation, etc.;

vi)

Automatic medium velocity water spray system for coal conveyors, transfer
points, Stacker reclaimer consisting of QB detectors, linear heat sensing
cables, deluge valves, nozzles, piping, instrumentation, etc.;

vii)

Automatic medium velocity water spray system for un-insulated fuel oil tanks
storing fuel oil having flash point 65 deg C and below consisting of QB
detectors, deluge valves, nozzles, piping, instrumentation, etc.;

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viii)

Fixed foam system of bladder tank foam proportioning tank type, consisting of
skid mounted foam bladder tank assembly, foam makers, discharge outlets,
interconnection piping, valves, fitting and instrumentation etc. shall be
provided for fuel oil tanks;

ix)

For protection of Central control room, Control equipment room, Programmer


room, UPS room, etc. Inert Gas extinguishing system as per NFPA-2001 would
be opted;

x)

The clean agent (Novec-1230) automatic direct/indirect low pressure


extinguishing system shall be provided for electrical panels in switchgear
room of make-up water pump house and electrical house of stacker-reclaimer
machines;

xi)

Fire detection and alarm system Microprocessor based analogue,


addressable type Fire detection and Alarm system shall be provided to cover
the complete power plant. Following types of fire detection shall be employed:
1. Multi-sensor type smoke detection system;
2. Linear heat sensing cable detector;
3. Quartzoid bulb heat detection system;
4. Infra red type heat detectors (for selected coal conveyors); and
5. Beam Detector for auditorium building.

xii)

7.6

Portable and mobile extinguishers, such as pressurized water type, carbondioxide type, foam type, dry chemical powder type, shall be provided at
strategic locations throughout the plant.
Disaster Management Plan (DMP)
Disaster: A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society
causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses that
exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own
resources.
Disasters could be categorized into:
1. Natural Disasters: A natural disaster is the result of a natural phenomenon
(e.g., flood, tornado, earthquake, land slide etc). It leads to financial,
environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the
vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their
resilience.
2. Manmade disasters: Manmade disasters are of an anthropogenic origin, and
exemplify some of the terrible accidents that have resulted from human
beings interaction with artificial environment, which they themselves have
created.
Industrial accidents are one good example of manmade disasters.

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7.6.1 Industrial Disasters


Industrial hazards are threats to people and life-support systems that arise from
the mass production of goods and services. When these threats exceed human
coping capabilities or the absorptive capacities of environmental systems they
give rise to industrial disasters. Industrial hazards can occur at any stage in the
production process, including processing, manufacture, transportation, storage,
use, and disposal. Losses generally involve the release of damaging substances
(e.g. chemicals, radioactivity and genetic materials) or damaging levels of energy
from industrial facilities or equipment into surrounding environments. This usually
occurs in the form of explosions, fires, spills, leaks or wastes. Releases may occur
because of factors that are internal to the industrial system (e.g. engineering
flaws) or they may occur because of external factors (e.g. extremes of nature).
Disasters occur throughout the world, but their economic and social impacts have
been increasing and are generally much greater in developing countries than in
developed ones. The disproportionate effect on developing countries has many
explanations. Lack of development itself contributes to disaster impacts, both
because the quality of construction often is low and building codes, land
registration processes and other regulatory mechanisms are lacking, as well as
because numerous other development priorities displace attention from the risks
presented by natural or manmade events.
7.6.2 Objectives of DMP
The objective of the industrial DMP is to make use of the combined resources of
the plant and the outside services to achieve the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Effect the rescue and medical treatment of casualties;


Safeguard other people;
Minimize damage to property and the environment;
Initially contain and ultimately bring the incident under control;
Identify any dead;
Provide for the needs of relatives;
Provide authoritative information to the news media;
Secure the safe rehabilitation of affected area; and
Preserve relevant records and equipment for the subsequent inquiry into the
cause and circumstances of the Emergency.

In effect, it is to optimise operational efficiency to rescue, rehabilitate and render


medical help and to restore normalcy.
7.6.3 Disaster Control Measures
Events like explosion pool fire, toxic release and fireball are such calamities,
which had never been foreseen, and for the persons working in the plant doing
routine type of operations, the procedure becomes so monotonous that they
forget that such type of events could occur any moment. Under these
circumstances, as the people are unaware, they flee in all directions by vehicles
or on foot. Although the traffic is halted, it leads to a massive jam making access
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to the site impossible for the rescue team. Due to explosions and smoke leading
to confusion of common people, coordination becomes difficult and without the
cooperation of these persons, the situation becomes uncontrollable.
Though the probability values of occurrence of major hazards considered yet give
a message of not to panic, but at the same time asks us to keep ourselves ready
to face such type of eventualities. Emergency preparedness planning can be
divided in two subsections:
1) On-site Emergency Planning
2) Off-site Emergency Planning
The On-site and Off-site emergency plans cover personnel employed and the
population of various localities around the project.
7.6.4 On-Site Disaster Management Plan
a) Preventive and predictive system;
b) Protective systems;
c) Personnel protective equipment;
d) Mock drill and simulation exercises;
e) Mutual aid scheme;
f) Communications;
g) Medical facilities; and
h) Reporting to external agencies.
The Onsite Disaster Management Plan is aimed to ensure safety of life, protection
of environment, protection of installation, restoration of production and salvage
operation in this same order of priorities. The objective of the emergency plan is
to make use of the combined resources of the plant and the outside services to
achieve the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Affect the rescue and medical treatment of casualties;


Safeguard other people;
Minimize damage to property and the environment;
Initially contain and ultimately bring the incident under control;
Identify the affected;
Provide for the needs of relatives;
Provide authoritative information to the news media;
Secure the safe rehabilitation of affected area; and
Preserve relevant records and equipment for the subsequent enquiry into the
cause and circumstances of Emergency.

Proposed project will have the facility to store various hazardous chemicals (such
as liquid chlorine, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen gas, liquid
ammonia) and flammable Combustible materials (such as furnace oil, light diesel
oil, lubricants, petrol, diesel, coal etc.) Considering the process and the material
to be used, the following hazards are identified along with the probable areas of
occurrence as summarized in Table-7.11.
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TABLE-7.11
NATURE OF HAZARDS
Nature of Hazard
Fire Hazards (Slow
Isolated or Fast
Spreading)

Explosion Hazard

Bursting of Pipe
Lines & Vessels
Release of Gases /
Dust

Release of Liquid

Potential Areas / Locations of Occurrence


Coal Handling Plan Coal Conveyor;
Cable Galleries Cable Trays in all plant sections;
Fuel Oil Handling and Storage Areas;
Transformer and Switch Yard Areas;
Oil and Lubricants Stores; and
Boiler area.
Hydrogen Plant;
Turbo generators;
Transformers;
Boiler; and
Coal dust in mills and boilers.
Steam pipes due to high pressure temperature;
Water pipes due to high pressure; and
Hydrogen Lines and Chlorine Lines.
Chlorine in Water Treatment Plant;
Hydrogen in Turbo Generator area of main plant and
H2 plant;
Flue gases from ducts; and
Coal dust in transfer points, CHP Crusher & Mill area.
Chemicals tanks in Water Treatment Plant;
Fuel Oil tanks in Fuel oil handling section; and
Chlorine from Chlorine toners.

7.6.4.1Control Requirement for On-Site Emergency Plan


The Disaster Management Plan includes the way in which designated people at
the site of the incident can initiate supplementary action both inside and outside
the works at an appropriate time. An essential element of the plan is to make
safe the affected unit, for example by shutting down. The plan includes the full
sequence of key personnel to be called in from other sections or from off-site.
Management will ascertain that sufficient resources exist at their works to carry
out the plan for various assessed incidents in conjunction with preliminary
services, for example, sufficient water for cooling and fire fighting.
7.6.4.2 Alarm and Communication Mechanism
Communication is crucial factor in handling an emergency. As a general practice,
all employees will be able to raise an emergency alarm so that the earliest
possible action can be taken to control the situation. There will be an adequate
number of points from where the alarm can be raised either directly by activating
an audible warning or indirectly, viz. a signal or message to the permanently
manned location.

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7.6.4.3 Emergency Control Center


The Emergency Control Center is the place from where the operations to handle
the emergency are coordinated. An Emergency Control Centre (ECC) will be
equipped with relevant data and equipment to assist the control center personnel
in disaster management. The Emergency Control Centre is managed by Deputy
General Manager/General Manager in charge of Operation and Maintenance of
plant, Safety Officer and the senior officers of the other services. Other personnel
will not have access to the control center. Emergency Control Center will be sited
in an area of minimum risk and preferably close to a main road to allow for easy
access to a radio-equipped vehicle for use if other systems fail or extra
communication facilities are needed. An alternate center, similarly equipped, will
also be available at a different location. Emergency Control Center will contain.

Master plan of the facility;


Layout of facility, equipment and storage;
Layout of Fire water system and other sources of water supply;
Availability and location of firefighting equipment and material;
Layout of fire extinguishers indicating their types and numbers;
First aid boxes;
Availability and location of personal protective equipment;
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus sets and the spare cylinders;
External telephones;
List of important telephone numbers, both internal and external;
Stretchers;
Transport facility;
Assembly points along with escape routes to be highlighted;
Extra copies of the facility layout to be used for spot marking of affected
areas, movement of vehicles, problem areas, evacuated areas, etc.;
Details of hazardous substances along with the material safety data sheets;
Telephone directory both local as well as of the surrounding district;
General stationery like paper, pencil, etc.;
Nominal roll and addresses of all permanent employees;
List of employees especially with blood groups;
Details of all contractors and their employees;
List of first aiders and emergency squad members;
Public address system; and
Two copies of the Risk Assessment Report and On-site Emergency Plans.

7.6.4.4 Action Plan for On-Site Emergency Identification of Responsibilities


The on-site disaster management plan identifies Main Controller (General
Manager), Incident Controller (AGM / DGM), Field Operation Controller (next in
Command), Designated Key Personnel of Emergency Control Center (Sr. Supdts /
Engineer - in Charge of Operation, Electrical Maintenance, Mechanical
Maintenance, Control and Instrumentation and Chemistry; Heads of Personnel /
Industrial Relations / Labour Welfare/ Safety/ Technical Services; Chief Medical
Officer; Commandant / Asst. Commandant/ Fire Officer from CISF; Engineer-inCharge of Auto Base; Public Relation Officer etc.). The plan also specifies
responsibilities of these personnel in case of an emergency and draws an action
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plan to be followed. It also specifies the responsibilities for Declaration of


Emergency and giving All Clear Signal. The list of key personnel and their phone
numbers will be informed to all concerned suitably.
As necessary they decide the actions needed to shut down plant, evacuate
personnel, carry out emergency repair works, arrange supplies of equipment &
personnel, carry out atmospheric tests, provide catering facilities, liaison with
police, informing relative of the victims, briefing press media etc. Main Controller
and Incident Controller will be assisted by two support teams and functional area
team on site emergency teams with their responsibilities are as follows:
Support Team to
Main Controller
(MC)

Support Team to
Work Incident
Controller (IC)

Consisting of Heads of Personnel, Materials and Finance Divisions;


to function in consultation with MC for the following.

Contacting statutory authorities;

Arranging for relieves and catering facilities;

Giving information to media;

Contacting medical centers and nursing homes;

Providing all other support, as necessary;

Arranging for urgently required materials through cash


purchase or whatever means; and

Arranging funds for various relief measures as well as


emergency purchase of materials, sending his representative
for emergency purchase.
Consisting of Sr. Manager (Admn.), Sr. Supdt. (Operation), Sr.
Supdt. (Elect. Maintenance), Sr. Supdt. (Mech. Maintenance) and
any more persons depending upon the need to assist the IC in
manning communication and passing instructions to the teams.
One Steno Secretary shall also be available with IC for recording all
information coming in and instructions going out.

In addition to the support teams mentioned above, there will be a team for each
functional area, as described below:
Task Force

Maintenance Team

Fire Fighting Team

Auto Base Team

Communication
Team

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To identify source of hazard and try to neutralize / contain it;


To isolate remaining plant and keep that in safe conditions;
To organize safe shutdown of plant, if necessary; and
To organize all support services like operation of the fire pumps,
sprinkler system etc.
Attend to all emergency maintenance jobs on top priority;
To take steps to contain or reduce the level of hazard created due
to disaster; and
To organize additional facilities as desired.
To rush to fire spot and extinguish fire;
To seek help from outside fire fighting agencies; and
To evacuate persons effected.
To make the auto base vehicles ready to proceed for evacuation or
other duties, when asked for;
To send at least one mechanic at the site of incidence where he
may help in attending minor defects in ambulance, fire tender or
other vehicles;
To arrange petrol / diesel supply; and
Make all arrangements regarding transportation.
To maintain the communication network in working condition;
To attend urgent repairs in the communication system, if required;
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Administration
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Safety Team

Medical Team

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To arrange messengers for conveying urgent messages when


needed; and
To help NTPC Ltd. Authorities to communicate with external or
internal authorities / officials.
To man all gates;
To ban entry of unauthorized persons;
To permit, with minimum delay, the entry of authorized personnel
and outside agencies, vehicles etc. who have come to help; and
To allow the ambulance / evacuation vehicles etc. to go through
the gates without normal checks.
To rescue the casualties on priority basis;
To transport casualties to first aid post, safety places or medical
centers;
To account the personnel;
To help in search for missing personnel; and
To pass information to the kith and kin of fatal or serious injured
persons.
To arrange required safety equipment;
To record accidents;
To collect and preserve evidences in connection with accident
injuries; and
To guide authorities on all safety related issues.
To arrange first aid material / stretchers immediately and reach
site of incident
To arrange for immediate medical attention;
To arrange for sending the casualties to various hospitals and
nursing homes etc.; and
To ask for specific medical assistance from outside through Medical
Specialist in consultation with MC/ IC.
To measure gas concentrations at various places, in case of gas
leakage.

7.6.4.5 Emergency Response Facilities


Preliminary facilities envisaged are:
a. Emergency shutdown procedure;
b. A dedicated and pressurized fire fighting ring-main with adequate number of
fire hydrants, fixed position monitors, water curtains, fog nozzles located
strategically throughout the site;
c. A number of fire fighting pumps with both electric and diesel prime movers
backed by adequate supply of raw water;
d. Dedicated fire alarm networks with adequate number of fire alarm call points
and emergency telephone handsets throughout the site;
e. A two-way Public Address (PA) system installed independently in all
production units and also in important service areas;
f. Adequate supply of protective clothing & breathing apparatus will be made
available to all personnel of emergency team; and
g. On-site first aid and treatment center with round the clock medical
attendance.

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7.6.4.6 Outline of Key Emergency Actions


The on-site emergency will be in all probability commence with a major spill of
hazardous chemical like HFO, Chlorine etc. or its uncontrolled release into the
plant atmosphere.
In accordance with the detail on-site emergency plan, the following key personnel
will immediately take control of the emergency.

On-site fire crew led by a fire marshal will arrive at the scene of incident with
fire fighting equipment as necessary;
Emergency Security Controller will commence his role from the main gate
office;
Incident Controller will rush to the scene of emergency;
Works Main Controller will arrive at the ECC with members of Emergency
Control team and will assume absolute control of the site. He will receive
information continuously from Incident Controller & Emergency Security
Controller and give directions to:

Incident Controller;
All plant control rooms;
Emergency Security Controller;
Site or Shift Medical Officer; and
Personnel Manager.

As soon as key emergency personnel will take up positions in their respective


locations, the management of the incident will commence with the site main
controller performing the lead functions. At the site of incident, the incident
controller will directly handle the emergency with the help of specific support
groups.
At the security gate office the emergency security controller and personnel
manager will be in contact with various external agencies as per requirements. At
the site medical centre the shift/site medical officer will take control of medical
support services.
Works main controller, will be directing and deciding a wide range of issues. In
particular, WMC will decide and direct:

Whether the incident controller requires reinforcement both in terms of


manpower and other resources;
Whether staffs in different locations are to be remain indoors or are to be
evacuated and assembled at the designated collection centers;
Whether and when district emergency services are to be called to supplement
the resources of plant's emergency crew, intimation to district authority
should be given;
How to deal with fatalities reported either by incident controller or by shift
medical officer;
These are some of the key emergency decisions and actions, the Works Main
Controller will have to take. When the incident has eventually been brought

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under control as declared by the incident controller, WMC will send two of his
assisting managers for inspection of:
o

o
o
o
o

Site of the incident for an assessment of total damage and prevailing


conditions, with particular attention to possibility of re escalation of the
emergency now under control.
Other parts of the site which might have been affected by impacts of the
incident.
Personnel collection and roll call centers to check if all persons on duty
have been accounted for.
All plant control rooms to assess and record the status of respective plants
and any residual actions deemed necessary; and
Site's first aid and medical center to inspect any casualty(ies), their state
of treatment and also to get a report on off-site hospitalization, for
subsequent follow-up.

The post-emergency inspectors will return to ECC with their observations and
report their findings to WMC.
Based on these reports WMC will communicate further directive to all sub-centers
of emergency management and will finally declare and communicate termination
of emergency and authorize step by step restoration of normal operation of the
site. The sirens will be sounded giving all clear signal.
Important Information
Once the plant goes on stream, important information such as names and addresses
of key personnel, essential employees, medical personnel outside the plant,
transporters address, address of those connected with Off Site Emergency such as
Police, Local Authorities, Fire Services, District Emergency Authority would be
prepared and maintained. The on-site emergency organization chart for various
emergencies is shown in Figure-7.3.

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FIGURE-7.3
ON-SITE EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION CHART
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7.6.5 Evacuation and Assembly Points


In an emergency, it may be necessary to evacuate Personnel from affected areas
and as a precautionary measure, non-essential workers from areas likely to be
affected should emergency escalate. The evacuation will be effected on getting
necessary message from Incident Controller. On evacuation, all the persons shall
assemble at pre-identified and notified Assembly Points.
7.6.5.1 Conducting Evacuation
Once WMC will decide that an area is to be evacuated, the evacuation will be
conducted in a well-coordinated and safe manner. Evacuation involves a number
of steps, which include assigning tasks to evacuate assistance personnel,
informing potential evacuees, providing transportation, emergency medical care
and security for evacuated areas and sheltering evacuees as necessary.
7.6.5.2 Evacuation Tasks
The first step is to assign tasks to evacuation assistance personnel. These tasks
include information concerning:

The specific area to evacuate;


Route of evacuation;
Protective gear to be worn;
Instructions to be given to evacuees;
Transportation of evacuees who are without private transportation;
Assistance to specific population;
Shelter locations;
Traffic and pedestrian control; and
Communication procedures.

The progress of the evacuation efforts will be monitored by WMC who will also
provide continuous direction to evacuation assistance personnel.
7.6.5.3 Security in Evacuated Areas
Once an area is evacuated, law enforcement personnel will guard the area to
prevent looting and other unauthorized sections. Security forces operating in or
around an evacuated area will be dressed in appropriate protective gear.
7.6.5.4 Re-Entry Into Evacuated Areas
Before making the decision to authorize re-entry, data collected by the
monitoring crews will be verified and the advice of health officials to be
considered.
7.6.5.5 Updation of On-Site Plan
On-site plan will be updated based on modifications in the factory or at-least once
a year on specific authorization of Works Manager. Safety Officer will maintain a
record to this effect.
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7.6.5.6 Mock Drill For Rehearsing On-Site Plan


A mock drill to rehearse on-site plan at-least once in a year with a view to train
and make the personnel aware of the procedure in case of emergency will be
carried out by Works Manager. The drill will be conducted seriously and lessons
learnt will be analyzed and corrective actions will be taken. The record of
rehearsal will be maintained.
There are two types of mock drills recommended in Disaster Management Plan Full Mock Drill (to be conducted at least once in 6 months) and Disaster
Management Efficacy Drill (to be conducted at least once in 3 months).
7.6.5.7 Full Mock Drill
This shall be conducted with Plant Head as Chairman; Head of O&M as Vice
Chairman; Heads of Operation, Maintenance, Medical, Personnel, CISF, Auto Base
and Materials as Members and Head of Safety as Convener and it shall test the
following:

Functioning of Emergency Control Center, specifically availability of all


facilities etc as mentioned in the DMP and its functional healthiness;
To evaluate communication of the DMP to all segments of employees, to
familiarize them about their responsibilities in case of any disaster including
evaluation of behaviour of employees and others;
To ensure that all facilities as required under the plan from within or from
nearby industries/aid center under mutual assistance scheme or otherwise
are available;
To ensure that the necessities under material assistance scheme is properly
documented and the concerned employees are fully aware in this regard; and
To ensure that employees are fully aware to fight any emergency like sealing
of chlorine leakage, firefighting other such cause.

7.6.5.8 Disaster Management Efficacy Drill


This shall be conducted with Head of O&M as Chairman and Heads of Personnel,
Communication, CISF and Medical as Members and Head of Safety as Convener
and it shall test the following:

All employees are trained about their responsibilities/duties. They all are
aware about evacuation routes, direction of evacuation, equipment to be used
during evacuation or the method of evacuation;
All employees are fully trained to rescue their colleagues, who may be
affected due to cause of disaster. In case they are unable to rescue their
colleagues, they should know to whom they have to inform about such
persons;
All employees are fully trained in first aid & use of desired equipments
including breathing apparatus. First Aid boxes etc are available at the desired
location;
All warning alarms are functional. Public Address System is in healthy
condition;

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All telephone lines/communication systems are provided in control rooms and


there is no removal of the facilities (as prescribed) for the control rooms;
It is very clear amongst the concerned managers who shall call for assistance
under mutual aid scheme or the facilities from within;
It is clear at the plant, who shall declare emergency; and
It is clear at the plant, who shall inform the District Authorities, State
Authorities and Corporate Center.

The Disaster Management Plan shall be periodically revised based on experiences


gained from the mock drills.
7.6.6 Transport
Vehicles, ambulances and cars available within power plant will immediately be
made available for disaster management. Additional transport based on
requirement will be requisitioned.
Evaluation of Functioning of Disaster Plan (Proposed)
In order to evaluate the functioning and effectiveness of procedures laid in
Disaster Management Plan, regular mock drills are conducted. The Mock drills are
carried out step by step as stated below:
First Step
Second
Step
Third Step
Fourth
Step
Fifth Step

Test the effectiveness of communication system


Test the speed of mobilization of the plant emergency teams
Test the effectiveness of search, rescue and treatment of
casualties.
Test emergency isolation and shut down and remedial measures
taken on the system.
Conduct a full rehearsal of all the actions to be taken during an
emergency.

7.6.7 Off Site Emergency Plan


The off-site emergency plan is an integral part of a hazard control system. It will
be based on the identified accident scenario, which could affect people and
environment outside the works. Thus, the off-site plan follows logically from the
analysis to provide the basis for the on-site plan and the two plans will therefore
complement each other. During preparation of off-site emergency plan, the
district authorities and other organization in the vicinity and pollution control
board would be consulted. The key feature of a good off-site emergency plan is
the flexibility in its an application to emergencies
The following conditions can ordinarily constitute an off-site emergency:

Heavy release of chlorine, due to rupture of valve or rupture of the shell,


explosion in chlorine cylinder due to fire, terrorist activities or otherwise;
resulting in its spread to neighbouring areas; and
Major fire involving combustible materials like oil, and other facilities.

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Under the Environmental Protection Act, the responsibility of preparation of OffSite Emergency Plan lies with the State Government. The Collector/Deputy
Collector are ordinarily nominated by State Government to prepare Off-Site
Emergency Plan.
The District Collector or his nominated representative would be the team leader
of planning team, who shall conduct the planning task in a systematic manner.
The members of planning team for offsite emergencies are Collector/Deputy
Collector, District Authorities, In-charge of Fire Services, Police and members
drawn from Medical Services, Factory Inspectorate, Pollution Control Board,
Industries and Transport. In addition to these members, there are co-opted
members from district authorities concerned, civil defence, publicity department,
Municipal Corporation, and non officials such as elected representative (MPs,
MLAs, voluntary organization, nongovernmental organizations etc).
7.6.7.1 Post Emergency Relief to the Victims
The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 provides for the owner who has control
over handling hazardous substances to pay specified amount of money to the
victims as interim relief by taking insurance policy for this purpose. The District
Collector has definite role in implementation of this act. After proper assessment
of the incident, he shall invite applications for relief, conduct an enquiry into the
claims and arrange payment of the relief amount to the victims.
7.6.7.2 Disaster Prevention and Reduction
NTPC Ltd. recognizes, and accepts its responsibility for establishing and
maintaining a safe working environment for all its employees. This responsibility
arises from:

Company's moral responsibility to its employees, to provide the best


practicable conditions of work from the point of view of health and safety;
The obligation to consult with its staff and their representative to implement
policies and procedures developed as a result of discussions; and
Statutory responsibility in respect of health, safety and welfare of employees
emanating from relevant legislations such as the Factories Act. The Indian
Electricity Act. The Explosive Act, the Boiler Act etc.

7.6.7.3 Responsibilities of the NTPC


NTPC Ltd. shall take all such steps which are reasonably practicable to ensure
best possible conditions of work, and with this end in view the company shall do
the following :

To allocate sufficient resources to provide and maintain safe and healthy


conditions of work;
To take steps to ensure that all known safety factors are taken into account in
the design, construction, operation and maintenance of plants, machinery and
equipment;
To ensure that adequate safety instructions are given to all employees;
To provide wherever necessary protective equipment, safety appliances and

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clothing, and to ensure their proper use;


To inform employees about materials, equipment or processes used in their
work which are known to be potentially hazardous to health or safety;
To keep all operations and methods of work under regular review for making
necessary changes from the point of view of safety in the light of experience
and up to date knowledge;
To provide appropriate facilities for first aid, prompt treatment of injuries and
illness at work;
To provide appropriate instruction, training, retraining and supervision in
health and safety and first aid and ensure that adequate publicity is given to
these matters;
To ensure proper implementation of fire prevention and an appropriate
firefighting service, together with training facilities for personnel involved in
this service;
To ensure that professional advice is made available wherever potentially
hazardous situations exist or might arise;
To organize collection, analysis and presentation of data on accident, sickness
and incident involving personal injury or injury to health with a view to taking
corrective, remedial and preventive action;
To promote through the established machinery, joint consultation in health
and safety matters to ensure effective participation by all employees;
To publish/notify regulations, instructions and notices in the common
language of employees;
To prepare separate safety rules for each type of occupation/process involved
in a project;
To ensure regular safety inspection by a competent person at suitable
intervals of all buildings, equipment, work places and operations; and
To co-ordinate the activities of the company and of its contractors working on
the Company's premises for the implementation and maintenance of safe
systems of work, to comply with their legal obligations with regard to the
health, safety and welfare of their employees.

7.6.7.4 Responsibilities of the Employees


The establishment and maintenance of best possible conditions of work is, no
doubt, the responsibility of management. However, it is also necessary that each
employee follows prescribed safe methods of work. He should take reasonable
care for the health and safety of himself and his fellow employees and of other
persons who may be affected by his action at work. With this in mind, employees
should be health and safety conscious and:Report
Observe
Use

Participate
Make Use
Take

Potential Hazards
Safety rules, procedures and codes of practice
With all reasonable care the tools, equipment, safety equipment and
protective clothing provided by the Company, these items should be kept
in good condition.
In safety training courses when called upon to do so.
Of safety suggestions schemes.
An active and personal interest in promoting health and safety at work.

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7.6.7.5 Responsibility for Implementation

The ultimate responsibility for ensuring the implementation of the policy on


health and safety at work rests on the NTPC Ltd. Management - Corporate
Human Resources Division at the corporate level and the concerned General
Managers at the Project/Station level. The Officers in charge of Safety will be
functionally responsible to the Corporate Centre for ensuring that the policy is
promulgated, interpreted and carried out in the manner expected;

Immediate responsibility for safety at work is that of the Manager/ Executives


of each department/section who are primarily responsible to prevent accidents
involving members of their staff and other persons. It is their responsibility to
issue clear and explicit working instructions, compliance with which will ensure
safe working and to require the effective use of approved equipment;

Accepted rules, procedures and codes of practice which are formulated with
proper regard to health and safety consideration must be strictly observed by
all concerned. Contracting Agencies executing works should be made
responsible, through various measures including appropriate provisions in the
contract, for discharging their safety obligations;

In designated areas of particular hazard the concerned executives are


required to authorize, in writing, the commencement of any work and, before
doing so, personally satisfy themselves that all necessary safety precautions
have been carried out. Such executives must themselves be authorized, in
writing as competent to perform these duties; and

Safety Officers are appointed to advise management on questions of safety at


work including advice on the application in particular local situations of the
system of work, implementation of Company's Rules and Relevant Codes of
Practices in consultation with Area Engineer. They will be consulted in the
interpretation of rules and codes being formulated by the corporate
management and shall advise management in the investigation and analysis
of accidents and circulation of appropriate statistics.

7.6.7.6 Major Site Incidents


The General Manager at Project is required to ensure that plans are devised for
action in the event of fire, major site incident or necessity for evacuation
procedure. These plans must be communicated to all staff and rehearsed from
time to time.

Fire fighting training and the formation of fire-fighting team on a voluntary


basis will be encouraged by the Project/Station Management; and

All accidents and dangerous occurrences will be reported immediately to the


General Manager who will implement an established procedure to ensure that
an investigation takes places and recommendations are made to prevent
recurrence.

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Reporting of Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences


With a view to ensure prompt reporting of accidents and dangerous occurrences
to comply with requirements/obligations under different statutes; and to inform
the concerned authorities within the organization for keeping complete
information of accidents for record and analysis and to take necessary preventive
actions, a procedure for reporting of accidents dangerous occurrences has been
framed. Separate procedures have been formulated for accidents causing
injuries/ fatalities and for dangerous occurrences.
The action plan suggested for control of the off-site emergencies is given in Table7.12.

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TABLE-7.12
OFF-SITE ACTION PLAN
Sr.
No.
A1

Action required to be taken to mitigate disaster by aid giving


agency
Arrangements for evacuation/rescue of persons from zone of
influence to predetermined camps

Responsible agencies for


taking action
Police Department

Equipments/material facilities required at site to


mitigate emergency
Self Breathing apparatus with spare cylinder
Chemical gas mask with spare canister
Vehicle with PA system
Transportation for evacuation of people

Caution to public by announcement

Traffic and Mob control by cordoning of the area

Law & order

Request to railway authority for keeping the nearest by railway gate


open & to stop the up & down trains at the nearest railway station
Control of fire
Scrubbing of the flashed off gas cloud with water curtain

To rescue trapped persons

If fire is big, keep surrounding area cool by spraying water

Communication to MSEB to continue or cut off electric supply

Communication to water supply department for supplying water

B1

District Fire Brigade

Self breathing apparatus with spare cylinders


Foam/water fire tenders
Gas mask with spare canisters
Lime water
Neck to toe complete asbestos suit, PVC hand gloves,
gumboots, safety goggles
Mobile scrubbing system along with suction arrangement.

Ambulance with onboard resuscitation unit, first aid,


stretchers
Gas detector
Provide bulldozers
Provide cranes

C1

Medical facilities for affected persons (first aid and treatment)

Hospital and public health

D1
E1

Identification of concentration of gas in zone of influence


Removal of debris and damaged structures

Pollution control board


Municipal corporation

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Sr.
No.
F1

Action required to be taken to mitigate disaster by aid giving


agency
Monitor the incoming and out going transports

Meteorological Department

Provide wind direction and velocity instruments with


temperature measure
Mobile van for meteorological parameter measurements

Representatives of all departments are in the local crisis group;


therefore they are expected to render services available with them.
Since it is a group of experts with authority, the mitigating
measures can be implemented speedily. The representatives from
locals are also there so that communication with local people is easy
and quick.
The district emergency or disaster control officer is the president
and he is used to mock drill etc. so action can be taken in right
direction in time

Local Crises Group

Must have all resources at hand, specially disaster


management plan and its implementation method.
All relevant information related to hazardous industry are
generally available with crisis group
News paper editor is a part of the group so that right and
timely media release can be done

Collector is the President of District Crisis Group therefore all district


infrastructure facilities are diverted to affected zone

District Crisis group

All necessary facilities available at district can be made


available at affected zone.
Control of law and order situation

Arrange diesel/petrol for needed vehicles


Give all information related to meteorological aspects for safe
handling of affected area for living beings

H1

I1

Equipments/material facilities required at site to


mitigate emergency
Provide traffic police at site
Provide emergency shifting vehicles at site
Provide stock of fuel for vehicles

Arrange emergency shifting of affected persons and non affected


person to specified area

Responsible agencies for


taking action
Transport department

G1

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Forecast if any important weather change

All other functions as mentioned for local crisis group

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7.6.8 Tsunami
Upto December 2004, Tsunami was a little known phenomenon in India, but the
Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26th December 2004 affecting the coastal areas of
Tamilnadu and Pondicherry, changed the scenario.
Tsunami Characteristics
a) Tsunami Definition
Tsunami (soo-NAH-mee) is a Japanese word meaning harbour wave.
A tsunami is a series of waves with a long wavelength and period (time between
crests). Time between crests of waves can vary from a few minutes to over an
hour. Tsunamis are often incorrectly called tidal waves; they have no relation to
the daily ocean tides.
Tsunamis can occur at any time of day or night.
b) Causes of Tsunami
Tsunamis are generated by any large, impulsive displacement of the sea bed.
Earthquakes generate tsunamis by vertical movement of the sea floor. However if
the sea floor movement is horizontal, a tsunami is not generated. Generally
earthquakes of M > 6.5 cause Tsunami. Tsunamis are also triggered by landslides
into or under the water surface, and can be generated by volcanic activity and
meteorite impacts.
c) Speed of Tsunami
Tsunami velocity is dependent on the depth of water through which it travels. The
velocity is governed by the following equation
V =g h
where,
V is the velocity of Tsunami in m/sec
g is the gravitational force in m/sec2
h is the depth of water in m
Tsunamis travel approximately at a velocity of 700 kmph in 4000 m depth of sea
water, but in 10 m of water depth the velocity drops to about 36 kmph. For
example, the tsunami from Sumatra coastal earthquake travelled to Tamil Nadu
coast in about two hours.
Even on shore, Tsunamis speed could be 35 40 km/h, much faster than a
person can run.

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d) Size of Tsunami
Tsunamis range in size from centimeters to over 30 m height. Most tsunamis are
less than 3 m in height. A large tsunami can flood land up to 1.5 km from the
coast. In deep water (greater than 200 m), tsunamis are rarely over 1m high and
will not be noticed by ships due to their long period (time between crests).
As tsunamis propagate into shallow water, the wave height can increase by over
10 times. Tsunami heights can vary greatly along a coast. The waves are
amplified by certain shoreline and bathymetric (sea floor) features.
The force of some tsunamis is enormous. Large rocks weighing several tonnes
along with boats and other debris can be moved hundreds of feet inland by
tsunami wave activity. Homes and other buildings are destroyed. All this material
and water move with great force and can kill or injure people.
Frequency of Occurrence
a) On the average, there are two tsunamis per year in the Pacific Ocean which
cause damage.
Approximately every 15 years a destructive tsunami occurs in Pacific.
b) Frequency of Tsunami in India
The details of Tsunami in India are given below:
Date
April 12, 1762
August 19, 1868
December
1881

1883
1884
26-Jun-1941

27-Nov-1945

26-Dec-2004

31,

Occurrences
Earth Quake in the Bay of Bengal generated tsunami wave
of 1.8 m in coastal Bangladesh
Earthquake Magnitude 7.5 in the Bay of Bengal. Tsunami
wave run-up level at Port Blair, Andaman Island 4.0 m.
Earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.9 in the Bay of Bengal,
reported tsunami run-up level of 0.76m at Car Nicobar,
0.3m at Dublat , 0.3 m at Nagapattinam and 1.22 m at
Port Blair in Andaman Island
Karakatau, volcanic explosion in Indonesia. 1.5 m tsunami
at Chennai, 0.6 m at Nagapattinam.
Earthquake in the western part of the Bay of Bengal.
Tsunamis at Port Blair & mouth of Hoogly River
Earthquake of magnitude MW 8.1 in the Andaman Sea at
12.90 N,92.5o E. Tsunamis on the east coast of India with
amplitudes from 0.75 to 1.25 m. Some damage from East
Coast was reported.
Mekran Earthquake (Magnitude Ms 8.3 ). 12 to 15 M wave
height in Ormara, 13 m at Pasni, and 1.37 m at Karachi
(Pakistan) . In Gulf off Cambay of Gujarat wave heights of
11.0 m was estimated, and 2 m at Mumbai, where boats
were taken away from their moorings.
An earthquake of rear Magnitude (MW 9.3) generated

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Occurrences
giant tsunami waves in North Indian Ocean. Tsunami
made extensive damage to many coastal areas of
Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Sri Lanka and
Thailand. A trans-oceanic tsunami, observed over areas
beyond the Ocean limit of origin. More than 2,00,000
people lost their lives in above countries which is a record.

Source: National Disaster Management Division, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of


India, January, 2006

Tsunami in shores
Normally, a tsunami appears as a rapidly advancing or receding tide.
In some cases, a bore (wall of water) or series of breaking waves may form.
Sometimes a tsunami causes water near the shore to recede by 0.5 2.0 km,
exposing the ocean floor, and then the wave crest comes with a high speed.
Tsunamis can travel up rivers and streams that lead to the sea.
Tsunami vs wind-generated wave
Wind-generated waves usually have periods (time between crests) of 5 to 20
seconds. Tsunami periods are usually between 5 minutes and an hour.
Wind-generated waves break as they shoal and lose energy offshore. Tsunamis
act more like a flooding wave.
Tsunami Emergency Management Plan
Training
a. Educating the Personnel
The operation and Maintenance Personnel of the power plant will be trained
properly to handle the situation smoothly without any panic. For training the
personnel, the services of relevant body like Disaster Management cell etc., will
be utilized. A detailed manual will be prepared and handed over to all plant
personnel, which will be the basis of the periodical training programs.
b. Educating the community
Community near to power plant will be educated about Tsunami. People around
the power plant will be advised to move to an elevated place or away from the
sea shore.

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c. Conduct awareness program


Tsunami awareness program will be conducted among employees and other
nearby villagers regularly. Mock drills will also conduct at regular intervals, for
teaching the employees how to face the consequences.
d. Maintenance of History Register
A history register will be maintained for recording events to facilitate improved
awareness.
e. Exhibit in Notice Board
A board showing dos and Donts during Tsunami will be exhibited in a visible
location for informing to all concerned.
f.

Discussion with family members

Employees will be advised to discuss with their family members periodically to


have more awareness about Tsunami.
Safety measures on receipt of Tsunami warning
Safe shut down of the plant is the main task once Tsunami warning is received.
On receipt of Tsunami warning the following action will be taken:

Inform load dispatch centre for shut down of the plant.


Trip the turbo generator.
Open start up vent of the boiler.
Cut off fuel supply to boiler
Switch on D.C. Emergency oil pump.
Switch on D.C. lighting
Blow the siren for evacuation of the Personnel
Switch of the A.C. Power supply
Protect equipments from damage (Depending upon the time availability)

Ensure rapid return to normalcy


After the threat is over, our main focus will be to restore normalcy in the plant,
which will involve the following:

Obtain confirmation from District Administration / Regional Disaster


Management Cell.
Thorough checking of equipments. Check the equipments for healthiness.
Inspect the cable gallery.
Clean the cables, ends and terminations.
Meger it for its IR value.
Inform load dispatch centre regarding restarting of the plant.
Establish start up power supply.
Start the system sequentially.
Put the T.G. set on turning gear.

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Light up the boiler.


Roll the turbine as per start up procedure.
Synchronize the unit with grid after getting proper clearance from L.D center.
Raise the load as per loading curve.
Normalize the plant operation.

Occupational Health and Safety


Large industries, in general and power plants in particular where multi farions
activities are involved during construction, erection, testing, commissioning,
operation and maintenance, employment, materials and machines as the basic
inputs. Occupational Health needs attention both during construction & erection
and operation & maintenance phases. However, the problem varies both
magnitude and variety in the above phases.

7.7.1 Construction and Erection Phase


The problems envisaged at Construction & Erection stage can mainly be due to
accident and noise. To overcome these hazards, the contractors in charge of
construction and erection activities have to maintain noise levels within threshold
limit values and the workers should be provided with personnel protective
equipment.
7.7.2 Operation and Maintenance Phase
The problems envisaged during the operation and maintenance phase are
accident, exposure to heat, noise, arc lights, chemicals etc. Suitable personnel
protective equipments should be provided to all employees, likely to be exposed
to these situations. The working personnel should be given the personnel
protective equipment as brought out in Table-7.13.
TABLE-7.13
PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Protection for
Head

Eye

Ear

Equipment
Fire Helmet
Electrical resistance
helmet
Welder's leather cap
Panorama goggles with
clear plastic vision
Leather mask goggles
Spectacles type goggles
with plain shatter proof
lens
Spectacle type goggles,
with blue lens
Panorama goggles with
green plastic visor
Ear plugs or muffs

Chapter-7: Additional Studies

Protection against
Fall of objects / hitting against objects
during construction, maintenance, etc.
Electrical Shock
Splashing of liquid etc.
Oil and paint splashes, dust and chips
Foreign bodies entering the dyes and
smoke.
Foreign bodies entering the eyes and
reflected arc rays
High temperature flame during furnace
work
Reflected arc rays during arc welding
job.
High noise level
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Protection for
Nose

Face

Body

Hand

Leg

Equipment
Dust respirators
Light fume mask
Heavy fume mask
Canister gas mask
Plastic face shield
Welding helmet and shield
Asbestos hood
Leather apron
Asbestos apron
PVC apron
Safety Belt
Leather gloves
Asbestos gloves
Acid and Alkali proof
rubber gloves
Electrical resistance gloves
Canvas gloves
Leg guards
Leather safety boots
Asbestos safety boots

Gum boots

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Protection against
Fine dust particles
Acid fumes, vapours and gases (2.0%)
Toxic gases (0.1%)
Acid fumes, vapours and gases (2.0%)
Liquid chemicals, dust particles
Welding fumes, sparks and UV rays
Heat radiation during furnace work
Falling of hot chips, slag's etc.
Heat radiation
Splashing of chemicals
Falling of persons from height
Cuts due to handling
Heat radiation
Burns due to chemical handling
Electric shock
Contact with oil, grease etc.
Welding sparks
Striking by objects, fall of objects and
stepping on sharp or hot objects.
Eat radiation, stepping on hot or sharp
objects, striking by stationary or
moving objects
Liquid splashing, in submerged area
and chemically hazardous area

In addition, medical facilities should be made available round the clock for
attending any medical emergency during construction and operation phases.
7.7.3 Safety and Emergency Plan
Safety of both men and materials during construction and operation phases is of
prime concern. Safety requirement during construction & erection, operation and
maintenance phases should be covered in the safety policy with the following
requirements:

To allocate sufficient resources to maintain safe and healthy conditions of


work;
To take steps to ensure that all known safety factors are taken into account in
the design, construction, operation and maintenance of plants, machinery and
equipment;
To ensure that adequate safety instructions are displayed at all appropriate
places and explained to all employees in English & Hindi;
To provide protective equipment, safety appliances and clothing, wherever
necessary, and to ensure their proper use;
To inform employees about materials, equipments or processes used in their
work, which are known to be potentially hazardous to health or safety;
To keep all operations and methods of work under regular review for making
necessary changes from the point of view of safety in the light of experience
and aptitude knowledge;
To provide appropriate instruction, training, retraining and supervision to
employees in health & safety, first aid and to ensure that adequate publicity is

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given to these matters;


To ensure proper implementation of fire prevention methods and an
appropriate fire fighting service together with training facilities for personnel
involved in this service;
To organize collection, analysis and presentation of data on accident, sickness
and incident involving personal injury or injury to health with a view to taking
corrective, remedial and preventive action;
To organize collection, analysis and preventive action;
To promote through the established machinery, joint consultation in health
and safety matters to ensure effective participation by all employees; and
To publish/notify regulations, instructions and notices in the common
language of employees.

Separate safety rules should be prepared for each type of occupation / processes
involved in the project in consultation with manufacturer / supplier of equipment
and materials and regular safety inspection should be ensured by a competent
person of all buildings, equipments, work places and operations.
7.7.4 Safety Organization
7.7.4.1 Construction and Erection Phase
A qualified and experienced Safety Officer will be posted at site. The
responsibilities of the safety officers include identification of the hazardous
conditions and unsafe acts of workers and advise on corrective action, organize
training programmes and provide professional expert advice on various issues
related to occupational safety and health. He is also responsible to ensure
compliance of Safety Rules/Statutory provisions.
7.7.4.2 Operation & Maintenance Phase
When the construction is completed the posting of safety officers shall be in
accordance with the requirement of Factories Act and their duties and
responsibilities shall be as defined thereof.
7.7.4.3 Safety Circle
In order to fully develop the capabilities of the employees in identification of
hazardous processes and improving safety and health, Safety Circles should be
constituted in each area of work, consisting of 5-6 employees from that area and
it should meet for about an hour every week.
7.7.4.4 Safety Training
Safety training should be provided by the safety officers with the assistance of
professionals in the area (e.g., Safety Experts at Corporate Centre & other
Projects of NTPC, Safety Institutions, Academic Institutions etc.).

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7.7.4.5 Health and Safety Monitoring Plan


All the potential occupational hazardous workplace such as chlorine storage area,
acid and alkali storage areas will be monitored regularly. The health of
employees working in these areas should be monitored regularly for early
detection of any ailment due to exposure to hazardous chemicals.
7.7.5 Preventive Measures and Plans
Based on the preliminary identification, the major hazardous installation at power
plant are storage of hydrogen, HFO, LDO and chlorine. Heavy Fuel Oil and LDO
are the secondary fuel for combustion support at low load and for start up.
Following are the important considerations for loading/unloading of hazardous
chemicals.
1. Written instructions will be given which clearly define responsibilities for all
personnel involved in loading/unloading operations;
2. A responsible person normally a section supervisor on site will check that the
quantity and type of fuel oil being transferred is suitable for the receiving
tanks. Tanks will be checked to see how full they are before filling, and also
during filling using the contents gauge. The maximum level device will be
used to ensure overfilling does not occur;
3. The point of transfer, where connections and disconnection are made will be
sited in a well-ventilated position; and
4. Flexible hoses used for conveying fuel oil to and from truck into fixed vessels
will have a means of identification. Be examined for kinks and wear on every
occasion prior to use. Hose fittings will be similarly examined.

Be periodically checked for electrical continuity and written records of the


tests should be maintained;
Be properly used so that the hose will not be physically damaged or
adversely affected by the weather when not in use or when being
conveyed;
Have means for protecting and fittings against damage or ingress of
foreign material;
Loading hoses should be earth and should also be bonded with the wagon;
Be replaced or repaired when damaged or worn-out;
Be properly used so that the hose will not be physically damaged or
adversely affected by the weather when not in use or when being
conveyed;
Have means for protecting and fittings against damage or ingress of
foreign material;
Loading hoses should be earth and should also be bonded with the wagon;
and
Be replaced or repaired when damaged or worn-out.

5. In order to minimize the risk of accidental movement, the tanker will stand on
a level site during loading or unloading. Checks will be placed against the
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vehicles wheels or other means provided to prevent vehicle movement prior


to loading/unloading. These will only be removed when transfer is complete.
The ground beneath the tanker will have a shallow gradient to a safe place to
prevent any spillage from remaining under the vehicle;
6. The loading/unloading operation will only be carried out when it is safe to do
so and where practical be separated from other traffic movement. Where,
vehicles or pedestrian are likely to pass by, physical barrier will be provided to
deter them approaching the transfer operation; and
7. Consideration will be given to the provision of a driveway protection device
such as self-sealing, breakaway, coupling connected to the flexible hose,
means to shut emergency isolation valves on the fixed plant, etc.
For the safety of man and material, various preventive measures will be taken.
These are:
1. Periodical checking of electrical wiring, fittings, and equipment;
2. Immediate removal of all combustible and flammable material from the
vicinity of sources of ignition;
3. All welding/cutting operations will be carried out taking suitable precautions
under permit procedure in consultation with the office-in-charge of the plant
and the Fire and Safety division;
4. All the pipelines and vessels will be clearly marked for its content and quantity
and will also be colour coded for easy identification;
5. All plant equipment, lines, vessels and storages will be inspected in all shifts
for leakage and release of inflammable liquids. Any such leakage, if found will
be stopped and attended to at once;
6. All the hazardous areas will be marked with prominent display symbols;
7. Areas where spontaneous combustion is possible due to storage of material or
in scrap yard will be inspected regularly for immediate control of fire on its
outbreak;
8. Stacked material, which can generate heat or can spontaneously ignite, will
be inspected regularly to detect any fire. Material will be stacked with
sufficient space in between the rows to permit free circulation of air and
remove any heat if generated;
9. Plant and machinery will be operated under close supervision. Any
malfunction will be attended to at once before it can lead to breakdown, fire
or any such dangerous occurrence;
10. Air-conditioning equipment will be inspected regularly and defects are to be
attended at once;
11. Dry grass and vegetation will be cut as and when required;
12. Smoking will be prohibited in the plant premises. It may be allowed in the
safe locations outside the plant area. All persons will be checked at plant gate
for matches, lighters, beedi, cigarettes and other smoking materials; and
13. Safety display boards should be provided wherever hazardous chemicals are
used.

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PROJECT BENEFITS
This section of the report describes the direct and indirect benefits of the
proposed power plant which is expected to have at the local, regional or even
national scale. The benefits from the project on the infrastructure in general and
on the socio-economic status are listed. It is anticipated that the proposed power
plant will provide benefits for the locals in two phases i.e. during the construction
phase as well as during operation phase.

8.1

Benefits to the Infrastructure


The construction of the proposed power plant will change the land into industrial
use. For the purpose of transporting man and material, connecting roads will
have to be built to ensure timely movement. These roads will also benefit the
population in the surrounding villages and improve their communication with each
other and the district headquarters.
The construction and operation of the plant will attract large number of
population to the area in the form of equipment suppliers, material suppliers,
maintenance technicians, etc. For their accommodation, the infrastructural
facilities like lodging, eateries and transport facilities on the outskirts of Beria
town or at nearby villages up to the plant area is expected to improve. These will
also benefit the local population.

8.2

Benefits to the Socio-Economic Status


The setting up of the proposed unit will lead to direct and indirect benefits to the
overall socio-economic status of the region also. During construction phase, there
will be opportunities for local skilled and unskilled workers to be employed in the
various construction related activities like material handling, operation of
construction machinery, actual construction, painting, installation of plant
machinery, etc.
At the same time, local small contractors, vehicle owners, machinery owners will
get substantial amount of business for providing their services to the proponents
and EPC contractors. The construction activity and influx of visitors will also open
up opportunities for setting up establishments like lodging, telephone, kiosks,
small shops, vehicle and machinery maintenance etc. in the vicinity of the plant
or outskirts of Pudimadaka. These establishments will be viable during the
operation phase also, with the advent of employees from outside regions.
These may be considered indirect benefits due to the setting up of the project in
the area. However, the power generated from this plant will benefit the state to
larger extent leading to industrial development.

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Apart from the temporary employment during construction phase, the setting up
of the unit will also open up good employment opportunities, especially for the
skilled workers. The current occupational status of the region shows that about
52.90% of the population is unemployed. The setting up of the plant will further
improve this status of unemployment and provide opportunities to the
unemployed population.
8.3

No Project Scenario
It is well recognized fact that in order to sustain economic growth rate of around
8 to 10% and to meet the target of power to all, the existing domestic
manufacturing capacity needs to be up-grade and enhanced.
A No Project Scenario was also examined.
Without the project, power
shortages would result in the state and the country. Without project there will be
work stoppage, increases in pollution resulting from the use of small generators,
reduced economic growth, increased poverty and complete social inconvenience.
Without the project, opportunity will be lost for 1200 jobs for 4-5 years of
construction, 1000 permanent jobs during operation and indirect jobs and
business opportunities that the project would create. The substantial increase in
local taxes and revenues, including the direct and indirect local benefits expected
to accrue as a result of the project, would be foregone. Hence, the project which
is expected to being prosperity in the region needs to be implemented at the
proposed site.

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ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN


Environmental Management Plan (EMP) describes various pollution control
systems and other measures envisaged for mitigating environmental impacts
identified separately for construction and operation phases. Each of the mitigatory
measures has been assessed with respect to:





Adoption of state of art technological measures;


Identification of human resources for its effective implementation;
Allocation of financial resources for its effective implementation; and
Effectiveness of mitigatory measure.

EMP specifies various technological measures for pollution prevention, waste


minimisation, end-of-pipe treatment, attenuation etc. proposed to be undertaken
to mitigate the environmental impacts on each sector of environment during each
phase of the project, i.e. construction phase and operation phase. Most of the
mitigatory measures are integral part of the main plant package and will be
implemented simultaneously with the commissioning of the main plant packages.
Apart from mitigation measures, EMP also includes institutional set-up for
implementation of various measures, afforestation and greenbelt development
plan, ash utilization plan and environmental monitoring plan.
9.1

Mitigation Measures for Construction Phase


The impacts of construction activities would be temporary and will reduce
gradually with the completion of the construction activities. Various mitigation
measures proposed to be implemented during construction phase are described in
Table-9.1.

9.2

Mitigation Measures for Operation Phase


The impacts of operation phase will be long term in nature. Table-9.2 describes
various mitigation measures, proposed to be implemented during operation phase
and Table-9.3 describes the mode of implementation and allocation of human
resources for the same.

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TABLE-9.1
PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES TO BE IMPLEMENTED DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE
Proposed Mitigation Measures
Air Pollution Control
Water sprinkling in vulnerable
areas
Proper maintenance of vehicles &
construction equipment
Transportation
of
construction
material
in
covered
trucks,
wherever possible
Noise Pollution Control
Proper maintenance of vehicles,
equipment and machinery
Provision of accoustic covers/
enclosures on equipment and
machinery, wherever possible
Provision of earmuffs/ earplugs to
the workers in high noise areas
and enforcement of its use
Water Pollution Control
Channelization and Construction of
temporary sedimentation tanks for
effluents from construction area
through
network
of
drains.
Construction
of
temporary
sedimentation
tanks
for
the
effluents from construction area.
Socio-Economic Environment
Provision of environmentally safe
camping area for the migrant

Responsibility for
Implementation

Regulation

Targets to Achieve

Risks and Consequence of


Failure, if any

NTPC+ contractor

Increase in SPM emissions

NTPC + Contractor

Control of fugitive dust


from construction areas
Control of NOx Emissions

NTPC + Contractor

Control of fugitive dust


during transportation.

Increase in SPM emissions

Contractor

Increase in noise levels

Contractor

Control of ambient and inplant noise levels


Control of ambient and inplant noise levels

Contractor

Protection of workers

Health effects on individual workers.

NTPC

MOEF
Notification
dated
19.05.1993

Control
of
suspended
solids in effluents from
construction area

Increase in total suspended solids in


effluents

To provide clean & healthy


living environment to work

Unhealthy living conditions, spread


of diseases

Increase in gaseous pollutant

Increase in noise levels

NTPC + contractor

NTPC + contractor

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Proposed Mitigation Measures

Responsibility for
Implementation

Regulation

laborers
Arrangements for water supply and
sanitation
Solid Waste Management
Disposal of surplus earth and
construction debris
Reclaiming of un-built area with
appropriate vegetation/ land
scaping

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Targets to Achieve

Risks and Consequence of


Failure, if any

force
NTPC + contractor

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

To
reduce
stress
on
surrounding population

Stress on existing utilities, conflicts


with local people

Contractor

Control of pollution

Air/ Water Pollution

NTPC

Create a good visual


environment. Aesthetics
improvement.

Unpleasant surroundings

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TABLE-9.2
PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES TO BE IMPLEMENTED DURING OPERATION PHASE
Mitigation Measures Proposed

Responsibility for
Implementation

Regulation

AIR ENVIRONMENT
High Efficiency ESPs

NTPC

275 m High Stack

NTPC

Coal Dust Extraction/ Suppression


Systems
Water cover over ash pond/
sprinklers in dry areas
Reclamation of ash pond after
abandonment
WATER ENVIRONMENT
Main Plant Effluent Treatment
Plant including Central Monitoring
Basin

NTPC

NTPC

MoEF
Notification
dated
19.05.1993

Ash Water Treatment and Recycle

NTPC

MoEF
Notification
dated
19.05.1993 and
initiative of
NTPC

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

MoEF
Notification
dated
03.01.1989
MoEF
Notification
dated
30.08.1990
-

NTPC

NTPC

Targets to Achieve

Risks and Consequence of


Failure, if any

To reduce the emission


levels of particulate matter
to 50 mg/Nm3.

Increase in particulate emissions

Wider dispersion of
emitted air Pollutions

Increase in ground level


concentration of pollutants.

Control of fugitive dust


from coal handling plant
Control of fugitive dust

Increase in fugitive emissions

Control of fugitive dust


from ash pond

Increase in fugitive emissions

Removal
of
suspended
solids, oil and grease and
neutralization of pH, to
conform
to
regulatory
standards for discharge of
effluents
Removal
of
suspended
solids
for
recycle
of
effluents into ash water
system

Increase in concentration / value of


physico
chemical
&
Biological
Parameters.

Increase in fugitive emissions

Increase in quantity of ash pond


overflow

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report for


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Mitigation Measures Proposed
Sewage Treatment Plant

Responsibility for
Implementation
NTPC

Open Cycle CW System

NTPC

Desalination Plant (SWRO Plant)

NTPC

NOISE ENVIRONMENT
Design of equipment

NTPC

CPCB Guidelines

NTPC

NTPC

Provision of acoustic enclosures/


barriers/ shields to reduce noise
Provision of personal protective
equipment like ear plugs and ear
muffs
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Dry collection of fly ash and supply
of ash to entrepreneurs
Ash Utilization

NTPC

NTPC+Other entrepreneurs

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

Regulation
MoEF
Notification
dated
19.05.1993

MoEF
Notification
dated
22.12.1998

MoEF
Notification
03.11.2009
MoEF
Notification
03.11.2009

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Targets to Achieve
Removal
of
suspended
solids, oil and grease and
organic matter to conform
to regulatory standards for
discharge of effluents into
inland surface waters
Reduce the CW water
temperature
at
the
discharge point so that
resultant shouldnt exceed
the ambient temperature
Meeting for sweet water
requirement for drinking &
Various process i.e DM
service water, fire etc

Risks and Consequence of


Failure, if any
Increase
in
concentration
of
pollutants
specially
Biological
parameters.

Increase in temperature which may


affect the marine ecosystem.

Brine from the desalination plant will


affect the water quality

To control noise levels to


90 dB(A) at 1 m distance
Attenuation of noise in
source receptor pathway
Protection
of
sensitive
receptor

Increase in in-plant and ambient


noise levels
Increase in in-plant and ambient
noise levels
Health impact on workers in high
noise areas

Facilitate supply of dry ash


to entrepreneurs

Reduction in quantity of ash utilized.

Reduce land requirement


for
ash
disposal
and
pollution from ash disposal

Increased land requirement

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Mitigation Measures Proposed

Responsibility for
Implementation

Regulation

Disposal of Unused Ash

NTPC

Domestic Solid Waste

NTPC

OTHERS
Afforestation and Green Belt
Development

NTPC

NTPC

Control of Fire and Explosion


Hazards

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Targets to Achieve
site.
Environmentally
safe
disposal of unused ash
Environmentally
safe
disposal of municipal waste
from township
Ecological improvement
Attenuation
of
air
pollutants (SPM, SO2 and
NOx) and noise in source
receptor pathway
Safety

Risks and Consequence of


Failure, if any
_
Air and water pollution, spread of
disease vectors

Reduction in aesthetics and living


space. Higher pollutants in the
ambient air.

Increased risk of fire and explosion

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Report for


Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project (4 X1000 MW)

TABLE-9.3
IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES FOR OPERATION PHASE
Mitigation measures
AIR ENVIRONMENT
High Efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators
275 m high stack
Coal dust extraction and suppression systems
Water Environment
Cover over ash pond/ sprinklers in dry areas
Reclamation of ash pond after abandonment
Main Plant Effluent Treatment Plant including Central
Monitoring Basin
Ash Water Recirculation
Sewage Treatment Plant
Desalination Plant
NOISE ENVIRONMENT
Design of equipment
Provision of acoustic enclosures/ barriers/ shields to reduce
noise
Provision of personal protective equipments like ear plugs
and ear muffs
SOLID WASTE
Dry fly ash collection and loading system
Disposal of Unused Ash
Others Afforestation and Green Belt Development
Control of Fire and Explosion Hazard
Environmental Lab. Equipment

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

Mode of implementation

Identification of human resources

Integral part of main plant package


Civil construction package
Integral Part of Main Plant Package

ESP maintenance group at site


Operation & Maintenance (O&M) group at site
Coal handling group at site

Part of Operation and Maintenance System


Part of Operation and Maintenance System
Part of Main Plant Package

Ash handling group at site


Ash handling & Horticulture groups at site
O&M (Water Treatment Plant) Group at Site

Part of Main Plant Package


Separate Civil Construction Package
Separate Civil Construction Package

Ash Handling Group at Site


Township Adm. Group at Site
Township Adm. Group at Site

Included in Technical Specification


Part of Main Plant Package

To be provided to workers in high noise area

Safety Group at site

Part of Main Plant Package


Part of Main Plant Package
Civil department to indicate space for
plantation.
Part of Main Plant Package
Part of Main Plant Package/ purchase from
market

Ash Handling Group at site


Ash Handling Group at site
Horticulture Group at site
Safety Group at Site
Env. Management/ Chemistry Group at Site

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Implementation Schedule of Mitigation Measures


The mitigation measures suggested as above shall be implemented so as to
reduce the impact on environment due to the operations of the proposed project.
In order to facilitate easy implementation of mitigation measures, the priority of
implementation is given in Table-9.4
TABLE-9.4
IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4

9.3

Recommendations

Time Requirement

Schedule

Air pollution control


measures
Water pollution control
measures
Noise control measures

Before commissioning of
respective units
Before commissioning of
the Plant
Along with the
commissioning of the Plant
Stage wise implementation

Immediate

Ecological preservation
and up gradation

Immediate
Immediate
Immediate &
Progressive

Institutional Set-Up for Environmental Management


As per the present set-up, the environmental groups in NTPC have a three-tier
organization structure, as shown in TABLE-9.5.
TABLE - 9.5
ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF NTPC FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
Corporate Centre

Regional
Headquarters
Projects

Engineering

Environmental Engineering Group

Operations
Personnel &
Administration

Environmental Management Group


Ash Management Group
Rehabilitation & Resettlement Group
Horticulture Group
Medical & Public Health
Safety
As Coordinator

Environmental
Management
Coordinator
Operation &
Maintenance

Personnel &
Administration

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

Environmental Management Group


Chemistry Group
ESP Maintenance Group
Ash Utilization Group
Safety
Community Development Group, R&R
Horticulture
Medical & Public Health
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The responsibility of environmental management of an operating station lies


mainly with Environmental Management Groups at site, which acts as coordinator
for environmental matters. This group is a nodal agency for various groups at
project, regional headquarters and corporate level as well as outside agencies like
State Pollution Control Board. However, this group draws technical support from
Environmental Engineering Group, Environmental Management Group and
Rehabilitation & Resettlement Groups at Corporate Centre. The functions of main
groups are summarized in following sections.
9.3.1 Functions of Environmental Groups at Corporate Centre
Environmental Engineering Group (EEG)








Associating in site selection for new projects with engineering services;


EIA studies for new project sites and obtaining clearances;
Finalization of specification of equipment for pollution monitoring;
Special studies relating to environmental problems;
Interaction with MoEF&CC, Pollution Control Boards for obtaining statutory
clearances;
Interaction with funding agencies for new projects on environmental issues;
Provide assistance to sites in overcoming specific technical problems related
to environment.

Environment Management Group (EMG)


Coordination and monitor with stations, regions, Engineering Division and other
concerned agencies on all environmental matters concerning operating stations.







Maintenance of an environment data base, trend analysis of pollution


monitoring data and prepare exception reports;
Environmental audit of power stations;
Providing operational feedback to engineering for carrying out necessary
modifications in existing/future systems, overseeing implementation of
modification / improvement programmes;
Providing corporate support to stations through organization of meetings on
Environment Management, obtaining management approvals;
Organizing Training workshops, Seminars etc.

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Group








Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R) of PAPs for new projects;


Policy review and ensuring implementation;
Collection and collation of various statistics on R&R measures;
Providing these statistics to various agencies;
Finalization of the training programs in R&R.

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9.3.2 Functions Of Environmental Groups At Site


Environment Management Group at site








Obtaining consent order from SPCBs;


Environmental monitoring;
Analysis of environment data, reports, preparations and transmission of report
to statutory authorities, corporate centre etc.;
Compliance with guidelines and statutory requirements;
Coordination with statutory bodies, functional groups of the station, Corporate
EMG / Engineering etc.;
Interaction for evolving and implementation of modification programmes to
improve the availability / efficiency of pollution control devices / systems;
Environmental appraisal (internal) and environmental audit.

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Group




To strengthen the public image of the company in respect of social aspects


and maintain good relationship with the community in the vicinity.

9.3.3 Environmental Management Group at Pudimadaka STPP


An Environmental Management Group (EMG) will be setup at Pudimada STPP. Dy.
General Manager EMG heads this group who is assisted by a Sr. Manager EMG is
responsible for the performance of environmental management and safety
systems at the plant for the protection of environment. EMG has sufficient trained
manpower and equipment for monitoring and other environmental related
activities to ensure that statutory requirements are always met. Environmental
laboratory at Pudimadaka STPP is adequately equipped for monitoring of ambient
air quality, stack emissions and water/effluent quality. It will interact regularly
with the Andhra Pradesh State Pollution Control Board.
9.4

Pollution Control Measures


The various environmental measures, pollution control systems and mitigative
measures proposed to be adopted for the Pudimadaka STPP are as follows:

9.4.1 Air Pollution Control System

High efficiency electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) will be installed to limit the


particulate emission to 50 mg/Nm3;
To facilitate wider dispersion of pollutants two stack with twin flue of height
275 m above plant grade level will be provided;
Space provision will be kept in the layout for establishing Flue Gas
Desulphurisation (FGD) system, if required in future;
For control of fugitive dust emissions within and around the coal handling
plant and coal / stockyard dust extraction / suppression systems will be
provided;
All the internal roads have been asphalted during the implementation of the
existing plant. Therefore, vehicular movement may not generate fugitive dust.

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However, water spraying will be practiced frequently at all dust generating


areas during construction period;
The emissions from the stack will be continuously monitored for particulate
matter, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen; and
The concentration of PM, SO2 and NOx in the ambient air quality will be
monitored as per the direction of the State Pollution Control Board.

9.4.2 Water Pollution Control System


An effluent management scheme will be designed which includes adequate
treatment facilities for collection, treatment and recirculation / disposal of all the
effluents emanating from different points and process of power plant activity for
controlling water pollution as well as for optimizing the makeup water
requirement.
The liquid effluents shall be collected, treated and discharged as per the following
design philosophy:

The R.O rejects from the desalination plant shall be routed through Central
Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and finally discharged to the CW return
channel.
The waste effluents from neutralization pits of DM Plant and Condensate
Polishing Plant shall be collected in the respective neutralization pits and
neutralized before pumping to the CEMB before final disposal;
A coal settling pond shall be provided to remove coal particles from coal
handling plant waste. Decanted water shall be pumped to CEMB;
The plant shall have two different systems for ash disposal conventional wet
slurry disposal for bottom ash and High Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD)
for fly ash. HCSD system will require less quantity of water and the decanted
water from ash dyke will be recycled/reused for ash handling system. Hence,
there will be no effluent discharge from the fly ash disposal site;
All the plant liquid effluents emanating from different point shall be treated
and mixed in Common Central Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and disposed
off to the final disposal point; and
The sewage from plant and township shall be treated in a common sewage
treatment plant. The treated sewage conforming to prescribed standards shall
be utilized for plantation/horticulture to the extent possible. The balance
effluent shall be discharged.

9.4.3 Noise Pollution


The major noise generating sources in a thermal power plant are the turbines,
turbo-generators, compressors, pumps, fans, coal handling plant etc. from where
noise is continuously generated. Acoustic enclosures shall be provided wherever
required to control the noise level below 90 dB (A).
Wherever it is not possible technically to meet the required noise levels, the
personnel protective equipment shall be provided. Provision of green belt and
Afforestation will further help in reducing the noise levels. To protect the workers
within the construction area and plant area, adequate protective measures in the
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form of ear-muffs/ ear plugs/ masks
minimize/eliminate adverse impacts.
9.5

shall

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be

provided,

which

will

Green Belt Development


In any industrial project it is most important to chalk out a long-term approach to
keep air clean. One such measure is using the plants for absorbing and trapping
the air pollutants. Plants in general and trees in particular, function as sinks for
gaseous pollutants and this is achieved through various physiological processes
occurring within the plant system. Green belt acts as bio filter for the air
pollutants and play a major role in safeguarding the environment and controlling
the increasing level of air and noise pollution. It can serve as buffer and shock
absorber against transient and accidental release of pollutants from industrial
complex.
Plantation and developing green belts are one of the mandatory requirements for
establishing industrial units like Thermal Power Plants. The objective of this work
is to augment the green cover in addition to reduce air pollution and make the
climate in and around the plant more conducive. Restoring water balance,
checking soil erosion, attenuate noise pollution and improvement in the overall
environment & aesthetics of the plant site are also some of the main objectives of
creating plantations in such locations.

9.5.1 Design of Green Belt


A total of about 180 acres of land within the plant site is envisaged for the
plantation and development of green belt. This will involve:




Avenue plantations along road sides in plant and township areas;


Shelterbelt plantations along the vicinity of ash storage/ disposal sites/
water reservoirs and along boundary walls;
Plantations of recreational and socio-economical importance such as
flowering/ fruiting/ medicinal species in selected places like habitations,
shrubs and small trees under the power transmission lines; and
In addition to dedicated 180 acres, plantation activity may also be
undertaken in the surrounding areas outside the project sites. Bulk and
strip plantations as well as solitary plants will be raised on possible
locations.

On an average 2500 trees per ha with local native species and other suitable
species will be planted in order to achieve average green belt width of 100 m all
around the periphery of the plant. However, the density of plantation will depend
on factors such as the type of species, location factors, future use of the planted
site availability of inputs like watering etc. Moreover, treated sewage water will be
used for horticulture and green belt development purposes.

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9.5.2 Greenbelt Design Methodology and Approach


9.5.2.1 Preparation of Plantation Area
Greenbelt will be designed as per the Guidelines of CPCB. A green belt of average
100 m wide has been proposed all around the periphery of the plant. Plantation
site would be cleared from all wild vegetation. Suitable soil and water
conservation measures will be adopted, if required. Since planting area is large, it
would be divided into blocks inter-linked by paths laid out in such a way that
every tree is accessible for all post plantation care. The planting arrangement and
size would be based on the optimum use of the available land and quantum of
irrigation water.
A tree requires sufficient space below and above the ground to spread its roots
and branches. However, spacing varies with the tree species, soil fertility,
availability of moisture and purpose of plantation.
9.5.2.2 Criteria for Selection of Species for Greenbelt Development
Species to be selected should fulfill the following specific requirements of the
areas:

Availability of seed material;


Tolerance to specific conditions or alternatively wide adaptability to ecophysiological conditions;
Rapid growth;
Capacity to endure water stress and climatic extremes after initial
establishment;
Differences in height, growth habits and bole shapes;
Pleasing appearance;
Capacity to selectively concentrate some materials from the surroundings;
Providing shades;
Large bio-mass and leaves number to provide fodder and fuel;
Ability of fixing atmospheric Nitrogen; and
Improving waste lands.

Some Additional Information about Plantation


To undertake plantation on site for different purposes, following steps will be
involved:

Raising seedlings in nursery;


Preparation of pits and preparing them for transfer of seedlings; and
After-care i.e. nurturing the sapling for proper growth

A. Raising Seedlings in Nursery


Seedlings should be raised in nurseries. Adequate number of surplus seedlings
should be available considering 10% mortality in seedlings. Healthy seedlings
should be ready for transfer to permanent location before rainy season.
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B. Preparation of Pits and Preparing them for Transfer of Seedlings

Standard pit size would be 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm;


The distance between pits would vary depending on their location;
The pits should be filled using good soil from nearby agricultural fields (3
parts) and Farm yard manure (1 part);
Rhizobium commercial preparation (1 kg/1000 kg);
BHC powder, if the soil inhabits white ants (Amount variable); and
The pits should be watered prior to plantation of seedlings.

C. Recommended Species for Plantation


In order to prevent fugitive dust emissions, the basal area for green belt
development will be covered by grasses and leguminous plants. The
recommended plants and Plantation for greenbelt are presented in Table-9.6. In
addition to this, it is also proposed to implement the Greenbelt planting
programme suggested by Divisional Forest Officer, Social Forestry Division,
Visakhapatnam. Greenbelt Plantation Programme is enclosed as Annexure-X.
TABLE - 9.6
LIST OF TREE SPECIES FOR GREEN BELT PLANTATION
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Scientific Name
Alstonia scholaris
Azadirachta indica
Tamarindus indica
Dalberbia sissoo
Eucalyptus sp
Ficus benghalensis
Pongamia pinnata
Madhuca indica
Tectona grandis
Casuarina equisetifolia
Thespesia populnea

Common Name
Saptaparni
Vepa, Neem
Chinta
Shisham
Niligiri
Raavi
Kanuga
Ippa , Mahua
Teku, Teak
Sarugudu, Sarvi, Casuarina
Ganga Raavi

Alstonia scholaris (Saptaparni), Azadiractha indica (Neem, Vepa) and Tamarindus


indica are effective in control of SPM Suspended Particulate Matter, NOx, S02
and noise. Tamarindus indicus (Chinta), Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham), Ficus
benghalensis (Raavi), Thespsia populnea (Ganga Raavi) and Eucalyptus sp are
effective in control of SPM-Suspended Particulate Matter, SO2 and N0x. Pongamia
pinnata (Karanj), Madhuca indica (Ippa, Mahua), Tectona grandis (Teak) and
Causaurina equisetifolia (Sargudu, Sarvi) are effective in controlling Suspended
Particulate Matter and Noise pollution.
9.5.3 Plantation Work Plan


The detailed plantation work plan and final selection of species shall be
finalized in consultation with the State Forest Department and Research
Institute/Centre;

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9.6

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Species and location wise plan of the plantation will be depicted on a general
layout plan and project site map before the actual plantation work begins;
The required seedling will be raised in the nursery established at the site for
the purpose of plantation or will be procured from the local forest
department/private nursery grower/agencies to meet the requirement of the
plantation. Adequate arrangement for watering, particularly during early
years, weeding and hoeing, replacing the casualties and fencing will be
envisaged in the plan; and
Plantation work will, preferably, be entrusted to a government agency, such
as Forest Department/Forest Corporation.

Ash Utilization Plan


The Ministry of Environment and Forests has issued a Gazette Notification dated
03-11-2009 which is an amendment to its earlier notifications dated 14-09-1999
and amendment dated 27-08-2003. The new notification stipulates that all coal
based power stations/ units commissioned after the date of issue of notification
have to utilize at least 50% of ash generated within 1 year, 70% within 2 years,
90% within 3 years and 100% within 4 years respectively from the
commissioning of the units.
The unutilized fly ash with respect to the target during a year, if any, shall be
utilized within next two years in addition to the targets stipulated for those years
and the balance unutilized ash accumulated during the first 4 years shall have to
be utilized progressively over next 5 years in addition to 100% utilization of
current generation of ash.
NTPC - a socially conscious utility considers utilization of ash produced at its coal
based power station as a thrust area of its activities. Pudimadaka Super Thermal
Power Project, (4x1000 MW) planned to be set up in Dist Visakhapatnam, Andhra
Pradesh. As per plan, imported coal having ash content of about 12% shall be
used at Pudimadaka STPP. It is estimated that about 3600 tonne of ash per day
i.e. about 1.68 million tonne ash per annum would be produced in the power
generation process. In order to have maximum ash utilization in various areas
and also to comply with the requirements of MOEFs Gazette Notification on fly
ash dated 03-11-2009, following actions are proposed to be taken up by NTPC:

NTPC shall provide a system for 100% extraction of dry fly ash along with
suitable storage facilities. Provision shall also be kept for segregation of
coarse and fine ash, loading this ash in tankers/ bulkers and also for loading
fly ash into rail wagons. This will ensure availability of dry fly ash required for
manufacture of Fly Ash based Portland Pozzolona Cement (FAPPC) for cement
plants, Ready Mix Concrete plants & export.

NTPC shall make efforts to motivate and encourage entrepreneurs to set up


ash based building products such as fly ash bricks, blocks, tiles etc. and
export of fly ash from proposed power plant.

NTPC shall also set up fly ash brick manufacturing plant at proposed project,
fly ash brick thus produced shall be utilized for in-house construction works.

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All government/ private agencies responsible for construction/ design of


buildings, road embankment, flyover bridges and reclamation/ development of
low lying areas within 100 km of the plant areas shall be persuaded to use ash
and ash based products in compliance of MOEFs Gazette Notification on fly
ash dated 03-11-2009.

With all the efforts mentioned above, it is expected that fly ash generated at
proposed thermal power station shall be utilized in the areas of cement,
concrete & building products manufacturing, road embankment construction
etc. However in order to prepare realistic road map for 100% ash utilization, a
detailed market study shall be carried out. Based on recommendations of the
study, detailed Road Map for achieving 100% Ash Utilization in the line with
MOEFs Gazette Notification on fly ash dated 03-11-2009 shall be prepared.

9.6.1 Monitoring & Reporting Mechanism


The project shall be having ash management group to promote and coordinate
the activities related to ash utilization.
In compliance to the provisions of MOEF notification, Annual Ash Utilization
Implementation Report shall be submitted by the 30th day of April, every year to
the Central Pollution Control Board, concerned State Pollution Control Board or
Committee and the concerned Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment of
Forests.
9.7

Roof Top Solar Plant


It is proposed to set up Solar PV Plant on rooftop of all building roof of
Pudimadaka STPP.

9.7.1 Technical Requirements for Rooftop Solar Power Plant

Shadow free flat roof top area having proper drainage such as TG building,
service building, Admin building, switchyard building etc;
Total distributed load of the roof top PV due to panels, supporting structures,
equipments and concrete blocks etc. and imposed load will not be more than
100 kg/m2;
Proper approach to the roof top through lift / staircase; and
Availability of water for panel washing.

9.7.2 Recommended Technology


Crystalline Solar Photo Voltaic technology is recommended for the roof tops.
9.7.3 Proposed Scheme

The actual solar radiation available in the area of project will be measured to
access the potential of power generation;

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Approx 15 m2 area per kW is required for roof top solar. Effective area for
utilization for roof top solar PV on rooftop building will be estimated after
detailed study;

Solar PV panels shall be mounted on the roof through non-corrosive module


mounting structure. The support structure shall not disturb the water proofing
of the roof;

Panel should be inclined at the angle equal to the latitude, facing towards
south;

The total generation is estimated to be approx 1300-1400 units per year from
1000 W solar PV roof top plant;

The DC power generated by PV modules shall be converted to AC voltage


through string inverters or central inverter and shall be injected to nearest
available LT/HT switchgear assigned through isolation or step-up transformer.
Accordingly provision of spare LT/HT module in the switchgear shall be made;

Solar PV Plant on roof top of thermal power project to be developed as an EPC


package which includes design, supply, erection and commissioning etc
including one year operation and maintenance after commissioning;

Metering for the purpose of monitoring of generation & internal accounting


shall be done at the injection point in compliance to provisions of Central
Electricity Authority (Installation and Operation of Meters) Amendment
Regulations, 2013; and

The O&M of the solar PV plant after completion of one year of operation shall
be ensured by site O&M department.

9.7.4 Implementation Schedule and Methodology


Implementation schedule for "Roof Top Solar PV Plant" will be ranging from 4-6
months from the issuance of NOA, depending upon the size of the plant and will
be commissioned before commercial operation of the unit.
9.8

Budgetary Allocation for Environmental Protection


Environmental protection will be monitored and executed by a centralized
environmental management cell. The monetary estimates have been arrived for
the proposed activity and are presented. A cost provision of Rs. 1164 Crores has
been kept towards providing environmental control, measures i.e, pollution
treatment and monitoring systems. The break-up of the major environmental
investment is given in Table-9.7.

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TABLE-9.7
COST PROVISION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Description
Electrostatic Precipitator
Chimney
Cooling Systems
Ash Handling
Ash Dyke-First 9 years
Ash Water Recirculation including ETP
Dust Extraction & Suppression System
DM Plant Waste Treatment Systems
Sewerage Collection, Treatment & Disposal
Environmental Lab Equipment
Green Belt, Afforestation & Landscaping
Total

Chapter-9: Environment Management Plan

Amount (Rupees in
Crores)
450.27
73.89
0.38
175.07
84.2
359.7
5.0
5.0
4.0
1.5
5.0
1164.01

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SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS


M/s NTPC Limited, the largest power generating company in the country, intends
to set up Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project of 4 x 1000 MW capacity near
Pudimadaka village, Atchutapuram & Rambilli mandals, Visakhapatnam district in
Andhra Pradesh.
In view of the frequent power shortages and the goal to provide 24X7 power to
industry in the state, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh invited NTPC to consider setting up
a large capacity thermal power plant in the state. In pursuance for identification
of new green field site for setting up of large capacity thermal power plants, a site
contiguous to Special Economic Zone (SEZ) area near Pudimadaka village in
Atchutapuram & Rambilli mandals in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh
(AP) developed by Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Limited
(APIIC) was shortlisted.
The capital cost provision for the total project is about Rs. 26,828.29 Crores,
which includes Rs. 1164 Crores for environmental protection measures.

10.1

Purpose of the Report


As per the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification dated
14.09.2006, the proposed project falls under category A of schedule 1(d).
Hence, construction and operation of Pudimadaka STPP requires Environmental
Clearance (EC) from Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MOEF&
CC).
Terms of Reference (TOR) for Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) study for
the proposed project was accorded by MOEF&CC vide Letter No. J-13012/01/2014
IA.II (T) dated 25th February 2015. In accordance with the TOR conditions, the
draft EIA report is prepared by M/s Vimta Labs Limited, Hyderabad based on one
season (three months) site specific baseline environmental data monitored during
March 2015 to May 2015.

10.2

Brief Description of Project

10.2.1 Environmental Setting of the Site


The proposed site is located at a Latitude 170 29 24 N to 170 30 36 N and
Longitude 8205800 E to 8300000 E near Pudimadaka village in Atchutapuram
and Rambilli mandals, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh and is
approximately 30 km from district headquarters Visakhapatnam. The site is well
connected through Pudimadaka road to NH-16 at a distance of 12.2 km and by
SH-97 at a distance of 3.5 km. Gangavaram port is about 35 km NE of the site
and Vizag port is at a distance of 47 km from the site. Environmental setting of
the site is given in Table-10.1. The study area map of 10 km radius is shown in
Figure-10.1.

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FIGURE-10.1
STUDY AREA MAP
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10.2.2 HTL/LTL and CRZ Demarcation Survey


Physical demarcation of High Tide Line (HTL) and Low Tide Line (LTL) was carried
out by National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) which is an authorized agency by
MoEF&CC. Based on the survey, Pudimadaka site is located at about 1 km from
the HTL of open sea and about 0.1 km from the HTL of Pudimadaka creek. Hence
the project site is compatible with the regulations of CRZ Notification, 2011.
Environmental Clearance (EC) and Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) clearance for
the APSEZ site was accorded by MoEF&CC vide letter no. 21-379/2007-1A-III
dated 13th February 2012.
TABLE-10.1
ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF THE PROJECT SITE
Sr. No.
1
2
3

5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13

14

Particulars

Details

Plant location

Pudimadaka village, Atchutapuram & Rambilli


mandals, Vizag district, Andhra Pradesh.
Topo sheet No.
65 K/14, K/15
Site Coordinates
Proposed Project Site Coordinates
Corner
Longitude
Latitude
8258'12" E
1730'36" N
A
8258'00" E
1730'00" N
B
8300'00" E
1729'24" N
C
8300'00" E
1730'36" N
D
Climatic conditions (IMD, Visakhapatnam)
Maximum temperature
37.70C
Minimum temperature
15.80C
Annual rainfall (total)
1296.4 MM
Relative humidity
81 %
Predominant
wind
directions SW, SSW
(Annual)
Plant site elevation above MSL
10 to 20 m
Nearest highway
NH-16 (12.2 km, WNW) & SH-97 (3.5 km,
WNW)
Nearest railway station
Elamanchili (12.9 km, WNW)
Nearest Airport
Visakhapatnam (40 km, NE)
Nearest major water bodies
Krishnampalem lake (0.6 km, WNW)
Sharada River (6.3 km, W)
Bay of Bengal (1.0 km, ESE)
Nearest village
Lalam Koduru (0.3 km ,WSW)
Pudimadaka (0.6 km ,ESE)
Nearest town/City
Visakhapatnam (40.0 km, NE)
Archaeologically important places
Nil in 10 km
Protected areas as per Wildlife Nil in 10 km
Protection
Act,
1972
(Tiger
reserve,
Elephant
reserve,
Biospheres,
National
parks,
Wildlife sanctuaries, community
reserves
and
conservation
reserves)
Reserved / Protected Forests
Pudimadaka RF (1.47 km)
Sitapalem R.F (1.50 km)

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15
16

10.3

Particulars

Defence Installations
Seismicity

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Details
Rambilli R.F (3.00 km)
Panchadarla RF (6.7 km)
Nil in 10 km
Zone-II

Project Features

10.3.1 Land Requirement


The total land required for the proposed Pudimadaka project would be
approximately 1500 acres out of which 1200 acres comes under denotified area
of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) of APIIC and is already allocated to NTPC, the
remaining 300 acres is to be acquired.
Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has issued Government Order (GO) MS No: 96 dated
04.09.2014 for allotment of land to an extent of 1200 acres acquired by APIIC in
Atchutapuram & Rambilli mandals of Visakhapatnam district to NTPC on long
lease basis of 33 years. Further to the above G.O, APIIC vide letter dated
07.10.2014 informed regarding provisional allotment of land measuring to an
extent of 1200 acre to M/s NTPC for establishment of 4000 MW Super Thermal
Power Plant.
10.3.2 Water Source and Requirement
Water requirement for the project will be met from sea (Bay of Bengal) by
constructing suitable intake channel from the sea, which is about 2-3 km from the
project. The total sea water drawl for the project is estimated to be about
6,69,675 m3/hr. It is proposed to adopt once through open cycle CW system for
the project. Desalination plant will be provided for sweet water requirement.
Water required for construction purposes shall be drawn from APIIC facility
existing near the project.
10.3.3 Coal Requirement
Imported coal has been envisaged for the project. Coal requirement for the
project is estimated as 13.7 million tones/annum corresponding to 90% PLF
considering station heat rate of 2172.19 kcal/kWh and of GCV ranging between
4600 - 5800 Kcal/Kg. The salient features of proposed power plant are presented
in Table-10.2.
TABLE-10.2
SALIENT FEATURES OF PROPOSED POWER PLANT
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Features
Capacity
Configuration
Technology
Fuel
Source of Coal

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

Description
4000 MW
4X1000 MW
Super-Critical Technology
Coal
Imported Coal
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7
8
9

10
11
12
13
10.4

Features
Coal Requirement
Sulphur content
Ash Content in Coal
Ash generation
Bottom ash
Fly Ash
ESP efficiency
Stack
Source of water
Water Requirement

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Description
13.7 MTPA
0.6 %
12 %
1.68 MTPA
0.33 MTPA
1.35 MTPA
99.99%
Two twin flue stack of 275 m height
Sea water from Bay of Bengal
6,69,675 m3/hr

Baseline Environmental Status


In order to identify the environmental impacts due to the construction and
operation of proposed Pudimadaka STPP and associated facilities, an
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study has been undertaken, based on
Terms of Reference (TOR) accorded by MoEF&CC. Baseline environmental status
has been established for various environmental attributes within a study area of
10 km radius with the plant site as centre. The major environmental disciplines
covered in the EIA report includes ambient air quality, water quality, noise, soil,
ecology (terrestrial and aquatic), land use, geology, hydrology and demographic
& socio-economic conditions.
The Draft EIA report is prepared based on field data generated for a period of one
season i.e. from March 2015 to May 2015 representing pre monsoon season.
Environment Management Plan (EMP) including pollution mitigation measures,
afforestation plan and environmental monitoring plan during the operation of the
project, occupational health and safety and disaster management plan have also
been included in the EIA report.

10.4.1 Topography
The study area is predominantly plain with few hillocks observed adjacent to the
project site. Maximum difference in levels would be about 36 m 40 m.
10.4.2 Geology and Hydrogeology
The study area forms part of the eastern ghat tectonic complex of Archaen age.
The infiltration capacity within the project site will be very high as the entire site
has a geological setting of Alluvium layer.
The study area has crystalline/hard rock terrain underlain by granites,
charnockites and Khondalites. Ground water occurs under unconfined/water table
conditions in shallow weathered and fractured/fissured rocks. Ground water levels
in the study area are around 5-10 m Below Ground Level (BGL) and fluctuations
were about 2 4 m.

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


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10.4.3 Meteorology

The area is characterized by a typical coastal climate. The meteorological


parameters were recorded on hourly basis during the study period near proposed
plant site and comprises of parameters like wind speed, wind direction (from 0 to
360 degrees), temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and
solar radiation in Table-10.3. Site specific wind rose is presented in Figure10.2.
TABLE-10.3
SITE SPECIFIC METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Month

Temperature
(0C)
Max
Min
36.4
38.2
43.0

21.7
23.5
26.9

71
68
73

Rainfall
(mm)

58
61
62

0
19
6

Atm
Pressure
hPa

Solar
Radiation

1001.1
1000.9
1001.4

4.0
4.1
4.3

Kwh/m2

0.

9%

NN
E

N 3.6%

N
E

W2

.6%
W1
NN
9%
2.

WN

4.6

March, 2015
April, 2015
May, 2015

Relative
Humidity (%)
Max
Min

.7%

W 8.3%

EN
C-4.6%

.5%

E 1.6%

ES
.8 %
W5

E1

.4%

SE
3.

WS

E1

0%

SS
.1%
E4

SS

W2
1.0

SW

24

.0

S 8.4%

SCALE
SPEED

5%

CALM
1.0

11

19

>19

Km/hr

FIGURE-10.2
SITE SPECIFIC WINDROSE
10.4.4 Air Quality
Ambient air quality was monitored at four locations during the period of March
2015 to May 2015 in the study area. The monitoring locations are selected in
consideration of the prevailing wind pattern, type of location, accessibility and
availability of continuous power. The summarized results of ambient air quality
monitoring are given in Table-10.4. The results indicate that the background
levels of all the parameters in the study area are within the permissible limit of
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National Ambient Air Quality Standards2009 for industrial, rural, residential and
other areas.
TABLE-10.4
SUMMARY OF BASELINE AIR QUALITY IN THE STUDY AREA
Discipline

Ambient Air
Quality

Main Parameter

PM (PM10)
PM2.5
SO2
NOX
Ozone
CO
Hg

Range Measured
During the Study
Period (g/m3)
35.8 60.8
14.4 30.6
9.2 13.8
11.7 16.9
2.3 6.9
202 - 481
<0.001

NAAQ
Standards
(2009)* (g/m3)
100
60
80
80
100 (8 hrly)
2000 (8 hrly)
-

* 24 hourly average for Industrial, Rural, Residential and Other areas

10.4.5 Water Quality


Major water bodies in the study area are few irrigation tanks, Sharada River and
Sea (Bay of Bengal). To assess the background water quality, three (3) surface
water locations and three (3) ground water locations were selected and samples
were drawn and analysed on monthly basis during the study period. Analysis of
all ground water samples reveals that the total dissolved solids are exceeding the
desirable standards. Water qualities of some of the important parameters are
shown in Table-10.5.
TABLE-10.5
WATER QUALITY
Sr. No
Main Parameters
Surface Water Quality
1
pH
2
Total Dissolved Solids
3
Total Hardness
4
B.O.D3, 270C
Ground Water Quality
1
pH
2
Total Dissolved solids
3
Total Hardness

Units

Range

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l

7.4 8.1
274 - 37765
60 - 3258
28.6 315.6

mg/l
mg/l

7.4 8.0
1198 - 3300
88 - 395

10.4.6 Noise
Noise levels were measured in and around the proposed site at ten (10)
locations. The noise levels in the residential area during daytime were in the
range of 38.8 54.2 dB (A). While during night time it was 34.1 to 50.3 dB (A).
The noise levels at all the monitoring locations in the study area during the day
time and night time were found to be within the permissible limits as per
ambient air quality standards with respect to noise.
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10.4.7 Soil
To assess the soil quality, soil samples from ten (10) different locations were
collected and analysed in the laboratory. The soil in the study area is grey and
brown in colour with pH varying from 6.5 to 7.6. Texture of the soil represents
sandy loam and silty clay that are slightly alkaline in nature. The electrical
conductivity was observed in the range of 50 S/cm to 2770 S/cm. Nitrogen
content and phosphorous content in the soil is found to be in the range of 20.2
kg/ha to 100.8 kg/ha and 40.6 kg/ha to 418.6 kg/ha respectively. The
potassium concentrations range between 102.9 kg/ha to 1693.2 kg/ha.
10.4.8 Ecology
The study area has sparse vegetation mainly open scrub type. The land
proposed for the project does not have any dense vegetation cover. The study
area is under different land uses such as agriculture land, plantation, forest,
open scrubland, fallow land and grasslands. The reserve forests of the study
area have vegetation cover that shows mixed deciduous forest with severe
anthropogenic pressure.
As per the letter received from District Forest Officer, Visakhapatnam, there are no
ecologically sensitive areas such as Wildlife Sanctuaries, National Park, Biosphere
Reserves, Marine Sanctuaries and Protected areas exists in and around 10 Km
radius of the proposed Pudimadaka STPP. However, few reserve forests exists in the
study area.
The baseline monitoring of study area revealed that Accipiter badius (Shikra), Milvus
migrans (Common Kite) and Haliastur indicus (Brahminy Kite), are only three bird
species figuring in the Schedule-I of Indian Wildlife Act, 1972, and amongst reptiles
Olive Ridley turtles are listed among the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection
Act, 1972, and rest of the reptiles, remaining sea birds and terrestrial birds and
mammals are listed in the Schedule II, III, IV and V of the Indian Wildlife Act, 1972.
Also apparently there are no endangered botanical flora in the study area
Schedule VI of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
A small isolated patch of marshy land with mangrove flora occurs near
Pudimadaka. However, no major mangrove patches or declared protected
mangroves forests were observed.
Aquatic Ecology
The aquatic ecological environment does not comprise of any endangered fish, only
common fishes such as Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Common Carp) were
found in the study area.
Marine Environment
Marine ecology study reveals that the total dominance of phytoplankton community
ranged from 1115 nos/ml to 1210 nos/ml whereas the total zooplankton
abundance ranged from minimum of 3257 nos/m3 up to 9910 nos/m3.
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Thunnus albacares (YellowfinTuna, Septapinna breviceps (Anchovies), Catfishes


(Arius macalatus), Tiger Prawns (Paeneus mondon) were the dominant species
found in the study area. Amongst the fishes and shell fishes, there are no
endangered fishes found in the study area.
Sediments Quality
Sediment composition of Pudimadaka coastal area is sandy in nature. Sand was the
major constituent of this area. Percentage of sand ranged from 93.56 % to 98.59 %
followed by silt content varying from 1.03 % to 5.57 %. Heavy metal concentrations
are apparently either below maximum permissible limits or in trace levels. Results of
marine sediment quality indicate that it is free from any significant pollution.
10.4.9 Land Use
The study area has varied land use pattern ranging from human settlements,
agricultural land and barren land interspaced with coconut and casurina
plantation and forest areas. As per satellite imagery (13th March 2015), majority
of the study area is occupied by water body i.e Sea (Bay of Bengal) (38.77 %),
followed by agricultural land (34.32 %) and waste land (15.26 %). Built-up land
and forest land occupy 5.25% and 4.55 % respectively.
10.4.10 Demography and Socio-Economic Status
The demography and socio-economic profile of population in the study area has
been studied based on census data, 2011. The salient features of the demography
and socio-economic profile are as follows:

10.5

Total population is 75572;


The sex ratio (Female per 1000 Male) is 996;
The scheduled castes (SC) is 5.94 % and scheduled tribes (ST) is 0.19 %;
Overall literacy rate in the study area according to 2011 census is 57.32 %,
out of which male literacy is 56.22 % while female literacy is 43.78 %; and
The percentage of main workers and marginal workers are 71.94 % and
28.06 % respectively.
Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures

The impacts of the project during construction and operation phase is described
below:
10.5.1 Land Use
The construction activity would bring immediate changes in the land use pattern of
the proposed plant area as well as in the vicinity. Most of the proposed land is nonagricultural and its conversion into industrial use will not have any significant impact
on the land use pattern of the area. In addition, there will be some temporary
changes in land use pattern due to stripping, excavation, levelling and erection of
structures of the proposed project. However, this shall be temporary and restricted
to construction site only.
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10.5.2 Soil
Construction activities involving site levelling and excavation would invariably
disturb the soil of the area. The impacts on soil during construction phase shall be
mainly due to loss of top soil in the construction areas and contamination of the
soils of surrounding area due to construction materials such as cement, sand etc.
The disturbances would be more pronounced during the summer and monsoon
seasons with strong rains. However, it shall be temporary and shall be confined to
the areas of construction only. Generally, such disturbances are confined to the area
of activity.
Appropriate soil conservation measures associated with improved construction
techniques would minimize such impacts. Apart from localized construction impacts
at the plant site, no adverse impacts on soil in the surrounding area are anticipated.
The impact on soil during operation phase of the project could result due to
deposition of residual particulate matter and gaseous emissions on the soil. The soils
within the deposition zone of pollutants may undergo physico-chemical changes due
to deposition of particulate matter and washout of gases (SO2 and NOx) during the
rains. The impacts on soil due to operation of the power plant and gaseous emission
are likely to be negligible as the incremental concentration of particulate matter
(PM), SO2 & NOx levels are observed within limit.
10.5.3 Hydrology and Water Use
Water requirement for the project is to be met from sea (Bay of Bengal) by
constructing suitable intake channel in the sea, which is about 2-3 km from the
project and hence drawl of water for the project may not have significant
adverse impact.
10.5.4 Air Quality

Impact during Construction Phase

The main sources of emission during the construction period are the movement
of equipment at site and dust emitted during the levelling, grading, earthworks,
foundation works and other construction related activities. The impact of
construction activities would be temporary and restricted to the construction
site. The impact will be confined within the project boundary and is expected to
be negligible outside the plant boundaries. Proper maintenance of vehicles and
construction equipment will help in controlling gaseous emissions. Water
sprinkling on roads and construction site will prevent fugitive dust.

Impact during Operation Phase

Prediction of impacts on air environment has been carried out employing


mathematical model based on a steady state Gaussian Plume Dispersion model
designed for multiple point sources for short term. In the present case, AERMOD
has been used.
The maximum GLCs for PM, SO2 and NOx after implementation of the proposed
project are likely to be within the prescribed standards for industrial areas. The
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maximum incremental GLCs due to the proposed project are superimposed on the
maximum baseline PM, SO2 and NOx concentrations recorded at the monitoring
locations during the study period. The resultant concentrations after
implementation of the project are given in Table10.6.
TABLE-10.6
RESULTANT CONCENTRATIONS FOR THE PROPOSED PROJECT
Pollutant
PM
SO2
NOx

Baseline Max.
60.8
13.8
16.9

Concentrations (g/m3)
Incremental
Resultant
1.8
62.6
48.7
62.5
18.9
35.8

NAAQS Limits
100
80
80

10.5.5 Water Quality


The impact on water quality during construction phase will be mainly due to run
off from the construction area. Flow of loose material into the drain especially
during monsoon will result in higher turbidity & higher TSS content. Adequate
arrangements for proper drainage and disposal of wastewater and routing of the
effluents from construction area through sedimentation basins and provision of
proper sanitary facilities i.e. septic tanks and soak pits for treatment will
eliminate problems of water pollution during construction phase.
The impacts of the project during operation phase could result from discharge of
industrial effluents and sanitary effluents. High Concentration Slurry Disposal
System (HCSD) shall be adopted for disposal of fly ash thereby optimizing the
quantity of water requirement. The both industrial and domestic effluents will be
treated adequately to conform to the regulatory standards to minimize the
impacts and regular quality check will be carried out in the Central Effluent
Monitoring Basin (CEMB).
Further, no ground water will be used during operation phase. Hence, no impact
on ground water availability is anticipated.
10.5.6 Noise
The monitored noise levels within the study area is ranging in between 34.1
dB(A) to 54.2 dB(A). The incremental noise levels will be less than 40 dB (A) at
all the surrounding habitations. It is seen from the simulation results that the
incremental noise levels are well within the National Ambient Air Quality in
respect noise standards 2000. As the ambient noise levels are higher than the
predicted noise levels, due to masking effect, no increase in ambient noise levels
during construction and operation phase is envisaged.
10.5.7 Ecology
The initial construction works at the project site involves land clearance. During
construction activities, vegetation may be disturbed which can be considered
insignificant. Deposition of fugitive dust on pubescent leaves of nearby vegetation
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Page 12 of 16

may lead to temporary reduction of photosynthesis. Such impacts would,


however, be confined mostly to the initial periods of the construction phase and
would be minimized through water sprinkling.
Impact due to fugitive dust generated during construction will be confined to the
project site and will be minimized through paving and water sprinkling.
During operation phase, since the predicted ground level concentration of
pollutant in ambient air is likely to be well within the National Standards for
Ambient Air Quality, the impact on the surrounding agricultural field and trees will
be insignificant.
Aquatic Ecology
No industrial effluents shall be discharged into natural drains. Therefore, no
significant impact on the aquatic eco-system is envisaged.
Marine Ecology
Water intake for the cooling system may affect a localized zone of the marine
ecosystem where the intake structure is located. Primary impacts of concern are
impingement of marine life on the intake screens and entrainment of marine
species in the cooling water system. An intake bar screen will be used to prevent
large fish from being entrained in the system.
Further, cooling water will be discharged back to sea through open channel. It will
be ensured that the temperature of the discharge water does not exceed 70C over
and above the temperature of the receiving water body.
10.5.8 Socio-Economic
During construction phase of contract labours would have marginal impact on
demography of the immediate vicinity area. The power generated from this plant
will also benefit the country to larger extent leading to agricultural and industrial
development. Apart from the temporary employment during construction phase,
the setting up of the unit will also open up employment opportunities for skilled
and unskilled workers in the local area.
10.6

Environment Management Plan


NTPC is already operating various coal based thermal power projects of various
capacities all over India. Based on its vast experience, NTPC has envisaged
various pollution control / environmental mitigative measures for the project.
Following measures are recommended for implementation during construction
and operation phases of the project.

10.6.1 Construction Phase


During construction phase, water will be sprinkled in the vulnerable areas to
suppress the dust generated during excavation, levelling and other operations.

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


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The effluents from construction area will be channelled through sedimentation


tanks to remove suspended solids.
Suitable water supply and sanitation facilities will be provided to the labour
colonies housing the construction work force. The sanitary waste from these areas
will be accorded suitable treatment measures such as septic tanks.
Safety equipment such as earplugs and earmuffs, helmets, face shields, safety
goggles etc. will be provided to workers engaged in high risk area. A first aid
center will be established to provide immediate medical aid to the workers and
their family members. An ambulance will also be made available at site to
transport injured workers to nearby hospitals.
10.6.2 Operation Phase
10.6.2.1 Air Pollution Control System

10.6.2.2

High efficiency electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) will be installed to limit the


particulate emission to 50 mg/Nm3;
To facilitate wider dispersion of pollutants two stack with twin flue of height
275 m above plant grade level will be provided;
Space provision will be kept in the layout for establishing Flue Gas
Desulphurisation (FGD) system, if required in future; and
For control of fugitive dust emissions within and around the coal handling
plant and coal / stockyard dust extraction / suppression systems will be
provided.
All the internal roads have been asphalted during the implementation of the
existing plant. Therefore, vehicular movement may not generate fugitive dust.
However, water spraying will be practiced frequently at all dust generating
areas during construction period.
The emissions from the stack will be continuously monitored for particulate
matter, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.
The concentration of PM, SO2 and NOx in the ambient air quality will be
monitored as per the direction of the State Pollution Control Board.
Water Pollution Control System

An effluent management scheme will be designed which includes adequate


treatment facilities for collection, treatment and recirculation / disposal of all the
effluents emanating from different points and process of power plant activity for
controlling water pollution as well as for optimizing the makeup water
requirement.
The liquid effluents shall be collected, treated and discharged as per the following
design philosophy:

The R.O rejects from the desalination plant shall be routed through Central
Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and finally discharged to the CW return
channel.

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

10.6.2.3

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The waste effluents from neutralization pits of DM Plant and Condensate


Polishing Plant shall be collected in the respective neutralization pits and
neutralized before pumping to the CEMB before final disposal;
A coal settling pond shall be provided to remove coal particles from coal
handling plant waste. Decanted water shall be pumped to CEMB;
The plant shall have two different systems for ash disposal conventional wet
slurry disposal for bottom ash and High Concentration Slurry Disposal (HCSD)
for fly ash. HCSD system will require less quantity of water and the decanted
water from ash dyke will be recycled/reused for ash handling system. Hence,
there will be no effluent discharge from the fly ash disposal site;
All the plant liquid effluents emanating from different point shall be treated
and mixed in Common Central Effluent Monitoring Basin (CEMB) and disposed
off to the final disposal point; and
The sewage from plant and township shall be treated in a common sewage
treatment plant. The treated sewage conforming to prescribed standards shall
be utilized for plantation/horticulture to the extent possible. The balance
effluent shall be discharged.
Noise Pollution

The major noise generating sources are the turbines, turbo-generators,


compressors, pumps, fans, coal handling plant etc. from where noise is
continuously generated. Acoustic treatment will be provided to control the noise
level below 90 dB (A). Wherever required, the workers will be provided with
protective equipment such as ear plugs/ ear muffs.
10.7

Ash Utilization
NTPC - a socially conscious utility considers utilization of ash produced at its coal
based power station as a thrust area of its activities. Pudimadaka STPP will
produce about 3600 tonnes of ash per day i.e. about 1.68 million tonne ash per
annum in the power generation process. In order to have maximum ash
utilization in various areas and also to comply with the requirements of MoEF&CC
Gazette Notification on fly ash dated 03-11-2009, following actions are proposed
to be taken up by NTPC:
NTPC will provide a system for extraction of dry fly ash along with suitable
storage facilities. Provision will also be kept for segregation of coarse and fine
ash, loading this ash to closed trucks.
Fly ash will be utilized in fly ash based Portland Pozzolana Cement (FAPPC) for
cement plants and ready mix concrete plants located in the vicinity of proposed
project. Ash based building products such as fly ash bricks, blocks tiles and other
fly ash based products from proposed power plant.
Fly ash generated at proposed project will be utilized in the areas of cement,
concrete & building products manufacturing, road embankment construction and
land development.

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)
10.8

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Afforestation and Greenbelt Development


An area of 180 acres has been identified for the green belt development around
the plant boundary. An action plan will be prepared for undertaking extensive
afforestation and plantation activities for various select species based on
recreational and socio-economic importance, nativity, capability for controlling
pollution etc. in all available spaces in main plant and township area.

10.9

Rehabilitation & Resettlement


The proposed power plant shall be set up on contiguous land of APIIC in APSEZ, in
Atchutapuram and Rambilli mandals which has been handed over to NTPC on long
lease for 33 years, hence it is envisaged that there are no R&R obligations.
However, as per current extant polices and procedures for granting clearances for
new projects, a comprehensive Community Development (CD) plan shall be
formulated as per the need and requirement in consultation with stakeholders and
district administration for taking up community development activities mainly in the
area of education, health, drinking, water, sanitation, infrastructure, women
empowerment, welfare, skill development etc. in the periphery of the project site in
a defined geographic area.

10.10 Post Operational Monitoring Programme


Post project environmental monitoring is important in terms of evaluating the
performance of pollution control equipment installed in the project. The sampling
and analysis of the environmental attributes will be as per the guidelines of CPCB/
State Pollution Control Board. Following attributes will be covered in the post
project environmental monitoring in and around the project site:

10.11

Both ambient air quality and stack emissions will be monitored. The ambient
air will be monitored twice in a week [In line with the guidelines of CPCB] at
three locations. An auto meteorological station will be installed at the plant site
to monitor met data continuously;
All the effluents emanating from the plant will be monitored monthly for
physico-chemical characteristics. Heavy metals will be monitored on a
quarterly basis. Similarly, the temperature at the discharge point will be
monitored on fortnightly basis;
Noise levels in the work zone environment such as generator and compressor
I.D fan, F.D. Fan, P.A. Fan etc. will be monitored. The frequency will be once in
six months in the work zone. Similarly, ambient noise levels at three locations
will be monitored on a seasonal basis;
The results will be reported on regular basis to the Andhra Pradesh State
Pollution Control Board (APSPCB) and regional office of MoEF&CC.
Institutional Set-Up

The post operational monitoring programme will be under the supervision of the
Environment Management Group (EMG) at the project site. The project will be
equipped with all necessary instruments/ equipment and man power required for
ensuring effective monitoring. The EMG at site will interact with State Pollution
Control Board on all environmental issues during operation phase of the Project.

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

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Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)
10.12 Risk Assessment and Disaster Management Plan

Hazard analysis involves the identification and quantification of the various


hazards (unsafe conditions) that exist in the proposed power plant. On the other
hand, risk analysis deals with the recognition and computation of risks, the
equipment in the plant and personnel are prone to, due to accidents resulting
from the hazards present in the plant.
Risk analysis follows an extensive hazard analysis. It involves the identification and
assessment of risks the neighboring populations are exposed to as a result of
hazards present. This requires a thorough knowledge of failure probability, credible
accident scenario, vulnerability of population etc. Much of this information is difficult
to get or generate. Consequently, the risk analysis is often confined to maximum
credible accident studies and are discussed in detail in the EIA report.
10.13 Project Benefits
Pudimadaka STPP is being implemented for meeting the power demand of Andhra
Pradesh state and is expected to start yielding benefits during early 13th Plan
Period. During construction phase, there will be opportunities for local skilled &
unskilled workers to be employed in the various construction related activities like
material handling, operation of construction machinery, actual construction,
painting, installation of plant machinery etc.
The project would enable to meet part of the growing power demand due to rapid
industrialization and also due to large scale use of electricity for domestic and
commercial purposes. Further, the proposed project will result in improvement of
infrastructure as well upliftment of social structure in the area. It is anticipated that
the proposed project will provide benefits for the locals in two phases i.e. during
construction phase as well as during operational stage.
10.14 Conclusion
The proposed power plant has certain level of marginal impacts on the local
environment. However, with the implementation of the proposed pollution control
and environment management measures, even the minor impacts anticipated due
to construction and operation of the proposed power plant will be mitigated.
Further, development of this project has certain major beneficial impact / effects
in terms of bridging the electrical power demand and supply gap and providing
employment opportunities that will be created during the course of its setting up
and as well as during the operational phase of the project.
Thus, in view of considerable benefits from the project with judicious
implementation of the environment management plan, the proposed project is
most advantageous to the power deficit region as well as to the nation.

Chapter-10: Summary & Conclusions

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X 1000 MW)
11.0

DISCLOSURE OF CONSULTANTS

11.1

Introduction

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Vimta Labs Limited is a leading multi-disciplinary testing and research


laboratory in India. VIMTA provides contract research and testing services in the
areas of clinical research, pre-clinical (animal) studies, clinical reference lab
services, environmental impact assessments and analytical testing of a wide
variety of products.
VIMTA-Environment Division has been in the forefront of its vision to provide
better environment through guiding and assisting the industry for sustainable
development. A stalwart in the mission to protect and preserve the natural
resources on earth for future generations, Vimta offers extensive research and
consultancy services in the field of Environment. With its rich experience, multidisciplinary expertise and with the support of its state-of the-art analytical
equipment, the services offered by Vimta are wide ranging and encompasses
entire gamut of Environment Management and Monitoring Services. With its
emphasis on quality services, Vimta, over the years, has evolved itself into a
single reference point in India for Comprehensive Environmental Services.
11.1.1 The Quality Policy

VIMTA is committed to good professional practices and quality of operations in


its testing, validation and research services;

VIMTA shall ensure customer satisfaction by maintaining independence,


impartiality and integrity in its operations;

VIMTA shall provide the services in accordance with national and international
norms;
VIMTA shall implement quality systems as per ISO/IEC 17025 and applicable
Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) & Good Clinical Practices (GCPs), to
generate technically valid results/data; and
VIMTA shall ensure that all its personnel familiarize with the policies and
procedures of the quality system and implement the same in their work.

11.1.2 Services Offered


Spread over 70,000 sq.ft lush green garden premises at Cherlapally, Hyderabad
(India), the scientifically designed and meticulously groomed infrastructural
facility of the Central Laboratory of VIMTA has the most sophisticated
instruments backed by an excellent team of professionals.
Over 150,000 sq. ft. of world class research laboratory is also under operation at
Biotech Park-Genome Valley, Hyderabad (India). Having all the facilities under
one roof is perhaps the only one of its kind in South Asia in the contract testing
and research sector.

Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X 1000 MW)

Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

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VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X 1000 MW)

VIMTA Central Laboratory, Cherlapally, Hyderabad

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VIMTA Life Sciences, Genome Valley, Hyderabad

Vimta offers services under the following specializations:

Environment;
Analytical;
Clinical Reference Lab;
Clinical Research;
Preclinical;
Molecular Biology; and
Research and Development.

The environment division of VIMTA Labs Limited (VLL) has its presence all over
India and other countries including a strong association with international
consultants like Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Kennametal Inc.
- USA, Rudal Blanchard UK, E&E Solutions Japan, NAPESCO & Kuwait National
Petroleum Corporation Kuwait, Marafiq and Haif Consultants Saudi Arabia and
others. Vimta Labs Limited has the following credentials:

Recognition by BIS, India;


Recognition by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India and
various State Pollution Control Boards (wherever applicable);
Recognition by Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India (NABL);
Accreditation by QCI/NABET; (validity up to 19th September 2016);
Recognition by Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India;
Recognition by APEDA, Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India;
Recognition by Saudi Arabia Standard Organization (SASO), Saudi Arabia;
Recognition from NEMC, Tanzania;
Accreditation by NCTCF;
Certification from Standard Australia;
Recognition from ANVISA Brazil;
Recognition from USFDA;
Quality Assurance Services as per ISO/IEC 17025;
Quality Assurance Services as per ICH Guidelines; and
Recognition by World Health Organization (WHO).

Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X 1000 MW)

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11.1.3 Environment Division


Environment essentially being a multi-disciplinary science, the range of services
offered by the division are also comprehensive and caters to the needs of
industry, pollution control agencies, regulatory authorities and in a larger pursuit
of a green globe. The services under environment include:

Site selection and liability studies;


Environmental impact assessments;
Environment management plans;
Carrying capacity based regional studies;
Environmental audits;
Solid and hazardous waste management;
Risk assessment (MCA,HAZON,HAZOP) & disaster management plans;
Occupational health and safety, industrial hygiene;
Environmental monitoring for air, meteorology, water, soil, noise, ecology and
socio-economics;
Industrial emission source monitoring;
Offshore sampling and analysis of marine water and sediments;
Marine ecological studies;
Marine impact assessment;
Rehabilitation and resettlement studies;
Forestry and ecological studies;
Geological and hydro-geological studies;
Land use /land cover studies based on remote sensing;
Socio-economic studies;
Due diligence studies;
Industrial epidemiological studies;
Wasteland management studies; and
Study on bio-indicators.

The services under Environmental Chemistry include:








Analysis of water, wastewater, soil, solid waste, hazardous waste as per


international codes;
Source emissions and work zone air/noise quality monitoring;
Analysis of SVOCs, VOCs, PAH, BTEX, AOX, PCBs, TCLP metals, TOC etc.;
Categorization of hazardous waste; and
Pesticide residue analysis.

11.1.4 Facilities of Environment Division


Vimta-Environment Division is located in scientifically designed Central Laboratory
with the state-of the-art modern facilities to offer vide range of services in indoor
and outdoor monitoring and analytical characterization in the field of
Environment. Further, it is ably supported by highly skilled and experienced team
of professionals in the fields of science, engineering, ecology, meteorology, social
planning, geology & hydro-geology and environmental planning.
Besides the regular monitoring equipment such as Fine Dust Samplers, Respirable
Dust Samplers (RDS), automatic weather monitoring stations, stack monitoring
Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X 1000 MW)

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kits, personal samplers, noise meters, portable water kits etc, the other major
specialized equipment include:

Monostatic SodarDesigned by National Physical Laboratory, GOI;


Integrated Noise Level MetersQuest, U.S.A;
Flue Gas AnalyzersTesto, Germany;
113-A Gravimetric Dust Sampler-Casella, London;
ICP AES Varian, USA;
Gas Liquid Chromatographs with FID, ECD & pFPDVarian, USA;
Gas Chromatograph with Mass DetectorVarian, USA;
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer [AAS]Varian, USA;
PAS-AFC-123 instrument;
High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC);
Laser Particle Size Analyzer;
Bomb Calorimeter;
Polarographs;
X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometer;
Flame Photometer;
Carbon Sulphur Analyzer;
Computerized Fatigue Testing Machine;
Electronic Universal Testing Machine;
Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscope; and
Water Flow Current Meter make Lawrence & Mayo.

11.1.5 Quality Systems


The basic fact that environment division and its supporting site laboratories are
accredited by NABL (IS0-17025) and Ministry of Environment and Forests, India
and by other international bodies stand testimony to its emphasis on Quality
Systems.

Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad

Draft Environmental Impact Assessment


Report for
Pudimadaka Super Thermal Power Project
(4 X1000 MW)

Doc No. 9590/999/GEG/S/001


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Page 6 of 6

The details of the personnels/Experts involved in the preparation of EIA/EMP report for Pudiamadaka STPP (4x1000) MW are presented
below:
DETAILS OF PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN CURRENT EIA/EMP STUDY VIMTA LABS LTD
Sr. No.
1

Name
Mr. M. Janardhan

Qualification
M. Tech (Env)

Position
Vice President & Head

Contribution
Co-ordination

Dr. B. Chandra Sekhar

M.Sc., Ph.D

Sr. Manager

Co-ordination

Mr. G. V. Raghava Rao

M. Tech (Env)

Manager

Expert

Mr. S. Srinivas Goud

M.S.W

Group Leader

Expert

Ms. Durga Bhavani

M.Sc., M. Tech (Env)

Group Leader

Expert

About 11 years of experience in the field of Environmental Management and


Environmental Chemistry

Mr. S. Kishore Kumar

M. Tech (Env)

Group Leader

Expert

7
8

Mr. Rajasekhar T
Mr. M. Raja Manohar

M. Sc (Ecology)
M.Tech (Env)

Env Scientist
Env Engineer

Expert
Expert

Mr. M. Subba Reddy

P.hD (Env Chem)

Sr. Scientist

Expert

11
12
13
14
15
16

Mr. P. Rama Krishna


Mr. Ch. Narendra
Mr. M. Praveen kumar
Mr. J. Sunil kumar
Ms. T. Ramya Devi
Mr. P. Niranjan Babu

M. Tech (Env)
M.S.W
M. Tech (Env)
M. Tech (Env)
B. Sc
B.Com

Engineer
Scientist
Tr. Engineer
Tr. Engineer
Quality Auditor
Dy Manager

Expert
Expert
Trainee
Trainee
Quality Check
Secretarial Support

17

Mr. P. Krishna

I.T.I (Civil)

Jr. Engineer

Cartography

18

Mr. J. Rama Krishna

I.T.I (Civil)

Jr. Engineer

Cartography

About 5 years of experience in the field of environment management and


engineering
About 11 years of experience in ecological and biodiversity studies
About 4 years of experience in the field of environment management and
engineering
About 5 years of experience in the field of Environmental Management and
Environmental Chemistry
About 3 years of experience in the field of environment management
About 1 year of experience in the field of Social Impact Assessment Studies
About 1 year of experience in the field of environment management
About 1 year of experience in the field of environment management
About 5 years of experience in quality assurance
About 21 years of experience in the field of environmental monitoring and
secretarial support
About 14 years of experience in the field of environmental management and
civil drawings
About 13 years of experience in the field of environmental management and
civil drawings

Chapter-11: Disclosure of Consultants

About 24 years of experience in


environmental engineering
About 14 years of experience in
modeling
About 15 years of experience in
environmental engineering
About 23 years of experience
Studies

Experience
the field of environmental management and
the field of environmental management and
the field of environmental management and
in the field of social Impact Assessment

VIMTA Labs Limited, Hyderabad