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FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

SUB TOPIC: PROCESSING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY


Fermentation is method of processing food that converts sugar to acids, gases or
alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells,
as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also used more broadly
to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the
goal of producing a spesific chemical product.
Fermentation were the most important food preservation. Fermentation is a good
method processing because fermentation makes food product more interesting by
intensifying the flavour through the conversion of sugars into acid and it can
extend age of food. Fermented foods often contain a higher level of convertible
energy that nonfermented foods of the same weight.
Biochemical properties of Rice Wine produced from three different
starter
The procces of rice wine using nuruk involves two steps fermentation; a
solid state fermentation growing mold on raw or cooked cereals which called
nuruk, and mashing the nuruk with additional cereals to produces alcohol using
yeast. The processes are Rice was cooked and cooled at room temperature. Then
the starter culture was mixed with the cooled white and glutinous rice. This
mixture was put into jars without additional water and left to ferment for four
weeks. After fermentation, rice wine and cake were separated through filtration.
The Procces of Wine Fermentation
Yeast growth can be inhibited by high concentrations of sugar and the
accumulation of ethanol in the cell. Its known that altering the nutritional
conditions, it is possible to increase ethanol yield as well as the survival of yeast
at high concentrations of ethanol. To start primary fermentation yeast may be
added to the must for red wine or may occur naturally as ambient yeast on the
grapes or in the air. Yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this
fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks. The different from
two produced is temperatures. Red must fermented at up 26,7C and white to
15C. Red must are fermented on the skins until the maximum color is extracted,
often 2-5 days. The cultures that basically using in wine is Saccharomyces
cerevisiae.
The Process of Beer
The first thing a brewer needs to do before getting to work making beer is
to ensure that their brewing grain is ready to go. Once the grain has been milled, it

is added to a large vessel called the mash tun, and mixed with hot water to form
the mash. The next step in the brewing process take the mash and separate out the
spent grain from the sugary liquid known as worth. Once the sweet wort has been
separated from the grains, it is brought to a strong , prolonged boil for one to two
hours. Then the las process is fermentation, once the worr has been cooled it is
moved to fermentor.
The Process of Milk Fermentation
The general process by which product fermented milk are made begins are
made a primary treatment of milk which may include clarification, fat separation,
and standarisation and evaporation. Processing follow next with the aeration,
homogenization and pasteurization. The milk is than cooled to the appropriate
fermentation temperature and starters culture added. Starter cultures different for
each products. They consist of microorganism added to the milk product in a
controlled and predictable manner.
The Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Milk Fermentation
Milk fermentation processes has been relied on the activity of LAB, which
play a crucial role in converting milk as raw material to fermented milk products.
In milk fermentation industry, various industrial strains of LAB are used as starter
cultures. Starter cultures were obtained from a sequence activities and passed a
process of isolation, selection and confirmation.