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Introduction of Office

Automation
office automation refers to the varied computer
machinery and software used to digitally create, collect,
store, manipulate, and relay office information needed
for accomplishing basic tasks. Raw data storage,
electronic transfer, and the management of electronic
business information comprise the basic activities of an
office automation system.[1] Office automation helps in
optimizing or automating existing office procedures.
The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which
allows users to transfer data, mail and even voice
across the network. All office functions, including
dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm
and records management, telephone and telephone
switchboard operations, fall into this category. Office
automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s
as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene.
Advantages are:
Office

automation

can

get

many

accomplished faster.
It eliminates the need for a large staff.
Less storage is required to store data.

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tasks

Multiple

people

can

update

data

simultaneously in the event of changes in


schedule

Hardware Requirements

Processor
RAM

: Pentium-iv
: 1GB

Hard Disk

: 40 GB

Printer

: HP Laser Zet

Monitor

: LG Monitor

Software Requirements
Back end

MS access

Front End

Visual Basis 6.0

Work Station O/s :

Windows XP

Tool

M. S. Office

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introduction
What is office automation?
Features of office automation
o Facsimile
o Voicemail
o Voice messaging
o Telemarketing
o Teleconferencing
o Telecommuting
o Electronic funds transfer
o E-commerce
o Electronic mail
Impact of office automation
o Advantages
Disadvantages
The internet
o Advantages
Disadvantages
The use of computer networks in various
fields
o The hotel industry
o Education
o Banking
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o Home
o Supermarkets

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This vast body of information was compiled to form


this booklet. It includes what office automation is and
its purposes either in a school, a business or in any
organization. This booklet also includes the features of
office automation and how computer networks are used
in various fields

such

as in

the hotel

industry,

education, banking and other businesses.


While going through this booklet I hope that you
the reader will understand and comprehend most of
what is needed to know about office automation.

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what is office automation?


Office Automation has both a narrow and a broad
meaning.
Narrowly, OFFICE AUTOMATION is the use of computer
systems to execute a variety of operations such as
word processing, accounting, electronic mail etc. Office
automation
computers

almost
with

always

implies

variety

of

available

network

of

programs.

Broadly, OFFICE AUTOMATION is a general term that


includes a wide range of applications of computer,
communication and information technologies in the
office environment. Though automation is constantly
changing, the size of the market is huge, with annual
investments measured in billions of dollars. Automation
has altered not only our work environment but also our
very own concept of work.
The use of modern office equipment in Businesses is
intended to facilitate faster processing and delivery of
information, accurate analysis of facts and figures,
higher efficiency and productivity, and elimination of
fatigue

arising

from

performing

repetitive

jobs

manually. The most dramatic shift for business in


communications technology has been the internet.
Increasing use of the internet in the form of e-mails and
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websites is transforming the work environment. The


internet

has

broken

down

traditional

geographic

barriers to communication, information, opened up


markets,

and

created

an

environment

of

almost

instantaneous feedback.

features of office automation


Office automation products are used in the office to
make all official work happen at a faster speed without
any

mess.

Office

automation

products

include

computer, calculator, printer, copier machine, fax


machine (facsimile), laminating machine, note binding
machine, typewriter, voice messaging, telemarketing,
teleconferencing, e-commerce, electronic funds transfer
,electronic

mail,

telecommuting,

to

name

few.

Computers help in storing data in various files and


folders

which

otherwise

had

chances

of

getting

misplaced. ATM and MISCS help in withdrawing and


transferring money anywhere and everywhere. They
are required to keep your money secured. Office
automation products effectively help in decreasing
manual

work

and

also

save

time

through

their

automatic functional features. These office automation


products perform every task in the office and are very
convenient to use.

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Facsimile
This is a device that codes and encodes documents
so they can be transmitted over telephone lines. The
term fax refers to documents that you send via a fax
machine. Fax machines scan printed text and graphics
and convert the image into a digital code, 1 represent
the dark areas and 1represents the white areas. The
code is transmitted through the telephone network to
similar devices, where the documents are reproduced
close to their original form. The fax machine that is
receiving the incoming data, converts the digitized data
back into an image, and prints or stores a copy of the
original image. The concepts for fax technology were
developed in the 19th century but it became widespread
in the 1970s when inexpensive means of adapting
digitized information to telephone circuits became
common.

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Picture showing a fax machine

Voicemail
This is much like an answering machine which
allows someone to leave a voice message for one or
more people. Unlike answering machines, a computer
in a voice mail system converts analog voice message
into digital form. Once the message is in digital form, it
is then stored in a voice mailbox.
Voice messaging
Voice message refers to a message that could be sent
to a destination using voice media. Voice itself could be
'packaged' and sent through the IP backbone so that it
reaches its marked 'address'. In a sense, the process of
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sending 'voice packets' is a semi passive way of


communication. However, given the speed at which it
could be delivered can make the communication sound
seamless.
Telemarketing
Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which
a salesperson solicits to prospective customers to buy
products or services, either over the phone or through a
subsequent

face

to

face

or

Web

conferencing

appointment scheduled during the call.


Telemarketing can also include recorded sales pitches
programmed to be played over the phone via automatic
dialing. Telemarketing has come under fire in recent
years, being viewed as an annoyance by many.

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Picture showing persons conducting


telemarketing business.
Teleconferencing
A teleconference is a telephone or video meeting
between

participants

in

two

or

more

locations.

Teleconferences are similar to telephone calls, but they


can expand discussion to more than two people. Using
teleconferencing in a planning process, members of a
group can all participate in a conference with agency
staff people.

Picture showing persons having a teleconference


meeting.

Telecommuting
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This is a work arrangement in which employees


work away from a companys standard workplace and
often

communicate

with

the

office

through

the

computer. Employees who telecommute have flexible


work

and

personal

responsibilities.

successful

telecommuting program requires a management style


which is based on results and not on close scrutiny of
individual employees. Types of technologies that are
being used in the telecommunication process include:
1. Computer
2. Cellular phone
3. Mobile devices
4. Printer

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Picture showing person conducting


telecommuting business through various devices.

Electronic funds Transfer


Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) refers to the computer
based systems used to perform financial transactions
electronically. It allows users to connect to a network to
transfer money from one bank account t another via a
transmission media. One of the most widely-used EFT
programs

is

Direct

Deposit,

in

which

payroll

is

deposited straight into an employee's bank account


Although EFT refers to any transfer of funds initiated
through an electronic terminal, including credit card,
ATM, and point-of-sale (POS) transactions. It is used for
both credit transfers, such as payroll payments, and for
debit transfers, such as mortgage payments.

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E-commerce
E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the buying and
selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially
the World Wide Web.

E- business can be used

interchangeably with e- commerce. For online retail


selling, the term e-tailing is sometimes used. ECommerce can be represented in three forms either
consumers to consumer (C2C), Business to consumer
(B2C) or business to business (B2B). E-bay is an
example of C2C. Popular uses of e-commerce by
consumers include shopping, investing, and banking.
Products that can be purchased on the web include
computers, prescription drugs, flowers, airline tickets,
cars, books, music etc. When using e-commerce,
customers can pay using different methods example:
credit card, debit card, pay pal etc.

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Picture showing one of the major companies that


conduct consumes to consumer e-commerce.

Electronic mail
Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is
a method of exchanging digital messages, designed
primarily for human use. E-mail was designed so that
scientists and researchers working on Governmentsponsored projects to communicate with colleagues at
other locations.
You can use e-mail programs to create, sends, receive,
forward, store, print and delete messages.

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Picture showing how to send an e-mail.

Impact of office automation


The computer is changing the office environment much
like the automobile has changed the city. Effectively
integrated office automation systems may result in the
restructuring

of

entire

organizations,

with

the

emergence of new structural configurations and the


elimination of departments or entire divisions. The new
information technologies have led to a large reduction
in the size of the average organization's middle ranks.
Moreover, the workers who remain are no longer tied to
a centrally located office: telecommuting has become a
new trend in the business world. On the positive side,
this trend enables individuals to work from the comfort
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of home; on the negative side, this lack of a common


office environment may contribute to the erosion of the
city core. The new technologies may also have the
potential to strengthen the power of trans-national
corporations in Jamaica, Canada and other countries,
contributing to the erosion of countrys autonomy and
displacing many people whose jobs will be automated.
In most organizations office automation has been
viewed as a means to computerize old procedures and
to make employees more productive, rather than to
make the organization more effective.

Advantages of Office Automation


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Office

automation

can

get

many

tasks

accomplished faster, eliminating the need for a larger


staff. Less storage space is required for data, and
copies can be easily transferred off-site for safekeeping
in case of fire or other emergency. Multiple people can
be updated simultaneously in the event of schedule
changes.

Disadvantages of Office Automation


Older staff members may have a harder time adjusting
to the new technology and be unable to use it
efficiently. Also, if something is misfiled, it can be a lot
harder to find. Other disadvantages include the amount
of money required to implement and the cost of
maintenance of certain equipments.

The Internet
The

internet,

otherwise

called

the

net

is

worldwide collection of networks that links millions of


businesses,

government

agencies,

institutions and individuals.

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educational

advantages

of

the

internet

to

individuals
Nowadays internet has become so common that people
who are unaware about internet are referred as clumsy.
This is due to the speedy development of technology
and globalization. Societies are becoming more and
more unified. You can easily contact to the person
sitting in a different country. You can share your
knowledge, thoughts by making the use of an internet.
Study results have also traced the popularity of internet
usage. E-mail is the topmost task which is conducted
online, followed by general surfing, News reading,
shopping etc.
Internet shopping has also become popular amongst
users especially in developed nations; this is because
'shop on internet' is more efficient than physically going
into

the

stores.

The

internet

endow

with

the

surroundings where shopper's demands are fulfilled.


Shopping on the internet also saves time and we can
select a better product without having to travel a long
distance. Using the internet, shopper can scrutinize the
product's prices from various stores by sitting on one
place. Also they can now shop online for the goods
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which normally get sold in a foreign nation. Rather than


having to travel to the country to take the delivery of
the goods, they can place the order online and get it
efficiently delivered.
Internet also gives us the prospective to communicate
effectively and efficiently. For example, sending an
email costs lower than posting a letter in the mail,
especially

for

people

who

have

to

communicate

internationally. Besides this, an email can be sent


within a minute after it is written. For sending a mail we
don't need to complete the official procedure such as
Post Office and a mail box etc. The recipient of the
email can view it at any time and from any place, as it
is a virtual means of communication, as opposed to
having a mail box where the letters get delivered.
Internet use is not only limited to shopping and
communication with people, but it also provides the
environment for news distribution and endorse the
people to be updated with the latest news. We can
access the data easily wherever it may be across the
world.

Internet

is

also

very

good

form

of

communication for people who want to express their


own view points and feelings. For youngsters, internet
is not only a place of knowledge but it also has an
entertainment

aspect

such
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as

online

games,

downloading movies, music etc. But this is not the only


reason the internet appeals to the younger generation.
They also agreed that the internet provides ease to
research and university students. This is because a
large number of articles on the same topic can be
found on the internet by just one search.
To put it briefly, the popularity of the internet have
contributed in the most part of development of the
society.

You

can

say

that

people

are

nowadays

becoming more reliant on the internet for their day to


day work. Or we can also say that they are making the
use of this facility for their routine life to save time and
cost. Ultimately, it's a tool that is effective if used
properly and effectively.
Disadvantages of the internet to individuals
The disadvantages of using Internet include not being
able to find what you are looking for. You may also find
so much good information that it may be difficult to
decide which source to choose. This can be more of a
problem for people who are new to the Internet. Due to
this, many searches turn out to be non-productive.
Isolation- Using the Internet for long periods of time
can isolate people from family and friends. Though

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many

develop

online

relationships

these

"cyber"

buddies cannot replace "real life" socializing.


Addiction- It is possible for Internet users to become
habitually addicted. Though different from chemical
addiction it is a real problem as some lose employment
and suffer other adverse effects from overuse.
Inaccurate

Information-Though

there

are

many

legitimate websites full of factual information there are


a plethora of sites with inaccurate information and it is
often hard to tell the difference.
Hacking

of

Personal

Information-

Providing

personal information online when shopping or banking


can result in hackers gaining access to private data that
can be used to steal your funds and even your identity.
Viruses- Going online often means subjecting your
computer to viruses that can crash your system
causing you to lose important files and sometimes
destroying your operating system.
Inappropriate Websites- Children can often stumble
upon or seek out inappropriate websites when using
the Internet at home, which can be dangerous if the
child shares personal information.

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THE USE OF COMPUTER


NETWORKS IN VARIOUS FIELDS
Computers are electronic devices operating under
the control of instructions stored in its own memory.
Many businesses, institution and even the home
depend on computers to do daily calculations and
storing of information. Major innovations such as the
personal computers, mobile phones, and of course the
internet have influenced various fields to make changes
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in the way they operate. The greatest change of all is in


the way they market their products and businesses.
The computer has changed the society today.
People interact directly wit computers I field such as
education,

banking,

the

hotel

industry,

the

supermarket, and even in the home.

APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORKS IN THE HOTEL
INDUSTRY
Personal computers enable the persons in the hotel
industry to:
Create and build data bases to maintain valuable
information for customer service management.

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Sales

lead

follow-up

and

front

office/accounting/sales management.
Simplify the budgeting process.
Reduce their dependence upon paper file records.
The Internet gave the hotel industry the ability to
communicate, computer to computer around the world,
in real-time. It has become the greatest communication
tool ever devised which revolutionized world travel and
hotel marketing. In the olden days the Internet, hotel
franchises

dominated

the

marketplace;

they

had

sophisticated voice and electronic reservations systems


and the financial where-with-all to market their member
properties using all forms of broadcast and print
advertising. Independent hotels couldnt compete with
this power. Nowadays, hotels of all size have the ability
to attract travelers from all regions of the world market,
effectively and affordably. Perhaps the most amazing
fact is that there are still many hoteliers who have not
embraced the Internet as a viable and affordable
marketing tool.
The Internet is changing the way consumers select
hotels. The Internet has become the most important
hotel search and find tool in the hotel selection process.
Gone are the days of the dominance of offline hotel

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directories and the need to call hotel 800 reservation


numbers to gather information. Persons find it easier to
make reservations over the internet.

picure showing persons checking in a hotel through


making online reservations.

APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORKS IN BANKING
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Many people and companies use computers to help


mange their finances. Some use finance software to
balance checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income
and expenses, manage investments, and evaluate
financial plans. There are two types of online services:
online banking and online investing.
Online

banking allows users to access account

balance, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions from


the banks computer.
Online investing allows investors to buy and sell
stocks and bonds without using a broker. With online
investing, the transaction fee for each trade is usually
less than when trading through a broker.

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picture showing online banking

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APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORKS IN EDUCATION
Interaction through networks helps break down
communication barriers and connects students and
teachers with the outside world. Access to a computer,
a modem, and phone lines frees students and teachers
from the physical limits and time constraints of the
school environment. Networking allows them to send
electronic mail, participate in computer conferencing,
and access information from remote sources.
In the traditional model people learn from other people
such as parents, teachers, and employers. Many forms
of printed material such as books and manuals are used
as learning tools. Today, educators also are turning to
computers to assist with education.
Many schools and companies are turning to equipped
labs with computers. Some schools require or urge
students to have a notebook computer or PDA to
access the schools network or internet wirelessly.
Sometimes, the delivery of education occurs at one
place while the learning at other locations.

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Picture showing the use of computers in


education

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APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORKS IN THE HOME
Computers

in

the

home

are

no

longer

convenience but a basic necessity. Each member in a


family spends time on the computer whether its
budgeting,

web

access,

entertainment

and

even

personal financial management. On the internet home


users can access a huge variety of information, take
school courses, plan traveling, play games, read books,
watch movies, make reservations, book airline tickets,
and

even

make

telephone

calls

though

internet

telephony otherwise called VOIP (Voice Over Internet


Protocol).
Home users can even communicate over the
internet and be apart of social networks. They will
communicate

through

instant

messaging,

blogs, chat rooms, PDAs and smart phones.

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e-mails,

APPLICATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORKS IN SUPERMARKETS
Many people prefer to buy their groceries on the
internet and they usually say:
-

Its easier to buy than in non-internet malls

- There are a lot of products that you cant find in


usual malls
-

You save time on going to malls

You save money because there are a lot of discounts

Its more comfortably to buy your groceries from

home after a hard day


-

You dont have to stay hours in lines

On the internet youll find the products that you usually


buy in your near-house supermarket and a big amount
of other products and be sure that here youll buy your
groceries on a better price.
Computer systems are used in a variety of ways in the
modern, large supermarket, from stock control to
maintaining temperatures in fridges and freezers. The
supermarket uses several computers which are located
in a room known as the system office and form the
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supermarkets
computers

are

own
used

Local
to

Area
control

Network.
stocks

These

and

are

connected to the checkouts; these are known to be


branch computers. The computers are multi-functional,
and each can access the data, which give the
management a number of access point.

JUST IN TIME Vs STANDARD


METHOD OF STOCK CONTROL
In the standard method, a shop selling cookers etc,
keeps it stock in a shop and in an attached warehouse.
When stock in the shop runs low it is replenished from
the warehouse. A check is kept on how much stock is in
the warehouse. When the warehouse needs new stock,
an order is placed with the appropriate suppliers or
with the organizations main warehouse and the
goods are delivered.
The just-in-time system takes advantage of a stock
information system. As products pass through the
electronic points of sales (EPOS), the relevant data is
sent to a database containing information about stock
levels. When stock falls below a set level more is
ordered. Thus only a bare minimum of necessary stock
is ordered and there is no need to maintain a large,
fully stocked warehouse. In some cases the system is
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fully automated, working out how what stock is needed


and electronically processing and communicating the
order.
Advantages
Money is saved because less warehouse space
needs to be purchased and maintained.

Economies can be made in regard to labour costs,


i.e. fewer staff is needed.

The business is more aware of and more


responsive to changes in supply and demand

Disadvantages

If there is disruption to the transport system,


shops and businesses will quickly run out of stock.

Shops can still be caught out by sudden changes


in buying patterns. In such cases they often find
themselves without the stock the customers are
asking for.

An ICT system can be costly to set up and


maintain, and expertise - which may also be costly
will be needed to run it.

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Picture showing the use of computers in supermarkets

Conclusion
When office automation is incorporated into an office
environment, many improvements become possible,
but they are mostly improvements in the speed with
which work is done rather than in the kind of work that
is done. Office automation in the 1980s began a new
trend

the

integration

of

previously

separate

capabilities into single powerful work stations. Even the


most basic home office today contains, through the use
of a single computer, the following capabilities: wordprocessing and home publishing abilities; access to
information previously stored on files at other locations,

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together with the ability to communicate with other


stations on the Net or on other nets; electronic mails
including any combination of text, graphics and voice,
connecting users to others on the same net to people
on different nets in other places; activity-management
systems, including time management, project planning
and scheduling, and electronic calendar capabilities.
Information

management

systems

range

from

straightforward storage and retrieval systems, where


the user does much of the work of storing and
retrieving, to sophisticated natural-language expert
systems. These provide assistance for people who deal
with large volumes of diverse types of rapidly changing
information.

Decision-support

systems

incorporate

sophisticated programs on large databases that allow


the user to perform complex analyses in a way that
improves the speed and quality of decisions that are
made.
Today, we continue to see major developments in
several areas. The power of the computers driving most
technology continues to increase rapidly. Not only can
computers process and hold more information, but they
also process this information with greater efficiency and
speed.

More

significantly,

computers

allow

the

individual to perform a multitude of tasks almost


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simultaneously. For example, on a single computer a


worker can be connected to several websites at the
same time, receive e-mail, and work on a number of
different files. As well, the cost of the technology
continues to diminish to such an extent that computer
literacy in the workplace is now expected.

REFERENCE
WEBSITES
1. www.enzinesarticles.com
2. www.easysource.com
3. www.encyclopediaz.thefreedictionary.com
4. www.webopedia.com
5. www.eHow.com
6. www.answers.com
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7. www.fhwa.dot.gov
8. www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk
9. www.searchwinit.com
10. www.searchc10.com
11. www.hotelmarketing.com
12. www.kidssource.com
PICTURES
13. www.telepresenceoptions.com
14. www.mlive.com/special-sections/annarbor/ind
15. www.incegroup.cpm/portfolio.html
16. www.cainsoftware.in/images.offx_autmtn2.jpg

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