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SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

CHENNAI -600 119

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

MATERIAL TESTING LAB MANUAL

CONTENTS

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1.

COMPRESSION TEST ON WOOD

2.

DEFLECTION TEST

3.

COMPRESSION TEST ON OPEN COILED HELICAL SPRING

4.

TENSION TEST ON CLOSED COILED HELICAL SPRING

5.

TORSION TEST ON MILD STEEL ROUND BAR

6.

IZOD IMPACT TEST

7.

i.e
xe

TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL BAR

8.

ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

9.

BRINELL HARDNESS TEST

10.

DOUBLE SHEAR TEST

1. COMPRESSION

TEST

ON

WOOD/ BRICK

AIM :

To determine the compressive strength of a given wooden


specimen .

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Compression testing machine
1. Scale .
PROCEDURE :

1. Measure the dimensions of the specimen .


2. Keep the wooden specimen at the centre of the lower
compression plate .Now lower the adjustable cross head by
rotating the hand wheel so that the top compression plate just
touches the specimen .
3. Now apply the load manually. Now the specimen is compressed
between the compression plates .The load applied to the
specimen is indicated by the measuring value indicator .
4. Load the specimen till it fails .Note the ultimate load .
5. Remove the specimen from the machine .
OBSERVATION :
C . S dimensions of the specimen

TABULATION :

Sl
.No

Load in N

Cross sectional
area of the
specimen

Compressive
strength
N/
2
mm

( mm2 )

CALCULATION:
Ultimate compressive
load
Compressive strength of the given specimen
---------------------------------

=
C. S area of the

specimen
RESULT :

The compressive strength of the given specimen =

2.DEFLECTION

TEST

AIM :

To determine the Youngs modulus of the given material and


verify Maxwells law of reciprocal deflection .

APPARATUS :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Knife edge supports


Deflectometer
Set of weights with hanger.
Scale
Vernier caliper .

PRINCIPLE :

According to Maxwells law of reciprocal deflection in a simply


supported beam
AB = BA
where
load at B

AB

BA

- Deflection of the beam measured at A due to the

- Delection of the beam measured at B due to the

load at A
PROCEDURE :
1. Measure the dimensions of the beam.
2. Place the given beam on knife edge supports with equal overhangs on either side
of the beam .

3. Place the deflectometer at a distance x from the support.


4. Place the weight hanger at a distance of a from the support.
Note the initial reading of the deflectometer.
5. Now increase the load gradually and take the corresponding
deflectometer readings.
6. Now decrease the load in the same intervals and note the
deflectometer readings.
7. Draw a graph - Load vs Deflection .
OBSERVATION :
x<a &

x<b

C . S . dimensions of the beam


=

Span ( l )

Distance ( x )

Distance ( a )

Distance ( b )

TABULATION :
Deflectometer reading
S.N
o

x<a

Load

Young
s
modulu
s in

x<b

N/mm2
gm

1.
2.
3.

Loadin
g

Unloadi
ng

Mean

Loadin
g

Unloadi
ng

Mean

4.
5.
6.

CALCULATION:

x<a
wbx

------------ ( l2 - b2 - x2 )
6EIl

x<b
wax

------------ ( l2 - a2 - x2 )
6EIl

RESULT :

Youngs modulus of the given material (E)

3. COMPRESSION

TEST ON OPEN COILED


SPRING

HELICAL

AIM :

To conduct a compression test on the given helical spring and


hence determine the following, a) Shear modulus b) Stiffness of the
spring
c) Proof load
d) Strain energy
stored at proof load

APPARATUS :

1. Spring testing machine


2. Vernier caliper
3. Scale
MACHINE DESCRIPTION :

The machine mainly consists of loading mechanism, load


measuring system, indicating mechanism, recorder and electrical
controls.
Loading mechanism :
The base is connected to torque plate by two columns forming the main structure
of the machine .The measuring system is assembled on top plate and is covered by top
cover. The side panel fixed to the right column consists of indicating and recording
mechanisms
Load measuring sytems (Pendulum dynamometer):

The load measuring system is supported on the top plate and is


covered by the top cover. The upper grip head is fixed to the central
member .A spring steel strip with one end fixed to the pendulum shaft
runs around the shaft and its end is fixed to the central member.
Indicating mechanism:
The rack pusher fixed to the pendulum lower pushes the rack
which slides over the rack guide pulleys .The lower movement of the
rack rotates the pinion .The pinion is fixed on a pointer shaft running in
ball bearing. A dummy pointer which moves forward with the main
pointer is provided for maximum load reading .

PROCEDURE :

1. Measure the mean coil diameter and the diameter of wire of the
spring .Also note the number of free coils in the spring.
2. Place the spring in position in between the platforms for
compression spring.
3. Adjust the indicator of the load dial, to read 0.
4. Apply compressive load by increasing at suitable intervals and note
the corresponding deflections.
5. Draw graph - load vs deflection .

OBSERVATION :

Mean coil diameter ( D )=

Wire diameter (d )=

No. of turns ( n )

Free height of the spring (H)

TABULATION :

Load
S.N
o

Deflection

(mm )

(N )
Loadin
g

Unloadi
ng

Mea
n

Stiffne
ss
N/mm

Pro
of
Loa
d
( N)

Shear
stress
N/mm
2

N/mm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

CALCULATION:
64 R3 n

Rigidit
y
modulu
s

Strain
energ
y
N-mm

Rigidity modulus ( G )

------------ x ----

d4
w
Stiffness of the spring ( K )

= ----------

Proof load (wp )

= K (H - n d )

16 wp R
Shear stress ( p )

--------------=
d3
(p )2

Strain energy stored ( Uwp )

= -------------- x

--------- x
4G

RESULT :

Rigidity modulus

Stiffness of the spring

Proof load

Strain energy stored at proof load

d2
Dn
4

4. TENSION TEST ON CLOSED COILED HELICAL SPRING


AIM :

To conduct a tension test on the given helical spring and hence


determine the
following a) Shear modulus b) Stiffness of the spring.

APPARATUS :

1. Spring testing machine


2. Vernier caliper
3. Scale

MACHINE DESCRIPTION :
The machine mainly consists of loading mechanism, load measuring system,
indicating mechanism, recorder and electrical controls.
Loading mechanism:
The base is connected to torque plate by two columns forming the main structure
of the machine. The measuring system is assembled on top plate and is covered by top
cover. The side panel fixed to the right column consists of indicating and recording
mechanisms
Load measuring systems (Pendulum dynamometer ):
The load measuring system is supported on the top plate and is
covered by the top cover.The upper grip head is fixed to the central
member .A spring steel strip with one end fixed to the pendulum shaft
runs around the shaft and its end is fixed to the central member.

Indicating mechanism :

The rack pusher fixed to the pendulum lower pushes the rack
which slides over the rack guide pulleys .The lower movement of the
rack rotates the pinion .The pinion is fixed on a pointer shaft running in
ball bearing. A dummy pointer which moves forward with the main
pointer is provided for maximum load reading .
PROCEDURE :

1. Measure the mean coil diameter and the diameter of wire of the
spring .Also note the number of free coils in the spring .
2. Place the spring in position by attaching it to hooks for tension
spring .
3. Adjust the indicator of the load dial ,to read 0 .
4. Apply tensile load by increasing at suitable intervals and note
the corresponding deflections .
5. Draw graph - load vs deflection.
OBSERVATION :

Mean coil diameter (D)

Wire diameter (d )

No. of free coils ( n )

TABULATION :

Load
S.N
o

Deflection

(mm )

(N )
Loadin
g

Unloadi
ng

Mea
n

Stiffne
ss

Shear
stress

N/mm

N/mm
2

Rigidit
y
modulu
s
N/mm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

CALCULATION:

64 R3 n
Rigidity modulus ( G )

= --------------x--------d4

Strain
energ
y
N-mm

w
Stiffness of the spring ( K )

= ---------
16 w R

Shear stress ( )

----------- d3
( )2

Strain energy stored ( Uwp )

= -------------- x

d2
--------- x Dn

4G

RESULT :

Rigidity modulus

Stiffness of the spring

Proof load

Strain energy stored at proof load

5. TORSION

TEST

ON

MILD

STEEL ROUND BAR

AIM:

To conduct a torsion test on the given mild steel wire and hence
determine the modulus of rigidity .

APPARATUS :
1. Torsion testing machine
2. Vernier caliper.
3. Scale
MACHINE DESCRIPTION:

The machine consists of two units namely, loading unit and the
measuring control panel. It consists of robust base fitted with control
panel. The gear box assembly is guided on the base. A driving chuck
and angle measuring pulley is mounted on a lever spindle assembly is
connected to a pendulum dynamometer. The autographic recorder is
fitted on the control panel .The recorder will show the relation between
torque and twist angle
PROCEDURE :

1. Measure the diameter of the specimen in both perpendicular


directions and take
the average .
2. Fix the specimen between the driving chuck and the driven
chuck.
3. Set the angle measuring dial at 0o position.
4. Now apply torque to the specimen.
5. Note the torque readings by changing the angle of twist.
6. Draw the graph torque Vs angle of twist.

OBSERVATIONS :
Length of the specimen ( l )

Diameter of the specimen ( d )

TABULATION :

Sl .
No

Angle of twist
()

Torque ( T )

Rigidity modulus
(G )
N/mm2

degre
e
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

radia
ns

kg f cm

Nmm

CALCULATIONS

d3
Polar M.I. (J)

------32
T

Rigidity modulus (G )

------ x -----

RESULT:

Modulus of rigidity of the given material is

6. IZOD IMPACT TEST


AIM :
To determine the impact strength of the given specimen.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1.

Izod impact testing machine

2.

Scale

.
MACHINE DESCRIPTION :
The pendulum impact testing machine consists of the single piece frame, the
pendulum, the specimen support and the measuring equipment. The pendulum is fastened
to the pendulum shaft. The range within which the pendulum is swinging is partially
protected by the guard. There is a dial attached concentrically with the pendulum shaft.
The scale is designed such that the impact energy absorbed in breaking the specimen can
be read directly.
Angle of drop of pendulum

= 900

Striking velocity of pendulum

m / sec

PROCEDURE :

1. Firmly secure the proper striker to the bottom of the hammer with the help of
damping piece.
2. Firmly secure the latching tube for Izod test to the barring housing at the side of
the columns. The steel wire coming from the latch is carried through the latching
tube and is fastened to the interior of the release lever.
3. For determining the frictional loss in the machine, adjust the reading pointer along
with pointer carrier to 300 J reading on the dial when the pendulum is swinging
free.
4. Note the reading on the scale against the pointer, which gives
initial error if any.
5. Now lift the pendulum again to its starting position.
6. Fix the specimen for Izod test to the support.
7. Release the pendulum as before. The hammer strikes the
specimen.

8. Note the reading against the pointer. This gives the energy
absorbed by the specimen.
OBSERVATION:

Length of the specimen

Effective cross-sectional area =


Energy absorbed by the specimen

TABULATION:

Sl
.No

Effective crosssectional area


( mm2 )

Energy absorbed
by the specimen
(J)

Impact strength
(J / mm2 )

CALCULATION:

Energy absorbed by the specimen


Impact strength

= -----------------------------------------Effective cross-sectional area

RESULT:

Impact strength of the given specimen =


i . exe

7. TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL BAR

AIM:
To study the behaviour of a mild steel specimen under tension
when tested to destruction and also to determine the following.
a) Youngs modulus
Breaking stress

b) Yield stress

c) Ultimate stress

d)

e) Percentage elongation in length f) Percentage reduction in area.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :
1. Universal testing machine
2. Extensometer
3. Vernier caliper
4. Scale
DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE :
The machine consists of two units namely
1. The loading unit
2. The control unit.
The loading unit consists of a robust base. The main hydraulic
cylinder is to be fitted in the centre of the base and the piston slides in
the cylinder. It consists of a lower table, which is connected to the main
piston through a ball and ball seal joint and two cross heads. The lower
table and the upper cross head assembly moves up and down with the
main piston.
The main units in the control panel are

1. The oil tank which contains the hydraulic oil.

2. The pump which assures a continuous high pressure non pulsating of current for the smooth application of load on the
specimen.
3. Two valves one at the right hand side and the other at the left
side are used to control the oil flow in the hydraulic system and
Dynamometer is a unit which measures and indicates the load. It
is a pendulum dynamometer consisting of a cylinder in which the
piston reciprocates.
4. The displacement of the piston causes the pendulum to deflect
and this deflection
represents the measurement of the load on
the specimen.
THEORY:

Within the elastic limit for ductile materials, stress bears a


constant ratio with the applied stress. When the test sample is tested
by varying the stress in UTM at the time of yield, the point steps for a
moment. This will be followed by the scaling off from the surface of the
specimen. Further increase in load will be the ultimate load and this
will be shown by the dummy indicator on the load scale and the
breaking load will be shown by the active indicator needle when the
specimen fails.
PROCEDURE :
Initial adjustment: Before the testing, adjust the
pendulum weight according to the capacity of the test. Adjust the
corresponding range on the dial with the range - adjusting knob.
1. Measure the diameter of
the specimen in two directions
perpendicular to each other atleast at three places on the bar
and take the average .
2. Mark the gauge length on the bar.
3. Select the appropriate measuring range by placing proper
weights on the Pendulum of the U . T . M.
4. Fix one end of the mild steel bar in the clamping jaws of the U. T.
M
5. Now adjust the lower head to the required distance and grip the
other end of the mild steel bar in the clamping jaws in it.
6. Clamp the extensometer.
7. Apply the load gradually by opening the right control valve and
note the corresponding extensometer reading.

8. At a particular stage there will be a pause in the increase of load.


The load at that point is noted as yield point load.
9. After the pointer reaches the maximum, there will be a sudden
drop in the load and this is recorded as ultimate load.
10.
A neck is formed at the center of the specimen and
continue the loading with a dummy pointer accompanying the
load pointer until the mild steel bar breaks. Note the breaking
load at the time of fracture.
1. Now close the right control valve. Remove the specimen from the
machine.
2. Measure the final length and the diameter of the mild steel bar.
3. Calculate the stress and strain for each reading and plot a graph.
Slope of the line gives the Modulus of Elasticity.
OBSERVATION:
Diameter of the specimen (D)

Gauge length of the specimen (L)

Neck diameter after fracture(D1)

Final gauge length after fracture (L1)

Yield load

Ultimate load

Breaking load

TABULATION :

Sl.
No

Load

Extensometer reading
mm

Kgf

Dial I

Dial II

Mean

Strain

Stres
s
N/m
m2

Youngs
Modulus
N/mm2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
CALCULATION:
Initial cross-sectional area (A)

Final cross-sectional area (A1)

% reduction in area

Initial area - Final area


---------------------------------X100
Initial area

Final length - Initial length


% Elongation
---------------------------------x 100

in length

Initial length

Yield load
Yield stress

= ------------------------Initial cross-sectional area

Ultimate load
Ultimate stress

= --------------------------Initial cross-sectional

area

Breaking load
Nominal Breaking stress

= -----------------------------Original area of cross section


Breaking load

Actual Breaking stress

= -----------------------------Final area of cross

section

Axial stress
Youngs modulus

= ----------------Axial strain

RESULT :

1. Young s modulus

2. Yield stress

3. Ultimate stress

4. Nominal breaking stress

5. Actual Breaking stress

6. % reduction in area

7. % elongation in length

8. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

AIM :
To find the Rockwell hardness number for the given materials.
GENERAL :
The Rockwell hardness test is of the static indentation type and
the Rockwell hardness number is based on the additional depth to
which a penetrator is driven by a heavy load beyond the depth to
which a penetrator has been driven by a definite light load .The
following indentors are used in Rockwell hardness tester .
a ) Diamond cone indentor with a top angle of 1200.
b ) Steel ball of diameter 1/ 16 .
Load range : 60 , 100 , 150 kg.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Rockwell hardness testing machine
2. Stop watch
PROCEDURE :

1. Put the weights on plunger of dash-pot according to the Rockwell


scale required by turning the Load selector disc, the respective
figure of weight will be visible in the window.
2. Keep the lever at position A.
3. Place the specimen securely on the work table .
4. Turn the hand wheel clockwise so that the specimen will push the
indentor and show a reading on dial gauge as small pointer at
3. The long pointer automatically stops at 0 on black scale.
(i.e ) B 30 on red scale .
5. Turn the lever from position A to B slowly so that the total load is brought into
action without any jerks.
6. When the long pointer of dial gauge reaches a steady position, take back the lever
to A position slowly.
7. Read off the figure against the long pointer. This gives the
Rockwell hardness number
8. Turn back the hand wheel and remove the specimen from the machine. Carry on
the same procedure for further specimens.
TABULATION :

Sl .
No

Specim
en

Load
kg f

Indent
or

Scal
e

Rockwell hardness
number

Trial
1

RESULT :

Trial
2

Trial
3

Mea
n

The Rockwell hardness number for

9. BRINELL HARDNESS TEST


AIM :
To determine the Brinell hardness number for the given
specimens.
APPARATUS :
1. Brinell hardness testing machine.
2. Microscope.
DESCRIPTION OF MACHINE :
The machine consists of a J frame, main lever, hanger, elevating
screw, loading unloading mechanism and damper system. The load is
applied on the specimen through ball holder, it is effected through a
lever mechanism.
The main lever carries three male vees, one for hanger, second
for spindle shaft and third for pivot vee. The elevating screw can be
moved up and down by rotating the hand wheel. The five detachable
weights, each equivalent to 500 kg and to be made use of for
application of desired load in addition to the bottom weight equivalent
to 500 kg. The operating lever is provided for loading and unloading.

PROCEDURE :
1.
2.
3.
4.

Polish the surface of the specimen.


Place the specimen on the worktable.
Keep the operating lever in horizontal position.
Turn the hand -wheel in clockwise direction so that the
specimen touches the ball indentor.
5. Lift the operating lever from horizontal position upwards
slightly after which it rotates automatically.
6. Wait till the lever becomes standstill.
7. Bring the lever back to horizontal position.
8. Turn back the hand wheel and remove the specimen from the
machine. Carry on the same procedure for further specimens.
9. Measure the diameter of impression by Brinell Microscope.
10.
Find the Brinell hardness number
using the formula

FORMULA:
P
Brinell Hardness Number

--------------------------------

D / 2 [ D - (D2 - d2 ) ]
Where P - load in Kgf
D - Dia. of indenter in mm
d - Dia. of indentation in mm
For Steel ,

P = 30 D2
P = 10 D2

For Brass ,
For Aluminium, P = 5 D2
OBSERVATIONS :
Diameter of indentor ,

D=

Diameter of indentation, d =

TABULATION :
Sl .
No

Specime
n

Diameter
of
indentor
D
(mm)

Load
kgf

Diameter of
impression (mm)
Trial
1

Trial
2

Trial
3

Mea
n

Brinell
hardn
ess
numbe
r

RESULT :
Brinell hardness number for the given specimens =
10.DOUBLE SHEAR TEST

Aim:
To find the double shear test of the given specimen.
Apparatus required:
1. UTM
2. shear test attachment
3. vernier calipers
formula:
double shear strength : shear load / 2 X area of C.S.
machine details:
name of the machine

: universal testing machine

model

: UTK 40

type

: vertical

range available

: 4, 10, 20 & 40 tones.

Load application

: hydraulic

Load measurement

: pendulum type dynamometer

Details about the attachment:


1. it is having the parts of die set & die set holder.
2. the dies are different diameter.
3. it is made of high carbon steel & the steel holder is made of mild
steel with hardened surface.
Procedure:
1. initial adjustment: before testing, adjust the pendulum weight
according to the capacity of test. Adjust corresponding range on
the dial with adjusting knob.
2. measure the specimen diameter of the rod using the vernier
caliper.
3. then using the mean diameter, the area cross section of the
specimen is calculated.
4. the specimen is fixed on the die set exactly then it is placed in
between and the bottom table of the UTM.
5. the machine is operated and the load is given to the specimen.
6. when the specimen breaks, the black pointer will return to zero.
We have to take the value the red point reaches.
7. take the readings in kgf, convert to Newton and apply it in the
formula.
Tabulation:
S. No.

Load N

Observation:
Diameter of specimen (d) :

C.S area of the


specimen mm2

Double shear
strength N/mm2

Load when specimen breaks:


Cross sectional area ( A): d2 / 4 =

Calculation:

Result:
Thus the shear strength of the given specimen was found.