Você está na página 1de 87

CE 4312- Water and

Wastewater Engineering
LECTURE 2-Wastewater Flow Rates

Nadeeka Miguntanna
nadee830@gmail.com
1

Learning Outcomes
On completion of this unit you should be able to:
Understand the importance of water and wastewater
transfer and treatment.
Understand the principles of unit processes in water and
wastewater treatment including: physical, chemical, and
biological treatment principles and the impacts of water
pollutants on human health and the environment.
Apply the fundamental principles of water and
wastewater treatment in designing water and wastewater
treatment schemes to remove pollutants.
2

Content
Wastewater collection and treatment
Introduction and Terminology

Wastewater flow rates


Wastewater characteristics
Wastewater composition

Wastewater characterization studies


Primary and secondary treatment of wastewater
3

Wastewater flow rates


Topics

Introduction
Components of wastewater flows
Variation of wastewater Flow
Analysis of wastewater flow rates
Reduction of wastewater flow rates
Practice Questions

Introduction
Wastewater Quality Monitoring is needed to
provide EFFECTIVE wastewater treatment
facilities.

The accurate assessment of wastewater flow


characteristics and pollutant concentrations
ARE IN CRUCIAL IMPORTANCE

WHY?

Insufficient data on Wastewater Flow


Rates LEEDS
Improper Design Considerations such as
hydraulic characteristics,
sizing and operational considerations of the
treatment system components.
Equipment Selection
Un estimated Costs associated with design,
construction and functioning of Treatment Plants.

Inequitably of facilities when serve more than one


community or district.
6

Difficulties in Obtaining Wastewater


flow Rates
The complexity of human activities in recreational
areas makes estimating water usage and wastewater
generation a difficult task
Direct field measurements of wastewater flow rates
are not possible.
Actual wastewater flow rate data are not available.

Industrial

Domestic
Public
Services

Components of
wastewater flows

Infiltration/Inflow

Unaccounted
Losses and
Leakages
8

Domestic Wastewater
Over one-third of the water used in a municipal
water supply system is for domestic purposes such as
washing, bathing, culinary, land yard watering etc.

Domestic Wastewater contd:


Principal sources of wastewater generated in a
community:
residential areas,
commercial districts,
institutional facilities and recreational facilities.

10

11

Average Water Consumption

Industrial Wastewater
Sources :
canneries,
chemical plants, and
refineries. Etc.

12

Wastewater from Public Services

Sources :
public buildings,
fire fighting,
irrigating public parks
and greenbelts,
system maintenance

13

Infiltration/Inflow (I/I)
Extraneous flows in sewers called Infiltration/Inflow
OR

The quantity of
water from both
infiltration and
inflow without
distinguishing
the source
I/I that occurs on a relatively continuous basis

14

Infiltration
Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system
(including sewer service connections and foundation
drains) from the ground through:

defective pipes (Broken and damaged pipes),


pipe joints, connections, and

manhole walls.

15

Infiltration Contd:

Infiltration is expected to present in wastewater


flow through out the year

Directly influence by groundwater fluctuations


Infiltration is depended on length of sewer,
local construction standards, soil types and
location of water table
Infiltration is not depended on population of the
area
Can be incorporated into per capita flow
16

Infiltration Contd:

The amount of flow that can enter a sewer from


groundwater, or infiltration, may vary between ;
200 - 28,000 L / ha.day
8,600 - 24,000 L / km.day
9.4 - 940 L / mm.km.day

17

Inflow
Water other than sanitary flow that enters a
sewer system (including sewer service
connections) from sources which include,
Roof leaders
Sump pumps
Foundation drains
Celler/yard/area basins
Cooling towers
cross connections between storm sewers and
sanitary sewers
Surface runoff
Street wash water

18

Inflow is largely result from stormwater runoff


(wet weather flow)
Increases
High Impact on sewer system
the
wastewater
flow
The effect on sewer
system is varying with the
type of inflow sources
exist in the system
19

Components of Inflow

20

21

I/I Why Is There A Problem?


The sanitary sewers are meant to carry only
wastewater, which comes from fixtures such as sinks,
toilets, bathtubs, showers and washers.
This wastewater then enters the septic tank, where
the liquid portion is pumped out and conveyed to
Treatment Facility.
When infiltration and inflow enter the sanitary sewer,
they take up pipe space that is required for the
wastewater.
The infiltration and inflow can cause sewer backups
and overflows into the environment during wet
weather.
They can also cause overloading at the treatment
22
facility.

What Is The Solution?


Infiltration can be reduced by repairing existing leaky
pipelines, manholes and septic tanks.
Inflow that is connected to the sanitary sewer system
must be diverted to an acceptable location. This flow
belongs on the ground surface or in drainage ditches.
Wastewater collection systems must be properly sized to
convey the wastewater discharged to the collection
system.
23

Unaccounted Losses and Leakages


Unaccounted system losses are mainly attributed to

Unauthorized uses
Incorrect meter calibration or readings
Improper meter sizing
Inadequate system control
Leakages are mainly attributed to

System age
Type of material of construction
Lack of system maintenance

24

Unaccounted Losses and Leakages contd:

unaccounted losses and leakage vary within


the range of 30 to 120 L/capita.day.

25

Example 1
Convert to SI units for the construction allowable
infiltration rate of 500 gal/(d.mile) per inch of pipe
diameter.

. /

/. . =
. / . /

= . /(. )

26

Example 2
A large city has measured high flow rates during the wet season of
the year. The flow rates during the dry period of the year, when
rainfall is rare and groundwater infiltration is negligible, averages
128,000 m3/d. During the wet period when groundwater levels are
elevated, the flow rate averaged 240,000 m3/d excluding those days
during and following any significant rainfall events. During a recent
storm, hourly flow rates were recorded during the peak flow period
as well as several days following the storm. The flow rate plots are
shown in the accompanying figure. Compute the infiltration and
inflow and determine if the infiltration is excessive. Excessive
infiltration is defined by the local regulatory agency as rates over
0.752 m3/d. mm-km of the sewer. The composite diameter-length of
the sewer system is 270,000 mm-km.
27

Answer-Example 2
1. Determine the infiltration and inflow
components during the wet season.
a) As the infiltration is low during dry periods, high
groundwater infiltration is computed as
peak flow rate Base (Dry weather) flow rate

Infiltration = (240,000-128,000) m3/d


Infiltration = 112,000 m3/d
28

Example 2 Contd:

b) The maximum hourly inflow is graphically


determined from the Figure
Maximum hourly wet weather
flow rate

180
180
Preceding day flow rate

80
33.8

29

Example 2 Contd:
Maximum Hourly Inflow = Maximum hourly - Comparable flow rate
wet weather flow

on preceding day

= 180 80 /
= 100 /
1 gal= 0.003785 m3
= 378,500 3 /
30

Example 2 Contd:
2). Determine if the infiltration is excessive.
Infiltration per unit diameter-length of the
sewer system.


112,000 3 /
=
270,000
= . .
31

Example 2 Contd:
According to regulatory Authority
If the infiltration rate > 0.752 m3/d.mm-km-

Excessive

The infiltration found in this city is


0.415 m3/d.mm-km

Therefore, The infiltration found in this city is


not excessive
32

Example 3
A small community water supply agency furnishes
water to 147 customers from a well supply. Water
records are kept showing the amount of water
pumped to the system. The agency recently installed
meters for all customers and total water sales records
are also kept. The following data are obtained.

33

Example 3 Contd:

Determine the amount of water consumed


(gal/capita.d) and the amount of water that is
unaccounted system loss (as a percent of production).
The average household size as determined by the
local planning agency is 2.43 persons per service.
34

Answer-Example 3
Determine the average daily per capita water
consumption for the period of record.
Use the sales records because that provides the actual
amount of water measured as used by the customers.

35,046 /
=
2.43
147 (
)

= 98
.
35

Answer-Example 3 Contd:
Determine unaccounted system losses.
The difference between the production rate and sales
represents unaccounted system losses and leakage.

Unaccounted system losses


(46,116 35,046)
=
100% = 24%
46,116
Comment: metering errors often account for a large percentage of
system losses and records of meter calibration need to be checked.
Differences in production and consumption as large as those in the
above example are significant and require investigation. If water
production records are used without investigating unaccounted
losses, the computed consumption rates may be in error.
36

Variation of wastewater Flow


A considerable portion of the water produced does
not reach the sanitary sewer system
WHY?
Considerable amount of water used as
Product water by manufacturing establishments,
For landscape irrigation, system maintenance, and
extinguishing fires,
Water used by consumers whose facilities are not
connected to sewers, and
Leakage from water mains and service pipes (unaccounted
for losses).
37

Variation of wastewater Flow Contd:


Variations in Water Use

Variations in water consumption also effect


the rate of wastewater flow
38

Water Usage Patterns

39

Variations in Wastewater flow rates


General terms :

Daily and Hourly Flow Rates

Daily indoor water use pattern for single-family


residence
40

Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd:


Wastewater flow can vary significantly from day to
day or Hour to Hour. Minimum hourly flows of zero
are typical for residential dwellings. Maximum
hourly flows as high as 100 gallons (380 L/hr).
This is due to the variability of typical fixture and
appliance usage characteristics and residential water
use demands.
Hourly flows exceeding this rate can occur in cases
of plumbing fixture failure and appliance misuse
(e.g., broken pipe or fixture, faucets left running).

41

Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd:


Peak Flow Rates

Peak wastewater flows for single-family home


The peak flow rate from a residential dwelling is a
function of the fixtures and appliances present and their
42
position in the plumbing system configuration.

Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd:

The peak discharge rate from a given fixture or appliance


is typically around 5 gallons/ minute (19 liters/minute),
with the exception of the tank-type toilet and possibly
hot tubs and bathtubs.
The use of several fixtures or appliances simultaneously
can increase the total flow rate above the rate for
isolated fixtures or appliances.
However, attenuation occurring in the residential
drainage system tends to decrease peak flow rates
observed in the sewer pipe leaving the residence.
Although field data are limited, peak discharge rates from
a single-family dwelling of 5 to 10 gallons/minute (19 to
38 liters/minute) can be expected.

This variability can affect treatment systems by potentially


causing hydraulic overloads of the system during peak flow
43
conditions.

Variations in Wastewater flow rates Contd:


Wastewater flows from non residential establishments
are also subject to wide fluctuations over time.

These fluctuations are dependent on the characteristics


of water-using fixtures and appliances and the business
characteristics of the establishment (e.g., hours of
operation, fluctuations in customer traffic).

44

Statistical Analysis

Design Flow
Parameters

Key Flow
Parameters

Analysis of wastewater flow rates

45

Analysis of wastewater flow rates


Key Flow parameters

46

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:


Key Flow parameters Contd:
The determination of the ADWF, PDWF and
PWWF should be based on:
Actual system performance;
The data based on Sewerage Code in
particular catchment;
The historical catchment approach where
typically.
47

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:


Key Flow parameters Contd:
PDWF = C2 x ADWF where C2 = 4.7 x (EP)-0.105
PWWF = (5 x ADWF) or (C1 x ADWF) whichever is the
larger and C1 = 15 x (EP)-0.1587
(Note: the minimum value of C1 = 3.5)
In the above formulae, EP is the total equivalent
population in the catchments gravitating to a pump
station.

48

Example 4
Calculate the PDWF for a given wastewater
flow by considering Equivalent population
15 000, and ADWF =180 L/EP.day.

49

Answer- Example 4
PDWF ?
PDWF = C2 x ADWF
Given ADWF =180 L/EP.day
C2 = 4.7 x 15 000-0.105
= 4.7 x 0.364
= 1.71

PDWF = 15 000 EP x 180 L/EP.d x 1.71


= 4 617 kL/d
50

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:

Design Flow parameters


The parameters which are generally used as the basis of
design for sewers, lift stations, wastewater (sewage)
treatment plants,
treatment units and other wastewater handling facilities.

These include:
The average daily flow (Volume per unit time);
Maximum daily flow;
Peak hourly flow;
Design peak flow;
Minimum daily and hourly flows.

51

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:


Design Flow parameters Contd:
The average daily flow (Volume per unit time)
The average of the daily volumes to be received for a continuous
12 month period of the design year.
Average flow rate is used in evaluating treatment plant capacity
and in developing flow rate ratios used in design. And also, the
average flow may be used to estimate pumping and chemical
costs, sludge generation and organic loading rates.

The maximum daily flow


The largest volume of flow to be received during a continuous 24hour period.
It is employed in the calculation of retention time for equalization
basin and chlorine contact time.

52

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:

Design Flow parameters Contd:


The peak hourly flow
The largest volume received during a one hour period, based on annual
data.
It is employed in the design of collection and interceptor sewers, wet
wells, wastewater pumping stations, wastewater flow measurements,
grit chambers, settling basins chlorine contact tanks and pipings.

The design peak flow


The design peak flow is the instantaneous maximum flow rate to be
received.

The peak Daily/Hourly flow is commonly assumed as three


times the average Daily/Hourly flow.
53

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:

Design Flow parameters Contd:


The minimum daily flow
This the smallest volume of flow received during 24-hour period.
This is important in the sizing of conduits where solids might be
deposited at low flow rates.

The minimum hourly flow


The smallest hourly flow rate occurring over a 24-hour period based on
annual data.
This is important to the sizing of wastewater flowmeters, chemical-feed
systems and pumping systems.
54

Example 5

Estimate the average and maximum hourly flow for


a community of 10,000 persons. Assume average
water consumption is 200 L/c.d and assume 80% of
water consumption goes to the sewer.

55

Answer- Example 5
STEP1
Average Wastewater flow= 200 L/(c.d)0.8010,000 persons0.001 m3/L
Average Wastewater flow= 1600m3/d
STEP2

Compute Average Hourly Flow Rate


Average hourly flow Rate= 1600m3/d 1d/24 h
Average hourly flow Rate= 66.67 m3/h

56

Answer- Example 5 Contd:


STEP 3
Estimate the Maximum ( peak) Hourly Flow Rate

Assumption :The peak hourly flow rate is three times the average hourly
flow rate
Therefore;
Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 66.67 m3/h 3
Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 200 m3/h
57

Example 6
The following data is given:
Sewered population = 50,000.
Average domestic wastewater flow = 100 gal/c.d
Assume infiltration flow rate = 500 gal/(d.mile) per inch of pipe
diameter
Sanitary sewer systems for the city:
4-in house sewers = 66.6 miles
6-in building sewers = 13.2 miles
8-in street laterals = 35.2 miles
12-in submains = 9.8 miles
18-in mains = 7.4 miles
Estimate the infiltration flow rate and its percentage of the
average daily and peak daily domestic wastewater flows.

58

Step 1

Answer- Example 6

Calculate the Average Daily Flow (Q) and Peak Daily


Flow (Qp)
Assume Qp=3Q
Average Daily Flow (Q) = 100 gal/(c.d) 55,000 persons
Average Daily Flow (Q) = 5500,000 gal/d

Peak Daily Flow (Qp)


Peak Daily Flow (Qp)

= 5500,000 gal/d 3
= 16500,000 gal/d

59

Step 2
Compute total Infiltration flow, I

I = infiltration rate length diameter


I = 500 gal/(d.mile.in) (66.44 + 13.2 6+ 35.28+
9.812 + 7.418) mile.in

I = 439,000 gal/d
60

Step 3
Compute percentages of infiltration to daily average
and peak daily flows

I/Q = (439,000 gal/d)/ (5,500,000 gal/d ) 100


I/Q = 8.0 %

I/Qp = (439,000 gal/d)/ (16,300,000 gal/d ) 100


I/Qp = 2.66 %
61

Analysis of wastewater flow rates Contd:


Statistical Analysis of Flow Rates
Determination of statistical parameters used to quantify a
series of measurements.
Commonly used statistical measures include the
mean,
median,
mode,
standard deviation and
coefficient variation
Based on the assumption that data are distributed normally.
62

How to determine the type of Distribution?

plotting the data on both arithmetic-probability


and log-probability paper.
Note whether the data can be fitted with a straight
line or not.

How to plot the Data?


63

Plotting of Data
Arrange the measurements in a data set in order
of increasing magnitude and assign a rank serial
number.
Compute a corresponding plotting position for each
data point using following formula.
Plotting position (%) = m/(n+1) 100
Where m= rank serial number
n= number of observations
The plotting position represents the percent or
frequency of observations that are equal or less
than the indicated value.
64

The Resultant Table


Rank Serial Number
(m)

Flow Rate
2000

3000

3
4

Continuing

Plotting Position %

3250
4000

n
Number of
Observations

Prepared in Ascending
Order of the Values (just set
of example values)

65

Log Scale

Arithmetic-probability
paper

Arithmetic Scale

Plot the data on arithmetic-probability and logprobability paper.

66

Log Scale

Log-probability paper

Log Scale
67

The probability scale is labeled percent of


values equal to or less than the indicated value
If the data plotted on
arithmetic probability paper and
if the data set fit with a straight
line then the data are assumed
to be normally distributed
Can calculate statistical
measures Which include
mean,
median,
mode,
standard deviation and
coefficient variation

IF NOT

68

If the data is not fitting to a straight


line (which is called as Skewness)
the data is re-plotted on the logprobability paper. The implication
here is that the logarithm of the
observed values is normally
distributed.
Have to go for the measures such as
Geometric Mean, Geometric
Standard Deviation etc

Scope : we are dealing with arithmeticprobability papers Only. i.e We are looking at
Normally distributed data sets only.
69

Example 7

Using the following weekly flow rate data obtained


from an industrial discharger for a calendar quarter of
operation, determine the statistical characteristics
and predict the maximum weekly flow rate that will
occur during a full years operation.

70

Example 7 Contd:

71

Answer- Example 7
Set up the Data Analysis Table
Rank Serial No. m

Flow Rate, m3/wk

Plotting position.%

2900

7.1

3040

14.3

3135

21.4

3180

28.6

3265

35.7

3360

42.9

3450

50.0

3540

57.1

3675

64.3

10

3770

71.4

11

3810

78.6

12

4015

85.7

13

4080

92.9

Plotting position (%) = m/(n+1) 100


Where m= rank serial number
n= number of observations

72

Answer- Example 7
Plot the weekly flow rates expressed in m3/wk
versus the plotting position.
Data fall on a
straight line

Therefore,
Normal
Distribution
statistics can be
applied.

73

Answer- Example 7 Cond:


Determine the statistical characteristics of Data Set- Setting up data analysis
table to obtain the values needed to determine the statistical characteristics
Flow Rate
( )2
m3/wk

2,900
3,040
3,135
3,180
3,265
3,360
3,450
3,540
3,675
3,770
3,810
4,015
4,080
45,220

-578
-438
-343
-298
-213
-118
-28
62
197
292
332
537
602

334,084
191,884
117,649
88,804
45,369
13,924
784
3,844
38,809
85,264
110,224
288,369
362,404
1,681,372
74

Answer- Example 7 Cond:


Determine the statistical characteristics using
the parameters given in The Table
I . Mean

45,220
=
13
= 3478 3 /
75

Answer- Example 7 Cond:


II. Median (The Middle Most Value )
Looking at the Table
Median = 3450 m3/wk
III . Mode
= 3 2
= 3 3450 2478
= 3394 3 /
76

Answer- Example 7 Cond:


III . Standard Deviation

( )2
1
1681,372
= 374.3 3 /
12

77

Answer- Example 7 Cond:


III . Coefficient of Variation

100
=

100 374.3
=
= 10.8%
3478

78

Answer- Example 7 Cond:

Determine the probable annual maximum weekly


flow rate
Determine the probability factor

52
=
=
= 0.981
+ 1 52 + 1
Determine the flow rate from the graph
obtained for the 98.1 percentile value

Peak Weekly Flow Rate = 4500 m3/wk


79

Reduction of wastewater flow rates


Because of the importance of conserving both resources and
energy, various means for reducing wastewater flow rates and
pollutant loadings from domestic sources are gaining increasing
attention.
The reduction of wastewater flow rates from domestic sources
results directly from the reduction in interior water use.

Therefore, the terms " interior water use" and "domestic wastewater
flow rates" are used interchangeably.
80

Flow Reduction Devices and Appliances


Faucet aerators

Faucet aerators mix air and water as the water leaves the spout.
They reduce both the flow rate and splashing, while increasing areas
of coverage and wetting efficiency. This conserves water and improves
faucet performance at the same time.
Aerators will not reduce the amount of water needed to fill a sink or
water jug, but will reduce the amount of water needed for a thorough
81
rinsing.

The greatest savings on kitchen and bathroom faucets comes


from proper operation. Do not leave the faucet running when
washing, shaving, brushing teeth, or washing dishes. This one
precaution can save five or 10 times the water of an efficient
faucet or aerator alone.

82

Low flush toilet

Pushing the handle on dual-flush


toilet down uses 1.6 gallons; pushing
it up uses just 1.1 gallons.
83

Limiting-flow shower heads


This device places restrictions on people
who linger too long in the shower by
drastically reducing flow when time's up.

Water efficient dishwasher

Reduces the water used

84

Water efficient clothes washer

Reduces the water used


85

86

87