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Wastewater Engineering

LECTURE 2-Wastewater Flow Rates

Nadeeka Miguntanna

nadee830@gmail.com

1

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this unit you should be able to:

Understand the importance of water and wastewater

transfer and treatment.

Understand the principles of unit processes in water and

wastewater treatment including: physical, chemical, and

biological treatment principles and the impacts of water

pollutants on human health and the environment.

Apply the fundamental principles of water and

wastewater treatment in designing water and wastewater

treatment schemes to remove pollutants.

2

Content

Wastewater collection and treatment

Introduction and Terminology

Wastewater characteristics

Wastewater composition

Primary and secondary treatment of wastewater

3

Topics

Introduction

Components of wastewater flows

Variation of wastewater Flow

Analysis of wastewater flow rates

Reduction of wastewater flow rates

Practice Questions

Introduction

Wastewater Quality Monitoring is needed to

provide EFFECTIVE wastewater treatment

facilities.

characteristics and pollutant concentrations

ARE IN CRUCIAL IMPORTANCE

WHY?

Rates LEEDS

Improper Design Considerations such as

hydraulic characteristics,

sizing and operational considerations of the

treatment system components.

Equipment Selection

Un estimated Costs associated with design,

construction and functioning of Treatment Plants.

community or district.

6

flow Rates

The complexity of human activities in recreational

areas makes estimating water usage and wastewater

generation a difficult task

Direct field measurements of wastewater flow rates

are not possible.

Actual wastewater flow rate data are not available.

Industrial

Domestic

Public

Services

Components of

wastewater flows

Infiltration/Inflow

Unaccounted

Losses and

Leakages

8

Domestic Wastewater

Over one-third of the water used in a municipal

water supply system is for domestic purposes such as

washing, bathing, culinary, land yard watering etc.

Principal sources of wastewater generated in a

community:

residential areas,

commercial districts,

institutional facilities and recreational facilities.

10

11

Industrial Wastewater

Sources :

canneries,

chemical plants, and

refineries. Etc.

12

Sources :

public buildings,

fire fighting,

irrigating public parks

and greenbelts,

system maintenance

13

Infiltration/Inflow (I/I)

Extraneous flows in sewers called Infiltration/Inflow

OR

The quantity of

water from both

infiltration and

inflow without

distinguishing

the source

I/I that occurs on a relatively continuous basis

14

Infiltration

Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system

(including sewer service connections and foundation

drains) from the ground through:

pipe joints, connections, and

manhole walls.

15

Infiltration Contd:

flow through out the year

Infiltration is depended on length of sewer,

local construction standards, soil types and

location of water table

Infiltration is not depended on population of the

area

Can be incorporated into per capita flow

16

Infiltration Contd:

groundwater, or infiltration, may vary between ;

200 - 28,000 L / ha.day

8,600 - 24,000 L / km.day

9.4 - 940 L / mm.km.day

17

Inflow

Water other than sanitary flow that enters a

sewer system (including sewer service

connections) from sources which include,

Roof leaders

Sump pumps

Foundation drains

Celler/yard/area basins

Cooling towers

cross connections between storm sewers and

sanitary sewers

Surface runoff

Street wash water

18

(wet weather flow)

Increases

High Impact on sewer system

the

wastewater

flow

The effect on sewer

system is varying with the

type of inflow sources

exist in the system

19

Components of Inflow

20

21

The sanitary sewers are meant to carry only

wastewater, which comes from fixtures such as sinks,

toilets, bathtubs, showers and washers.

This wastewater then enters the septic tank, where

the liquid portion is pumped out and conveyed to

Treatment Facility.

When infiltration and inflow enter the sanitary sewer,

they take up pipe space that is required for the

wastewater.

The infiltration and inflow can cause sewer backups

and overflows into the environment during wet

weather.

They can also cause overloading at the treatment

22

facility.

Infiltration can be reduced by repairing existing leaky

pipelines, manholes and septic tanks.

Inflow that is connected to the sanitary sewer system

must be diverted to an acceptable location. This flow

belongs on the ground surface or in drainage ditches.

Wastewater collection systems must be properly sized to

convey the wastewater discharged to the collection

system.

23

Unaccounted system losses are mainly attributed to

Unauthorized uses

Incorrect meter calibration or readings

Improper meter sizing

Inadequate system control

Leakages are mainly attributed to

System age

Type of material of construction

Lack of system maintenance

24

the range of 30 to 120 L/capita.day.

25

Example 1

Convert to SI units for the construction allowable

infiltration rate of 500 gal/(d.mile) per inch of pipe

diameter.

. /

/. . =

. / . /

= . /(. )

26

Example 2

A large city has measured high flow rates during the wet season of

the year. The flow rates during the dry period of the year, when

rainfall is rare and groundwater infiltration is negligible, averages

128,000 m3/d. During the wet period when groundwater levels are

elevated, the flow rate averaged 240,000 m3/d excluding those days

during and following any significant rainfall events. During a recent

storm, hourly flow rates were recorded during the peak flow period

as well as several days following the storm. The flow rate plots are

shown in the accompanying figure. Compute the infiltration and

inflow and determine if the infiltration is excessive. Excessive

infiltration is defined by the local regulatory agency as rates over

0.752 m3/d. mm-km of the sewer. The composite diameter-length of

the sewer system is 270,000 mm-km.

27

Answer-Example 2

1. Determine the infiltration and inflow

components during the wet season.

a) As the infiltration is low during dry periods, high

groundwater infiltration is computed as

peak flow rate Base (Dry weather) flow rate

Infiltration = 112,000 m3/d

28

Example 2 Contd:

determined from the Figure

Maximum hourly wet weather

flow rate

180

180

Preceding day flow rate

80

33.8

29

Example 2 Contd:

Maximum Hourly Inflow = Maximum hourly - Comparable flow rate

wet weather flow

on preceding day

= 180 80 /

= 100 /

1 gal= 0.003785 m3

= 378,500 3 /

30

Example 2 Contd:

2). Determine if the infiltration is excessive.

Infiltration per unit diameter-length of the

sewer system.

112,000 3 /

=

270,000

= . .

31

Example 2 Contd:

According to regulatory Authority

If the infiltration rate > 0.752 m3/d.mm-km-

Excessive

0.415 m3/d.mm-km

not excessive

32

Example 3

A small community water supply agency furnishes

water to 147 customers from a well supply. Water

records are kept showing the amount of water

pumped to the system. The agency recently installed

meters for all customers and total water sales records

are also kept. The following data are obtained.

33

Example 3 Contd:

(gal/capita.d) and the amount of water that is

unaccounted system loss (as a percent of production).

The average household size as determined by the

local planning agency is 2.43 persons per service.

34

Answer-Example 3

Determine the average daily per capita water

consumption for the period of record.

Use the sales records because that provides the actual

amount of water measured as used by the customers.

35,046 /

=

2.43

147 (

)

= 98

.

35

Answer-Example 3 Contd:

Determine unaccounted system losses.

The difference between the production rate and sales

represents unaccounted system losses and leakage.

(46,116 35,046)

=

100% = 24%

46,116

Comment: metering errors often account for a large percentage of

system losses and records of meter calibration need to be checked.

Differences in production and consumption as large as those in the

above example are significant and require investigation. If water

production records are used without investigating unaccounted

losses, the computed consumption rates may be in error.

36

A considerable portion of the water produced does

not reach the sanitary sewer system

WHY?

Considerable amount of water used as

Product water by manufacturing establishments,

For landscape irrigation, system maintenance, and

extinguishing fires,

Water used by consumers whose facilities are not

connected to sewers, and

Leakage from water mains and service pipes (unaccounted

for losses).

37

Variations in Water Use

the rate of wastewater flow

38

39

General terms :

residence

40

Wastewater flow can vary significantly from day to

day or Hour to Hour. Minimum hourly flows of zero

are typical for residential dwellings. Maximum

hourly flows as high as 100 gallons (380 L/hr).

This is due to the variability of typical fixture and

appliance usage characteristics and residential water

use demands.

Hourly flows exceeding this rate can occur in cases

of plumbing fixture failure and appliance misuse

(e.g., broken pipe or fixture, faucets left running).

41

Peak Flow Rates

The peak flow rate from a residential dwelling is a

function of the fixtures and appliances present and their

42

position in the plumbing system configuration.

is typically around 5 gallons/ minute (19 liters/minute),

with the exception of the tank-type toilet and possibly

hot tubs and bathtubs.

The use of several fixtures or appliances simultaneously

can increase the total flow rate above the rate for

isolated fixtures or appliances.

However, attenuation occurring in the residential

drainage system tends to decrease peak flow rates

observed in the sewer pipe leaving the residence.

Although field data are limited, peak discharge rates from

a single-family dwelling of 5 to 10 gallons/minute (19 to

38 liters/minute) can be expected.

causing hydraulic overloads of the system during peak flow

43

conditions.

Wastewater flows from non residential establishments

are also subject to wide fluctuations over time.

of water-using fixtures and appliances and the business

characteristics of the establishment (e.g., hours of

operation, fluctuations in customer traffic).

44

Statistical Analysis

Design Flow

Parameters

Key Flow

Parameters

45

Key Flow parameters

46

Key Flow parameters Contd:

The determination of the ADWF, PDWF and

PWWF should be based on:

Actual system performance;

The data based on Sewerage Code in

particular catchment;

The historical catchment approach where

typically.

47

Key Flow parameters Contd:

PDWF = C2 x ADWF where C2 = 4.7 x (EP)-0.105

PWWF = (5 x ADWF) or (C1 x ADWF) whichever is the

larger and C1 = 15 x (EP)-0.1587

(Note: the minimum value of C1 = 3.5)

In the above formulae, EP is the total equivalent

population in the catchments gravitating to a pump

station.

48

Example 4

Calculate the PDWF for a given wastewater

flow by considering Equivalent population

15 000, and ADWF =180 L/EP.day.

49

Answer- Example 4

PDWF ?

PDWF = C2 x ADWF

Given ADWF =180 L/EP.day

C2 = 4.7 x 15 000-0.105

= 4.7 x 0.364

= 1.71

= 4 617 kL/d

50

The parameters which are generally used as the basis of

design for sewers, lift stations, wastewater (sewage)

treatment plants,

treatment units and other wastewater handling facilities.

These include:

The average daily flow (Volume per unit time);

Maximum daily flow;

Peak hourly flow;

Design peak flow;

Minimum daily and hourly flows.

51

Design Flow parameters Contd:

The average daily flow (Volume per unit time)

The average of the daily volumes to be received for a continuous

12 month period of the design year.

Average flow rate is used in evaluating treatment plant capacity

and in developing flow rate ratios used in design. And also, the

average flow may be used to estimate pumping and chemical

costs, sludge generation and organic loading rates.

The largest volume of flow to be received during a continuous 24hour period.

It is employed in the calculation of retention time for equalization

basin and chlorine contact time.

52

The peak hourly flow

The largest volume received during a one hour period, based on annual

data.

It is employed in the design of collection and interceptor sewers, wet

wells, wastewater pumping stations, wastewater flow measurements,

grit chambers, settling basins chlorine contact tanks and pipings.

The design peak flow is the instantaneous maximum flow rate to be

received.

times the average Daily/Hourly flow.

53

The minimum daily flow

This the smallest volume of flow received during 24-hour period.

This is important in the sizing of conduits where solids might be

deposited at low flow rates.

The smallest hourly flow rate occurring over a 24-hour period based on

annual data.

This is important to the sizing of wastewater flowmeters, chemical-feed

systems and pumping systems.

54

Example 5

a community of 10,000 persons. Assume average

water consumption is 200 L/c.d and assume 80% of

water consumption goes to the sewer.

55

Answer- Example 5

STEP1

Average Wastewater flow= 200 L/(c.d)0.8010,000 persons0.001 m3/L

Average Wastewater flow= 1600m3/d

STEP2

Average hourly flow Rate= 1600m3/d 1d/24 h

Average hourly flow Rate= 66.67 m3/h

56

STEP 3

Estimate the Maximum ( peak) Hourly Flow Rate

Assumption :The peak hourly flow rate is three times the average hourly

flow rate

Therefore;

Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 66.67 m3/h 3

Maximum Hourly Flow Rate = 200 m3/h

57

Example 6

The following data is given:

Sewered population = 50,000.

Average domestic wastewater flow = 100 gal/c.d

Assume infiltration flow rate = 500 gal/(d.mile) per inch of pipe

diameter

Sanitary sewer systems for the city:

4-in house sewers = 66.6 miles

6-in building sewers = 13.2 miles

8-in street laterals = 35.2 miles

12-in submains = 9.8 miles

18-in mains = 7.4 miles

Estimate the infiltration flow rate and its percentage of the

average daily and peak daily domestic wastewater flows.

58

Step 1

Answer- Example 6

Flow (Qp)

Assume Qp=3Q

Average Daily Flow (Q) = 100 gal/(c.d) 55,000 persons

Average Daily Flow (Q) = 5500,000 gal/d

Peak Daily Flow (Qp)

= 5500,000 gal/d 3

= 16500,000 gal/d

59

Step 2

Compute total Infiltration flow, I

I = 500 gal/(d.mile.in) (66.44 + 13.2 6+ 35.28+

9.812 + 7.418) mile.in

I = 439,000 gal/d

60

Step 3

Compute percentages of infiltration to daily average

and peak daily flows

I/Q = 8.0 %

I/Qp = 2.66 %

61

Statistical Analysis of Flow Rates

Determination of statistical parameters used to quantify a

series of measurements.

Commonly used statistical measures include the

mean,

median,

mode,

standard deviation and

coefficient variation

Based on the assumption that data are distributed normally.

62

and log-probability paper.

Note whether the data can be fitted with a straight

line or not.

63

Plotting of Data

Arrange the measurements in a data set in order

of increasing magnitude and assign a rank serial

number.

Compute a corresponding plotting position for each

data point using following formula.

Plotting position (%) = m/(n+1) 100

Where m= rank serial number

n= number of observations

The plotting position represents the percent or

frequency of observations that are equal or less

than the indicated value.

64

Rank Serial Number

(m)

Flow Rate

2000

3000

3

4

Continuing

Plotting Position %

3250

4000

n

Number of

Observations

Prepared in Ascending

Order of the Values (just set

of example values)

65

Log Scale

Arithmetic-probability

paper

Arithmetic Scale

66

Log Scale

Log-probability paper

Log Scale

67

values equal to or less than the indicated value

If the data plotted on

arithmetic probability paper and

if the data set fit with a straight

line then the data are assumed

to be normally distributed

Can calculate statistical

measures Which include

mean,

median,

mode,

standard deviation and

coefficient variation

IF NOT

68

line (which is called as Skewness)

the data is re-plotted on the logprobability paper. The implication

here is that the logarithm of the

observed values is normally

distributed.

Have to go for the measures such as

Geometric Mean, Geometric

Standard Deviation etc

Scope : we are dealing with arithmeticprobability papers Only. i.e We are looking at

Normally distributed data sets only.

69

Example 7

from an industrial discharger for a calendar quarter of

operation, determine the statistical characteristics

and predict the maximum weekly flow rate that will

occur during a full years operation.

70

Example 7 Contd:

71

Answer- Example 7

Set up the Data Analysis Table

Rank Serial No. m

Plotting position.%

2900

7.1

3040

14.3

3135

21.4

3180

28.6

3265

35.7

3360

42.9

3450

50.0

3540

57.1

3675

64.3

10

3770

71.4

11

3810

78.6

12

4015

85.7

13

4080

92.9

Where m= rank serial number

n= number of observations

72

Answer- Example 7

Plot the weekly flow rates expressed in m3/wk

versus the plotting position.

Data fall on a

straight line

Therefore,

Normal

Distribution

statistics can be

applied.

73

Determine the statistical characteristics of Data Set- Setting up data analysis

table to obtain the values needed to determine the statistical characteristics

Flow Rate

( )2

m3/wk

2,900

3,040

3,135

3,180

3,265

3,360

3,450

3,540

3,675

3,770

3,810

4,015

4,080

45,220

-578

-438

-343

-298

-213

-118

-28

62

197

292

332

537

602

334,084

191,884

117,649

88,804

45,369

13,924

784

3,844

38,809

85,264

110,224

288,369

362,404

1,681,372

74

Determine the statistical characteristics using

the parameters given in The Table

I . Mean

45,220

=

13

= 3478 3 /

75

II. Median (The Middle Most Value )

Looking at the Table

Median = 3450 m3/wk

III . Mode

= 3 2

= 3 3450 2478

= 3394 3 /

76

III . Standard Deviation

( )2

1

1681,372

= 374.3 3 /

12

77

III . Coefficient of Variation

100

=

100 374.3

=

= 10.8%

3478

78

flow rate

Determine the probability factor

52

=

=

= 0.981

+ 1 52 + 1

Determine the flow rate from the graph

obtained for the 98.1 percentile value

79

Because of the importance of conserving both resources and

energy, various means for reducing wastewater flow rates and

pollutant loadings from domestic sources are gaining increasing

attention.

The reduction of wastewater flow rates from domestic sources

results directly from the reduction in interior water use.

Therefore, the terms " interior water use" and "domestic wastewater

flow rates" are used interchangeably.

80

Faucet aerators

Faucet aerators mix air and water as the water leaves the spout.

They reduce both the flow rate and splashing, while increasing areas

of coverage and wetting efficiency. This conserves water and improves

faucet performance at the same time.

Aerators will not reduce the amount of water needed to fill a sink or

water jug, but will reduce the amount of water needed for a thorough

81

rinsing.

from proper operation. Do not leave the faucet running when

washing, shaving, brushing teeth, or washing dishes. This one

precaution can save five or 10 times the water of an efficient

faucet or aerator alone.

82

toilet down uses 1.6 gallons; pushing

it up uses just 1.1 gallons.

83

This device places restrictions on people

who linger too long in the shower by

drastically reducing flow when time's up.

84

85

86

87

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