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Appendix A: Standard Solutions and Certified

Reference Materials
Robert Alvarez, Chapter Editor
National Institute of Standards and Technology
STANDARD SOLUTIONS AND CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIALS
A.1.01
AOAC Official Method 942.25
Standard Solutions
and Materials
Use accurately calibrated equipment, which meets NIST specifications. Alkaline and other corrosive solutions dissolve glass. To
avoid volumetric errors, do not store such solutions in calibrated
apparatus. Burets used continuously with such solutions should be
recalibrated periodically.
Working temperature of standard solution should approximate
that of its temperature during standardization. If temperature corrections are necessary, sufficient accuracy may be obtained by use of
Table 942.25.
Reference: JAOAC 25, 650(1942).

A.1.02
AOAC Official Method 942.26
Standard Solutions
of Ammonium and Potassium Thiocyanates
Final Action

A. Reagents

(a) Purified silver nitrate.Dissolve 50 g AgNO3 in 20 mL


boiling H2O containing ca 5 drops HNO3. Heat to dissolve, filter
while still hot through fritted glass filter, using suction, and collect
filtrate in clean borosilicate beaker. Wash beaker and filter with ca 5
mL hot H2O, adding washings to filtrate. Cool in ice bath, stirring to
induce crystallization, and place in refrigerator at ca 10 until
equilibrium is reached. Decant liquid through fritted glass filter and
transfer crystals to filter. Cover filter with watch glass and draw air
through filter to remove adhering liquid. Transfer crystals to small,
clean borosilicate beaker. Cover beaker with watch glass and place

Table 942.25

inside larger covered borosilicate beaker. Dry at 105 and fuse at


220250 (mp 208), holding at this temperature ca 15 min after
crystals are melted. Protect from dust during preparation. Cool in
desiccator, remove product from beaker, powder in mortar, dry 0.5
h at 105, and store in brown glass-stoppered bottle in dark over
good desiccant.
(b) Reference solution.To mixture of 5 mL HNO3 (1 + 1), 2
mL ferric alum solution, 941.18D(a) (see A.1.11), and 115 mL
H2O, add ca 0.02 mL 0.1N thiocyanate, 942.26B, noting exact
volume used.
B. Preparation of Standard Solution

Prepare ca 0.1N solution from reagent that shows no chlorine,


using 7.612 g NH4SCN or 9.718 g KSCN/L.
C. Standardization

Accurately weigh, on tared watch glass, enough purified AgNO3


to give titration of ca 40 mL (ca 0.7 g for 0.1N solution) and transfer
with H2O through glass funnel to 250 mL glass-stoppered Erlenmeyer. Dissolve in ca 75 mL H2O (halogen-free), and add 5 mL
HNO3 (1 + 1) and 2 mL ferric alum solution, 941.18D(a) (see
A.1.11). Titrate with thiocyanate solution until titrated solution
achieves a reddish brown color, which remains after shaking vigorously 1 min. Record buret reading and set flask aside 5 min, shaking
occasionally and maintaining end point color by addition of thiocyanate solution as required. Then add additional thiocyanate solution,
if necessary, to produce permanent end point color, matching with
color of reference solution, 942.26A(b). From total volume thiocyanate solution used in titration, subtract volume contained in reference solution.
Normality = g AgNO3 1000/mL titer 169.87

References: JAOAC 25, 661(1942); 30, 105, 496(1947).

Temperature Corrections for Volumes of Aqueous Solutions


Correction in Milliliters at

Volume
Standard
Solution

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

mL
10
20
25
30
40
50

0.01
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.07

0.01
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.07

0.01
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06

0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05

0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02

0.00
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04

0.01
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06

0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.09

0.02
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.12

A.1.03

SRM 188) to H2O in glass-stoppered bottle or flask, and shake


vigorously; few min shaking is enough for saturation (100 mL H2O at
25 dissolves ca 0.7 g KHC4H4O6). Adjust to 25, let solid settle, and
decant clear solution, or filter if necessary. Discard when mold appears.
Few crystals of thymol added during preparation will retard mold
growth, and will alter pH by unit. For accuracy of 0.01 pH unit,
temperature of solution at saturation must be between 20 and 30.
(c) Acid potassium phthalate buffer solution.0.0496M; 0.05m.
Dissolve 10.12 g dried (2 h at 110) KHC8H4O4 (NIST SRM 185g)
in H2O and dilute to 1 L. (Elaborate precautions for exclusion of
atmospheric CO2 are unnecessary, although solution should be protected against evaporation and contamination with molds. Replace
solution if mold appears.)
(d) Phosphate buffer solution.0.0249M; 0.025m. Dissolve
3.387 g KH2PO4 and 3.533 g Na2HPO4 (NIST SRM 186e-I and II)
in H2O and dilute to 1 L. (Dry salts 2 h at 110130 before use.)
(e) Phosphate buffer solution.0.008663M, 0.008695m
KH2PO4 and 0.03030M, 0.03043m Na2HPO4. Dissolve 1.179 g
KH2PO4 and 4.303 g Na2HPO4 (NIST SRM 186e-I and II) in H2O
and dilute to 1 L. (Dry salts 2 h at 110130 before use.)
(f) Borax buffer solution.0.00996M; 0.01m. Dissolve 3.80
g Na2B4O710H2O (NIST SRM 187c) in H2O and dilute to 1 L.
(Salt must not be dried in oven before use.) To avoid contamination with CO2, stopper bottle except when in use or protect with
soda-lime tube. Use buffer solution within 10 min after removal
from bottle.
(g) Sodium bicarbonate-carbonate buffer solution.0.0249M;
0.025m (each). Transfer 2.092 g NaHCO3 (NIST SRM 191a; do not
heat) and 2.640 g Na2CO3 (NIST SRM 192a; dry 2 h at 275) to 1 L
volumetric flask. Dissolve and dilute to volume with CO2-free H2O.
(h) Calcium hydroxide buffer solution.Saturated solution at
25, 0.02025M. Slowly heat finely granular CaCO3, low in alkalies,
to 1000 in Pt dish and maintain at this temperature 4560 min. Cool
in desiccator, and add to H2O with stirring. Heat to bp with continuous stirring. Cool, and filter on medium fritted glass filter. Dry at
110, cool, and crush to fine, granular powder.
Place crushed CaO in polyethylene bottle, add H2O, shake vigorously, let settle, and record temperature. (Keep large excess of
Ca(OH)2 in bottle.) For use, filter solution through medium fritted
glass filter. Use at same temperature at which saturation took place,
and discard filtered solution if it becomes turbid. When more buffer

AOAC Official Method 939.12


Standard Solution
of Arsenious Oxide
Final Action

A. Reagent

Arsenious oxide.Use NIST SRM 83. Dry 1 h at 105 immediately before using.
B. Preparation of Standard Solution

Accurately weigh As2O3 by difference from small glass-stoppered


weighing bottle (use ca 4.95 g/L for 0.1N). Dissolve in 1N NaOH
(50 mL/5 g As2O3) in flask or beaker by heating on steam bath. Add
ca same volume 1N H2SO4. Cool, quantitatively transfer mixture to
volumetric flask, and dilute to volume. (Solution must be neutral to
litmus, not alkaline.)
Normality = g As2O3 4000/mL final volume 197.84
References: JAOAC 22, 568(1939); 24, 100, 639(1941).

A.1.04
AOAC Official Method 964.24
Buffer Solutions
for Calibration of pH Equipment
First Action 1964
Final Action 1965

Use H2O with pH of 6.5 but 7.5, obtained by boiling H2O 15


min and cooling under CO2-free conditions. Store standard buffer
solutions except Ca(OH)2 in bottles of chemically resistant glass.
Protect phosphate, borax, and Ca(OH)2 buffers from CO2. pH values
as function of temperature are given in Table 964.24.
(a) Potassium tetroxalate buffer solution.0.0496M; 0.05m.
Transfer 12.61 g KHC2O4H2C2O42H2O (air weight) (NIST SRM
189a) to 1 L volumetric flask, dilute to volume with H2O, and mix
thoroughly. (It is not necessary to remove dissolved CO2 from the
H2O or to dry salt before weighing.) Prepare fresh every 2 months.
(b) Potassium hydrogen tartrate buffer solution.Saturated solution at 25, 0.034M. Add excess (ca 100%) of KHC4H4O6 (NIST
Table 964.24

Temperature

pH Values for Standard Buffer Solutions as Function of Temperature


0.05m
0.008695m and
Satd Potasssium
0.05m Acid
Potasium
0.025m
0.03043m
Potasium
Hydrogen
Phosphate
Phthalate
Phosphate
Tetroxalate
Tartrate

0.01m
Borax

0.025m NaHCO3
and 0.025m
Satd Calcium
Na2CO3
Hydroxide

pH

pH

pH

pH

pH

pH

pH

pH

0
5
10
15
20
25

1.666
1.668
1.670
1.672
1.675
1.679

3.557

4.003
3.998
3.996
3.996
3.999
4.004

6.982
6.949
6.921
6.898
6.878
6.863

7.534
7.501
7.472
7.449
7.430
7.415

9.460
9.392
9.331
9.276
9.227
9.183

10.321
10.248
10.181
10.120
10.064
10.014

13.423
13.207
13.003
12.810
12.627
12.454

30
35
37
40
45
50
55
60

1.683
1.688
1.691
1.694
1.700
1.707
1.715
1.723

3.552
3.549
3.548
3.547
3.547
3.549
3.554
3.560

4.011
4.020
4.024
4.030
4.042
4.055
4.070
4.085

6.851
6.842
6.839
6.836
6.832
6.831

7.403
7.394
7.392
7.388
7.385
7.384

9.143
9.107
9.093
9.074
9.044
9.017

9.968
9.928

9.891
9.859
9.831

12.289
12.133
12.043
11.984
11.841
11.705
11.574
11.449

solution is needed, add additional H2O to suspension, re-saturate,


and filter as above.

Table 941.17B Amounts of Buffer Solutions and Base Required


to Produce Given pH Solutions

Phthalate-NaOH Mixtures

References: NIST Certificates for Standard Reference Materials


185g, 186e, 187c, 188, 189a, 191a, and 192a.
JAOAC 33, 223(1950); 41, 302(1958); 47, 43(1964).

0.2M
Potassium Hydrogen
Phthalate (mL)

0.2M
NaOH(mL)

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
KH2PO4-NaOH Mixtures

23.65
29.75
35.25
39.70
43.10
45.40
47.00

0.2M
KH2PO4(mL)

0.2M
NaOH(mL)

50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
H3BO3-KCl-NaOH Mixtures

3.66
5.64
8.55
12.60
17.74
23.60
29.54
34.90
39.34
42.74
45.17
46.85

pH

0.2M
H3BO3, KCl(mL)

0.2M
NaOH(mL)

7.8
8.0
8.2
8.4
8.6

50
50
50
50
50

2.65
4.00
5.90
8.55
12.00

pH
5.0
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6.0
6.2

A.1.05
AOAC Official Method 941.17
Standard Buffers and Indicators
for Colorimetric pH Comparisons
Final Action

A. Preparation of Sulfonphthalein Indicators

X = mL 0.01N NaOH/0.1 g indicator required to form monosodium salt. Dilute to 250 mL for 0.04% reagent. (See Table 941.17A)
Table 941.17A Amounts of Specific Indicators Required to
Form Monosodium Salts
Bromocresol green
Chlorophenol red
Bromothymol blue
Phenol red

pH

14.3
23.6
16.0
28.2

3.85.4
4.86.4
6.07.6
6.88.4

pH
5.8
6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
8.0

B. Preparation of Stock Solutions

Use recently boiled and cooled H2O.


(a) Acid potassium phthalate solution.0.2M. Dry to constant
weight at 110115. Dissolve 40.836 g in H2O and dilute to 1 L.
(b) Monopotassium phosphate solution.0.2M. Dry KH2PO4 to
constant weight at 110115. Dissolve 27.232 g in H2O and dilute
to 1 L. Solution should be distinctly red with methyl red, and
distinctly blue with bromophenol blue.
(c) Boric acid-potassium chloride solution.0.2M. Dry H3BO3
to constant weight in desiccator over CaCl2. Dry KCl 2 days in oven
at 115120. Dissolve 12.405 g H3BO3 and 14.912 g KCl in H2O,
and dilute to 1 L.
(d) Sodium hydroxide standard solution.0.2M. Prepare and
standardize as in 936.16 (see A.1.12); 0.04084 g KHC8H4O4 = 1 mL
0.2M NaOH. It is preferable to use factor with solution rather than
try to adjust to exactly 0.2M.
C. Preparation of Buffer Solutions

Prepare standard buffer solutions from designated amounts stock


solutions, 941.17, and dilute to 200 mL. For use as colorimetric
standard, mix 20 mL buffer solution with 0.5 mL indicator solution,
941.17A. (See Table 941.17B).
References: JAOAC 24, 583(1941). Clark, Determination of Hydrogen-ions, 3rd Ed., pp. 91, 94, 192202.

Table 936.15

Volumes of Concentrated HCl Required to


Prepare Solutions of Different Normalities

Approximate normality

mL HCl to be diluted to 10 L

0.01
0.02
0.10
0.50
1.0

8.6
17.2
86.0
430.1
860.1

B. Standard Sodium Hydroxide Method

Titrate 40 mL against standard alkali solution, 936.16CE (see


A.1.12), of ca same concentration as acid being standardized in 300
mL flask that has been swept free from CO2, using CO2-free H2O
and 3 drops phenolphthalein.

A.1.06
AOAC Official Method 936.15
Standard Solution
of Hydrochloric Acid

Normality = (mL standard alkali normality of alkali)/mL HCl

Final Action

If more concentrated than desired, dilute solution to required


normality value by following formula:

A. Preparation of Standard Solutions

Table 936.15 gives approximate volumes of 36.538% HCl required to make 10 L standard solutions.

V1 = V2 N2/N1

where N2 and V2 represent normality and volume of stock solution,


respectively, and V1 = volume to which stock solution should be
diluted to obtain desired normality, N1.
Check exact concentration of final solution by titration as above.
Normality will be exact only if same indicator is used in determination as in standardization. Restandardize if indicators other than
phenolphthalein are used.
References: JAOAC 19, 107, 194(1936). 49, 250(1966). Kolthoff
& Stenger, Volumetric Analysis, II, 52(1947).
C. Constant Boiling Method

Dilute 822 mL HCl (36.538% HCl) with 750 mL H2O. Check


specific gravity with spindle and adjust to 1.10. Place 1.5 L in 2 L
flat-bottom distilling flask, add ca 10 SiC grains (ca 20 mesh),
and connect to long, straight inner-tube condenser. Heat on electric
hot plate and distil at 510 mL/min, keeping end of condenser open
to air. When 1125 mL has distilled, change receivers and catch next
225 mL, which is constant boiling HCl, in Erlenmeyer with end of
condenser inserted into flask, but above surface of liquid. Read
barometer to nearest mm at beginning and end of collection of 225
mL portion and note barometer temperature. Average readings.
Calculate air weight in g (G) of this constant boiling HCl required
to give one equivalent weight of HCl from one of following equations:

nate, rinse precipitate once with 25 mL cold H2O, and dissolve


crystals in just enough H2O at 55 to ensure complete solution (ca
200 mL). Recrystallize by cooling to ca 10, agitating flask during
crystallization.
Filter crystals onto small Bchner with suction, wash precipitate
once with 25 mL ice-cold H2O, and dry crystals by washing with
two 20 mL portions alcohol, drying after each washing with suction.
Follow with two 20 mL portions ether. (Just before use, free alcohol
and ether from any possible reacting acids by vigorously shaking
each with 23 g of the pure, dry Na2B4O710H2O and then filtering.)
Spread crystals on watch glass, immediately place dried
Na2B4O710H2O in closed container over solution saturated with
respect to both sucrose and NaCl, and let it remain 24 h before
using. Then transfer the pure Na2B4O710H2O to glass-stoppered
container and store in closed container over solution saturated with
respect to both sucrose and NaCl (stable under these conditions 1
year).
E. Standardization

Accurately weigh enough standard Na2B4O710H2O to titrate ca


40 mL and transfer to 300 mL flask. Add 40 mL CO2-free H2O,
936.16B(a) (see A.1.12), and stopper flask. Swirl gently until sample
dissolves. Add 4 drops methyl red and titrate with solution that is
being standardized to equivalence point as indicated by reference
solution.

For P0 = 540669 mm Hg:


G = 162.255 + 0.02415 P0

Normality = g Na2B4O710H2O 1000/mL acid 190.69


Reference: JAOAC 22, 102, 563(1939).

For P0 = 670780 mm Hg:


Standard Sodium Carbonate Method

G = 164.673 + 0.02039 P0
where P0 = barometric pressure in mm Hg corrected to 0C for
expansion of Hg and of barometer scale. For brass scale barometer,
following correction is accurate enough:
P0 = Pt(1 0.000162t), where t = barometer temperature in C
Weigh required amount of constant boiling HCl in tared, stoppered flask to at least 1 part in 10,000. Dilute immediately, and
finally dilute to volume with CO2-free H2O at desired temperature.
References: JAOAC 25, 653(1942); 36, 96, 354(1953); 37, 122,
462(1954).
Standard Borax Method

D. Reagents

(a) Methyl red indicator.Dissolve 100 mg methyl red in 60 mL


alcohol and dilute with H2O to 100 mL.
(b) Reference solution.Prepare reference solution of H3BO3,
NaCl, and indicator corresponding to composition and volume of
solution at equivalence point. For use in determination of end point
of titration with 0.1N HCl, reference solution should be 0.1M in
H3BO3 and 0.05M in NaCl.
(c) Standard borax.Saturate 300 mL H2O at 55 (not higher)
with Na2B4O710H2O (ACS) (ca 45 g). Filter at this temperature
through folded paper into 500 mL Erlenmeyer. Cool filtrate to ca
10, with continuous agitation during crystallization. Decant super-

F. Reagents

(a) Methyl orange indicator.0.1% in H2O.


(b) Reference solution.80 mL CO2-free H2O containing 3 or 4
drops methyl orange.
(c) Anhydrous sodium carbonate.Heat 250 mL H2O to 80 and
add NaHCO3 (ACS), stirring until no more dissolves. Filter solution
through folded paper (use of hot H2O funnel is desirable) into
Erlenmeyer. Cool filtrate to ca 10, swirling constantly during crystallization. Fine crystals of trona that separate out have approximate
composition: Na2CO3NaHCO32H2O. Decant supernate, drain
crystals by suction, and wash once with cold H2O.
Transfer precipitate, being careful not to include any paper fibers,
to large flat-bottom Pt dish. Heat 1 h at 290 in electric oven or
furnace with pyrometer control. Stir contents occasionally with Pt
wire. Cool in desiccator. Place the anhydrous Na2CO3 in glass-stoppered container and store in desiccator containing efficient desiccant. Dry at 120 and cool just before weighing.
References: Kolthoff & Stenger, Volumetric Analysis, II,
80(1947). Ind. Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed. 9, 141(1937).
JAOAC 22, 563(1939).
G. Standardization

Accurately weigh enough anhydrous Na2CO3, (c), to titrate ca 40


mL, transfer to 300 mL Erlenmeyer, and dissolve in 40 mL H2O. Add
3 drops methyl orange and titrate until color begins to deviate from
H2O tint (reference solution). (Equivalence point has not been
reached.) Boil solution gently 2 min, and cool. Titrate until color is
barely different from H2O tint of indicator.

Normality = g Na2CO3 1000/mL acid 52.994

A.1.09
AOAC Official Method 949.13
Standard Solution
of Potassium Dichromate

Reference: JAOAC 22, 102, 563(1939).

Final Action

A. Reagent

A.1.07
AOAC Official Method 939.13
Standard Solution of Iodine
Final Action

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

Dissolve weighed amounts of I2 (12.7 g/L for 0.1N solution) and


KI, in proportion of 20 g KI to 13 g I2, in 50 mL H2O. When I2
dissolves, transfer solution to glass-stoppered volumetric flask. Dilute to volume with H2O and mix thoroughly. Store in dark brown,
glass-stoppered bottle away from light and restandardize as frequently as necessary.
B. Standardization

Transfer accurately measured portion of standard As2O 3


solution, 939.12B (see A.1.03) (4050 mL ca 0.1N solution for
0.1N solution), to Erlenmeyer. Acidify slightly with H 2SO4 (1 +
10), neutralize with solid NaHCO3 , and add ca 2 g excess.
Titrate with I 2 solution, using ca 0.2% starch solution (5
mL/100 mL) as indicator. Saturate solution with CO2 at end of
titration by adding 1 mL H 2SO4 (1 + 10) just before end point
is reached.
Normality = mL As2O3 normality As2O3/mL I2
References: JAOAC 22, 568(1939); 24, 100, 639(1941).

Starch solution.Mix ca 1 g arrowroot starch with 10 mL H2O


and pour slowly, with constant stirring, into 200 mL boiling H2O.
Boil until thin, translucent fluid is obtained. Let settle and use clear
supernate. Preserve with Hg.
B. Assay of Stock Potassium Dichromate

If K2Cr2O7 is in small crystals, mix by shaking thoroughly in large,


clean jar; if it is in lumps, grind representative sample to pass No.
60 sieve, and then mix by shaking. Dry portion for weighings 2 h at
100.
Weigh, into each of 3 glass-stoppered Erlenmeyers, enough
K2Cr2O7 (NIST SRM 136e) to give titer of 100.5102.0 mL 0.1N
Na2S2O3, 942.27A (see A.1.13) (0.49280.5001 g for 0.1N solution).
Completely dissolve in 100 mL H2O, add 4.0 g KI, and swirl mixture
until dissolved. With buret, add 4.0 mL HCl, stopper flask, mix by
swirling, and let stand in dark 10 min. Cool flask ca 1 min in ice-H2O.
While swirling flask, pipet in 100 mL Na2S2O3 solution. Add 5
mL starch solution and complete titration with Na2S2O3 solution
added from 10 mL microburet (graduated in 0.05 mL). End point is
from bluish green to clear green; change takes place within 0.01 mL.
Record volume to nearest 0.01 mL. Calculate apparent normality of
Na2S2O3 solution for each of the 3 titrations, and average. Designate
this average as NNIST.
Similarly titrate 3 portions of stock K2Cr2O7 and calculate the 3
apparent normalities. Designate each of these results as Nstock. Calculate % purity of stock K2Cr2O7 = (NNIST 100)/Nstock.
Take average of the 3 results as % purity of stock K2Cr2O7.
C. Preparation of Standard Solution

Dissolve theoretical weight K2Cr2O7 (NIST SRM 136e) (4.9032


g for 0.1N solution), or weight stock K2Cr2O7, 949.13B, found to
have oxidimetric value 99.95100.05% of NIST SRM, in enough
H2O to make 1 L. (Dry K2Cr2O7 2 h at 100 before using.)

A.1.08
AOAC Official Method 947.13
Standard Solution
of Potassium Bromide-Bromate
Final Action

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

Dissolve ca 2.8 g KBrO3 and 12 g KBr in boiled H2O and dilute


to 1 L with boiled H2O for ca 0.1N solution.

References: JAOAC 32, 587(1949); 33, 225(1950).

A.1.10
AOAC Official Method 940.35
Standard Solution
of Potassium Permanganate
Final Action

B. Standardization

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

Measure 40 mL standard As2O3 solution, 939.12B (see A.1.03),


from buret into 300 mL Erlenmeyer. Add 10 mL HCl and 3 drops
methyl orange, 936.15F(a) (see A.1.06). Titrate with KBr-KBrO3
solution until 1 drop causes color of methyl orange to fade completely. Swirl solution constantly and add last mL dropwise, swirling between drops.

Dissolve slightly more than desired equivalent weight (3.2 g for


0.1N) of KMnO4 in 1 L H2O. Boil solution 1 h. Protect from dust
and let stand overnight. Thoroughly clean 15 cm glass funnel,
perforated porcelain plate from Caldwell crucible, and glass-stoppered bottle (preferably of brown glass) with warm chromic acid
cleaning solution. Digest asbestos for use in Gooches on steam bath
1 h with ca 0.1N KMnO4 that has been acidified with few drops
H2SO4 (1 + 3). Let settle, decant, and replace with H2O. To prepare
glass funnel, place porcelain plate in apex, make pad of asbestos ca
3 mm thick on plate, and wash acid-free. (Pad should not be too
tightly packed and only moderate suction should be applied.) Insert

Normality = mL As2O3 normality As2O3/mL KBr-KBrO3.


References: JAOAC 30, 502(1947); 31, 119, 572(1948).

stem of funnel into neck of bottle and filter KMnO4 solution directly
into bottle without aid of suction.
B. Standardization

For 0.1N solution, transfer 0.3 g dried (1 h at 105) sodium oxalate


(NIST SRM 40) to 600 mL beaker. Add 250 mL H2SO4 (5 + 95),
previously boiled 1015 min and then cooled to 27 3.
Stir until Na2C2O4 dissolves. Add 3940 mL KMnO4 solution at
rate of 2535 mL/min, stirring slowly. Let stand until pink disappears
(ca 45 s). If pink persists because KMnO4 solution is too concentrated, discard and begin again, adding few mL less of KMnO4
solution. Heat to 5560, and complete titration by adding KMnO4
solution until faint pink persists 30 s. Add last 0.51 mL dropwise,
letting each drop decolorize before adding next.
Determine excess of KMnO4 solution required to turn solution
pink by matching with color obtained by adding KMnO4 solution to
same volume of boiled and cooled diluted H2SO4 at 5560. This
correction is usually 0.030.05 mL. From net volume KMnO4,
calculate normality:
Normality = g Na2C2O4 1000/mL KMnO4 66.999

(b) Potassium or ammonium thiocyanate standard solution.


Prepare ca 0.1N solution, 942.26B (see A.1.02). Determine working
titer by accurately measuring 4050 mL standard AgNO3 solution,
adding 2 mL ferric alum solution and 5 mL HNO3 (1 + 1), and
titrating with the thiocyanate solution until solution appears pale rose
after vigorous shaking.
E. Standardization

Accurately weigh enough KCl, 941.18B(a), to yield titration of


ca 40 mL (ca 0.3 g for 0.1N solution) and transfer to 250 mL
glass-stoppered Erlenmeyer with 40 mL H2O. Add 5 mL HNO3 (1 +
1) and excess AgNO3 solution. Mix, and let stand few min protected
from light. Filter through Gooch prepared with medium pad of
asbestos previously rinsed with 2% HNO3. Wash flask and precipitate with several small portions of 2% HNO3, passing washings
through crucible until filtrate and washings measure ca 150 mL. Add
2 mL ferric alum solution and titrate residual AgNO3 with thiocyanate solution. From titration, together with ratio of the 2 solutions,
calculate net volume AgNO3 solution. (Errors of blank are compensating and may be disregarded.) From net volume AgNO3, calculate
normality as in 941.18C.
Reference: JAOAC 24, 100, 631(1941).

References: JAOAC 23, 543(1940); 31, 568(1948). J. Research


NBS 15, 493(1935), Research Paper No. 843.

A.1.12
AOAC Official Method 936.16
Standard Solution
of Sodium Hydroxide

A.1.11
AOAC Official Method 941.18
Standard Solution
of Silver Nitrate
Final Action

Final Action
Standard Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate Method

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

A. Apparatus

Dissolve slightly more than theoretical weight of AgNO3 (equivalent weight, 169.87) in halogen-free H2O and dilute to volume.
Thoroughly clean glassware, avoid contact with dust, and keep
prepared solution in amber glass-stoppered bottles away from light.

Use buret and pipet calibrated by NIST or by analyst. Protect exits


to air of automatic burets from CO2 contamination by suitable guard
tubes containing soda-lime. Use containers of alkali-resistant glass.

Mohr Method

B. Reagents

(a) Potassium chloride.Recrystallize KCl 3 times from H2O,


dry at 110, and then heat at ca 500 to constant weight. Equivalent
weight KCl = 74.555. Or, preferably, use NIST SRM 999.
(b) Potassium chromate solution.5% solution of K2CrO4 in
H2O.
C. Standardization

Accurately weigh enough KCl to yield titration of ca 40 mL (ca


0.3 g for 0.1N solution), and transfer to 250 mL glass-stoppered
Erlenmeyer with 40 mL H2O. Add 1 mL K2CrO4 solution and titrate
with AgNO3 solution until first perceptible pale red-brown appears.
From titration volume, subtract mL of the AgNO3 solution required
to produce end point color in 75 mL H2O containing 1 mL K2CrO4
solution. From net volume AgNO3, calculate normality:

B. Reagents

(a) Carbon dioxide-free water.Prepare by one of following


methods: (1) Boil H2O 20 min and cool with soda-lime protection;
(2) bubble air, freed from CO2 by passing through tower of sodalime, through H2O 12 h.
(b) Sodium hydroxide solution.(1 + 1). To 1 part NaOH (reagent quality containing % Na2CO3) in flask add 1 part H2O and
swirl until solution is complete. Close with rubber stopper. Set aside
until Na2CO3 has settled, leaving perfectly clear liquid (ca 10 days).
(c) Acid potassium phthalate.NIST SRM for Acidimetry 84.
Crush to pass No. 100 sieve. Dry 2 h at 120. Cool in desiccator
containing H2SO4.
C. Preparation of Standard Solution

Table 936.16 gives approximate volumes of NaOH solution


(1 + 1) necessary to make 10 L of standard solutions.
Table 936.16

Volumes of (1 + 1) NaOH Solution Required


to Prepare Solutions of Different Normalities

Normality = g KCl 1000/mL AgNO3 74.555

Approximate normality

mL NaOH to be diluted to 10 L

Volhard Method

0.01
0.02
0.10
0.50
1.0

5.4
10.8
54.0
270.0
540.0

D. Reagents

(a) Ferric alum indicator solution.Saturated solution of


FeNH4(SO4)212H2O in H2O.

Add required volume of NaOH solution (1 + 1) to 10 L CO2-free


H2O. Check normality, which should be slightly high, as in 936.16D,
and adjust to desired concentration by following formula:
V1 = V2 N2/N1
where N2 and V2 represent normality and volume stock solution,
respectively, and V1, volume to which stock solution should be
diluted to obtain desired normality, N1. Standardize final solution as
in 936.16D or E.
D. Standardization

Accurately weigh enough dried KHC8H4O4 to titrate ca 40 mL and


transfer to 300 mL flask that has been swept free from CO2. Add 50
mL cool CO2-free H2O. Stopper flask and swirl gently until sample
dissolves. Titrate to pH 8.6 with solution being standardized, taking
precautions to exclude CO2 and using as indicator either glass-electrode pH meter or 3 drops phenolphthalein. In latter case, determine
end point by comparison with pH 8.6 buffer solution, 941.17C (see
A.1.05), containing 3 drops phenolphthalein. Determine volume
NaOH required to produce end point of blank by matching color in
another flask containing 3 drops phenolphthalein and same volume
CO2-free H2O. Subtract volume required from that used in first
titration and calculate normality.
Normality = g KHC8H4O4 1000/mL NaOH 204.229
References: JAOAC 19, 107, 194(1936). NIST Certificate for
Standard Reference Material 84.
Constant Boiling Hydrochloric Acid Method

E. Standardization

Accurately weigh from weighing buret enough constant boiling


HCl, 936.15C (see A.1.06), to titrate ca 40 mL, into Erlenmeyer
previously swept free from CO2. Add ca 40 mL CO2-free H2O, then
35 drops desired indicator, and titrate with solution being standardized.
Normality = g HCl 1000/mL titer G

B. Standardization

Accurately weigh 0.200.23 g K2Cr2O7 (NIST SRM 136e dried 2


h at 100) and place in glass-stoppered iodine flask (or glass-stoppered flask). Dissolve in 80 mL chlorine-free H2O containing 2 g
KI. Add, with swirling, 20 mL ca 1N HCl and immediately place in
dark 10 min. Titrate with Na2S2O3 solution, 942.27A, adding starch
solution after most of I2 has been consumed.
Normality = g K2Cr2O7 1000/mL Na2S2O3 49.032
References: JAOAC 25, 659(1942); 27, 557(1944); 28,
594(1945); 38, 382(1955); 47, 43, 46(1964); 48,
103(1965).

A.1.14
AOAC Official Method 890.01
Standard Solutions
of Sulfuric Acid
Final Action

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

Table 890.01 gives approximate volumes of 9598% H2SO4 necessary to make 10 L standard solutions.

Table 890.01

Volumes of Concentrated H2SO4 Required


to Prepare Solutions of Different Normalities

Approximate
normality

mL H2SO4 to be
diluted to 10 L

0.01
0.02
0.10
0.50
1.0

2.8
5.6
27.7
138.1
276.1

B. Standard Borax Method Standardization

See 936.15E (see A.1.06).

where G has value given in 936.15C (see A.1.06).

C. Specific Gravity Method

References: JAOAC 25, 653(1942); 36, 96, 354(1953); 37, 122,


462(1954).

Dilute H2SO4 with enough H2O to make convenient volume of ca


70% H2SO4 by weight. Determine specific gravity in air at convenient temperature (040) as in 945.06C (see 26.1.06) (or specific
gravity may be determined with Sprengel pycnometer), protecting
solution from contact with air. Calculate exact % H2SO4 by weight,

A.1.13
AOAC Official Method 942.27
Standard Solutions
of Sodium Thiosulfate

P = S(85.87 + 0.05T 0.0004t2) 69.82

Final Action

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

Dissolve ca 25 g Na2S2O35H2O in 1 L H2O. Boil gently 5 min


and transfer while hot to storage bottle previously cleaned with hot
chromic acid cleaning solution and rinsed with warm boiled H2O.
(Temper bottle, if not heat-resistant, before adding hot solution.)
Store solution in dark, cool place; do not return unused portions to
stock bottle. If solutions less concentrated than 0.1N are desired,
prepare by dilution with boiled H2O. (More dilute solutions are less
stable and should be prepared just before use.)

where S = specific gravity (in air) at T , compared with H2O at t.


Weigh exactly W g prepared acid containing P% H2SO4 and dilute
to n L to make required solution containing G g H2SO4/L. Calculate
W from equation:
W = nG 100/P
References: J. Chem. Soc. Trans. 57, 64(1890). J. Soc. Chem. Ind.
(1899), 1091. JAOAC 24, 636(1941).

A.1.15
AOAC Official Method 948.28
Standard Solutions
of Titanium Trichloride

Table 982.35A Sources of Certified Reference Materials


Organizations and Addresses
Source Code
BCR

Final Action

A. Preparation of Standard Solution

To 200 mL commercial 15% TiCl3 solution add 150 mL HCl and


dilute to 2 L. Make solution ca 0.1N, place in container with H2
atmosphere provision [e.g., JAOAC 5, 207(1921)], and let stand 2
days for absorption of residual O2.
B. Standardization

Weigh 3 g FeSO4(NH4)2SO46H2O and transfer to 500 mL flask.


Introduce stream of CO2, and add 50 mL recently boiled H2O and 25
mL 40% (by weight) H2SO4. Then, without interrupting current of CO2,
rapidly add 40 mL 0.1N K2Cr2O7, 949.13C (see A.1.09). Add TiCl3
solution until near calculated end point. Then quickly add 5 g NH4SCN,
and complete titration. Determine blank on 3 g FeSO4(NH4)2SO46H2O,
using same volumes of H2O, H2SO4, and NH4SCN, and current of CO2.
From net volume TiCl3, calculate normality:
Normality = mL K2Cr2O7 normality K2Cr2O7/mL TiCl3

IAEA

NIST

NIES
LGC

NRCC

USP

References: JAOAC 31, 573(1948); 32, 589(1949).

Name and Address


Measurements and Testing Program
Commission of the European Communities 200,
rue de la Loi
B-1049 Brussels, Belgium
International Atomic Energy Agency
Analytical Quality Control Services
Laboratory Seibersdorf
PO Box 100
A-1400 Vienna, Austria
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Standard Reference Materials Program
Building 202, Room 204,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
National Institute for Environmental Studies
Yatabe-Machi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
National Physical Laboratory
Laboratory of the Government Chemist
Office of Reference Materials
Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OLY, UK
National Research Council
Marine Analytical Chemistry Standards
Montreal Road
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R9
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc.
USP-NF Reference Standards
12601 Twinbrook Parkway
Rockville, MD 20852 USA

A.1.16
AOAC Official Method 982.35
Certified Reference Materials
A. Definitions

Reference Material (RM).Material or substance one or more


properties of which are sufficiently well established to be used for
calibrating apparatus, or assessing measurement method, or assigning values to materials.
Certified Reference Material (CRM).Reference material one or
more of whose property values are certified by valid procedure, or
accompanied by or traceable to certificate or other documentation
which is issued by certifying body.
B. General Information

Following tables list selected CRMs, certification, and code of


issuing organization. (Tables 982.35AF). Table 982.35A shows
source codes together with names and addresses of these organizations. Selected RMs are shown in Table 982.35G.
Particular CRMs were selected on basis of present and potential
applicability to AOAC activities. Listing of CRMs from organization
does not imply either AOAC endorsement of CRMs or AOAC
recommendation of organization supplying them.
Organizations listed are only representative of those supplying
CRMs. No claim is made as to completeness of information supplied.
More complete listing of organizations supplying CRMs is available
from the International Organization for Standardization. Catalogs or
literature describing CRMs are available from individual organizations. However, because inventories of CRMs are continually changing, inquiries should be made of the organizations concerning
current availability of specific CRMs.
References: World Wide Production of Certified Reference Materials 1994 Status Report. S.D. Rasberry, ISOREMCO. Available from NIST, Gaithersburg, MD
20899.

Table 982.35B Certified Reference Materials for Animal


Tissues, Plant Tissues, Foods, Alcoholic
Beverages, Animal Foodstuffs
Designation
1566a
1577b
H-4
1573
1575
No. 1
60
61
62
1567a
1568a
1549
1569
17c
41c
A15-01
063
150
151
162
163
184
185
186
189

Oyster Tissue
Bovine Liver
Muscle
Tomato Leaves
Pine Needles
Pepperbush
Aquatic Plant
(Lagarosiphon m Major)
Aquatic Plant
(Platihypnidum
riparioides)
Olive Leaves
(Olea europaea)
Wheat Flour
Rice Flour
Nonfat Milk Powder
Brewers Yeast
Sucrose
Dextrose
DL-5-Vinyloxazolidin-2thione (VOT)
Skim Milk Powder,
natural
Skim Milk Powder,
spiked
Skim Milk Powder,
spiked
Soya-maize Oil Blend
Beef-pig Fat Blend
Bovine Muscle
Bovine Liver
Pig Kidney
Wholemeal Flour

Certification

Source Code

Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a

NIST
NIST
IAEA
NIST
NIST
NIES
BCR

Note a

BCR

Note a

BCR

Note a
Note a
Note a
Cr
Note b
Note c
Purity

NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
LGC

Note a

BCR

Note a

BCR

Note a

BCR

Note d
Note d
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a

BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR

Continued

Table 982.35B Certified Reference Materials for Animal


Tissues, Plant Tissues, Foods, Alcoholic
Beverages, Animal Foodstuffs (Continued)
Designation
191
273
274
279
282

Brown Bread
Single Cell Protein
Single Cell Protein
Sea Lettuce
Aflatoxin M1 in Whole
Milk Powder
283
Aflatoxin M1 in Whole
Milk Powder
284
Aflatoxin M1 in Whole
Milk Powder
285
Aflatoxin M1 in Whole
Milk Powder
1563
Cholesterol & Fat
Soluble Vitamins in
Coconut Oil
1588
Organics in Cod Liver
Oil
TORT-1 Lobster Hepatopancreas
DORM-1 Dogfish Muscle
DOLT-1 Dogfish Liver
No. 3
Chlorella
No. 7
Tea Leaves
No. 9
Sargasso Seaweed
No. 10 Flour (rice)
No. 11 Fish Tissue
100
Beech Leaves
101
Spruce Needles
129
Hay Powder
190
Rapeseed
1515
Apple Leaves
1547
Peach Leaves
2675
Fluoride in Vegetation
1545
Total Diet
1406
Bone Ash
1486
Bone Meal
2389
Amino Acids in HCl

Certification

Table 982.35C Certified Reference Materials for Biochemicals,


Clinicals, Drugs, Industrial Hygiene, Pharmaceuticals

Source Code

Note a
Matrix
Trace Element
Note a
Very low level

BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR

Low level

BCR

Medium level

BCR

High level

BCR

Fortified levels

NIST

Note e

NIST

Note a

NRCC

Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
F
Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a

NRCC
NRCC
NIES
NIES
NIES
NIES
NIES
BCR
BCR
BCR
BCR
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST

Designation
900
1599
909

Antiepilepsy Drug Level


Anticonvulsant Drug Level
Human Serum

2671a
2672a
2670

Freeze-dried Urine
Freeze-dried Urine
Freeze-dried Urine
Clinical CRMs

Drugs, clinicals

147

Lyophilized thromboplastin
Human plain
Lyophilized thromboplastin
Bovine
Lyophilized thromboplastin
Rabbit
Lyophilized bovine blood
(low concentration)
Lyophilized bovine blood
(medium concentration)
Lyophilized bovine blood
(high concentration)
Calcium in Human Blood I
Calcium in Human Blood II
Lyophilized Human Serum
(low concentration)
Lyophilized Human Serum
(high concentration)
Lyophilized CGT from pig
kidney
Cholesterol in Human
Serum
(Freeze-dried)
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) in Urine
Cocaine and Metabolites in
Urine
Morphine and Codeine in
Urine
Morphine Gluceronide in
Urine
Inorganic Constituents in
Bovine Serum
Human Hair
Freeze dried animal blood

148
149

Elemental composition.
Optical rotation, index of rotation, and density.
c
Purity and specific rotation.

194
195
196
303
304
192
193
319
1952a

1507b

1508
2381
2382
1598
5
A-13

Certification

Source
Code

Note a
NIST
Note b
NIST
Selected electroNIST
lytes, organics
F-(0.55 and 5.7 mg/L) NIST
Hg (2 concentrations) NIST
Selected elements
NIST
Purity, other
NIST
properties
(Note c)
Purity, other
USP
properties
Note d
Note e
BCR
Note e

BCR

Note e

BCR

Pb, Cd

BCR

Pb, Cd

BCR

Pg, Cd

BCR

Ca
Ca
Cortisol

BCR
BCR
BCR

Cortisol

BCR

Note f

BCR

Cholesterol

NIST

THC

NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST

Trace Elements

NIST

Trace Elements
Trace Elements

NIES
IAEA

a
Phenytoin, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and primidone at 3 concentration
levels plus serum blank.
b
Carbamazepine and valproic acid at 3 concentration levels plus serum blank.
c
Approximately 20 clinical calibration materials.
d
Drugs of abuse, veterinary drugs, enzymes, food chemicals clinicals, vitamins...
e
Calibrated against International Reference Preparation of WHO (IRP 67/40).
f
Based on IFCC method.

Table 982.35D Certified Reference Materials for Fertilizers and


Related Materials
Source
Designation
Certification
Code
120c
694
32
33
193

Phosphate Rock (Florida)


Phosphate Rock (Western)
Phosphate Rock (Moroccan)
Superphosphate
Potassium Nitrate

194

Ammonium Dihydrogen
Phosphate
Potassium Dihydrogen
Phosphate

200
a

Note a
Note a
Note a
Note a
N and K
concentration
N and P
concentration
P and K
concentration

NIST
NIST
BCR
BCR
NIST
NIST
NIST

Chemical composition.

Table 982.35E Certified Reference Materials for Environmental Determination


Designation
P11-01 to P11-31
Chlorinated compounds
P12-04 to P12-07
Organophosphorus
compounds
P13-01 to P13-12
Phenoxy-acids and related
compounds
P14-01 to P14-05
Substituted urea compounds
P16-01 to P16-34
Heterocyclic and miscellaneous compounds
P17-01 to P17-02
Pyrethroids
1583
Chlorinated Pesticides in
Isooctane
1492
Chlorinated Pesticides in
Hexane
1491
Aromatic Hydrocarbons in
Hexane/Toluene
1579a
Powdered Pb-base Paint
1582
Petroleum Crude Oil
1584
Priority Pollutant Phenols in
Methanol
1585
Chlorinated Biphenyls in
Isooctane
a

Certification

Source
Code

High purity

LGC

High purity

LGC

High purity

LGC

High purity

LGC

High purity

LGC

Note a

LGC

Note b

NIST

Note c

NIST

23 organic
compounds

NIST

Pb

NIST

6 organic
compounds

NIST

10 organic
compounds

NIST

8 organic
compounds

NIST

No purity figure is given but full analysis data supplied.


Concerntrations at g/mL LEVELS.
Concentrations approximately 200 ng/g.
d
Electrolytic conductivity, pH, acidity, F, Cl, NO3, SO4, Na, K, Ca, Mg
b
c

Designation
1586
Isotopically Labeled &
Unlabeled Priority
Pollutants in Methanol
1587
Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons in Methanol
1589
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(As Aroclor 1260) in Human
Serum
1596
Dinitropyrene Isomers &
1-Nitropyrene in
Methylene Chloride
1597
Complex Mixture of Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons from
Coal Tar
1614
Dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) in
Isooctane
2,3,7,8-TCDD-13C
1618
V and Ni in Residual Fuel Oil
1639
Hydrocarbons (in CH3OH) for
H2O Analysis
1650
Diesel Particulate Matter
2694a
Simulated Rainwater

Certification

Source
Code

10 organic
compounds

NIST

6 organic
compounds

NIST

Aroclor 1260

NIST

4 organic compounds

NIST

12 PAHs

NIST

2,3,7,8-TCDD

NIST

VNi

NIST

7 organic compounds

NIST

6 organic compounds

NIST

Note d

NIST

Table 982.35F
1641c
1643c
1644
1647a
NASS-2
CRM 046-097
2
SL-1
2704
BCSS-1
MESS-1
Soil-5
2709-2711
1658a1659a
1661a1696a
1665b1669b
26432648
26492650
26512652
16832631
1677c2638
26392642
2812a2614a
26322634
2619a1675b
26572659
18051806
16251627
1629a
1648
1649
2676d
Air-3/1
16191624a
1634b
1581
1580
1638b
26822685
1632b
1635
1633b

Certified Reference Materials for Water, Sediments, Gases, Particulates, Fuels


Designation
Certification
Mercury in Water
Trace Elements in Water
Generator Columns
Priority Pollutants (in CH3CN)
Seawater, Open Ocean
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Pond Sediment
Lake Sediment
Buffalo River Sediment
Marine Sediment I
Estuarine Sediment II
Soil
Soils (Agricultural andContaminated)
Methane in Air
Sulfur Dioxide in N2
Propane in Air
Propane in N2
Propane in N2
Propane/Oxygen in N2
Nitric Oxide in N2
Carbon Monoxide in N2
Carbon Monoxide in N2
Carbon Monoxide in Air
Carbon Dioxide in N2
Carbon Dioxide in N2
Oxygen in N2
Benzene in N2
Sulfur Dioxide Permeation
Nitrogen Dioxide Permeation
Urban Particulate, Inorganic
Urban Dust, Organics
Toxic Metals on Filters
Trace Elements on Filters
Sulfur in Fuel Oil
Trace Elements in Fuel Oil
Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Oil
Shale Oil
Lead in Reference Fuel
Sulfur in Coal
Trace Elements in Coal (Bituminous)
Trace Elements in Coal (Subbituminous)
Trace Elements in Fly Ash

mg/mL level
ng/mL level
Note a
Note b
Trace Elements
Purity
Note c
Note c
Note c
Note c
Note c
Note c
Note c
110 mol/mol
503500 mol/mol
3500 mol/mol
1005000 mol/mol
1.02.0 mol %
O2(5.010.0 mol %) C3H8 (0.01 mol%)
53000 mol/mol
255000 mol/mol
1.08.0 mol %
9.943 mol %
300800 mol/mol
0.515 mol %
2.0 21 mol %
0.2510 mol/mol
2.80.56 g/min Tube (Note d)
0.51.5 g/min Tube
As, Cd, Pb + 11 others
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn at g levels
13 elements at g levels
0.15 5 weight %
P, V, + 6 others
100 g/g
9 organic compounds
Pb
S plus ash and colorific values (0.5-4.6 weight %);
As, Cd, Pb + 15 others
As, Cd, Pb + 11 others
As, Cd, Pb + 17 others

Generates certified concentrations of anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, and benzo(a)pyrene in H2O.


Certified concentrations of 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
c
Certified for chemical composition.
d
Permeation rate is certified.
b

Table 982.35G Reference Materials for Foods/Agricultural


Products
These RMs were prepared at Agriculture Canada and characterized by interlaboratory testing. Although not certified, elemental
concentrations reported as best estimates are based (as they are
in CRMs) on agreement of results by two or more independent, analytical methods. Information on proximates and water-soluble vitamins is also available. The RMs are available from NIST, which
acts solely as a distributor for these RMs.
RM 8412
RM 8432
RM 8413
RM 8433
RM 8414
RM 8435
RM 8415
RM 8436
RM 8416
RM 8437
RM 8418
RM 8438

Corn (Zea Mays) Stalk


Corn Starch
Corn (Zea Mays) Kernel
Corn Bran
Bovine Muscle Powder
Whole Milk Powder
Whole Egg Powder
Durum Wheat Flour
Microcrystalline Cellulose
Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour
Wheat Gluten
Soft Winter Wheat Flour

Source Code
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NRCC
BCR
NIES
IAEA
NIST
NRCC
NRCC
IAEA
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
IAEA
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST
NIST