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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild

Lina Yang *, Yuguo Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China

A R T I C L E I N F O

A B S T R A C T

Article history:

Received 6 May 2008

Accepted 26 May 2008

We provide a quantitative understanding of the relationship between thermal mass and cooling load, i.e.

the effect of thermal mass on energy consumption of air-conditioning in ofce buildings. A simple ofcebuilding model with air-conditioning at daytime and free cooling at nighttime is analyzed in detail to

quantify the hourly and overall variation of cooling load of air-conditioning. As an important parameter,

an increase of time constant can effectively reduce the cooling load, by as much as more than 60% when

the time constant is more than 400 h. However, when the time constant is larger than 1000 h, a further

increase may slightly increase the cooling load, as a too large time constant may also postpone the heat

release of thermal mass until the daytime. For the most effective reduction of cooling load, the interior

and exterior convective heat transfer numbers need to be matched.

2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Cooling load

Cooling load ratio

Thermal mass

Night ventilation

Air-conditioning

1. Introduction

Buildings consume more than 30% of the primary energy

worldwide. In China, buildings account for 23% in 2003 of the total

energy use and is expected to increase to 30% by 2010 [1]. 65% of

the building energy consumption in 2003 in China was due to

heating, ventilation and air-conditioning [1]. Hence, improving

building energy efciency has become one of the critical issues for

overall national energy strategy in China.

The use of thermal mass in a building can reduce peak heating

or cooling load, and subsequently building energy consumption, in

particular when it is integrated with night ventilation. Thermal

mass is dened as the thermal materials that can absorb heat, store

it and release it later. Thermal mass includes building envelope,

furniture, internal walls, etc. Thermal storage capacity of building

mass is one of the factors describing the building thermal

performance [2]. In naturally ventilated buildings, thermal mass

is effective for reducing the air temperature uctuation [3].

Many studies investigated the relationship between thermal

mass and indoor air temperature, and the effect of thermal mass

and night ventilation on cooling load; as reviewed by Balaras [4].

16 different simplied models for estimating the cooling load of a

building, considering the buildings thermal mass, were summarized and compared in Ref. [4]. Parameters describing the effects of

thermal mass include the effective heat storage capacity [5,6],

diurnal heat capacity [7], thermal effectiveness parameter [8],

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +852 2816 2625; fax: +852 2858 5415.

E-mail address: liyg@hku.hk (L. Yang).

0378-7788/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.05.014

admittance factor [9], and total thermal time constant [10]. The

effective layer thickness of external walls [11] and the surface area

of thermal storage [12,13] also signicantly affect the thermal

mass performance.

Existing studies showed that the reduction in cooling load by

using thermal mass vary between 18 and 50% [8,1416]. But these

studies were mostly based on the laboratory monitoring or eld

experiments, without systematic theoretical studies. Hence this

paper aims to provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the

relationship between use of thermal mass and reduction of cooling

load. Through a simple building model, all parameters affecting the

thermal mass performance are quantitatively evaluated and

analyzed.

2. A simple building model

Here only the warm climates are considered, while the results

and analysis can also be easily extended to the cold climates. Fig. 1

shows a simple ofce-building model with daytime air-conditioning and night ventilation. The air temperature distribution in the

building is uniform. Both internal and external thermal storage

materials are modeled as a thermal mass wall. All building

envelope except the thermal mass wall is perfectly insulated. As

shown later, the location of thermal mass relative to insulation and

effect of insulation may be analyzed by changing the interior and

exterior convective heat transfer numbers. Thermal radiation

between room surfaces is ignored. All heat gain (including solar

heat gain) and heat generation in the building is lumped into one

heat source term, i.e. E at daytime and no indoor heat gain is

considered at nighttime. The temperature distribution in the

2053

Nomenclature

Ai

Ao

cm

cp

E

g

hi

ho

M

qv

Qcl

t

TE

Ti

Tm

To

Tset

To

DTo

exterior surface area of thermal mass (m2)

heat capacity of the thermal mass (J/kg K)

heat capacity of air (J/kg K)

heat generation rate (W)

acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

interior convective heat transfer coefcient

(W/m2 K)

exterior convective heat transfer coefcient

(W/m2 K)

mass of the thermal mass (kg)

night ventilation rate (m3/s)

cooling load (W)

time (s)

temperature rise due to internal heat gain (K)

indoor air temperature (K)

thermal mass temperature (K)

outdoor air temperature (K)

indoor air setting temperature at daytime (K)

mean outdoor temperature (K)

amplitude of outdoor air temperature uctuation

(K)

Greek symbols

b

phase shift (s)

li

interior convective heat transfer number

lo

exterior convective heat transfer number

j

cooling load ratio

jt

total cooling load ratio

r

air density (kg/m3)

t

time constant (s)

v

frequency of outdoor temperature variation (1/s)

Fig. 1. A simple one-zone building model with periodic outdoor air temperature

variation when: (a) daytime, the air-conditioning (AC) system is on and the indoor

air temperature is kept constant and (b) nighttime, AC is off and the building is

ventilated at a constant ventilation rate.

frequency of the outdoor temperature uctuation with a value of

2p/24 h1.

Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (1), we get

that the thermal conduction process within the materials is much

faster than thermal convection at surface. At daytime, the indoor

air temperature is kept constant, i.e. Tset; see Fig. 1a. At nighttime,

the ventilation rate, qv , is constant; see Fig. 1b.

2.1. Daytime

The heat balance equations for thermal mass and room air are

Mcm

@T m

ho Ao T m T o hi Ai T m T i 0

@t

Q cl hi Ai T m T i E 0

(1)

(2)

the cooling load.

We assume that the outdoor temperature can be expressed by

Fourier analysis as the sum of sinusoidal components of periods 24,

12, 8, 6 h, etc. We consider the main sinusoidal component of

period 24 h.

T o To DTo sinvt

(3)

vt

@T m

lo li T m lo To li T i lo DTo sinvt

@vt

(4)

ventilation rate qv , which is chosen to be the night ventilation ow

rate. lo ho Ao =rcp qv is the non-dimensional exterior convective

heat transfer number, and li hi Ai =rcp qv the interior convective

heat transfer number.

Two convective heat transfer numbers li and lo measure the

relative strength of interior and exterior convective heat transfer at

the thermal mass surfaces. A small thermal resistance (large

interior or exterior convective heat transfer number) represents

the interior or exterior convective heat transfer is very effective

compared to the ow mixing in the room. In such situations, the

thermal mass is considered to be in thermal equilibrium with the

room air or outdoor.

The general solution of Eq. (4) is

T m vt

lo

li

T

T

lo li o lo li set

lo DTo

q sinvt b1

lo li 2 v2 t 2

C 1 elo li =vtvt

(5)

2054

by the air-conditioning system (Ti = Tset = constant at daytime),

and C1 is a constant. For the thermal mass, the phase shift

b1 = tan1(vt/(lo + li)) with a value between 0 and p/2, i.e. 0 and

6 h. Here the warm climates are dened as To T set , however, the

analysis can also be extended to the cold climates (i.e. To < T set ).

Substituting Eq. (5) into Eq. (2) and we have the cooling load

mass.

R vt2

jt R vvtt21

jQ cl jdvt

(9)

2.2. Nighttime

9

8

>

>

=

<

li lo

li lo

Q cl vt rcp qv T E

To T set q DTo sinvt b1 C 1 li elo li =vtvt

>

>

l

l

2

o

i

;

:

lo l v2 t 2

(6)

A negative/positive Qcl means that cooling/heating is needed.

Eq. (6) shows that the cooling load is the sum of three parts. The

rst is the mean load Q cl , which comprises the steady state cooling

load due to steady heat source, and the heat gain or loss through

convective heat transfer due to the temperature difference

between mean outdoor and indoor air temperature (as thermal

conduction through the thermal mass is assumed to be innite).

The second part is the periodic uctuating load DQ cl with its

amplitude depending on the outdoor air temperature swing DTo ,

the convective heat transfer number (li and lo), and the time

constant t. b1 is the phase lag of the cooling load swing with

respect to the outdoor air temperature; and the third part (the

exponent term) is due to initial condition and it decays to zero as

time or exterior convective heat transfer increases, or time

constant decreases.

The cooling load increases as heat source (TE), or temperature

differences between indoor and mean outdoor air To T set , or

increase. On the other

uctuation of outdoor air temperature DT

hand, the time constant t and the convective heat transfer

coefcient with surrounding air (li and lo), are also important

parameters affecting the cooling load. Undoubtedly, the peakcooling load can be reduced with heavy thermal mass, i.e. large

time constant t. The phase shift of cooling load is b1 = tan1(vt/

(lo + li)) with a value between 0 and p/2 (i.e. 0 and 6 h).

When there is no thermal mass, i.e. t = 0, we can easily obtain

the cooling load Qcl0:

li lo

li lo

To T set

DTo sinvt

Q cl0 vt rcp qv T E1

lo li

lo li

(7)

The effect of thermal mass can be seen from the lack of the

time constant terms in Eq. (7). A cooling load ratio j = Qcl/Qcl0 is

dened here to represent the ratio of cooling load in building

with thermal mass to the load in building without thermal mass

at daytime.

The two heat balance equations for the thermal mass and room

air are

Mcm

@T m

ho Ao T m T o hi Ai T m T i 0

@t

rcp qv T o T i hi Ai T m T i 0

(10)

(11)

Let li li =1 li , we have

vt

@T m

lo l0i T m lo l0i To lo l0 DTo sinvt (12)

@vt

The general solution of Eq. (12) is

lo l0i

DTo sinvt b2

T m vt To q

2

lo l0i v2 t 2

0

C 2 elo li =vtvt

(13)

The solution for indoor air temperature is

Tvti To

l0i

lo l0i

DT sinvt l0i q

li o

2

lo l0i v2 t 2

0

(14)

We assume that in 24 h, the daytime is from t1 to t2. The thermal

mass temperatures at t2 and t1 + 24 should be continuous.

At t = t2, we have

q

2

T E1 li lo =lo li To T set li lo = lo li v2 t 2 DTo sinvt b1 C 1 li elo li =vtvt

Q cl

j

Q cl0

T E1 li lo =lo li To T set li lo =lo li DTo sinvt

smaller the ratio, the more energy saved. The cooling load ratio

decreases when the heat source E, temperature difference between

indoor and outdoor air To T set , or the outdoor temperature

swings DTo decrease.

To understand the total energy conservation potential, the total

cooling load ratio is introduced to represent the ratio of total

cooling load in building with thermal mass to that without thermal

(8)

0

lo li

DTo sinvt 2 b2 C 2 elo l i =vtvt2

To q

0 2

2

2

lo li v t

lo

li

lo DTo

T q

T

lo li o lo li set

2

l l v2 t 2

o

sinvt 2 b1 C 1 e

(15)

2055

Fig. 3. Proles of cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as a function of the

temperature differences between indoor and outdoor air To T set : (a) cooling load

ratio; (b) total cooling load ratio.

Fig. 2. The temperature proles of indoor air and thermal mass with different mean

outdoor air temperatures: (a) To 308:15 K; (b) To 303:15 K; (c) To 297:15 K.

lo l0i

DTo sinvt 1 24v b2

To q

2

lo l0i v2 t 2

C 2 elo li =vtvt1 24

lo

lo li

To

lo DTo

T q sinvt 1

lo li set

2

lo li v2 t 2

li

b1 C 1 elo li =vtvt1

interior and exterior convective heat transfer numbers (li and lo),

and as well as the time constant t.

For simplicity, we let t1 = 8:00, t2 = 18:00, v = p/12, room

volume V = 32.4 m3 (4 m 3 m 2.7 m), lo = 30 (exterior convective heat transfer coefcient ho = 15 W/m2 K), li = 10 (interior

convective heat transfer coefcient hi = 5 W/m2 K), t = 100 (common concrete brick), DTo 7:5 K, E = 240 W (20 W/m2),

Tset = 297.15 K (24 8C), and the reference night ventilation rate is

1

given by qv =V 1 h . Then the phase shift b1 is about 2.21 h at

daytime and b2 = 2.68 h at night. The variation of cooling load can

be obtained by giving different outdoor climates, i.e. To 308:15 K

(35 8C), To 303:15 K (30 8C); To 297:15 K (24 8C, the reference

case).

(16)

The two constants C1 and C2 are determined from Eqs. (15) and

(16). The expressions are lengthy and are not given here.

3. Results and discussion

As in Eqs. (8) and (9), the control parameters for the cooling load

ratio include indoor air setting Tset, the outdoor air temperature

thermal mass temperature are obtained for three different mean

outdoor air temperatures; see Fig. 2. The maximum temperature of

thermal mass at daytime occurs at around 16:00, then reach

another maximum at 19:00 after the air-conditioning is turned off

and if the outdoor air temperature was higher than indoor

temperature during this period. Heat is released from the thermal

mass at nighttime and thermal mass achieves its minimum

temperature at around 4:00 in the following day. At nighttime the

indoor air temperature reaches its minimum at around 3:00 while

the minimum outdoor air temperature occurs at around 2:00. Also

there is a gap for indoor air temperature between daytime and

2056

Fig. 4. Proles of cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as a function of

outdoor air temperature swing: (a) cooling load ratio; (b) total cooling load ratio.

system is on or off. The gap is smaller when the mean outdoor air

temperature is smaller.

Fig. 3 shows the cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as

affected by To T set . The higher the temperature difference, the

larger the cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio. In Fig. 3a,

the cooling load ratio is less than one for most of the hours due to

heat storage. After the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass

achieves its maximum at around 16:00, it begins releasing its heat,

leading to an increase of the cooling load and the cooling load ratio

becomes greater than one after 16:00. The slightly excessive

energy consumption at later hours is tiny, which can be offset by

the energy saving at earlier hours. Hence the total cooling load

ratio can be less than one. The total cooling load ratio decreases as

To T set difference reduces. The maximum energy saving of close

to 30% is obtained when To T set 0 K. It is noted that when

To T set 0 K, the cooling load ratio is negative at early hours as

the night ventilation reduces the indoor air temperature to be

below the setting temperature of 24 8C. In this case the heating is

needed rather than cooling.

Large diurnal temperature variations benet thermal mass.

Fig. 4 shows the effect of three different temperature swings of 5,

7.5, and 10 K. The cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio

decrease as the temperature uctuation increases, as the

amplitude of cooling load is proportional to the outdoor

temperature swing as shown in Eq. (6). When the swing is larger,

the reduced amplitude in the case with thermal mass is larger than

that without thermal mass; see Eq. (8). The effect of indoor heat

gain can also be shown (not done here). It is obvious that the

cooling load is dominated by the heat gain when the daytime heat

gain is large; hence the relative contribution of thermal mass is

reduced.

Fig. 5. Proles of cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as a function of time

constant: (a) cooling load ratio; (b) total cooling load ratio.

The time constant t is a very important parameter for

describing the thermal properties of thermal mass. The magnitude

of the time constant determines the heat storage capacity of

thermal mass and phase shift of the peak-cooling load. The effect of

the time constant t on the cooling load ratio and total cooling load

ratio is shown in Fig. 5.

The cooling load ratio and the total cooling load ratio decrease

rst and then increase as the time constant increases. When t = 0,

both ratios equal to one. When the time constant t increases, the

phase shift of thermal mass for both day and night time increases

as time constant increases, hence the phase shift for the cooling

load increases correspondingly, see Eq. (6). The peak cooling load is

delayed and the energy saving is realized. On the other hand, since

the amplitude of cooling load with thermal mass (see Eq. (6)) is

inversely proportional to the time constant, the cooling load ratio

and total cooling load ratio decrease as the time constant increases.

That is why the total cooling load ratio reduces when t < 1000 in

Fig. 5. However, there is a slight increase in the total cooling load

ratio when t > 1000 and increases to innity. This may be due to

the fact that at nighttime, the heat release process of thermal mass

also slows down due to the very large time constant but relatively

smaller night ventilation, which may lead to that the thermal mass

is kept at high temperature at night, and hence slightly increased

cooling load next day. Hence due to the phase shift approaches the

maximum value of p/2, i.e. 6 h for the time constant to approach

innity; there is minor increase for the total cooling load ratio

when the time constant is greater than 1000.

2057

Fig. 6. Proles of cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as affected by the

interior convective heat transfer number: (a) cooling load ratio; (b) total cooling

load ratio.

Fig. 7. Proles of cooling load ratio and total cooling load ratio as affected by the

exterior convective heat transfer number: (a) cooling load ratio; (b) total cooling

load ratio.

convective heat transfer numbers, an increase of any one of them

will not make any signicant impact. Figs. 6 and 7 show that

neither small nor large convective heat transfer numbers reduce

the cooling load ratio. For interior convective heat transfer number

li, the zero value of this number means there is no heat transfer

between indoor air and thermal mass. In this case, there is no

thermal mass in building and the cooling load ratio or the total

cooling load ratio are equal to 1; see Fig. 6. A zero exterior

convective heat transfer number lo means there is no heat transfer

between outdoor air and thermal mass. In this case, only interior

thermal mass contributes.

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by a grant from the Research Grants

Council of Hong Kong SAR, China (Project No. 7154/05E). The

authors thank Dr. Pengcheng Xu for his assistance in mathematical

derivations. The work is a part of the International Energy Agency

(IEA) Annex 44 project on Integrating Environmentally Responsive

Elements in Buildings.

References

4. Conclusions

The effect of thermal mass on cooling load reduction in

buildings is studied in detail using a very simple building model,

which allows us to examine the hourly benets in using thermal

mass and night ventilation. The cooling load ratio and the total

cooling load ratio are introduced to represent the effect of thermal

mass on cooling load reduction. Our analysis quantied the

dependence of the cooling load on the thermal properties of

thermal mass, including the time constant t and the convective

heat transfer factors (both interior number li and exterior number

lo), the outdoor air temperature, and as well as the indoor heat

gain. Our results show that only appropriate amount of thermal

mass in terms of both thermal properties and convective heat

transfer together with suitable outdoor climates will benet most.

The present work provides a simple model for designing thermal

mass and night ventilation.

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