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CONTROL, VOL.

ac-16,

NO.

6, DECEDER 1971

An Introduction to Observers

DAVID G . LUENBERGER,

SENOR MEMBER,

IEEE

Abstract-Observerswhichapproximately

reconstruct missing

state-variable information necessary for control are presented in an

introductory manner. The special topics of the identity observer, a

reduced-order observer, linear functional observers, stability properties, and dual observers are

discussed.

system whose state is to be approxima.ted and has a state

vector t,hat is linearly related to the desired approximation. The observer is a dynamic syst,em whose characteristics are somewhat free to be determined by the designer, and it is through its introduction that dyna.mics

I. INTRODUCTION

ent.er the overall two-phase design procedure when the

T IS OFTEN convenient when designing feedback entire state is not available.

controI systems to assumeinitially that t.he entire

The observer wa.s first proposed and developed in [ l ]

state vector of the system to be controlled isavailable

andfurther developed in [2]. Since theseearlypapers,

through measurement. Thus for the linear time-invariant svhich concentrat,ed on observers for purely deterministic

system governed by

continuous-time lineartime-invariant system, observer

i ( t ) = Ax(t)

Bu(t)

(1.1) theory has been ext,ended by several researchers to include

time-va.rying systems,discretesystems,

andstochastic

where X is an n X 1 state vector, u is an I X 1 input systems [3]-[18]. The effect of an observeronsystem

vector, A is an n X n system matrix, and B is an n X T performance (with respect to a quadratic cost functional)

distribution matrix, one might, design a feedback law of has been examined [ 5 ] , [19]-[22]. New insight,s have been

the form u(t) = t ( x ( t ) , t ) which could be implemented if obtained, and t.he theory has been substantially strea.mx ( t ) mere availa.ble. This is, for example, precisely the lined [23]-[25]. At. t.he same t.ime, since 1964, observers

form of control lam that resu1t.sfrom solution of a quadratic have formed an integral part of numerous control system

loss optimization problem posed for the syst,em (l), designs of which a small percentage have been explicitly

from design techniques that place poles at. prespecified report,ed [26]-[31]. The simplicity of its design and its

point,s, and from numerous other techniques t,hat, insure

resolution of the difficulty imposed by missing measurestabilit,y and insome sense improve system performance.

mentsmake the observer an attract.ivegeneral design

If the entirestate vectorcannot be measured, as is component [ F A ] , [32], [33].

typical in most complex systems, the control law deduced

In addition to their practical utilit,y, observers offer a

in t,he form u(t) = dr(x(t), t) cannot be implemented. uniquetheoreticalfascination.

The associated theoryis

Thus either

a

nen- approachthat,

direct.12: accounts intimatelyrelated

t.0 the fundamentallinearsystem

for the nonavailabi1it.y of the entire state vector must be concepts of cont,rollability, observability,dynamic

redevised, or a suitable approximation to the state vector sponse, andst.ability, and provides a simple set.ting in

must be determined t,hat can be substitut,ed into t>hecon- which all of these concepts interact. This t,heoretical

trol law. I n almost every situation the latt.er

approach, richness has made t.he observer an at,tractive area of rethat of developing and using an approximate state vector, search.

is vastly simpler than a new direct att,ack on the design

This paper discusses the basic elements of observer

problem.

design from an elementaryvienToint.

For simplicity

Adopting this point of view, t,hat an approximate state attention isrestricted, as in the earlypapers, to detervector will be substitutedforthe

unavailable state, ministic continuous-time linear time-invariant systems.

result,s in the decomposit,ion of a control design problem The approa.ch t.aken in this paper, hon-ever, is influenced

into t x o phases. The first phase is design of the control substa,ntially by the simplification and insights derived

law assuming that the statevector is available. This may from the work of several other a.ut.hors during the past

be based on opt,imization or other design techniques and seven years. In order t.o highlight t,he new t.echniques and

typically resu1t.s in a control law without dynamics. The to provide the opport.unit,y for comparison with the

second phase is t.he design of a syst.em that produces an old, many of the example syst,ems presented in t,his paper

approximation to the state vector. This syst.em, n-hich are the same as in theearlier papers.

in a deterministic setting is called an observer, or Luen11. BASIC

THEORS

berger observer to distinguish it from t,he Iialman filber,

R. W. Brockett,, Associate Guest Editor. Thisresearch was supported

in part by theNational

Science Foundation under GrantGK

16125.

Theauthor is withthe Depart,ment. of Engineering-Economic

Systems, School of Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford,

Calif. 9430.5, current.ly on leaveat Office of Science and Technology,

Execut,ive Office of the President,, Washington, D.C.

Initially, consider t,he problem of observing afree

system SI,i.e., a syst,em with zero input. If t,he available

output,s of this system are used as inputs to drive anot,her

system Sz, t.he second system will almostalwaysserve

as an observer of the first system In that. its state will

LUENBERGER: AN INTRODUCTION TO

OBSERSERS

597

i(t)

Fig. 1. A simple observer.

first, system (see Fig. I ) . This result forms t,he basis of

observer theory and explains Ivhy there is a great. deal of

freedom

the in

design of an observer.

z(t)

Tx(t)

+ eFf[z(O) - T x ( O ) ](.2 . 1 )

Substituting TA - FT

i(t) - Ti(t)

H t,his becomes

=

F[z(t) - T x ( t ) ]

need not, have the mnle dimension. Also, it can be shown

[ l ] that there is aunique solution T t,o theequation

TA - FT = H if A and F have no common eigenvalues.

Thus a.ny syst>emSzhaving different, eigenvalues from A

is an observer for SIin thesense of Theorem 1 .

Next, we n0t.e that the result of Theorem 1 for free

syst.ems can be easily extended to forced systems by

including the input. in t,he observer as well as the original

system. Thus if SI is governed by

Fz(t)

+ Gg(t)

(2.5)

matrix C is fixed and t.he n X m matrix G is arbitrary.

Thus an ident,itv observer is determineduniquelyby

selection of G a,nd takes t,he form

i(t)

( A - GC)z(t)

+ Gg(t).

(2.6)

havearbit.rarydynamics

if the original systemis completely observable. First, recall that a syst.em (2.4)

. , is

completely observable if the matrix

matrix C satisfyt,his condition we shall say (C,A ) is

completely observable.

then the set of eigenvalues of A - GC can be made to

correspond to the set of eigenvalues of any n X n real

matrixbysuitable

choice of the real mat,rix C if and

only if ( C , A )is completely observable.

syst,em theory, was developed in severa.1 st,epsovera

period of nearlya decade. For the case 112 = 1 , corresponding to single out,put systems, early statements can

be found in Kalman [34] and Luenberger [ l ] , [35]. The

general resultis implicit.ly contained in Luenberger [ 2 ] ,

X(t) = Ax(t) h ( t )

(2.2) [ 3 6 ] , and the problem is treabed definitively in Wonham

[ 3 7 ] . A nice proof is given byGopinath [%I. (It was

a system Sp governed by

recent,ly pointed out to me t,hat, Popov [38] published a

proof of a result of this type in 1964.) Calcu1at)ionof the

i ( t ) = Fz(t) H x ( ~ ) TBu(t)

(2.3)

appr0priat.e G ma.t,rix t.0 achieve given eigenvalue place\\-ill satisfy (2.1).Therefore, an observer for a. system can ment for a high-dimensional multivariablesystemcan,

be designed by first assuming the system is free and then however, be a difficult cornputrational chore.

incorporating the inputs asin (2.3).

The result. of this basic lemma translat,es directly into a

result on observers.

B . Identity Observer

Th.eorem 2: An identity observer having arbitrary

An obviously convenient observer would be one in

dynamics can be designed for alinear

t.ime-invariant

which the tra.nsformation T relating t.he st.ate of the

system if and only if the syet,emis completely observable.

observer to the st,ateof the original system is t,he identity

t.ransformat.ion. This requires t.hat t.he observer S, be of

I n practice, the eigenvalues of tlhe observer a.re selected

the same dynamic order asthe original syst.em S1 a,nd t.hat to be negative, so t.hat t.he state of the observer will

(with T = I ) F = A - H . Specification of such an ob- converge to t>hestate of the observed system, and t.hey are

server rests therefore on specificat,ionof t,he matrix H.

chosen t,o be somewhat, more negative t.han the eigenThe matrix H is determined part.ly by the fixed out,put values of the observed system so t.hat convergence is

structure of t,he original system and partly by the input

faster than other system effects. Theoretically, the eigenstructure of the observer. If SI, w3h an m-dimensiona,l valuescan be moved arbitrarily t,oward minus infinity,

output, vectory: is governed by

yielding ext.remely rapid convergence. Thistends, however, t,o make the observer act like a differentiator and

i ( t(2.4a)

) = Ax(t)

t,hereby become highly sensitive to noise, and to introduce

= C4t)

(2.4b) other difficukies. The general problem of select,ing good

598

IEEE

ON TRANSACTIONS

-w

1971

s+2

S+l

of placing t,hem SO that the observer is slightly faster than The

reduced-order observer was firstintroduced in

the rest of t,he (closed-loop) sgrstem seems t.0 be a good one. [I]. The simple development present,ed in this section is

Example: Consider t,he system shown in Fig. 2. This due to Gopinath [251.

state-variable

has

representation.

We aga.in consider the system

X(t) = Ax(t)

(2.7a)

(2.7b)

specifying the

y ( t ) = CX(t)

X2

+ (3 +

g1)X

+2 + +

g1

g2

0.

(2.9)

Suppose we decide to make the observer have two eigenvaluesequal to -3. This would give the charact.eristic

equation (X

3)2 = X2

6X

9 = 0. Matching coefficientsfrom (2.9) yields g1 = 3, g2 = 4.The observer is thus

governed by

21

[ --4

5

-1 1 1 2221 1

3 .I!

-1-

(3.2b)

I;[

convenient to partit.ion t.he state vector as

x

+ +

(3.2a)

of the system are linearly independent-or equiva.lentlg

that the outputdistribution matrix C has rank-m. I n this

case it can also be assumed, by possibly introducing a

cha.nge of coordina,tes, that. the matrix C takes the form

C = [ZiO],i.e., C is partitioned into a.n m X m identity

matrix and anm X (n - mn) zero matrix. (An appropriate

change of coordinates is obtained by selecting an (n - m)

x n mat.rix D in such a. way that

M =

which has corresponding characteristic equation

+ Bu(t)

y]

W

+ A l d t ) + Blu(t)

Aas(t) +

+ B2~(t).

k(t) = Ally(t)

G(t) =

A22~l(t)

(3.3a)

(3.3b)

vect.or y(t) is available for measurement, and if n-e difThe ident,ity observer ahhough possessing an ample ferentiate it., so is k(t). Since u(t) is also measureable

measure of simplicity also possesses a certain degree of (3.3a) provides t.he measurement & ~ ( i )for t,he syst.em

redundancy. The redundancy &ems from the fact. that (3.3b) u-hich has state vector w(t) andinput. Aely(t)

while the observer const,ructs an estimat,e of the entire

B2u(t).An ident,ity observer of order n - m is constructed

st.a.te,part of t,he state asgiven by the system outputs are for (3.3b) using this measurement. Later t>henecessity to

already available by direct measurement. This redundancydifferent,iat,ey is circumvent,ed.

can be eliminat.ed and an observer of lower dimension but.

The justifica6ion of t.he const.ruct.ion is based on the

still of arbkrary dynamics can be constructed.

following lemma [%I.

The basic construction of a reduced-order observer is

Lemma. 2: If (C, A ) is completely observable, then so is

shown in Fig. 3. If y ( t ) is of dimension m , an observer of

order n - m is constructed with state z(t) t.hat, approxi- (An, Am).

mates Tx(t) for some m x n mat,rix T , as in Theorem 1.

The validitmyof t.his stat.ement is, in view of the preceding

Then an estimate i ( t ) of x ( t ) can be determined through

discussion, int-uitivelyclear. It ran beeasily proved direct.ly

by applying the definition of comp1et.e observability.

To construct the observer we initially define it in the

form

provided thatthe indicat,ed part.itioned mnt,rix is in- h(t) = (A22 - LAn)zir(t) A P I Y ( ~ ) B 2 ~ ( t )

vertible. Thus the T associat,ed with the observer must

L ( ! m - A d t ) ) - LBlU(t). (3.4)

have n - m rows that are linearly independent of t.he

rows of C.

I n view of Lemmas 1 and 2, L can be selected so that

111. REDUCED

DIMEKSIOK

OBSERVER

599

Y

82 -LE,

Fig. 4.

with an arbitmry eigenvalue can be constructed. The C

matrix already has the required form, C = 1 0. In this

of the observer. Let. us select G = 2 so that the observer

will haveits

eigenvalue equal t.0 -3. The resulting

observer a.ttachedto thesystem is shown in Fig. 6.

IIT.OBSERVING

of this observer is shown in Fig. 4.

The requireddifferentiation of y can be avoided by

modifying the block diagram of Fig. 4 to that of Fig. 5 ,

which is equivalent at thepoint, ~. This yields the desired

final form of t,he observer, which can be written

i(t)

+ ( A n - LAlz)~%(t)

+ (Azl - LAll)y(t) + (Bz - LBl)u(t)

= (Azz -

LAlz)z(t)

(3.5)

A SINGLE

LINEARFUNCTIONAL

functional E = ax of the st,at,eis a.11 t,hat isrequired.

For example, a linear t,ime-invaria,nt, control law for a

single input, syst?emis by definition determined simply by a

linear functional of the system stat.e. The quest,ion arises

then as 60 m-het.her a less complex observer can be constructed to yield an estimate of a given linear functional

tha.n an observer that estimat,es t.he entire st.ate.Of course,

again, it is desired to have freedom in the selection of the

eigenvalues of the observer.

A major result for bhis problem [ 2 ] is that. any given

linear functiona,l of the state, say, E = QX, can be estimat.ed m&h an observer having v - 1 arbitrary eigenvalues.

Here v is the obsemability index [ 2 ] defined as the least

positive integer for which the matrix

[CIAC;(Ar)2Ci. . \ ( A r ) y - l C r ]

with

z(t) = G ( t ) - 5 / ( t ) .

(3.6)

us 60 st,ate thefollowing theorem.

Theorem 3: Corresponding t.0 an nth-order completely

controllable

linear

time-invariant

system

having

m

linearlyindependent outputs astat.e observer of order

n - m ca.n be constructed having arbit.rary eigenvalues.

v - 1 5 n - m and for many systems v - 1 is far less

than n - m, observing a single linear functional of t,he

stat.e may be f a r simpler than observing the entire &ate

vector.

The genera.1 form of the observer is exactly analogous

to a reduced-order observer for the entire state vector.

The estimate of E = ax is defined by

2 ( t ) = by(t)

cz(t)

(4-1)

the reduced-order observer given here, obt,ained by partiOioning the system, is o d y one way to find the observer.

i ( t ) = Fz(t) Hx(t)

TBu(t)

(4.2)

I n a.ny specific instance, ot,her techniques such as transforming to canonical form or simply hypot,hesizing the where F,H , T , B a.re as in Sect,ion 11-A and where b and c

general structure and solving for the unknown parameters are vectors satisfying bC

cT = a.

may be algebraically simpler. Theorem 3 guarantees that,

Again the important, result is that the observer need

suchmethods will always yield an appropriate result,. only haveorder v - 1. The precise design technique is

The preceding method used in the derivation is, of course, dict,ated by considerations of convenience.

often a. convenient one.

We illust.rate the general result 1vit.h a single example.

Example: Consider the syst,em shown in Fig. 2 and The method used in t.his example ca,n, however, be applied

t,reated in the exa.mple of Sect,ion 11. This is a second- to any multivariable system.

+

+

600

1971

control lax- could be directly implemented. Thus an observer does not change the closed-loopeigenvalues of a

design but merely adjoins its own eigenvalues. Similar

results hold for systems with non1inea.r control laws [a].

Suppose we have the system

X(t)

+ Bu(t)

Ax(t)

(5.la)

-2

XI

x3

available

measurements

(which

would

be

possible if

= RC for some R), then the closed-loop system would

be governed by

Fig. 7. This system nith available measurements x1 a.nd

X(t) = ( A B K ) x ( t )

(5.3)

x3 has observability index 2. Thus any linear functional

can be observed T1-it.h a first-order observer. Let us decide and hence its eigenvalueswould be the eigenvalues of

to construct an observer with a single eigenvalue equal to A

BK.

-3 to observe the functional xz x.%.

Now if the control cannot be realized directJy, an obInitially neglecting theinput

'LC we hypothesize an

server of the form

observer of the form

i ( t ) = Fz(t) Gp(t) TBu(t)

(5.4a)

i = -32

91x1

93x3.

~ ( t=

) Ki(t) = Ez(t)

Dg(t)

(5.4b)

According to Theorem 1this has an associated T satisfying

where

r-2

1

o

TA - FT = GC

(5.5a)

T I

3T =

0 93

(4.3)

K = ET DC

(5.5b)

-1

0

0 0

canbeconstructed.

From ourprevious theory ( C ,A )

If T = tl tz t3 t4, we would like tz = 1, t4 = 1. Sub- completely observableis sufficient. for t.here to be G ,

E, D! F , T satisfying (5.5) with F having arbit,rary eigenst,itut.ingthese valuesin (4.3) we obtain the equation

values. Sett.ing u(t) = K f ( t )leads to the composit,esystem

+

+

01

; -;-; :] +

9'

;] [GCA ++ BDC

TBDC

=

that ca.n be solved for the fourunknowns tl, g1? t3, g3.

This resultsin tl = - 1, t3 = - 3, g1 = -2, g3 = - 5.

From this t,he final observer shonn in Fig. 8 is deduced by

inspection.

V. CLOSED-LOOP

PROPERTIES

Once an observerha.sbeen

construct.ed for a 1inea.r

system which produces an estimate of t,he state vector or

of a linear transformat.ion of the stat.e vector it is important, to consider the effect induced by using this estimate

in place of t.he true value called for by a cont,rol lau-. Of

paramount importance in this respect is the effect, of an

observeron

the closed-loop stability properbies of t.he

system. It would be undesirable, for example, if an otherwise stable cont.ro1designbeca.me unsta.ble when it was

realized by

introduction

of an observer. Observers,

fortunat.ely, do not dist.urb stabilit,y properties when they

are introduced. I n this section we show that if a linear

time-invariantcontrollaw is realized u-ith an observer,

the resulting- eigenvalues

of the srst,em are t.hnse

he

~~~-- - of

_ - t---~

"1.

+BETBE] z

(5.6)

= z - Tx and using x and E as coordinates. Then (5.6)

becomes, using (5.5)

(5.7)

Thus the eigenvalues of the composite system arc those of

BK and of F.

m e note that in view of Lemma. 1 (applied in its dual

form) if the syst,em (5.1) is completely controllable it is

possible t,o select. K t.0 place the closed-loopeigenvalues

arbit,rarilg. If this control Ian- is not. realizablebut, the

systemiscomplet.dyobservable,

an observer (of some

order no great,er than n - m ) can be const.ruct,edso that

t,hecontrol law can be estimated. Sincc t,heeigenvalues

of the observer are also arbitrary the eigenvalues of the

completecomposite system may beseltct,edarbitrarily.

We thereforest.ate

t.he following important result of

linear syst,em theory [I], [2].

A

Theorem 4: Correspondingnth

an

to

order completely

a.nd hence t,he plant follows the free system. This tracking

property can be used t.o definea closed-loop system for the

plant.

Rather than fix a.t,t,entionon t,he fact that only cert,ain

outputs of the

plant

are

available, we concentratme

on the

fact. that only certain inputs, as defined by B, are availa.ble.

If we ha.d comp1et.e freedom as to where input.s could be

supplied, t.he output, limitation would not much matter.

Indeed, if t,he out,put y(t) = Cx(t) could be fed t.0 t.he

system in theform

i(t) =

Ax@)

+ Ly(t)

03-31

t.hen t,he eigenvalues of the system would be the eigenLC. By Lemma 1, if the s:stem is observIralues of A

able L can be selected to place the eigenvalues arbitrarily.

Thedual observer can be thought of assupplying an

approximation to the desired inputs.

To achieve t,he desired result we construct, thedual

Alt.hough this eigenvalue result for linear t.ime-invariant, observer in the form

systems is of great theoretical interest, it. should be kept

z ( t ) = Fz(t) M w ( t )

(6.4a.)

in mind t,hat.t,he more general key result is that. stabilitg

is not afect,edby a (stable) observer. Thus even for nonu(t) = y ( t )

CPz(t)

(6.4b)

linear or t,ime-varying cont,rol laws an observer can supply

u(t) = Jz(t)

Nw(t)

(6.4~)

a suit,able estimate.

Example: Suppose a feedback cont.rol spst,em is t.0 be where

designed for the syst.enl shown in Fig. 2 so t.hat its output

AP - PF = BJ

(6.h)

closely tracks a dist,urbance input d. The general form of

design is shown in Fig. 9.

L = P M + BN.

(6.5b)

For the particular syst,em shon-n in Fig. 2 let us decide

to design a control law that places the eigenvalues at. Equations (6.5) are dual to (5.5) and will have solution

- 1 f i. It is easily found t,hat u = - 2x1

.x2 will acJ, MI N , F wit.h F having arbit,rary eigenvalues if (6.1)

complish this. If this ~ R Wis implemented with t,he first.- is conlpletely controllable.

order observer construct,ed earlier, we obtain the overall

The composite system is

system shown in Fig. 10, which can be verified t,o have

A

BNC BJ

BNCP x .

(6.6)

eigenvalues - 3, - 1 i, - 1 -i.

=

MC

F

MCP

z]

VI. DUALOBSERVERS

Introducing n = x

P z and using z and n for coordinates

The funda.menta1 propert): of one syst.em observing

yields the comp0sit.e syst,em

another can be applied in a reverse direction to obtain a

special kind of controller. Such a c~nt~roller,

called a dual

i]

=

LC

observer, wa.s introduced by Brasch [33].

F n]

z

2

MC

Suppose in Fig. 1 the systenl S2is the given system and

SI is a syst,em tha.t we construct t,o control S2. MTehave which is the dual of (5.7). The eigenvalues of the comshown that the system SZ t.ends to follow SI and hence posite system a,re thus seen to be the eigenvalues of A

LC and the eigenvalues of F. We may therefore st,at.ethe

SI ca,n be considered as governing the behavior of S,.

dual of Theorem 4.

To make tshisdiscussion specific suppose t,he plant

Th.eorm 5: Corresponding to an nth-order completely

X(t) = Ax(t)

Bu(t)

(6.la)

controllable and complehely observable

system

(6.1)

feedy ( t ) = Cx(t)

(6.lb) having T linearlyindependent.inputs,adynamic

back system of order n - r can be constructed such t,hat

is driven by the free syst,em

the 2n - r eigenvalues of t.he composite system t,alce any

i ( t ) = Fz(t)

(6.2a.) preassigned values.

controllable and completely observable system (5.1)

having m linearly independent out.puts, a dynamic feedback syst.em of order n - m ca,n be constructed such that,

the 2n - 7% eigenvalues of the composite syst,em take ang

preassigned values.

+

+

+

41

+

+

[" +

01

~ ( t=

) Jz(t)

(6.2b)

1711. CONCLUSIOKS

It has been shown t.hat mising &ate-variable inforwhere AP - PF = BJ for some P . Then from Theorem 1

mation,

not available for measurement,, ca.n besuit,ably

we see that in thiscase the vector n = x

Pz is governed

approximated

by an observer. Generally, as more output,

by the equa.tion

variables are made available] t.he requiredorder of the

n ( t ) = An(t)

observer is decreased.

602

pa.per is restrictedtotime-invariantdeterministic

continuous-t,ime 1bea.r syst,ems, much of the t,heory can be

ext,ended t.0 more general sit.uations. The references cited

for this paper should be consulted for these extensions.

1971

arbitrary initial conditions, Eng. Cybern. (USSR), pp. 170174. 1968.

[291 E. E.

APPlicat,ion of observers a n do p t h u m filters to

inertial systems, presented at. the IFAC Symp. Multivariable

Cont,rol SFtems, Dusseldorf, Germany, 1968.

[30] D. Q: Xayne and,:.

Murdock,Modalcontrol

of linear time

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1). K. Frederick, and G. F. Franklin, Design of piecewiselinear swit.ching functionsforrelay

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~I

__

born in Los Angeles, Cali., on September 16,

1937. H e received the B.S. degree from the

California Inst,it.ute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1959 andthe

M.S. and P b D .

degrees from Stanford

University,

Palo

Alto, Calif., in 1961 and 1963, respectively,

all in electricalengineering.

Since 1963 he has been on t.he faculty of

Stanford Universit,y, where presently he is a

Professor of Engineering-Economic Systems

and of Electrical Engineering. He is also d i a t e d with the Department of Operations Research. His activit.ies have been centered primarily in t,he graduate program, where he has t,aughtcourses in optimization, control, mathematical programming, and information

theory. His research areas have included observability of linear systems, the applicat.ion of functional analysis t.o engineering problems,

optimal cont.ro1, mathematical programming, and optimal planning.

His experience includes summer employment a t Hughes Aircraft

Company and Westinghouse ResearchLaboratories from 1959 t o

1963, and service as a consultant to West.inghouse, Stanford Research Institute, Wolf Management Semices, and Intasa, Inc. This

experience has included work on the control of a large power generating plant, the numerical solution of partid differential equations,

optimization of trajectories,optimal planning problems, and numerous additionalproblems of optimization and control. H e has

helped formdate and solve problems of control, optimization, and

general analysis relating t.0 electric power, defense, water resource

management., telecommunications, air traffic control, education, and

economic planning. He is the author of Optimization by Vector Space

Xethods (Wiley, 1969) and has authored or co-authored over 35

technical papers. Currentlyhe is onleave from Stanford at the

office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President,

Washingt.on, D.C.He assist,s the Science Adviser -with program

planning, review and evaluation, and with formulation of science

policy in areas of civilian technology.

Dr. Luenbergeris a member of Sigma Xi, TauBetaPi,the

Society for Industrialand Applied Mathematics,the Operations

Research Society of America, andtheManagement

Science Institute. He served as Chairman (Associate Editor) of the Linear

Systems Comnlit.tee of the IEEE Group on Automatic Cont,rol

from 1969 to 1971.

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