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Nokia Siemens Networks

WCDMA RAN, Rel. RU30,


Operating Documentation,
Issue 01

ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC


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Issue 4-0
Approval Date 2009-01-30

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ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

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The same text in German:


Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit
In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangslufig bestimmte Teile der Gerte unter Spannung. Einige Teile knnen auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen.
Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Krperverletzungen und Sachschden fhren.
Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die
Anlagen installiert und wartet.
Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene
Gerte mssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfllen.

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DN02142972
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ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

Table of contents
This document has 11 pages.
Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1

ATM adaptation layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

ATM adaptation layer type 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

ATM adaptation layer type 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Related information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

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ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

List of figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5

AAL2 protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


AAL2 CPS and SSCS functions . . . . . . . . . . . .
AAL2 implementation in the RNC . . . . . . . . . . .
Priority queuing in A2SU or NPS1(P) . . . . . . . .
An example of an AAL5 protocol stack . . . . . . .

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Summary of changes

Summary of changes
Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document
issue contains all changes made to previous issues.
Changes between issues 3-0 and 4-0
ATM adaptation layer type 2
In the last paragraph, it is indicated that NPS1(P) also uses priority queueing like A2SU
does. The figure 'Priority queuing in NPS1(P)' has been removed as obsolete.
Changes between issues 2-0 and 3-0
ATM adaptation layers

Information on the PVCs between the interface units has been removed, because it
is not relevant in this context.
References to ATM layer have been removed from this section.

ATM adaptation layer type 2

The figure AAL2 implementation in network elements' platform has been updated
with the information on NPS1(P) and renamed as AAL2 implementation in the RNC.
Also the plug-in unit names have been replaced with the functional unit names in the
figure.
Information on the VCCs has been removed from the figure AAL2 CPS and SSCS
functions, because they are described in the figure AAL2 implementation in the
RNC.
Information on AAL2 switching in NPS1(P) and A2SU has been added.

ATM adaptation layer type 5


Information in this section has been reorganized.

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ATM adaptation layers

ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

1 ATM adaptation layers


ATM adaptation layer (AAL) enhances the service provided by the ATM layer to support
functions required by the next higher layer above it. The AAL performs functions
required by the user, control and management planes, and supports the mapping
between the ATM layer and the next higher layer. The functions performed in the AAL
depend upon the higher layer requirements. The AAL supports multiple protocols to fit
the needs of the different AAL service users.
ATM adaptation layers provide data link services for upper layer protocols running on
top of the ATM layer. An AAL is needed for adapting upper layer protocol data units,
such as TCP/IP and signalling, to the ATM layer. In addition, the shorter voice packets
generated by voice codecs must also be adapted to the ATM layer services. AAL protocols are handled at the endpoints of the ATM connection.
Supported layer types
Network elements support the following two layer types for user and control plane data:

ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2)


ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 (AAL5)

AAL2 provides the bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate, short, and variable


packets in delay sensitive applications. It is especially suitable for carrying voice packets
produced by speech codecs.
AAL5 provides the ATM layer adaptation for many types of data protocols such as
Internet Protocol and Frame Relay. AAL5 is simple and efficient since it has a minimal
protocol overhead, no mis-sequencing protection, and no multiplexing of connections.
More sophisticated services are implemented by the application protocol layers on top
of the AAL5 layer.
Applicable standards
The ATM adaptation layers in the network elements are implemented according to the
following standards:

ITU-T Recommendation I.363.2: B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) type 2 specification
ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5: B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) type 5 specification
ITU-T Recommendation I.366.1: Segmentation and Reassembly Service Specific
Convergence Sublayer for the AAL type 2

Connection admission control (CAC) enables the efficient use of the transmission
network and network element internal resources both on the ATM and AAL2 level.

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ATM adaptation layer type 2

2 ATM adaptation layer type 2


ATM adaptation layer type 2 (AAL2) provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of lowrate, short and variable packets in delay-sensitive applications. The operator can flexibly
configure ATM/AAL2 connections according to the application needs. AAL2 also
provides for variable payload within cells and across cells. It is especially suitable for
carrying voice packets that are produced by speech codecs.
AAL2 is subdivided into the common part sublayer (CPS) and the service-specific convergence sublayer (SSCS). Longer packet lengths, up to 64 kB, can be supported by
the SSCS of AAL2.

Higher Layers
AAL SAP

AAL2 SSCS
SSADT

SSTED

SSSAR

AAL2 CPS

CPS
AAL2 channel
multiplexing
and demultiplexing

ATM SAP

Figure 1

ATM transmission

AAL2 protocol stack

Multiple AAL connections (up to 248) can be associated with a single virtual channel
connection, allowing multiplexing at the ATM adaptation layer. Multiplexing and demultiplexing in the AAL2 is performed in the CPS.
Different service-specific convergence sublayer (SSCS) protocols have been defined in
order to support specific AAL2 user services. The SSCS may also be null, merely providing for the mapping of the upper layer (AAL2 user) to the AAL2 CPS layer and vice
versa.
CPS performs the basic functions of the AAL2 which do not depend on the services
being provided and SSCS performs the functions of the convergence sublayer that are
dependent on the type of traffic that is being converted.

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ATM adaptation layer type 2

ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

AAL2 SSCS
SSSAR

AAL2 CPS
1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4

mux/
demux

mux/
demux
ATM SAP
VCC

#1

#2

ATM cell
#3

#1

#2

#2

#4

AAL2 CPS packets

VCC

VCC
termination

ATM cell header

Figure 2

AAL2 CPS and SSCS functions

SSCS is subdivided into the service-specific segmentation and reassembly sublayer


(SSSAR), the service-specific transmission error detection sublayer (SSTED), and the
service specific assured data transfer sublayer (SSADT). In 3G networks, only the
SSSAR sublayer is deployed.
AAL2 SSSAR performs the segmentation and reassembly function for application
packets (AAL-SDU) longer than the maximum CPS packet payload size of 45 octects.
CPS carries out the multiplexing and demultiplexing of CPS packets information from
the ATM layer connection (VCC1). A timer defines how long the system waits for the
CPS packets before the ATM cell is transmitted. If the timer expires before the ATM cell
payload is completely full of CPS packets, a partially filled cell is transmitted. On the
other hand, the timer value defines the upper limit for the delay caused by CPS packet
multiplexing. This parameter is then a trade-off between transmission efficiency and
AAL2 multiplexing delay.
One ATM layer virtual connection can convey up to 248 AAL2 channels and the statistical multiplexing between AAL2 channels may be utilised depending on the characteristics of the multiplexed channels. The QoS aspect of the statistical multiplexing of AAL2
channels is controlled by the AAL2 connection admission control (CAC) functionality.
External virtual connections used for AAL2 trunking between the network elements are
terminated either in NPS1(P) or A2SU, which perform AAL2 CPS packet switching (multiplexing/demultiplexing) between the external (N_CID) and internal (1_CID) virtual
channels. NIS1(P) and NIP1 based AAL2 paths are always handled in A2SU and
NPS1(P) based AAL2 paths are always handled in NPS1(P). Internal channels are
switched to signal processing units which perform AAL2 CPS and SSCS functions, particularly segmentation and reassembly for long application layer packets.

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ATM adaptation layer type 2

One AAL2
channel per VCC

1_CID
Several AAL2
channels per VCC

#4

N_CID
VCC0

#1

#4

Figure 3

#3

#2

#3

#3

#4

A2SU
or
NPS1(P)

DMCU1
VCC1
AAL2
CPS+SSCS

#3

VCC2

#2

VCC3

DMCU2

#1

VCC4

AAL2
CPS+SSCS

AAL2 implementation in the RNC

There are 5 AAL2 Service Categories in the RNC. If they are used in the same shared
VCC, they follow the priority from high to low in the following sequence by default: RT
DCH or HSUPA, NRT DCH, RT HSDPA, and NRT HSDPA.
In both A2SU and NPS1(P), the services are separated in strict priority. Priority
queueing is used. There can be at least 1 queue and at most 4 queues. The following
Figure shows the principle of priority queuing when there are 4 queues in either A2SU
or NPS1(P).

Q1
Q2

SP

Q3
Q4
Figure 4

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ATM adaptation layer type 5

ATM Adaptation Layers in RNC

3 ATM adaptation layer type 5


ATM adaptation layer type 5 (AAL5) supports the non-assured transfer of user data
frames. It provides point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (ATM layer) connections. The
integrity of the data sequence is maintained and transmission errors are detected in this
layer. AAL5 adds only a minimal protocol overhead, since the overhead is transmitted
only in the last cell of the user data frame. ATM adaptation layer enhances the service
provided by the ATM layer by supporting variable bit rate (VBR), connection-oriented,
and time-independent data traffic.
AAL5 is divided into the service-specific convergence sublayer (SSCS) and the common
part (CPCS).
Peer to peer

Higher Layers
AAL SAP

AAL5 SSCS
SSCF
Maps Layer 3 to SSCOP

Peer to peer

SSCOP
Reliable data transfer

AAL5 CPCS
CPCS

Peer to peer

Transparent transport
of SDUs

SAR
SDU segmentation and
reassembly

ATM SAP

Figure 5

ATM transmission

An example of an AAL5 protocol stack

The AAL5 SSCS provides different optional SSCS protocols in order to support different
AAL5 user services.
The AAL5 common part includes the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) function.
Each AAL5 packet is divided into an integral number of ATM cells and reassembled into
a packet before being delivered to the receiving host. The SAR function and the CPCS
sublayers are common for all AAL5 service users. This means that the AAL5 can be
used for both IP over ATM and signalling traffic. Also the internal control connections
between the units of the network element are based on the ATM AAL5 protocol.

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Related information

Related information
ATM adaptation layers
Descriptions
ATM Adaptation Layer type 2
ATM Adaptation Layer type 5
ATM adaptation layer type 2
Descriptions
ATM multiplexing
ATM adaptation layers
ATM adaptation layer type 5
Descriptions
ATM multiplexing
ATM adaptation layers

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