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FRITZ-HABER-INSTITUTE

FRITZ
HABER INSTITUTE
of the MAX-PLANCK-SOCIETY

Department of Chemical Physics

Thin Film Growth


Thomas Schmidt

Introduction: application of thin films


Chemistry*

Electronics*

Optics**

Ruby

Cr:Al2O3
* H.-J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 500 271 (2002), Clusters and islands on oxides: from catalysis via electronics and magnetism to optics
** J. T. Yates et al., Chem. Rev. (2012), Band Bending in Semiconductors: Chemical and Physical Consequences at Surfaces and Interfaces

Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Introduction
Chemistry: heterogeneous catalysis
catalysis*

Ceramic monolith

washcoat

**

* H.-J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 500 271 (2002), Clusters and islands on oxides: from catalysis via electronics and magnetism to optics
** Y. Sun, Doctor Thesis (2010)/Jrg Libuda

Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Overview
Nucleation and early Stage of Film Growth
Adsorption (physisorption)
Surface diffusion
Chemical bond formation (chemisorption)
Nucleation
N l ti
Microstructure formation
Bulk changes

Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Outline
Introduction
Thermodynamics
Th
d
i
Island shape (equilibrium non-equilibrium)
Nucleation

Basics of growth kinetics


Growth
Epitaxy
E it
(homo-/hetero-epitaxy)
(h
/h t
it
)

Thicker film morphology


p
gy
Thin Film Deposition Techniques
Ch
Characterization
t i ti ttools
l
Literature/References
Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Thermodynamics

Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Growth modes

Frank-van der Merwe


Layer by Layer

Stranski-Krastanov
Layer(s) + Islands

Volmer-Weber
Islands

E. Bauer, Zeitschrift f. Kristallographie 110 (1958) 372


372-394
394

Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Adsorption process:
Physisorption Chemisorption or desorption

The incoming atoms can either be reflected or


absorbed onto the substrate surface
Process depends on the incoming flux, the trapping
probability,
p
y, the sticking
g coefficient

Ephysi ~ 0
0.25
5e
eV

Rates are thermally


activated
(Arrhenius law)

Echemi ~ 1 - 10 eV

J.A. Venables et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 47 (1984) 399


Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Driving force for Surface Diffusion

The overall surface energy can be minimized if the atom has enough energy and time to
diffuse to a lower energy site.
Ob i
Obviously,
l th
the diff
diffusion
i rate
t iincreases with
ith temperature,
t
t
and
d is
i defined
d fi d as

J.A. Venables et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 47 (1984) 399


Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

Activation energies

activation energies (Eadsorption, Ediffusion, Enuclei) and frequency factor

two independent experimental variables (Rate, Temperature)


which together form the main way to tune the system

J.A. Venables et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 47 (1984) 399


Thomas Schmidt

IMPRS Block Course

21.03.2013

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