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1

Formulas and Concepts

concepts and formulas

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2

Formulas and Concepts

Kinematics

Note: - Bold letter are used to denote vector quantity

i,j,z are the unit vector along x,y and z axis

S.No.

Type of

Motion

Formula

Motion in one

dimension

Motion in two

dimension

Motion in three

dimension

Projectile Motion

Uniform circular

motion

r=xi

v=(dx/dt)i

a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i and a=vdv/dr

v=u+at

s=ut+1/2at2

v2=u2+2as

In integral form r=vdt

v=adt

r=xi +yj

v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j

a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j and a=vdv/dr

Constant accelerated equation same as above

r=xi +yj+zk

v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j+(dz/dt)k

a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j+(d2x/dt2)k

a=vdv/dr

Constant accelerated equation same as above

x=(v0cos0)t

y=(v0sin0)t-gt2/2

vx= v0cos0 and vy= v0sin0t-gt , where 0 is the angle initial

velocity makes with the positive x axis.

a=v2/R , where a is centripetal acceleration whose direction

of is always along radius of the circle towards the centre and

a=42R/T2 acceleration in uniform circular motion in terms

of time period T

For two objects A and B moving with the uniform velocities VA and VB.

Relative velocity is defined as

VBA=VB-VA

where VBA is relative velocity of B relative to A

Similarly relative velocity of A relative to B

VAB=VA-VB

1

Case

For straight line

motion

motion

For three

dimensions motion

Description

If the objects are moving in the same direction, relative velocity can be

get by subtracting other.

If they are moving in opposite

direction ,relative velocity will be get by adding the velocities example

like train problems

if

va=vxai + vyaj

vb=vxbi + vybj

Relative velocity of B relative to A

=vxbi + vybj -(vxai + vyaj)

=i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya)

va=vxai + vyaj +vzaz

vb=vxbi + vybj + vzbz

Relative velocity of B relative to A

=vxbi + vybj + vzbz -(vxai + vyaj +vzaz)

=i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya)+z(vyb-vya)

S.No.

1

2

3

4

Point

Freely falling motion of any body under the effect of gravity is an example of uniformly

accelerated motion.

Kinematics equation of motion under gravity can be obtained by replacing acceleration 'a' in

equations of motion by acceleration due to gravity 'g'.

Thus kinematics equations of motion under gravity are

v = v0 + gt , x = v0t + ( gt2 ) and v2 = (v0)2 + 2gx

Value of g is equal to 9.8 m.s-2.The value of g is taken positive when the body falls vertically

downwards and negative when the body is projected up against gravity.

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3

Formulas and Concepts

Laws of motion

S.No.

1

2

Term

Newton's first law of

motion

Newton's second law

of motion

Impulse

of motion

Law of conservation

of linear momentum

Description

'A body continues to be in state of rest or uniform motion unless it

is acted upon by some external force to act otherwise'

'Rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the

applied force and takes place in the direction of action of force

applied Mathematically, F= dp/dt =ma

where, p=mv , momentum of the body

a=acceleration

Impulse is the product of force and time which is equal to the

change in momentum

Impulse =Ft =p

'To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction'

FAB=-FBA

Initial momentum = final momentum

m1v1+m2v2=m1v1'+m2v2'

For equilibrium of a body

F1+F2+F3=0

S.No.

1

2

3

Point

An accelerated frame is called non inertial frame while an non accelerated frame is called

inertial frame

Newton first law are valid in inertial frame only

Apparent weight of a body in the lift

Going Upward with acceleration a

W=m(g + a)

Going Down with acceleration a

W=m(g-a)

Always draw free body diagram to solve the force related problems

S.No.

1

Term

Friction

Kinetic

Frictional force

Static Frictional

force

Inertial Frame

Of reference

Non Inertial

Frame Of

reference

Description

Frictional force acts between the bodies whenever there is a relative

motion between them. When bodies slip, frictional force is called static

frictional force and when the bodies do not slip, it is called kinetic

frictional force.

When bodies slip over each other

f=KN

Where N is the normal contact force between the surface and k is the

coefficient of kinetic Friction. Direction of frictional force is such that

relative slipping is opposed by the friction

Frictional force can also act even if there is no relative motion. Such

force is called static Frictional force. Maximum Static friction that a body

can exert on other body in contact with it is called limiting Friction.

fmax=sN Where

N is the normal contact force between the surface

And s is the coefficient of static Friction

fmax is the maximum possible force of static Friction. Note that s > k

and Angle of friction tan=s

Inertial frame of references is those attached to objects which are at rest

or moving at constant Velocity. Newtons law are valid in inertial frame of

reference. Example person standing in a train moving at constant

velocity.

Inertial frame of references is attached to accelerated objects for

example: A person standing in a train moving with increasing speed.

Newtons law are not valid.

To apply Newtons law ,pseudo force has to be introduced in the equation

whose value will be F=-ma

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4

Formulas and Concepts

S.No.

Term

Description

Work

displacement vector. For constant Force

W=F.s

where F is the force vector and s is displacement Vector

2. For variable Force

dW=F.ds or W=F.ds

It is a scalar quantity

Conservative Forces

is called conservative Force

2. If the work done by the force in a closed path is not zero,

then it is called non conservative Force

3. Gravitational ,electrical force are Conservative Forces and

Non Conservative Forces are frictional forces

Kinetic Energy

as

K.E=(1/2)mv2

2. Net work done by the external force is equal to the change in

the kinetic energy of the system W=Kf-Ki

Potential Energy

system. It is due to conservative force. It is defined as

dU=-F.dr

Uf-Ui=-F.dr

Where F is the conservative force

F=-(U/x)i-(U/y)j-(U/z)k

For gravtitional Force

2. Change in Potential Energy =mgh

where h is the height between the two points

3. Mechanical Energy is defined as

E=K.E+P.E

Law Of conservation of

Energy

total energy of the system remains constant.

K.E1+P.E1=K.E2+P.E2

Power

Watt. 1W=1Js-1. In terms of force P= F.v and it is a scalar

quantity.

S.No.

1

Term

Linear Momentum

Conservation of

momentum

Collision

Inelastic collision

Description

The linear momentum p of an object of mass m moving with

velocity v is defined as p=mv

Impulse of a constant force delivered to an object is equal to the

change in momentum

of the object

Ft = p = mvf - mvi

Momentum of system of particles is the vector sum of individual

momentum of the particle

ptotal=viMi

When no net external force acts on an isolated system, the total

momentum of the system is constant. This principle is called

conservation of momentum.

if Fext=0 then viMi=constant

Inelastic collision - the momentum of the system is conserved,

but kinetic energy is not.

Perfectly inelastic collision - the colliding objects stick together.

Elastic collision - both the momentum and the kinetic energy of

the system are conserved.

While colliding if two bodies stick together then speed of the

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Formulas and Concepts

composite body is

v=

m1 u 1 + m 2 u 2

m1 + m 2

Kinetic energy of the system after collision is less then that before

collison

Final velocities of bodies after collision are

Elastic collision in

one dimension

m m2

2 m2

u1 +

u 2

v1 = 1

m1 + m 2

m1 + m2

2 m1 m2 m1

u2

u1 +

v2 =

m1 + m2 m1 + m2

also u u = v v

1

S.No.

1

2

Case

m1=m2

When one of the bodies is at rest say u2=0

Description

v1=u2 and v2=u1

m1<<m2

When body at rest has negligible mass i.e.

m1>>m2

v 1 = 0 and v2 = u1

v1 = u 1 and v 2 = 0

m m2

v 1 = 1

m1 + m 2

v1 = u 1

and

2 m1

and

u 1

u1

v 2 =

m1 + m2

v2 = 2 u 2

S.No.

1

Term

Centre of mass

position vector of

centre of mass

In coordinate

system

Velocity of CM

Force

Momentum

conservation in

COM motion

Description

It is that point where entire mass of the system is imagined to be

concentrated, for consideration of its translational motion.

Rcm=riMi/Mi where ri is the coordinate of element i and Mi is mass of

element i

xcm=xiMi/Mi

ycm=yiMi/Mi

zcm=ziMi/Mi

vCM=viMi/Mi

The total momentum of a system of particles is equal the total mass

times the velocity of the centre of mass

When Newtons second law of motion is applied to the system of

particles we find Ftot=MaCM with aCM=d2RCM/dt2

Thus centre of mass of the system moves as if all the mass of the

system were concentrated at the centre of mass and external force

were applied to that point.

P=MvCM which means that total linear momentum of system of

particles is equal to the product of the total mass of the system and

the velocity of its centre of mass.

S.No.

1

Term

Angular Displacement

Angular velocity

Description

-When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular

displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing

through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of

rotation perpendicularly

-It can be positive (counter clockwise) or negative (clockwise).

-Analogous to a component of the displacement vector.

-SI unit: radian (rad). Other

units: degree, revolution.

-Average angular velocity, is equal to /t .

Instantaneous Angular Velocity =d/dt

-Angular velocity can be positive or negative.

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Formulas and Concepts

-It is a vector quantity and direction is perpendicular to the

plane of rotation

-Angular velocity of a particle is different about different points

-Angular velocity of all the particles of a rigid body is same

about a point.

Average angular acceleration= /t

Instantaneous Angular Acceleration

=d/dt

-The direction of an angular variable vector is along the axis.

- positive direction defined by the right hand rule.

- Usually we will stay with a fixed axis and thus can work in the

scalar form.

-angular displacement cannot be added like vectors. Angular

velocity and acceleration are vectors

=0 + t

=0t+1/2t2

.=0.0 + 2 .;

Also

=d/dt=(d/d)

v=Xr

Where r is vector joining the location of the particle and point

about which angular velocity is being computed

a=Xr

Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia) about a Fixed Axis

For a group of particles,

I = mr2

For a continuous body,

I = r2dm

For a body of uniform density

I = r2dV

Ixx=Icc+ Md2 Where Icc is the moment of inertia about the centre

of mass

Ixx+Iyy=Izz It is valid for plane laminas only.

Angular Acceleration

Vector Nature of

Angular Variables

Kinematics of rotational

Motion

Relation Between

Linear and angular

variables

Moment of Inertia

Perpendicular Axis

Therom

10

Torque

11

12

Rotational Kinetic

Energy

Rotational Work Done

13

Power

P =dW/dt=

14

Angular Momentum

15

Law of Conservation On

Angular Momentum

L=rXp

=rX(mv)

=m(rXv)

For a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis

L=I and dL/dt=

if =0 and L is constant

For rigid body having both translational motion and rotational

motion

L=L1+L2

L1 is the angular momentum of Centre mass about an stationary

axis

L2 is the angular momentum of the rigid body about Centre of

mass.

If the external torque is zero on the system then Angular

momentum remains contants

dL/dt=ext

if ext=0

then dL/dt=0

displacement of s = r (with being the angular displacement

and r being the radius) and during which the force keeps a

tangential direction and a constant magnitude of F, and with a

constant perpendicular distance r (the lever arm) to the axis of

rotation, then the work done by the force is:

W=

-W is positive if the torque and are of the same direction,

otherwise, it can be negative.

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Formulas and Concepts

16

17

18

Equilibrium of a rigid

body

Angular Impulse

dt term is called angular impulse. It is basically the change in

angular momentum

-Relative velocity of the point of contact between the body and

platform is zero

-Friction is responsible for pure rolling motion

-If friction is non dissipative in nature

E = (1/2)mvcm2+(1/2)I2+mgh

sphere/cylinder/disc

Gravitation

S.No.

Term

Description

Newtons Law of

gravitation

r2

G=6.67 10-11Nm2Kg-2

Acceleration due

to gravity

g=GM/R2 where M is the mass of the earth and R is the radius of the

earth

Gravitational

potential energy

GmM

PE =

( R + h)

Gravitational

potential

Keplers Law of

planetary motion

Escape velocity

Satellites

Variation of g

F=

V =

GM

( R + h)

Law of

orbits

Law of

areas

Law of

periods

with sun at one of the foci of elliptical orbit.

The straight line joining the sun and the planet sweeps

equal area in equal interval of time.

The squares of the periods of the planet are proportional

to the cubes of their mean distance from sun i.e.,

T2 R3

Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with which a body must be

projected in order that it may escape earths gravitational pull. Its

magnitude is ve=(2MG/R) and in terms of g ve=(2gR)

Orbital

Velocity

hundred Km above the earths surface so that it may

start orbiting the earth v0=(gR)

Periodic

Time

T=2[(R+h)3/gR2]

With

altitude

2h

g h = g 1

R

With

depth

d

g d = g 1

R

With

latitude

g = g 0.037 cos 2

Elasticity

S.No.

1

Term

Elasticity

2

3

Stress

Strain

Hooks Law

Description

The ability of a body to regain its original shape and size when deforming

force is withdrawn

Stress=F/A where F is applied force and A is area over which it acts.

It is the ratio of the change in size or shape to the original size or shape.

Longitudinal strain = l/l volume strain = V/V and shear strain is due to

change in shape of the body.

Hook's law is the fundamental law of elasticity and is stated as for small

deformations stress is proportional to strain".

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8

Formulas and Concepts

Elastic

Modulus

Poisson's

Ratio

Strain

energy

or, stress/strain = constant

This constant is known as modulus of elasticity of a given material

Young's Modulus of Elasticity

Y=Fl/Al

Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

K=-VP/V

Modulus of Rigidity

=F/A

The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called Poissons ratio

which is constant for material of that body. =lD/Dl

Energy stored per unit volume in a strained wire is E=(stress)x(strain)

Hydrostatics

S.No.

1

Term

Fluid pressure

2

3

4

Pascals Law

Density

Atmospheric

pressure

Hydrostatic

pressure

Gauge pressure

6

7

8

9

10

Archimedes

principle

Upthrust

Boyles law

Charles law

Description

It is force exerted normally on a unit area of surface of fluid P=F/A. Its

unit is Pascal 1Pa=1Nm-2.

Pressure in a fluid in equilibrium is same everywhere.

Density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume.

Weight of all the air above the earth causes atmospheric pressure which

exerts pressure on the surface of earth. Atmospheric pressure at sea

level is P0=1.01x105Pa

At depth h below the surface of the fluid is P=gh where is the density

of the fluid and g is acceleration due to gravity.

P=P0+ gh , pressure at any point in fluid is sum of atmospheric

pressure and pressure due to all the fluid above that point.

When a solid body is fully or partly immersed in a fluid it experience a

buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced by it.

It is the weight of the displaced liquid.

PV=constant

V/T=constant

Hydrodynamics

S.No.

1

2

3

4

Term

Streamline

flow

Turbulent

flow

Bernoullis

principle

Continuity of

flow

Viscosity

Description

In such a flow of liquid in a tube each particle follows the path of its

preceding particle.

It is irregular flow which does not obey above condition.

1 2

u + gh = cons tan t

2

A1 v1 = A2 v 2 where A1 and A2 are the area of cross section of tube of

p+

variable cross section and v1 and v2 are the velocity of flow of liquids

crossing these areas.

Viscous force between two layers of fluid of area A and velocity gradient

dv/dx is

F = A

dv

where is the coefficient of viscosity.

dx

Stokes law

viscosity is F = 6rv where v is the velocity of the sphere.

Poiseuillis

equation

when its end are maintained at a pressure difference P is given by

Q=

Pr 4

8l

S.No.

1

Term

SHM

Description

In SHM the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from

the mean position and opposes its increase. Restoring force is F=-Kx

Where K=Force constant , x=displacement of the system from its

mean or equilibrium position

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Formulas and Concepts

Amplitude

Time period

Frequency

Velocity

Acceleration

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

Total energy

10

Oscillations of a

Spring mass

system

11

Simple pendulum

12

Compound

Pendulum

13

Damped

Oscillation

14

Forced

Oscillations and

Resonance

d2x/dt2 + 2x=0

Solutions of this equation can both be sine or cosine functions .We

conveniently choose

x=Acos(t+) where A , and all are constants

Quantity A is known as amplitude of SHM which is the magnitude of

maximum value of displacement on either sides from the equilibrium

position

Time period (T) of SHM the time during which oscillation repeats itself

i.e, repeats its one cycle of motion and it is given by

T=2/ where is the angular frequency

Frequency of the SHM is the number of the complete oscillation per

unit time i.e., frequency is reciprocal of the time period

f=1/T. Thus angular frequency =2f

Velocity of a system executing SHM as a function of time is v=Asin(t+)

Acceleration of particle executing SHM is

a=-2Acos(t+). So a=-2x

This shows that acceleration is proportional to the displacement but in

opposite direction

At any time t KE of system in SHM is

KE=(1/2)mv2 =(1/2)m2A2sin2(t+)

which is a function varying periodically in time

PE of system in SHM at any time t is

PE=(1/2)Kx2 =(1/2)m2A2cos2(t+)

Total Energy in SHM

E=KE+PE =(1/2)m2A2

and it remain constant in absence of dissipative forces like frictional

forces

In this case particle of mass m oscillates under the influence of hooks

law restoring force given by F=-Kx where K is the spring constant

Angular Frequency =(K/m)

Time period T=2(m/K)

frequency is =(1/2)(K/m)

Time period of both horizontal and vertical oscillation are same but

spring constant have different value for horizontal and vertical motion

-Motion of simple pendulum oscillating through small angles is a case

of SHM with angular frequency given by

=(g/L)and Time period T=2(L/g)

Where L is the length of the string.

-Here we notice that period of oscillation is independent of the mass m

of the pendulum

- Compound pendulum is a rigid body of any shape,capable of

oscillating about the horizontal axis passing through it.

-Such a pendulum swinging with small angle executes SHM with the

timeperiod

T=2(I/mgL)

Where I =Moment of inertia of pendulum about the axis of suspension

L is the lenght of the pendulum

-SHM which continues indefinitely without the loss of the amplitude

are called free oscillation or undamped and it is not a real case

- In real physical systems energy of the oscillator gradually decreases

with time and oscillator will eventually come to rest. This happens

because in actual physical systems, friction(or damping ) is always

present

-The reduction in amplitude or energy of the oscillator is called

damping and oscillation are call damped

- Oscillations of a system under the influence of an external periodic

force are called forced oscillations

- If frequency of externally applied driving force is equal to the natural

frequency of the oscillator resonance is said to occur

Waves

S.No.

1

Term

Wave

Description

-It is a disturbance which travels through the medium due to repeated

periodic motion of particles of the medium about their equilibrium

position.

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Formulas and Concepts

Mechanical

waves

Non mechanical

waves

Transverse

waves

Longitudinal

waves

Equation of

harmonic wave

Wave number

Frequency

Speed of wave

10

Speed of a

transverse

wave

11

Speed of

longitudinal

waves

12

Principle of

superposition

13

Interference of

waves

14

Reflection of

waves

15

Standing waves

water waves, light waves etc.

Waves requiring material medium for their propagation are MECHANICAL

WAVES. These are governed by Newton's law of motion.

-Sound waves are mechanical waves in atmosphere between source and

the listener and require medium for their propagation.

-Those waves which does not require material medium for their

propagation are called NON MECHANICAL WAVES.

-Examples are waves associated with light or light waves , radio waves,

X-rays, micro waves, UV light, visible light and many more.

These are such waves where the displacements or oscillations are

perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave.

Longitudinal waves are those waves in which displacement or oscillations

in medium are parallel to the direction of propagation of wave for

example sound waves

-At any time t , displacement y of the particle from it's equilibrium

position as a function of the coordinate x of the particle is y(x,t)=A

sin(t-kx) where,

A is the amplitude of the wave

k is the wave number

is angular frequency of the wave

and (t-kx) is the phase.

Wavelength and wave number k are related by the relation

k=2/

Time period T and frequency f of the wave are related to by

/2 = f = 1/T

speed of the wave is given by

v = /k = /T = f

Speed of a transverse wave on a stretched string depends on tension and

the linear mass density of the string not on frequency of the wave

i.e, v=T/

T=Tension in the string

=Linear mass density of the string.

Speed of longitudinal waves in a medium is given by

v=B/

B=bulk modulus

=Density of the medium

Speed of longitudinal waves in ideal gas is

v=P/

P=Pressure of the gas ,

=Density of the gas and =Cp/CV

displacement of any particle of the medium is the sum of the

displacement that the individual waves would give it.

y=yi(x,t)

If two sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude and wavelength travel in

the same direction they interfere to produce a resultant sinusoidal wave

travelling in that direction with resultant wave given by the relation

y(x,t)=[2Amcos(/2)]sin(t-kx+/2)where is the phase

difference between two waves.

-If =0 then interference would be fully constructive.

-If = then waves would be out of phase and there interference would

be destructive.

When a pulse or travelling wave encounters any boundary it gets

reflected. If an incident wave is represented by

yi(x,t)=A sin(t-kx)then reflected wave at rigid boundary is yr(x,t)=A

sin(t+kx+)

=-Asin(t+kx)

and for reflections at open boundary reflected wave is given by

yr(x,t)=Asin(t+kx)

The interference of two identical waves moving in opposite directions

produces standing waves. The particle displacement in standing wave is

given by y(x,t)=[2Acos(kx)]sin(t) In standing waves amplitude of

waves is different at different points i.e., at nodes amplitude is zero and

at antinodes amplitude is maximum which is equal to sum of amplitudes

of constituting waves.

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Formulas and Concepts

16

Normal modes

of stretched

string

17

Beats

18

Doppler effect

both the ends is given by

f=nv/2L where n=1,2,3,4,.......

-The set of frequencies given by above relation are called normal modes

of oscillation of the system. Mode n=1 is called the fundamental mode

with frequency f1=v/2L. Second harmonic is the oscillation mode with

n=2 and so on.

-Thus the string has infinite number of possible frequency of vibration

which are harmonics of fundamental frequency f1 such that fn=nf1

Thus beats arises when two waves having slightly differing frequencies 1

and 2 and comparable amplitude are superposed.

-Here interfering waves have slightly differing frequencies 1 and 2 such

that

|1-2|<<(1+2)/2

The beat frequency is beat= 1

2

-Doppler effect is a change in the observed frequency of the wave when

the source S and the observer O move relative to the medium.

-There are three different ways where we can analyse this change in

frequency.

(1) When observer is stationary and source is approaching observer

is

=0(1+Vs/V)

where, vs=velocity of source relative to the medium

v=velocity of wave relative to the medium

=observed frequency of sound waves in term of source frequency

0=source frequency

-Change in frequency when source recedes from stationary observer is

=0(1-Vs/V)

-Observer at rest measures higher frequency when source approaches it

and it measures lower frequency when source reseeds from the observer.

(2)Observer is moving with a velocity Vo towards source and the

source is at rest is

=0(1+Vo/V)

(3)Both source and observer are moving then frequency observed

by observer is

=0(V+Vo)/(V+Vs)

and all the symbols have respective meanings as told earlier

Thermal expansion

S.No.

1

Term

Coefficient of linear

expansion

Description

=

0

l0 t

lt=l0(1+t)

2

3

Length at temperature t C

Coefficient of superficial

expansion

4

5

Coefficient of volume

expansion

At=A0(1+t)

6

7

Coefficient of apparent

expansion of a liquid

Vt=V0(1+t)

=

=

At A0

A0 t

Vt V0

V0 t

Va V0

V0 t

where

8

Coefficient of real

expansion of a liquid

temperature

r =

Vr V0 where

V0 t

d 0 where dt=density at temperature t0C , d0= density

dt =

1 + t

at 00C.

10

P =

Pt P0

P0 t

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12

Formulas and Concepts

11

12

v =

Vt V 0

V0 t

universal constant.

S.No.

1

Term

Relation between Celsius,

Fahrenheit and Kelvin scale of

temperature

Principle of electrical

resistance thermometer

to heat(J)

Heat capacity

Specific heat

7

8

Latent heat of fusion

10

Principle of calorimetery

Description

C

F 32 K 273

=

=

100

180

100

Rt=R0(1+t) where Rt is resistance at t0C, R0 is

resistance at )0C and is temperature coefficient of

resistance.

W=JH where value of J is J=4.2J/cal.

C=Q/t where Q is the amount of heat absorbed and

t is rise in temperature.

It is the amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1Kg of substance by 10C

Molar specific heat of the substance is the amount of

heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the

substance through 10C.

CP-Cv=R where R is universal gas constant.

Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of

substance from the solid to the liquid state without

change in temperature.

Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of

substance from the liquid to the gaseous state without

change in temperature.

Heat lost=Heat gain

Thermodynamics

S.No.

1

Term

Thermodynamic state

Zeroth law of

thermodynamics

First law of

thermodynamics

Second law of

thermodynamics

Work in volume

changes

4

5

Isothermal Process

8

9

Adiabatic Process

Isochoric process

10

11

Isobaric Process

Work done in

Isothermal process

Ideal gas equation for

adiabatic process

12

13

Work done in an

Adiabatic process

14

Thermal efficiency of

heat engine

Description

It refers to the state of the system that is completely defined by

pressure , volume and temperature of the system.

If two systems A and B are separately in equilibrium with the

third system C then system A and B are in thermal equilibrium

with each other

Heat energy given to the system is equal to the increase in

internal energy of the system and the work done. Q=U+W

Heat can not flow from a colder body to a hotter body without

some work being done by the external agency.

If pressure remains constant while the volume changes, then

work is

W = P(V2-V1)

In Quasi static process deviation of system from it's

thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimally small.

temperature of the system remains constant throughout the

process and thus Q =W

no heat enters or leaves a system thus

U=U2 - U1= - W

volume of the system remain uncharged throughout and U2 - U1

= U =Q

This process takes place at constant pressure.

W=nRT ln(V2/V1)

Where n is number of moles in sample of gas taken

PV = K (Constant)

Where is the ratio of specific heat (ordinary or molar) at

constant pressure and at constant volume = Cp/Cv

W = (P1V1-P2V2)/(-1) In and adiabatic process if W>0 i.e., work

is done by the gas then T2< T1 . If work is done on the gas

(W<0) then T2 > T1 i.e., temperature of gas rises

= 1-(Q2/Q1)

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13

Formulas and Concepts

15

16

17

Coefficient of

performance of

refrigerator

Efficiency of carnot

engine

Carnot Theorem

= Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2)

= Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2)

Carnots theorem consists of two parts

(i) No engine working between two given temperatures can be

more efficent than a reversible Carnot engine working between

same source and sink.

(ii) All reversible engines working between same source and sink

(same limits or temperature) have the same efficiency

irrespective the working substance.

Heat transfer

S.No.

1

Term

Thermal

Conductivity

2

3

4

Convection

Radiation

Stefan

Boltzmann law

Wein's

displacement

law

Kirchoff's law

Newton's Law

of Cooling

description

H=

L

Convection is transfer of heat by actual motion of matter

Radiation process does not need any material medium for heat transfer

The rate urad at which an object emits energy via EM radiation depends on

objects surface area A

and temperature T in kelvin of that area and is given by urad =

AT4 Where = 5.670310-8 W/m2K4

is Stefan boltzmann constant and is emissivity of object's surface with

value between 0 and 1

mT = b Where b=0.289610-2 mk for black body and is known as

Wien's constant

Emissive

Power

angle normal to the area.

E = u/ [(A) () (t)]

where, u is the energy radiated by area A of surface in

solid angle in time t.

Absorptive

is defined as the fraction of the incident radiation that is

Power

absorbedby the body

a(absorptive power) = energy absorbed / energy

incident

Kirchoff's

"It status that at any given temperature the ratio of

Law

emissive power to the absorptive power is constant for

all bodies and this constant is equal to the emissive

power of perfect B.B. at the same temperature.

E/abody=EB.B

For small temperature difference between the body and surrounding rate

of cooling is directly proportional to the temperature difference and

surface area exposed i.e.,

dT/dt = - bA (T1 - T2). This is known a Newton's law of cooling

S.No.

1

Term

Gas laws

Description

Boyle's law

Ideal gas

equation

Pressure of gas

P = (1/3)vmq2

mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure.

Thus PV = constant

Charle's Law

When pressure of a gas is constant the volume of

a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its

absolute temperature.

V/T = Constant

Dalton's law of

The total pressure of mixture of ideal gases is

partial

sum of partial pressures of individual gases of

pressures

which mixture is made of

PV = nRT where n is number of moles of gas

or

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Formulas and Concepts

4

5

square speed

vrms = (3P/) = (3PV/M) =(3RT/M)

each velocity component has, on the average, an associated kinetic

energy (1/2)KT

rms speed

Law of

Equipartition of

energy

Specific Heat

Capacity

Monatomic

gases

Diatomic gases

Specific heat

Capacity of Solids

Mean free path

S.No.

1

Term

Charge

Properties of

charge

Coulombs law

Electric field

Electric field

Intensity

Some useful

Formula

Charge density

5/3

CV =(5/2)R , CP=(9/2)R and =CP/CV=9/7

If v is the distance traversed by molecule in one second then mean

free path is given by

= total distance traversed in one second /no. of collision suffered

by the molecules

=v/2vn

=1/2n

Description

Charges are of two types

(a) positive charge (b) negative charge

like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.

1. Quantisation: - q=ne where n=0,1, 2........ and e is charge of an

electron.

2. Additivety: - qnet=q

3. conservation :- total charge of an isolated system is constant

The mutual electrostatic force between the charges q1 and q2 separated

by a distance r is given by

Force on the charge q1

F1=Kq1q2r12/r2

where r12 is the unit vector in the direction from q2 to q1

For more then two charges in the system the force acting on any

charges is vector sum of the coulomb force from each of the other

charges. This is called principle of superposition

for q1,q2,q3......qn charges are present in the system. Force on charge q1

F=Kq1q2r12/r122+Kq1q3r13/r132+Kq1q4r14/r142....Kq1qnr1n/r1n2

Similarly for the other charges...

-The region around a particular charge in which its electrical effects can

be observed is called the electric field of the charge

-Electric field has its own existence and is present even if there is no

charge to experience the electric force.

E=F/q0

Where F is the electric force experience by the test charge q0 at this

point.It is the vector quantity

Some point to note on this

1. Electric field lines extend away from the positive charge and towards

the negative charges

2. Electric field produces the force so if a charge q is placed in the

electric field E the force experience by the charge is

F=qE

3 Principle of superposition also applies to electric field

so E=E1+E2+E3+E4+......

Electric field intensity due to point charge

E=KQr/r2

Where r is the distance from the point charge and r is the unit vector

along the direction from source to point.

Electric field for the

E=KQx/(r2+x2)3/2

Uniformly charged ring

Where x is the distance from the

centre of the ring. At x=0

E=0

Electric Field due to

E= (/20)(1- x/(R2+x2))

uniformly charged disc

=Surface charge density of the

disc. At x=0 E=/20

Electric Field Intensity due to

E=/20

Infinite sheet of the charge

Linear charge density

=Q/L=dQ/dL

Surface charge density

=Q/A=dQ/dA

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15

Formulas and Concepts

Electrostatics

in Conductor

Electric Flux

10

Gausss

Theorem

11

Some points

=Q/V=dQ/dV

1. E=0 inside the conductor

2. All charge resides on the outer surface of the conductor

3.Electric at the surface is Perpendicular to the surface

d=E.da

da is the area vector to the surface and it is taken positive along the

outward normal to the surface

d=Edacos

= E.da

Flux in closed surface is equal net charge inside divided by

E.da=qin/

a. E is the electric field present due to all charges in the system not just

the charge inside

b. Flux crossing a closed surface does not depend on the shapes and

size of Gaussian surface

Electric potential

S.No.

1

Term

Electric

Potential

energy

Electric PE of

a charge

Electric

Potential

Some points

about

Electric

potential

Electric

dipole

Electric

potential due

to dipole

Electric field

due to dipole

Description

U=-W

Where U = Change in Potential energy and W= Work done by the electric

lines of forces

For a system of two particles

U(r)=q1q2/4r

where r is the separation between the charges.

We assume U to be zero at infinity

Similarly for a system of n charges

U=Sum of potential energy of all the distinct pairs in the system

For example for three charges

U=(1/4)(q1q2/r12+q2q3/r23+q1q3/r13)

=qV where V is the potential there

Liken Electric field intensity is used to define the electric field; we can also

use Electric Potential to define the field. Potential at any point P is equal to

the work done per unit test charge by the external agent in moving the test

charge from the reference point(without Change in KE)

Vp=Wext/q

So for a point charge

Vp=Q/4r

where r is the distance of the point from charge

1. It is scalar quantity

2.Potential at point due to system of charges will be obtained by the

summation of potential of each charge at that point

V=V1+V2+V3+V4

3.Electric forces are conservative force so work done by the electric force

between two point is independent of the path taken

4. V2-V1=- E.dr

5. In Cartesian coordinates system

dV=-E.dr

dV=-(Exdx+Eydy+Ezdz)

So Ex=V/x , Ey=V/y and Ez=V/z

Also

E=-[(V/x)i+(V/y)j+(V/z)k]

6. Surface where electric potential is same everywhere is call equipotential

surface

Electric field components parallel to equipotential surface is always zero

A combination of two charge +q and -q separated by the distance d

p=qd

Where d is the vector joining negative to positive charge

V=(1/4)(pcos/r2)

where r is the distance from the center and is angle made by the line from

the axis of dipole

E=(1/4)(psin/r3)

Er=(1/4)(2pcos/r3)

Total E=E2+Er2

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16

Formulas and Concepts

Few more

points

=(p/4r3)((3cos2+1))

Torque on dipole=pXE

Potential Energy

U=-p.E

1. E.dl over closed path is zero

2.Electric potential in the spherical charge conductor is Q/4R where R is

the radius of the shell and the potential is same everywhere in the

conductor

3. Conductor surface is a equipotential surface

Capacitance

S.No.

1

Term

Capacitance C of the

capacitor

Capacitance of parallel

plate cap

capacitor in presence

of dielectric medium

Capacitance of

spherical capacitor

having radii a, b (b>a)

Description

C=q/V

or q=CV

-Unit of capacitance is Farads or CV-1 capacitance of a capacitor

is constant and depends on shape, size and separation of the

two conductors and also on insulating medium being used for

making capacitor.

C=(0A)/d

where,

C= capacitance of capacitor

A= area of conducting plate

d= distance between plates of the capacitor

0=8.854 10-12 and is known as electric permittivity in vacuum.

C=A/d

Parallel combination of

capacitors

Series combination of

capacitors

Energy stored in

capacitor

C=(40ab)/(b-a)

(b) dielectric with relative permittivity

C=(4ab)/(b-a)

C=Q/V= C1+C2+C3 , resultant capacitance C is greater then the

capacitance of greatest individual one.

1/C=1/C1+1/C2+1/C3, resultant capacitance C is less then the

capacitance of smallest individual capacitor.

Energy stored in capacitor is

E=QV/2

or E=CV2/2

or E=Q2/2C

factor 1/2 is due to average potential difference across the

capacitor while it is charged.

of capacitor

F=

plates

5

6

7

Q

2 K 0 A

2 Where is charge per unit area.

f =

2 K 0

S.No.

1

Term

Electromotive force

Electric current

in a conductor

Resistivity of conductor

Ohms law

Description

EMF of a cell is the total energy per unit charge when the cell is

on an open circuit i.e., when the current through the cell is

zero.

I=q/t it is the rate of flow of electric charge. Unit of current is

ampere.

I Where I is the current, n is the number of electrons

vd =

neA

per unit volume and A is the area of cross section of conductor.

m

ne 2

is the

relaxation time

V=IR where R is the resistance of the given conductor and unit

of resistance is ohm()

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17

Formulas and Concepts

6

Electrical resistivity

7

8

Resistors in series

Resistors in parallel

Terminal voltage

10

11

Kirchoffs second law

12

13

14

Electrical power

Variation of resistance

with temperature

Variation of resistivity

with temperature

15

cross-section

R=R1+R2+R3+.

1 1

1

1

=

+

+

+ .....

R R1 R2 R3

internal resistance r across the battery. Terminal voltage = E-Ir

The algebraic sum of current at any junction in a circuit is zero.

The algebraic sum of the products of the current and

resistances and the emf in a closed loop is zero.

Heat energy delivered by current when it flows through

resistance of R ohm for t sec. maintained at potential difference

V is H=V2t/R

P = VI = I2R = V2/R

R=R0(1+(T-T0))

=0(1+(T-T0))

S.No.

1

Term

Biot-Savart law

Description

Magnetic fiels dB at any point whose position vector is r wrt

0 I (dl r)

current elemant dl is given by

dB =

long current carrying

conductor

Magnetic field at

centre of a circular

loop

Magnetic field at

centre of coil of n

turns

Magnetic field on the

axis of a circular loop

B=

B=

B=

B=

B=

solenoid

Field inside straight

solenoid

Force on moving

charge in magnetic

field

Force on current

carrying conductor in

the magnetic field

Force between two

parallel wires carrying

current

Torque on a current

carrying loop

8

9

10

11

12

13

Lorentz force

14

Magnetic dipole

moment of bar

magnet

torque on the bar

magnet

Potential energy of a

magnetic dipole

15

16

0 2I

4r

r3

0 I

2r

0 In

2r

0 Ir 2

2( r + x 2 ) 3 / 2

2

0 Inr 2

2( r 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2

B dI = 0 I

B = 0 nI

B = 0 nI

F = I (l B) where l is the length of the conductor in the

direction of current in it

F=

0 I1I 2

2R

magnitude of magnetic moment is m=NIB where A is the area of

the loop and N is the number of turns in the loop.

Force on electron moving with velocity v in presence of both

uniform electric and magnetic field is F = e( E + v B )

m=q(2a) where q is the pole strength and (2a) is the length of

the bar magnet. It is the vector pointing from south to north pole

of the magnet.

= mB

U=-mBcos

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18

Formulas and Concepts

Electromagnetic induction

S.No.

1

Term

Magnetic flux

Description

= B A = BA cos

2

Faradays law

e=

dt

e = %

d

dt

where e is

Lenzs law

The induced current has such a direction such that magnetic field of the

current opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produces current.

Inductance L of

inductor

L=

Self induction

Phenomenon by which an opposing EMF is introduced in the coil

%

i

6

Series RL circuit

Rise of current

i=

e

(1 e t / )

R

L

where

L = L/R

e = L

di

dt

is inductive time

according to equation

7

8

Magnetic energy

Density of

stored magnetic

energy

Mutual induction

i = i0 e t /

u=B2/20

when current in a neighbouring coil circuit is changed. It is described by

e2 = M

di

di1 and

e1 = M 2 where M is the mutual induction for the

dt

dt

coil arrangement.

Magnetism of matter

S.No.

1

Term

Gausss law for

magnetic fields

Spin magnetic

dipole moment

Orbital magnetic

dipole moment

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism

Ferromagnetism

Maxwells

extension of

amperes law

Description

surface is zero.

e where S is spin angular momentum.

s = S

m

e where L is orbital angular momentum

L =

2m

magnetic field get feebly magnetised in the direction opposite to the

magnetic field.

In Paramagnetic materials each atom has permanent magnetic

moment but dipole moments are randomly oriented and material as

a whole lacks property of magnetism but dipoles can be aligned in

the presence of external magnetic field to give net dipole moment

and material gets feebly magnetised in the direction of the field.

Ferromagnetic materials when placed in external magnetic field gets

strongly magnetised in the direction of the magnetic field.

B ds =

0

d

dt

Transient Currents

S.No.

1

Term

Growth of charge in

CR circuit

Description

q = q0 (1 e

t

CR

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19

Formulas and Concepts

2

3

4

5

6

Decay of charge in CR

circuit

Capacitive time

constant

Energy stored in

inductor

Energy stored in

capacitor

q = q0 e

t

CR

i = i0 e

t

CR

for circuit

U = 1 (Li 2 )

2

Where E is the maximum value of potential

U = 1 (CE 2 ) = 1 (q 0 E )

2

2

difference set up across the plates.

1

Frequency of oscillations is

LC oscillations

f =

2 LC

Alternating Current

S.No.

1

Term

Alternating

current

Mean value of

a.c.

RMS value

a.c. through

resistor

a.c. through

inductor

a.c. through

capacitor

Inductive

reactance

3

4

5

6

7

8

Capacitive

reactance

a.c. through

series LR circuit

Description

It is current whose magnitude changes with time and direction reverses

periodically. I=I0sint where I0 is the peak value of a.c. and =2/T is

the frequency

Im=2I0/ = 0.636I0

Irms=I0/2

Alternating emf is in phase with current

Emf leads the current by an phase angle /2

Emf lags behind the current by an phase angle /2

Opposition offered by inductor to the flow of current mathematically,

X L = L = 2fL

1

1

XC =

=

C 2fC

Emf leads the current by an phase angle

impedance of circuit is Z =

10

a.c. through

series CR circuit

a.c. through

series LCR

circuit

13

Average power

of an a.c. circuit

Transformer

R 2 + ( 2 L2 )

tan =

given by

1

Z = R2 + 2 2

C

and

1

tan = C

R

given by

1 and lags behind

L >

tan =

R

C

when

12

given by

and impedance of circuit is

11

L <

C

2

Pavg = I rms

R = E rms I rms cos Where

Z = R 2 + L

high voltage at low current and vice-versa. Primary and secondary

voltage for a transformer are related as

% S and current through

VS = VP

%P

%

IS = IP P

%S

Electromagnetic waves

S.No.

1

Term

Conduction current

Description

It is the current due to the flow of electrons through the

connecting wires in an electric circuit

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20

Formulas and Concepts

2

Displacement current

d

of circuit

ID = 0

dt

d E where IC is the conduction

)

dt

Modified amperes

circuital law

B.dl =

Maxwells Equations

current.

Gausss law in electrostatics

Velocity of EM waves

in free space

(IC + I D ) = 0 (IC + 0

E ds =

B ds = 0

Faradays law of EM

induction

E dl =

Ampere-Maxwells circuital

law

B.dl ==

v=

0 0

d B

dt

0

(I C + 0

d E

)

dt

= 3 10 8 m / s

S.No.

1

Term

Wave front

Huygens Principle

Interference

Condition of maximum

intensity

Condition of minimum

intensity

Ratio of maximum and

minimum intensity

6

7

8

fringe from centre of the

screen

bright fringe

10

fringe from centre of the

screen

Angular position of nth

dark fringe

Fringe width

11

12

Description

It is the locus of points in the medium which at any instant

are vibrating in the same phase.

1

Each point on the given primary Wavefront acts as a

source of secondary wavelets spreading out disturbance

in all direction.

2

The tangential plane to these secondary wavelets

constitutes the new wave front

It is the phenomenon of non uniform distribution of energy in

the medium due to superposition of two light waves.

= 2n or x=n where n=0,1,2,3,.

= (2n + 1)

I max (a1 + a 2 ) 2

=

I min (a1 a 2 ) 2

yn =

d

slit, is the wavelength of light used.

y

n

n = n =

D

d

(2n + 1) D

yn =

2d

n =

y n (2n + 1)

=

D

2d

D

d

S.No.

1

Term

Diffraction

Description

It is the phenomenon of bending of light waves round the sharp corners

and spreading into the regions of geometrical shadow of the object.

Single slit

diffraction

Width of central

maximum is

Diffraction

1, 2, 3, 4. ,

fringes is

(2n + 1)

sin =

2a

2D where D is the distance between slit and screen.

0 =

a

The arrangement of large number of narrow rectangular slits of equal

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21

Formulas and Concepts

grating

resolving power

of the grating

Polarisation

Brewsters law

10

Law of Malus

width placed side by side parallel to each other. the condition for

maxima in the interference pattern at the angle is dsin =n where

n=0,1,2,3,4

For two nearly equal wavelengths 1 and 2 between which a diffraction

grating can just barely distinguish resolving power is

R=

2 1

=

where =(1+2)/2

the condition for constructive interference is 2dsin =n where

n=1,2,3,4

It is the phenomenon due to which vibrations of light are restricted in a

particular plane.

= tan p where is refractive index of medium and p is angle of

polarisation.

is the intensity of incident plane polarised light and is the angle

between planes of transmission of analyser and the polarizer.

S.No.

1

Term

Laws of

reflection

2

3

Relation between

f and R

Mirror formula

Magnification

Refraction

Laws of

refraction

Description

1.

and reflected ray all lie on the same plane.

2.

Angle of incidence is always equal to angle of

reflection.

f=R/2 both f and R are positive for concave mirror and negative for

convex mirror.

1 1 1

+ =

u v f

I

f v

=

O

f

m=

medium to another

1

The incident ray, the normal at a point of incidence

and refracted ray all lie on the same plane.

2

The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of

angle of refraction is constant for any two given

media. This is known as Snells law. Mathematically

sin i

= ba where ba is relative refractive index of

sin r

medium b w.r.t. medium a.

7

Lateral shift

Spherical

refracting

surface

10

Power of

spherical

refracting

surface

Lens makers

formula

t sin(i r )

d=

cos r

1

u

2

u

P=

+

+

2

v

1

v

R

R

2 1

R

1

1

1 focal length of convex lens is positive and that of

= ( 1)

f

R1 R2

11

Lens equation

12

Linear

magnification

Power of lens

m=

I

f v

=

O

f

P=

1

1

1

= ( 1)

f

R1 R2

placed in contact

Focal length

13

14

1 1 1

+ =

u v

f

1

1

1

=

+

f

f1 f 2

GupShupStudy.com 21

www.gupshupstudy.com

22

Formulas and Concepts

15

Power of

P=P1+P2

equivalent lens

Magnification of

m=m1+m2

equivalent lens

The inability of lenses of aperture to bring all the rays in wide beam of

light falling on it to focus a single point is called spherical aberration.

Spherical

aberration

S.No.

Term

Description

Energy of a photon

= h

Photoelectric

effect

Compton effect

0 is the critical frequency for that metal.

= C (1 cos ) where c=h/m0c is Compton wavelength

De Brogli

wavelength

De Brogli phase

velocity

v P = =

Wave formula

Phase velocity

Group velocity

Uncertainty

principle

10

Uncertainty in

energy and time

h

mv

c2

v

vP

k

d

vg =

dk

vP =

momentum of an object at same time. Mathematically ,

h

xp

4

h

Et

4

Atomic structure

S.No.

Term

Atomic spectra

Description

v=

e

4 0 mr

E=

e2

8 0 r

Lyman

1

1

= R 2 2

1

n

where R is Rydberg

constant

Balmer

1

1

= R 2 2

2

n

1

1

1

= R 2 2

n

3

1

1

1

= R 2 2

n

4

1

Paschen

Brackett

Pfund

R=1.097x10-7m-1

1

1

= R 2 2

n

5

1

GupShupStudy.com 22

www.gupshupstudy.com

23

Formulas and Concepts

4

according to Bohr atom model

h

e

4 0 r

m

that contains n wavelengths.

rn =

n 2 h 2 0

me 2

S.No.

Term

Description

Isotopes

Isobars

Nuclear radius

Nuclear density

Nuclear forces

One atomic mass unit is defined as one twelfth part of the mass of 12C6

atom. Value of a mass unit is 1u=1.66054x10-27Kg=931 MeV

R=R0A1/3 Where value of R0 1.2 x 10-15 1.2 fm and is known as nuclear

radius parameter

The density of nuclear matter is approximately of the order of 1017 Kg/m3

and is very large compared to the density of ordinary matter.

It is the force which holds the nucleons together inside the nucleus.

Mass defect

m = Zm p + ( A Z )mn m

Binding energy

=BE/A

11

Binding energy

per nucleon

Radioactive

decay law

Half life

12

Average life

Tav=1/

10

[[

] ]

% = % 0 e t

T=ln2/

GupShupStudy.com 23

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