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Formulas and Concepts

Physics pocket diary of


concepts and formulas

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Formulas and Concepts

Kinematics
Note: - Bold letter are used to denote vector quantity
i,j,z are the unit vector along x,y and z axis

Quick review of Kinematics formulas


S.No.

Type of
Motion

Formula

Motion in one
dimension

Motion in two
dimension

Motion in three
dimension

Projectile Motion

Uniform circular
motion

r=xi
v=(dx/dt)i
a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i and a=vdv/dr
v=u+at
s=ut+1/2at2
v2=u2+2as
In integral form r=vdt
v=adt
r=xi +yj
v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j
a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j and a=vdv/dr
Constant accelerated equation same as above
r=xi +yj+zk
v=dr/dt=(dx/dt)i + (dy/dt)j+(dz/dt)k
a=dv/dt=(d2x/dt2)i+(d2x/dt2)j+(d2x/dt2)k
a=vdv/dr
Constant accelerated equation same as above
x=(v0cos0)t
y=(v0sin0)t-gt2/2
vx= v0cos0 and vy= v0sin0t-gt , where 0 is the angle initial
velocity makes with the positive x axis.
a=v2/R , where a is centripetal acceleration whose direction
of is always along radius of the circle towards the centre and
a=42R/T2 acceleration in uniform circular motion in terms
of time period T

Concept of relative velocity


For two objects A and B moving with the uniform velocities VA and VB.
Relative velocity is defined as
VBA=VB-VA
where VBA is relative velocity of B relative to A
Similarly relative velocity of A relative to B
VAB=VA-VB

Special cases: S.No.


1

Case
For straight line
motion

For two dimensions


motion

For three
dimensions motion

Description
If the objects are moving in the same direction, relative velocity can be
get by subtracting other.
If they are moving in opposite
direction ,relative velocity will be get by adding the velocities example
like train problems
if
va=vxai + vyaj
vb=vxbi + vybj
Relative velocity of B relative to A
=vxbi + vybj -(vxai + vyaj)
=i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya)
va=vxai + vyaj +vzaz
vb=vxbi + vybj + vzbz
Relative velocity of B relative to A
=vxbi + vybj + vzbz -(vxai + vyaj +vzaz)
=i(vxb-vxa) + j(vyb-vya)+z(vyb-vya)

Free fall acceleration


S.No.
1
2
3
4

Point
Freely falling motion of any body under the effect of gravity is an example of uniformly
accelerated motion.
Kinematics equation of motion under gravity can be obtained by replacing acceleration 'a' in
equations of motion by acceleration due to gravity 'g'.
Thus kinematics equations of motion under gravity are
v = v0 + gt , x = v0t + ( gt2 ) and v2 = (v0)2 + 2gx
Value of g is equal to 9.8 m.s-2.The value of g is taken positive when the body falls vertically
downwards and negative when the body is projected up against gravity.

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Formulas and Concepts

Laws of motion
S.No.
1
2

Term
Newton's first law of
motion
Newton's second law
of motion

Impulse

Newton's third law


of motion
Law of conservation
of linear momentum

Description
'A body continues to be in state of rest or uniform motion unless it
is acted upon by some external force to act otherwise'
'Rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the
applied force and takes place in the direction of action of force
applied Mathematically, F= dp/dt =ma
where, p=mv , momentum of the body
a=acceleration
Impulse is the product of force and time which is equal to the
change in momentum
Impulse =Ft =p
'To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction'
FAB=-FBA
Initial momentum = final momentum
m1v1+m2v2=m1v1'+m2v2'
For equilibrium of a body
F1+F2+F3=0

Some points to note


S.No.
1
2
3

Point
An accelerated frame is called non inertial frame while an non accelerated frame is called
inertial frame
Newton first law are valid in inertial frame only
Apparent weight of a body in the lift
Going Upward with acceleration a
W=m(g + a)
Going Down with acceleration a
W=m(g-a)
Always draw free body diagram to solve the force related problems

Friction and Frame of reference


S.No.
1

Term
Friction

Kinetic
Frictional force

Static Frictional
force

Inertial Frame
Of reference

Non Inertial
Frame Of
reference

Description
Frictional force acts between the bodies whenever there is a relative
motion between them. When bodies slip, frictional force is called static
frictional force and when the bodies do not slip, it is called kinetic
frictional force.
When bodies slip over each other
f=KN
Where N is the normal contact force between the surface and k is the
coefficient of kinetic Friction. Direction of frictional force is such that
relative slipping is opposed by the friction
Frictional force can also act even if there is no relative motion. Such
force is called static Frictional force. Maximum Static friction that a body
can exert on other body in contact with it is called limiting Friction.
fmax=sN Where
N is the normal contact force between the surface
And s is the coefficient of static Friction
fmax is the maximum possible force of static Friction. Note that s > k
and Angle of friction tan=s
Inertial frame of references is those attached to objects which are at rest
or moving at constant Velocity. Newtons law are valid in inertial frame of
reference. Example person standing in a train moving at constant
velocity.
Inertial frame of references is attached to accelerated objects for
example: A person standing in a train moving with increasing speed.
Newtons law are not valid.
To apply Newtons law ,pseudo force has to be introduced in the equation
whose value will be F=-ma

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Formulas and Concepts

Work, Energy and Power


S.No.

Term

Description

Work

1. Work done by the force is defined as dot product of force and


displacement vector. For constant Force
W=F.s
where F is the force vector and s is displacement Vector
2. For variable Force
dW=F.ds or W=F.ds
It is a scalar quantity

Conservative And Non


Conservative Forces

1. If the work done by the force in a closed path is zero, then it


is called conservative Force
2. If the work done by the force in a closed path is not zero,
then it is called non conservative Force
3. Gravitational ,electrical force are Conservative Forces and
Non Conservative Forces are frictional forces

Kinetic Energy

1. It is the energy possessed by the body in motion. It is defined


as
K.E=(1/2)mv2
2. Net work done by the external force is equal to the change in
the kinetic energy of the system W=Kf-Ki

Potential Energy

1. It is the kind of energy possessed due to configuration of the


system. It is due to conservative force. It is defined as
dU=-F.dr
Uf-Ui=-F.dr
Where F is the conservative force
F=-(U/x)i-(U/y)j-(U/z)k
For gravtitional Force
2. Change in Potential Energy =mgh
where h is the height between the two points
3. Mechanical Energy is defined as
E=K.E+P.E

Law Of conservation of
Energy

In absence of external forces, internal forces being conservative,


total energy of the system remains constant.
K.E1+P.E1=K.E2+P.E2

Power

Power is rate of doing work i.e., P=work/Time. Unit of power is


Watt. 1W=1Js-1. In terms of force P= F.v and it is a scalar
quantity.

Momentum and Collision


S.No.
1

Term
Linear Momentum

Conservation of
momentum

Collision

Inelastic collision

Description
The linear momentum p of an object of mass m moving with
velocity v is defined as p=mv
Impulse of a constant force delivered to an object is equal to the
change in momentum
of the object
Ft = p = mvf - mvi
Momentum of system of particles is the vector sum of individual
momentum of the particle
ptotal=viMi
When no net external force acts on an isolated system, the total
momentum of the system is constant. This principle is called
conservation of momentum.
if Fext=0 then viMi=constant
Inelastic collision - the momentum of the system is conserved,
but kinetic energy is not.
Perfectly inelastic collision - the colliding objects stick together.
Elastic collision - both the momentum and the kinetic energy of
the system are conserved.
While colliding if two bodies stick together then speed of the

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Formulas and Concepts
composite body is

v=

m1 u 1 + m 2 u 2
m1 + m 2

Kinetic energy of the system after collision is less then that before
collison
Final velocities of bodies after collision are

Elastic collision in
one dimension

m m2
2 m2
u1 +
u 2
v1 = 1
m1 + m 2
m1 + m2

2 m1 m2 m1
u2
u1 +
v2 =
m1 + m2 m1 + m2
also u u = v v
1

Special cases of Elastic Collision


S.No.
1
2

Case
m1=m2
When one of the bodies is at rest say u2=0

Description
v1=u2 and v2=u1

When m1=m2 and u2=0 i.e., m2 is at rest

When body in motion has negligible mass i.e.


m1<<m2
When body at rest has negligible mass i.e.
m1>>m2

v 1 = 0 and v2 = u1
v1 = u 1 and v 2 = 0

m m2
v 1 = 1
m1 + m 2

v1 = u 1

and

2 m1
and
u 1
u1
v 2 =
m1 + m2

v2 = 2 u 2

Mechanics of system of particles


S.No.
1

Term
Centre of mass

position vector of
centre of mass
In coordinate
system

Velocity of CM

Force

Momentum
conservation in
COM motion

Description
It is that point where entire mass of the system is imagined to be
concentrated, for consideration of its translational motion.
Rcm=riMi/Mi where ri is the coordinate of element i and Mi is mass of
element i
xcm=xiMi/Mi
ycm=yiMi/Mi
zcm=ziMi/Mi
vCM=viMi/Mi
The total momentum of a system of particles is equal the total mass
times the velocity of the centre of mass
When Newtons second law of motion is applied to the system of
particles we find Ftot=MaCM with aCM=d2RCM/dt2
Thus centre of mass of the system moves as if all the mass of the
system were concentrated at the centre of mass and external force
were applied to that point.
P=MvCM which means that total linear momentum of system of
particles is equal to the product of the total mass of the system and
the velocity of its centre of mass.

Rigid body dynamics


S.No.
1

Term
Angular Displacement

Angular velocity

Description
-When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis, the angular
displacement is the angle swept out by a line passing
through any point on the body and intersecting the axis of
rotation perpendicularly
-It can be positive (counter clockwise) or negative (clockwise).
-Analogous to a component of the displacement vector.
-SI unit: radian (rad). Other
units: degree, revolution.
-Average angular velocity, is equal to /t .
Instantaneous Angular Velocity =d/dt
-Angular velocity can be positive or negative.

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Formulas and Concepts
-It is a vector quantity and direction is perpendicular to the
plane of rotation
-Angular velocity of a particle is different about different points
-Angular velocity of all the particles of a rigid body is same
about a point.
Average angular acceleration= /t
Instantaneous Angular Acceleration
=d/dt
-The direction of an angular variable vector is along the axis.
- positive direction defined by the right hand rule.
- Usually we will stay with a fixed axis and thus can work in the
scalar form.
-angular displacement cannot be added like vectors. Angular
velocity and acceleration are vectors
=0 + t
=0t+1/2t2
.=0.0 + 2 .;
Also
=d/dt=(d/d)
v=Xr
Where r is vector joining the location of the particle and point
about which angular velocity is being computed
a=Xr
Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia) about a Fixed Axis
For a group of particles,
I = mr2
For a continuous body,
I = r2dm
For a body of uniform density
I = r2dV
Ixx=Icc+ Md2 Where Icc is the moment of inertia about the centre
of mass
Ixx+Iyy=Izz It is valid for plane laminas only.

Angular Acceleration

Vector Nature of
Angular Variables

Kinematics of rotational
Motion

Relation Between
Linear and angular
variables

Moment of Inertia

Parallel Axis Therom

Perpendicular Axis
Therom

10

Torque

=rXF also =I where is angular acceleration of the body.

11

KE=(1/2)I2 where is angular acceleration of the body

12

Rotational Kinetic
Energy
Rotational Work Done

13

Power

P =dW/dt=

14

Angular Momentum

15

Law of Conservation On
Angular Momentum

L=rXp
=rX(mv)
=m(rXv)
For a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis
L=I and dL/dt=
if =0 and L is constant
For rigid body having both translational motion and rotational
motion
L=L1+L2
L1 is the angular momentum of Centre mass about an stationary
axis
L2 is the angular momentum of the rigid body about Centre of
mass.
If the external torque is zero on the system then Angular
momentum remains contants
dL/dt=ext
if ext=0
then dL/dt=0

-If a force is acting on a rotating object for a tangential


displacement of s = r (with being the angular displacement
and r being the radius) and during which the force keeps a
tangential direction and a constant magnitude of F, and with a
constant perpendicular distance r (the lever arm) to the axis of
rotation, then the work done by the force is:
W=
-W is positive if the torque and are of the same direction,
otherwise, it can be negative.

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Formulas and Concepts
16
17
18

Equilibrium of a rigid
body
Angular Impulse

Fnet=0 and ext=0


dt term is called angular impulse. It is basically the change in
angular momentum
-Relative velocity of the point of contact between the body and
platform is zero
-Friction is responsible for pure rolling motion
-If friction is non dissipative in nature
E = (1/2)mvcm2+(1/2)I2+mgh

Pure rolling motion of


sphere/cylinder/disc

Gravitation
S.No.

Term

Description

Newtons Law of
gravitation

Gm1m2 where G is the universal gravitational constant


r2
G=6.67 10-11Nm2Kg-2

Acceleration due
to gravity

g=GM/R2 where M is the mass of the earth and R is the radius of the
earth

Gravitational
potential energy

PE of mass m at point h above surface of earth is


GmM
PE =
( R + h)

Gravitational
potential

Keplers Law of
planetary motion

Escape velocity

Satellites

Variation of g

F=

V =

GM
( R + h)

Law of
orbits
Law of
areas
Law of
periods

Each planet revolves round the sun in an elliptical orbit


with sun at one of the foci of elliptical orbit.
The straight line joining the sun and the planet sweeps
equal area in equal interval of time.
The squares of the periods of the planet are proportional
to the cubes of their mean distance from sun i.e.,
T2 R3
Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with which a body must be
projected in order that it may escape earths gravitational pull. Its
magnitude is ve=(2MG/R) and in terms of g ve=(2gR)
Orbital
Velocity

The velocity which is imparted to an artificial satellite few


hundred Km above the earths surface so that it may
start orbiting the earth v0=(gR)

Periodic
Time

T=2[(R+h)3/gR2]

With
altitude

2h
g h = g 1
R

With
depth

d
g d = g 1
R

With
latitude

g = g 0.037 cos 2

Elasticity
S.No.
1

Term
Elasticity

2
3

Stress
Strain

Hooks Law

Description
The ability of a body to regain its original shape and size when deforming
force is withdrawn
Stress=F/A where F is applied force and A is area over which it acts.
It is the ratio of the change in size or shape to the original size or shape.
Longitudinal strain = l/l volume strain = V/V and shear strain is due to
change in shape of the body.
Hook's law is the fundamental law of elasticity and is stated as for small
deformations stress is proportional to strain".

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Formulas and Concepts

Elastic
Modulus

Poisson's
Ratio
Strain
energy

Thus, stress proportional to strain


or, stress/strain = constant
This constant is known as modulus of elasticity of a given material
Young's Modulus of Elasticity
Y=Fl/Al
Bulk Modulus of Elasticity
K=-VP/V
Modulus of Rigidity
=F/A
The ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal strain is called Poissons ratio
which is constant for material of that body. =lD/Dl
Energy stored per unit volume in a strained wire is E=(stress)x(strain)

Hydrostatics
S.No.
1

Term
Fluid pressure

2
3
4

Pascals Law
Density
Atmospheric
pressure

Hydrostatic
pressure
Gauge pressure

6
7
8
9
10

Archimedes
principle
Upthrust
Boyles law
Charles law

Description
It is force exerted normally on a unit area of surface of fluid P=F/A. Its
unit is Pascal 1Pa=1Nm-2.
Pressure in a fluid in equilibrium is same everywhere.
Density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume.
Weight of all the air above the earth causes atmospheric pressure which
exerts pressure on the surface of earth. Atmospheric pressure at sea
level is P0=1.01x105Pa
At depth h below the surface of the fluid is P=gh where is the density
of the fluid and g is acceleration due to gravity.
P=P0+ gh , pressure at any point in fluid is sum of atmospheric
pressure and pressure due to all the fluid above that point.
When a solid body is fully or partly immersed in a fluid it experience a
buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced by it.
It is the weight of the displaced liquid.
PV=constant
V/T=constant

Hydrodynamics
S.No.
1
2
3
4

Term
Streamline
flow
Turbulent
flow
Bernoullis
principle
Continuity of
flow
Viscosity

Description
In such a flow of liquid in a tube each particle follows the path of its
preceding particle.
It is irregular flow which does not obey above condition.

1 2
u + gh = cons tan t
2
A1 v1 = A2 v 2 where A1 and A2 are the area of cross section of tube of
p+

variable cross section and v1 and v2 are the velocity of flow of liquids
crossing these areas.
Viscous force between two layers of fluid of area A and velocity gradient
dv/dx is

F = A

dv
where is the coefficient of viscosity.
dx

Stokes law

Viscous force on a spherical body of radius r falling through a liquid of


viscosity is F = 6rv where v is the velocity of the sphere.

Poiseuillis
equation

Volume of a liquid flowing per second through a capillary tube of radius r


when its end are maintained at a pressure difference P is given by

Q=

Pr 4
8l

where l is the length of the tube.

Simple Harmonic Motion


S.No.
1

Term
SHM

Description
In SHM the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from
the mean position and opposes its increase. Restoring force is F=-Kx
Where K=Force constant , x=displacement of the system from its
mean or equilibrium position

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Formulas and Concepts

Amplitude

Time period

Frequency

Velocity

Acceleration

Kinetic energy

Potential energy

Total energy

10

Oscillations of a
Spring mass
system

11

Simple pendulum

12

Compound
Pendulum

13

Damped
Oscillation

14

Forced
Oscillations and
Resonance

Differential Equation of SHM is


d2x/dt2 + 2x=0
Solutions of this equation can both be sine or cosine functions .We
conveniently choose
x=Acos(t+) where A , and all are constants
Quantity A is known as amplitude of SHM which is the magnitude of
maximum value of displacement on either sides from the equilibrium
position
Time period (T) of SHM the time during which oscillation repeats itself
i.e, repeats its one cycle of motion and it is given by
T=2/ where is the angular frequency
Frequency of the SHM is the number of the complete oscillation per
unit time i.e., frequency is reciprocal of the time period
f=1/T. Thus angular frequency =2f
Velocity of a system executing SHM as a function of time is v=Asin(t+)
Acceleration of particle executing SHM is
a=-2Acos(t+). So a=-2x
This shows that acceleration is proportional to the displacement but in
opposite direction
At any time t KE of system in SHM is
KE=(1/2)mv2 =(1/2)m2A2sin2(t+)
which is a function varying periodically in time
PE of system in SHM at any time t is
PE=(1/2)Kx2 =(1/2)m2A2cos2(t+)
Total Energy in SHM
E=KE+PE =(1/2)m2A2
and it remain constant in absence of dissipative forces like frictional
forces
In this case particle of mass m oscillates under the influence of hooks
law restoring force given by F=-Kx where K is the spring constant
Angular Frequency =(K/m)
Time period T=2(m/K)
frequency is =(1/2)(K/m)
Time period of both horizontal and vertical oscillation are same but
spring constant have different value for horizontal and vertical motion
-Motion of simple pendulum oscillating through small angles is a case
of SHM with angular frequency given by
=(g/L)and Time period T=2(L/g)
Where L is the length of the string.
-Here we notice that period of oscillation is independent of the mass m
of the pendulum
- Compound pendulum is a rigid body of any shape,capable of
oscillating about the horizontal axis passing through it.
-Such a pendulum swinging with small angle executes SHM with the
timeperiod
T=2(I/mgL)
Where I =Moment of inertia of pendulum about the axis of suspension
L is the lenght of the pendulum
-SHM which continues indefinitely without the loss of the amplitude
are called free oscillation or undamped and it is not a real case
- In real physical systems energy of the oscillator gradually decreases
with time and oscillator will eventually come to rest. This happens
because in actual physical systems, friction(or damping ) is always
present
-The reduction in amplitude or energy of the oscillator is called
damping and oscillation are call damped
- Oscillations of a system under the influence of an external periodic
force are called forced oscillations
- If frequency of externally applied driving force is equal to the natural
frequency of the oscillator resonance is said to occur

Waves
S.No.
1

Term
Wave

Description
-It is a disturbance which travels through the medium due to repeated
periodic motion of particles of the medium about their equilibrium
position.

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Formulas and Concepts

Mechanical
waves

Non mechanical
waves

Transverse
waves
Longitudinal
waves

Equation of
harmonic wave

Wave number

Frequency

Speed of wave

10

Speed of a
transverse
wave

11

Speed of
longitudinal
waves

12

Principle of
superposition

13

Interference of
waves

14

Reflection of
waves

15

Standing waves

-Examples are sound waves travelling through an intervening medium,


water waves, light waves etc.
Waves requiring material medium for their propagation are MECHANICAL
WAVES. These are governed by Newton's law of motion.
-Sound waves are mechanical waves in atmosphere between source and
the listener and require medium for their propagation.
-Those waves which does not require material medium for their
propagation are called NON MECHANICAL WAVES.
-Examples are waves associated with light or light waves , radio waves,
X-rays, micro waves, UV light, visible light and many more.
These are such waves where the displacements or oscillations are
perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave.
Longitudinal waves are those waves in which displacement or oscillations
in medium are parallel to the direction of propagation of wave for
example sound waves
-At any time t , displacement y of the particle from it's equilibrium
position as a function of the coordinate x of the particle is y(x,t)=A
sin(t-kx) where,
A is the amplitude of the wave
k is the wave number
is angular frequency of the wave
and (t-kx) is the phase.
Wavelength and wave number k are related by the relation
k=2/
Time period T and frequency f of the wave are related to by
/2 = f = 1/T
speed of the wave is given by
v = /k = /T = f
Speed of a transverse wave on a stretched string depends on tension and
the linear mass density of the string not on frequency of the wave
i.e, v=T/
T=Tension in the string
=Linear mass density of the string.
Speed of longitudinal waves in a medium is given by
v=B/
B=bulk modulus
=Density of the medium
Speed of longitudinal waves in ideal gas is
v=P/
P=Pressure of the gas ,
=Density of the gas and =Cp/CV

When two or more waves traverse thrugh the same medium,the


displacement of any particle of the medium is the sum of the
displacement that the individual waves would give it.
y=yi(x,t)
If two sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude and wavelength travel in
the same direction they interfere to produce a resultant sinusoidal wave
travelling in that direction with resultant wave given by the relation
y(x,t)=[2Amcos(/2)]sin(t-kx+/2)where is the phase
difference between two waves.
-If =0 then interference would be fully constructive.
-If = then waves would be out of phase and there interference would
be destructive.
When a pulse or travelling wave encounters any boundary it gets
reflected. If an incident wave is represented by
yi(x,t)=A sin(t-kx)then reflected wave at rigid boundary is yr(x,t)=A
sin(t+kx+)
=-Asin(t+kx)
and for reflections at open boundary reflected wave is given by
yr(x,t)=Asin(t+kx)
The interference of two identical waves moving in opposite directions
produces standing waves. The particle displacement in standing wave is
given by y(x,t)=[2Acos(kx)]sin(t) In standing waves amplitude of
waves is different at different points i.e., at nodes amplitude is zero and
at antinodes amplitude is maximum which is equal to sum of amplitudes
of constituting waves.

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Formulas and Concepts

16

Normal modes
of stretched
string

17

Beats

18

Doppler effect

Frequency of transverse motion of stretched string of length L fixed at


both the ends is given by
f=nv/2L where n=1,2,3,4,.......
-The set of frequencies given by above relation are called normal modes
of oscillation of the system. Mode n=1 is called the fundamental mode
with frequency f1=v/2L. Second harmonic is the oscillation mode with
n=2 and so on.
-Thus the string has infinite number of possible frequency of vibration
which are harmonics of fundamental frequency f1 such that fn=nf1
Thus beats arises when two waves having slightly differing frequencies 1
and 2 and comparable amplitude are superposed.
-Here interfering waves have slightly differing frequencies 1 and 2 such
that
|1-2|<<(1+2)/2
The beat frequency is beat= 1
2
-Doppler effect is a change in the observed frequency of the wave when
the source S and the observer O move relative to the medium.
-There are three different ways where we can analyse this change in
frequency.
(1) When observer is stationary and source is approaching observer
is
=0(1+Vs/V)
where, vs=velocity of source relative to the medium
v=velocity of wave relative to the medium
=observed frequency of sound waves in term of source frequency
0=source frequency
-Change in frequency when source recedes from stationary observer is
=0(1-Vs/V)
-Observer at rest measures higher frequency when source approaches it
and it measures lower frequency when source reseeds from the observer.
(2)Observer is moving with a velocity Vo towards source and the
source is at rest is
=0(1+Vo/V)
(3)Both source and observer are moving then frequency observed
by observer is
=0(V+Vo)/(V+Vs)
and all the symbols have respective meanings as told earlier

Thermal expansion
S.No.
1

Term
Coefficient of linear
expansion

Description

=
0

l t l 0 where =coefficient of linear expansion, lt=


l0 t

length at t0C and l0 is length at 00C.


lt=l0(1+t)

2
3

Length at temperature t C
Coefficient of superficial
expansion

4
5

Area at temperature t0C


Coefficient of volume
expansion

At=A0(1+t)

6
7

Volume at temperature t0C


Coefficient of apparent
expansion of a liquid

Vt=V0(1+t)

=
=

At A0
A0 t

Vt V0
V0 t

Va V0
V0 t

where

=coefficient of apparent expansion,

V0=volume at 00C and V= apparent volume at t0C


8

Coefficient of real
expansion of a liquid

Density variation with


temperature

r =

Vr V0 where
V0 t

r =coefficient of real expansion,

V0=volume at 00C and Vr= real volume at t0C


d 0 where dt=density at temperature t0C , d0= density

dt =

1 + t

at 00C.
10

Pressure coefficient of gas

P =

Pt P0
P0 t

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Formulas and Concepts
11

Volume coefficient of gas

12

Ideal gas equation

v =

Vt V 0
V0 t

PV=nRT where n is number of moles of gas and R is


universal constant.

Measurement of heat and temperature


S.No.
1

Term
Relation between Celsius,
Fahrenheit and Kelvin scale of
temperature
Principle of electrical
resistance thermometer

Joules mechanical equivalent


to heat(J)
Heat capacity

Specific heat

Molar specific heat

7
8

Relation between Cp and Cv


Latent heat of fusion

Latent heat of sublimation

10

Principle of calorimetery

Description

C
F 32 K 273
=
=
100
180
100
Rt=R0(1+t) where Rt is resistance at t0C, R0 is
resistance at )0C and is temperature coefficient of
resistance.
W=JH where value of J is J=4.2J/cal.
C=Q/t where Q is the amount of heat absorbed and
t is rise in temperature.
It is the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1Kg of substance by 10C
Molar specific heat of the substance is the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the
substance through 10C.
CP-Cv=R where R is universal gas constant.
Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of
substance from the solid to the liquid state without
change in temperature.
Heat energy required to convert a unit mass of
substance from the liquid to the gaseous state without
change in temperature.
Heat lost=Heat gain

Thermodynamics
S.No.
1

Term
Thermodynamic state

Zeroth law of
thermodynamics

First law of
thermodynamics
Second law of
thermodynamics
Work in volume
changes

4
5

Quasi static Processes

Isothermal Process

8
9

Adiabatic Process
Isochoric process

10
11

Isobaric Process
Work done in
Isothermal process
Ideal gas equation for
adiabatic process

12

13

Work done in an
Adiabatic process

14

Thermal efficiency of
heat engine

Description
It refers to the state of the system that is completely defined by
pressure , volume and temperature of the system.
If two systems A and B are separately in equilibrium with the
third system C then system A and B are in thermal equilibrium
with each other
Heat energy given to the system is equal to the increase in
internal energy of the system and the work done. Q=U+W
Heat can not flow from a colder body to a hotter body without
some work being done by the external agency.
If pressure remains constant while the volume changes, then
work is
W = P(V2-V1)
In Quasi static process deviation of system from it's
thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimally small.
temperature of the system remains constant throughout the
process and thus Q =W
no heat enters or leaves a system thus
U=U2 - U1= - W
volume of the system remain uncharged throughout and U2 - U1
= U =Q
This process takes place at constant pressure.
W=nRT ln(V2/V1)
Where n is number of moles in sample of gas taken
PV = K (Constant)
Where is the ratio of specific heat (ordinary or molar) at
constant pressure and at constant volume = Cp/Cv
W = (P1V1-P2V2)/(-1) In and adiabatic process if W>0 i.e., work
is done by the gas then T2< T1 . If work is done on the gas
(W<0) then T2 > T1 i.e., temperature of gas rises
= 1-(Q2/Q1)

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Formulas and Concepts
15

16
17

Coefficient of
performance of
refrigerator
Efficiency of carnot
engine
Carnot Theorem

= Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2)

= Q2/W =Q2/(Q1-Q2)
Carnots theorem consists of two parts
(i) No engine working between two given temperatures can be
more efficent than a reversible Carnot engine working between
same source and sink.
(ii) All reversible engines working between same source and sink
(same limits or temperature) have the same efficiency
irrespective the working substance.

Heat transfer
S.No.
1

Term
Thermal
Conductivity

2
3
4

Convection
Radiation
Stefan
Boltzmann law

Wein's
displacement
law
Kirchoff's law

Newton's Law
of Cooling

description

H=

kA(T2 T1 ) Where H is the quantity of heat flowing through the slab


L

and k is the constant called thermal conductivity of material of slab.


Convection is transfer of heat by actual motion of matter
Radiation process does not need any material medium for heat transfer
The rate urad at which an object emits energy via EM radiation depends on
objects surface area A
and temperature T in kelvin of that area and is given by urad =
AT4 Where = 5.670310-8 W/m2K4
is Stefan boltzmann constant and is emissivity of object's surface with
value between 0 and 1
mT = b Where b=0.289610-2 mk for black body and is known as
Wien's constant
Emissive
Power

It is the energy radiated per unit area per unit solid


angle normal to the area.
E = u/ [(A) () (t)]
where, u is the energy radiated by area A of surface in
solid angle in time t.
Absorptive
is defined as the fraction of the incident radiation that is
Power
absorbedby the body
a(absorptive power) = energy absorbed / energy
incident
Kirchoff's
"It status that at any given temperature the ratio of
Law
emissive power to the absorptive power is constant for
all bodies and this constant is equal to the emissive
power of perfect B.B. at the same temperature.
E/abody=EB.B
For small temperature difference between the body and surrounding rate
of cooling is directly proportional to the temperature difference and
surface area exposed i.e.,
dT/dt = - bA (T1 - T2). This is known a Newton's law of cooling

Kinetic theory of gases


S.No.
1

Term
Gas laws

Description
Boyle's law

Ideal gas
equation
Pressure of gas

P = (1/3)vmq2

At constant temperature, the volume of a given


mass of gas is inversely proportional to pressure.
Thus PV = constant
Charle's Law
When pressure of a gas is constant the volume of
a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature.
V/T = Constant
Dalton's law of
The total pressure of mixture of ideal gases is
partial
sum of partial pressures of individual gases of
pressures
which mixture is made of
PV = nRT where n is number of moles of gas
or

PV = (1/3) Nmvmq2 where vmq2 known as mean

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Formulas and Concepts
4
5

square speed
vrms = (3P/) = (3PV/M) =(3RT/M)
each velocity component has, on the average, an associated kinetic
energy (1/2)KT

rms speed
Law of
Equipartition of
energy
Specific Heat
Capacity

Monatomic
gases
Diatomic gases

Specific heat
Capacity of Solids
Mean free path

S.No.
1

Term
Charge

Properties of
charge

Coulombs law

Electric field

Electric field
Intensity

Some useful
Formula

Charge density

CV= (3/2)R , CP = 5/2 R and mono = CP/CV=


5/3
CV =(5/2)R , CP=(9/2)R and =CP/CV=9/7

C=3R this is Dulang and Petit law


If v is the distance traversed by molecule in one second then mean
free path is given by
= total distance traversed in one second /no. of collision suffered
by the molecules
=v/2vn
=1/2n

Electric Charge, Force and Field


Description
Charges are of two types
(a) positive charge (b) negative charge
like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.
1. Quantisation: - q=ne where n=0,1, 2........ and e is charge of an
electron.
2. Additivety: - qnet=q
3. conservation :- total charge of an isolated system is constant
The mutual electrostatic force between the charges q1 and q2 separated
by a distance r is given by
Force on the charge q1
F1=Kq1q2r12/r2
where r12 is the unit vector in the direction from q2 to q1
For more then two charges in the system the force acting on any
charges is vector sum of the coulomb force from each of the other
charges. This is called principle of superposition
for q1,q2,q3......qn charges are present in the system. Force on charge q1
F=Kq1q2r12/r122+Kq1q3r13/r132+Kq1q4r14/r142....Kq1qnr1n/r1n2
Similarly for the other charges...
-The region around a particular charge in which its electrical effects can
be observed is called the electric field of the charge
-Electric field has its own existence and is present even if there is no
charge to experience the electric force.
E=F/q0
Where F is the electric force experience by the test charge q0 at this
point.It is the vector quantity
Some point to note on this
1. Electric field lines extend away from the positive charge and towards
the negative charges
2. Electric field produces the force so if a charge q is placed in the
electric field E the force experience by the charge is
F=qE
3 Principle of superposition also applies to electric field
so E=E1+E2+E3+E4+......
Electric field intensity due to point charge
E=KQr/r2
Where r is the distance from the point charge and r is the unit vector
along the direction from source to point.
Electric field for the
E=KQx/(r2+x2)3/2
Uniformly charged ring
Where x is the distance from the
centre of the ring. At x=0
E=0
Electric Field due to
E= (/20)(1- x/(R2+x2))
uniformly charged disc
=Surface charge density of the
disc. At x=0 E=/20
Electric Field Intensity due to
E=/20
Infinite sheet of the charge
Linear charge density
=Q/L=dQ/dL
Surface charge density
=Q/A=dQ/dA

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Formulas and Concepts

Electrostatics
in Conductor

Electric Flux

10

Gausss
Theorem

11

Some points

Volume charge density


=Q/V=dQ/dV
1. E=0 inside the conductor
2. All charge resides on the outer surface of the conductor
3.Electric at the surface is Perpendicular to the surface
d=E.da
da is the area vector to the surface and it is taken positive along the
outward normal to the surface
d=Edacos
= E.da
Flux in closed surface is equal net charge inside divided by
E.da=qin/
a. E is the electric field present due to all charges in the system not just
the charge inside
b. Flux crossing a closed surface does not depend on the shapes and
size of Gaussian surface

Electric potential
S.No.
1

Term
Electric
Potential
energy

Electric PE of
a charge

Electric
Potential

Some points
about
Electric
potential

Electric
dipole

Electric
potential due
to dipole
Electric field
due to dipole

Description
U=-W
Where U = Change in Potential energy and W= Work done by the electric
lines of forces
For a system of two particles
U(r)=q1q2/4r
where r is the separation between the charges.
We assume U to be zero at infinity
Similarly for a system of n charges
U=Sum of potential energy of all the distinct pairs in the system
For example for three charges
U=(1/4)(q1q2/r12+q2q3/r23+q1q3/r13)
=qV where V is the potential there

Liken Electric field intensity is used to define the electric field; we can also
use Electric Potential to define the field. Potential at any point P is equal to
the work done per unit test charge by the external agent in moving the test
charge from the reference point(without Change in KE)
Vp=Wext/q
So for a point charge
Vp=Q/4r
where r is the distance of the point from charge
1. It is scalar quantity
2.Potential at point due to system of charges will be obtained by the
summation of potential of each charge at that point
V=V1+V2+V3+V4
3.Electric forces are conservative force so work done by the electric force
between two point is independent of the path taken
4. V2-V1=- E.dr
5. In Cartesian coordinates system
dV=-E.dr
dV=-(Exdx+Eydy+Ezdz)
So Ex=V/x , Ey=V/y and Ez=V/z
Also
E=-[(V/x)i+(V/y)j+(V/z)k]
6. Surface where electric potential is same everywhere is call equipotential
surface
Electric field components parallel to equipotential surface is always zero
A combination of two charge +q and -q separated by the distance d
p=qd
Where d is the vector joining negative to positive charge
V=(1/4)(pcos/r2)
where r is the distance from the center and is angle made by the line from
the axis of dipole
E=(1/4)(psin/r3)
Er=(1/4)(2pcos/r3)
Total E=E2+Er2

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Formulas and Concepts

Few more
points

=(p/4r3)((3cos2+1))
Torque on dipole=pXE
Potential Energy
U=-p.E
1. E.dl over closed path is zero
2.Electric potential in the spherical charge conductor is Q/4R where R is
the radius of the shell and the potential is same everywhere in the
conductor
3. Conductor surface is a equipotential surface

Capacitance
S.No.
1

Term
Capacitance C of the
capacitor

Capacitance of parallel
plate cap

parallel plate air


capacitor in presence
of dielectric medium
Capacitance of
spherical capacitor
having radii a, b (b>a)

Description
C=q/V
or q=CV
-Unit of capacitance is Farads or CV-1 capacitance of a capacitor
is constant and depends on shape, size and separation of the
two conductors and also on insulating medium being used for
making capacitor.
C=(0A)/d
where,
C= capacitance of capacitor
A= area of conducting plate
d= distance between plates of the capacitor
0=8.854 10-12 and is known as electric permittivity in vacuum.
C=A/d

Parallel combination of
capacitors
Series combination of
capacitors
Energy stored in
capacitor

(a) air as dielectric between them


C=(40ab)/(b-a)
(b) dielectric with relative permittivity
C=(4ab)/(b-a)
C=Q/V= C1+C2+C3 , resultant capacitance C is greater then the
capacitance of greatest individual one.
1/C=1/C1+1/C2+1/C3, resultant capacitance C is less then the
capacitance of smallest individual capacitor.
Energy stored in capacitor is
E=QV/2
or E=CV2/2
or E=Q2/2C
factor 1/2 is due to average potential difference across the
capacitor while it is charged.

Force between plates


of capacitor

F=

Force per unit area of


plates

5
6
7

Q
2 K 0 A
2 Where is charge per unit area.
f =
2 K 0

Electric current and D.C. circuits


S.No.
1

Term
Electromotive force

Electric current

Drift speed of electron


in a conductor

Resistivity of conductor

Ohms law

Description
EMF of a cell is the total energy per unit charge when the cell is
on an open circuit i.e., when the current through the cell is
zero.
I=q/t it is the rate of flow of electric charge. Unit of current is
ampere.
I Where I is the current, n is the number of electrons
vd =
neA
per unit volume and A is the area of cross section of conductor.

m
ne 2

where m is the mass of electron and

is the

relaxation time
V=IR where R is the resistance of the given conductor and unit
of resistance is ohm()

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Formulas and Concepts
6

Electrical resistivity

7
8

Resistors in series
Resistors in parallel

Terminal voltage

10
11

Kirchoffs first law


Kirchoffs second law

12

Heating effect of current

13
14

Electrical power
Variation of resistance
with temperature
Variation of resistivity
with temperature

15

=RA/l where l is the length of the wire and A is its area of


cross-section
R=R1+R2+R3+.
1 1
1
1
=
+
+
+ .....
R R1 R2 R3

It is equal to emf of battery minus potential drop across


internal resistance r across the battery. Terminal voltage = E-Ir
The algebraic sum of current at any junction in a circuit is zero.
The algebraic sum of the products of the current and
resistances and the emf in a closed loop is zero.
Heat energy delivered by current when it flows through
resistance of R ohm for t sec. maintained at potential difference
V is H=V2t/R
P = VI = I2R = V2/R
R=R0(1+(T-T0))
=0(1+(T-T0))

Magnetic effect of current


S.No.
1

Term
Biot-Savart law

Description
Magnetic fiels dB at any point whose position vector is r wrt
0 I (dl r)
current elemant dl is given by

dB =

Magnetic field due to


long current carrying
conductor
Magnetic field at
centre of a circular
loop
Magnetic field at
centre of coil of n
turns
Magnetic field on the
axis of a circular loop

B=
B=
B=

B=

B=

Amperes circuital law

Field due to toroidal


solenoid
Field inside straight
solenoid
Force on moving
charge in magnetic
field
Force on current
carrying conductor in
the magnetic field
Force between two
parallel wires carrying
current
Torque on a current
carrying loop

8
9

10

11

12

13

Lorentz force

14

Magnetic dipole
moment of bar
magnet
torque on the bar
magnet
Potential energy of a
magnetic dipole

15
16

0 2I
4r

r3

0 I
2r
0 In
2r

0 Ir 2

if there are n turns in the coil then

2( r + x 2 ) 3 / 2
2

0 Inr 2

2( r 2 + x 2 ) 3 / 2
B dI = 0 I

B = 0 nI
B = 0 nI

and direction of field is parallel to the axis of solenoid

F = q(v B) Direction of force is perpendicular to both v and B


F = I (l B) where l is the length of the conductor in the
direction of current in it

F=

0 I1I 2
2R

= (m B) Where m is the magnetic moment of the dipole and


magnitude of magnetic moment is m=NIB where A is the area of
the loop and N is the number of turns in the loop.
Force on electron moving with velocity v in presence of both
uniform electric and magnetic field is F = e( E + v B )
m=q(2a) where q is the pole strength and (2a) is the length of
the bar magnet. It is the vector pointing from south to north pole
of the magnet.

= mB

U=-mBcos

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Formulas and Concepts

Electromagnetic induction
S.No.
1

Term
Magnetic flux

Description

= B A = BA cos

where is the angle between normal to the plane

of the coil and magnetic field s.I. unit of flux is Weber


2

Faradays law

e=

and for a closely packed coil of N turns

dt

e = %

d
dt

where e is

Lenzs law

the induced EMF


The induced current has such a direction such that magnetic field of the
current opposes the change in the magnetic flux that produces current.

Inductance L of
inductor

L=

Self induction

with each winding of inductor.


Phenomenon by which an opposing EMF is introduced in the coil

%
i

Where N is windings of inductor, I is the current associated

because of varying current in coil itself. Self induction EMF is


6

Series RL circuit

Rise of current

i=

e
(1 e t / )
R
L

where

L = L/R

e = L

di
dt

is inductive time

constant of the circuit. On removing emf current decays from a value i0


according to equation
7
8

Magnetic energy
Density of
stored magnetic
energy
Mutual induction

i = i0 e t /

Energy stored by inductors magnetic field is U=Li2.


u=B2/20

It refers to the phenomenon by which a current I is induced in a coil


when current in a neighbouring coil circuit is changed. It is described by

e2 = M

di
di1 and
e1 = M 2 where M is the mutual induction for the
dt
dt

coil arrangement.

Magnetism of matter
S.No.
1

Term
Gausss law for
magnetic fields

Spin magnetic
dipole moment

Orbital magnetic
dipole moment

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism

Ferromagnetism

Maxwells
extension of
amperes law

Description

= B dA = 0 i.e., net magnetic flux through any closed Gaussian


surface is zero.
e where S is spin angular momentum.
s = S
m
e where L is orbital angular momentum

L =

2m

Diamagnetic materials are those materials which on being placed in


magnetic field get feebly magnetised in the direction opposite to the
magnetic field.
In Paramagnetic materials each atom has permanent magnetic
moment but dipole moments are randomly oriented and material as
a whole lacks property of magnetism but dipoles can be aligned in
the presence of external magnetic field to give net dipole moment
and material gets feebly magnetised in the direction of the field.
Ferromagnetic materials when placed in external magnetic field gets
strongly magnetised in the direction of the magnetic field.

B ds =
0

d
dt

Transient Currents
S.No.
1

Term
Growth of charge in
CR circuit

Description

q = q0 (1 e

t
CR

) and current in CR circuit is i = i0 e CR

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Formulas and Concepts
2
3
4
5
6

Decay of charge in CR
circuit
Capacitive time
constant
Energy stored in
inductor
Energy stored in
capacitor

q = q0 e

t
CR

i = i0 e

and current in CR circuit is

t
CR

CR has dimensions of time and is called capacitive time constant


for circuit
U = 1 (Li 2 )
2
Where E is the maximum value of potential
U = 1 (CE 2 ) = 1 (q 0 E )
2
2
difference set up across the plates.
1
Frequency of oscillations is

LC oscillations

f =

2 LC

Alternating Current
S.No.
1

Term
Alternating
current

Mean value of
a.c.
RMS value
a.c. through
resistor
a.c. through
inductor
a.c. through
capacitor
Inductive
reactance

3
4
5
6
7
8

Capacitive
reactance

a.c. through
series LR circuit

Description
It is current whose magnitude changes with time and direction reverses
periodically. I=I0sint where I0 is the peak value of a.c. and =2/T is
the frequency
Im=2I0/ = 0.636I0
Irms=I0/2
Alternating emf is in phase with current
Emf leads the current by an phase angle /2
Emf lags behind the current by an phase angle /2
Opposition offered by inductor to the flow of current mathematically,

X L = L = 2fL

Opposition offered by capacitor to the flow of current mathematically,


1
1
XC =
=
C 2fC
Emf leads the current by an phase angle
impedance of circuit is Z =

10

a.c. through
series CR circuit

a.c. through
series LCR
circuit

13

Average power
of an a.c. circuit
Transformer

R 2 + ( 2 L2 )

tan =

given by

1
Z = R2 + 2 2
C

Emf leads/lags behind the current by an phase angle

and

1
tan = C
R

given by

L 1C emf leads the current when


1 and lags behind
L >
tan =
R
C
when

12

given by

Emf lags behind the current by an phase angle


and impedance of circuit is

11

L <

1 and impedance of circuit is


C

2
Pavg = I rms
R = E rms I rms cos Where

Z = R 2 + L

is called power factor of the circuit.

It is a device used to change low alternating voltage at high current into


high voltage at low current and vice-versa. Primary and secondary
voltage for a transformer are related as
% S and current through

VS = VP

the coils is related as

%P

%
IS = IP P
%S

Electromagnetic waves
S.No.
1

Term
Conduction current

Description
It is the current due to the flow of electrons through the
connecting wires in an electric circuit

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Formulas and Concepts
2

Displacement current

It arises due to time rate of change of electric flux in some part


d
of circuit

ID = 0

dt
d E where IC is the conduction
)
dt

Modified amperes
circuital law

B.dl =

Maxwells Equations

current.
Gausss law in electrostatics

Velocity of EM waves
in free space

(IC + I D ) = 0 (IC + 0

E ds =

Gausss law in magnetism

B ds = 0

Faradays law of EM
induction

E dl =

Ampere-Maxwells circuital
law

B.dl ==

v=

0 0

d B
dt
0

(I C + 0

d E
)
dt

= 3 10 8 m / s

Huygens Principle and Interference of Light


S.No.
1

Term
Wave front

Huygens Principle

Interference

Condition of maximum
intensity
Condition of minimum
intensity
Ratio of maximum and
minimum intensity

6
7
8

Distance of nth bright


fringe from centre of the
screen

Angular position of nth


bright fringe

10

Distance of nth dark


fringe from centre of the
screen
Angular position of nth
dark fringe
Fringe width

11
12

Description
It is the locus of points in the medium which at any instant
are vibrating in the same phase.
1
Each point on the given primary Wavefront acts as a
source of secondary wavelets spreading out disturbance
in all direction.
2
The tangential plane to these secondary wavelets
constitutes the new wave front
It is the phenomenon of non uniform distribution of energy in
the medium due to superposition of two light waves.
= 2n or x=n where n=0,1,2,3,.

= (2n + 1)

or x=(2n+1)/2 where n=0,1,2,3,.

I max (a1 + a 2 ) 2
=
I min (a1 a 2 ) 2

yn =

nD where d is the separation distance between two


d

coherent source of light, D is the distance between screen and


slit, is the wavelength of light used.
y
n
n = n =
D
d

(2n + 1) D
yn =
2d
n =

y n (2n + 1)
=
D
2d

D
d

Diffraction and polarisation of light


S.No.
1

Term
Diffraction

Description
It is the phenomenon of bending of light waves round the sharp corners
and spreading into the regions of geometrical shadow of the object.

Single slit
diffraction

Condition for dark fringes is sin = n where n=

Width of central
maximum is

Diffraction

1, 2, 3, 4. ,

a is the width of slit and is angle of diffraction. Condition for bright


fringes is
(2n + 1)
sin =
2a
2D where D is the distance between slit and screen.
0 =
a
The arrangement of large number of narrow rectangular slits of equal

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21
Formulas and Concepts
grating

resolving power
of the grating

Diffraction of XRays by crystals


Polarisation

Brewsters law

10

Law of Malus

width placed side by side parallel to each other. the condition for
maxima in the interference pattern at the angle is dsin =n where
n=0,1,2,3,4
For two nearly equal wavelengths 1 and 2 between which a diffraction
grating can just barely distinguish resolving power is

R=

2 1
=

where =(1+2)/2
the condition for constructive interference is 2dsin =n where
n=1,2,3,4
It is the phenomenon due to which vibrations of light are restricted in a
particular plane.
= tan p where is refractive index of medium and p is angle of
polarisation.

I = I 0 cos 2 where I is the intensity of emergent light from analyser, I0


is the intensity of incident plane polarised light and is the angle
between planes of transmission of analyser and the polarizer.

Reflection and Refraction of light


S.No.
1

Term
Laws of
reflection

2
3

Relation between
f and R
Mirror formula

Magnification

Refraction

Laws of
refraction

Description
1.

The incident ray, the normal at a point of incidence


and reflected ray all lie on the same plane.
2.
Angle of incidence is always equal to angle of
reflection.
f=R/2 both f and R are positive for concave mirror and negative for
convex mirror.

1 1 1
+ =
u v f
I
f v
=
O
f

m=

The phenomenon of change in path of light as it goes from one


medium to another
1
The incident ray, the normal at a point of incidence
and refracted ray all lie on the same plane.
2
The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of
angle of refraction is constant for any two given
media. This is known as Snells law. Mathematically

sin i
= ba where ba is relative refractive index of
sin r
medium b w.r.t. medium a.
7

Lateral shift

Spherical
refracting
surface

10

Power of
spherical
refracting
surface
Lens makers
formula

t sin(i r )
d=
cos r

1
u

2
u

P=

+
+

2
v

1
v

2 1 for object situated in rarer medium

1 2 for object situated in denser medium

R
R

2 1
R

1
1
1 focal length of convex lens is positive and that of
= ( 1)

f
R1 R2

concave lens is negative


11

Lens equation

12

Linear
magnification
Power of lens

m=

I
f v
=
O
f

P=

1
1
1
= ( 1)

f
R1 R2

For thin lenses


placed in contact

Focal length

13
14

1 1 1
+ =
u v
f

1
1
1
=
+
f
f1 f 2

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22
Formulas and Concepts

15

Power of
P=P1+P2
equivalent lens
Magnification of
m=m1+m2
equivalent lens
The inability of lenses of aperture to bring all the rays in wide beam of
light falling on it to focus a single point is called spherical aberration.

Spherical
aberration

Dual nature of waves and matter


S.No.

Term

Description

Energy of a photon

= h

Photoelectric
effect

Compton effect

h = KE max + where = h 0 is the work function of a metal and


0 is the critical frequency for that metal.
= C (1 cos ) where c=h/m0c is Compton wavelength

De Brogli
wavelength

De Brogli phase
velocity

v P = =

Wave formula

Phase velocity

Group velocity

Uncertainty
principle

10

Uncertainty in
energy and time

where h is the planks constant.

h
mv
c2
v

y = A cos 2 t or y = A cos(t kx) where = 2 is

angular frequency and k = 2 = is the wave number.

vP

k
d
vg =
dk

vP =

It is impossible to know both the exact position and exact


momentum of an object at same time. Mathematically ,
h
xp
4
h
Et
4

Atomic structure
S.No.

Term

Velocity of electron in an orbit

Total energy of hydrogen atom

Atomic spectra

Description

v=

e
4 0 mr

E=

where r is the orbit radius

e2
8 0 r

Lyman

1
1
= R 2 2
1
n

where R is Rydberg

constant
Balmer

1
1
= R 2 2
2
n

1
1
1

= R 2 2
n

3
1
1
1
= R 2 2

n
4
1

Paschen

Brackett

Pfund

R=1.097x10-7m-1

1
1
= R 2 2

n
5
1

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23
Formulas and Concepts
4

Orbital electron wavelength


according to Bohr atom model

Condition for orbital stability

Orbital radii in Bohr atom

h
e

4 0 r
m

n=2rn where n=1,2,3. And rn is radius of orbit


that contains n wavelengths.

rn =

n 2 h 2 0
me 2

Atomic nucleus and nuclear energy


S.No.

Term

Description

Isotopes

Nuclei having same atomic number but different mass number.

Isobars

Nuclei having different atomic number but same mass number.

Atomic mass unit

Nuclear radius

Nuclear density

Nuclear forces

One atomic mass unit is defined as one twelfth part of the mass of 12C6
atom. Value of a mass unit is 1u=1.66054x10-27Kg=931 MeV
R=R0A1/3 Where value of R0 1.2 x 10-15 1.2 fm and is known as nuclear
radius parameter
The density of nuclear matter is approximately of the order of 1017 Kg/m3
and is very large compared to the density of ordinary matter.
It is the force which holds the nucleons together inside the nucleus.

Mass defect

m = Zm p + ( A Z )mn m

Binding energy

BE = mc2 = Zmp + ( A Z)mn m c2

=BE/A

11

Binding energy
per nucleon
Radioactive
decay law
Half life

12

Average life

Tav=1/

10

[[

] ]

% = % 0 e t
T=ln2/

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