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Introduction
Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.

Even

something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical
processes!

And while

it

is

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well

known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
in the

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kitchen? Yet a few simple

tests will

prove

their presence.

more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
Obviously, far

materials. But

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however they

occur, naturally or otherwise,
all

chemical substances are

made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
key to

their

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behavior

iW
Burning

Testing for acids

Contents
BURNING
Rusting

_6

Breathing

Bleaching

ACTIVE SUBSTANCES
Loss

Gain

Replacement

Replacement 2

Strong Bases

Exchange

ACIDS, BASES

Weak Acids

To
12
14

1

Exchange 2

AND SALTS

Strong Acids

Weak

Bases

^6
18

Electrochemical Series

Lime

A Chemical Indicator

~20

WATER

22

Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption

~24

of

Water

ELECTROLYSIS
Batteries

26

Electroplating

Making Chlorine by

Electrolysis

ELEMENTS

30

Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table

Half-way Elements
32

ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Sharing Electrons

Donating Electrons

34

Splitting the

Atom
36

Half-life

Glossary and Index

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Inside a chemical plant

The structure of an atom

have to be stored under special conditions. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going.such as kerosene or butane . Fortunately. easier to transport. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. Fuels such as coal. in which things more easily. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire. with a high ignition point. That is why. and. and is . How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point. On the other hand. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. blankets or. wood.just about one fifth .rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. or something it contains. keep The first the air flames. in the case of accidental fire. cannot burn. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. such as a match. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air.is made up of it. attempts are made to smother the flames with water.perhaps from burning wood . or oils are burned.to make them burn. or charcoal. special foam. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. it combines with oxygen to make another gas. keeping air away from the flames. Charred wood. Before something will burn. It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. as the plane touches down. usually need another fire . is almost pure carbon. But nothing will burn without air. however. sand. All these things act as barriers. fuels with low ignition points . The rest consists mainly of nitrogen. The vital ingredient is oxygen. Foam has two advantages over water. while some heat is given out. the airport's emergency services have been alerted. Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . as with the burning plane. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. Clearly. Once lit. target dioxide. is needed for burning to take place. When this burns in air. either the air. called carbon dioxide. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat.

that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more .- Weighing the ash When paper is burned. oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash. which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. magnesium oxide. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). its ash weighs less than the original paper. This is because paper contains a lot of carbon.

' . But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion. In both. to drive off its oxygen./ / . bridges.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t . Chemically. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. Normally. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. However./i ///in ///. However. there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air..Cars.

it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. chlorine. when bubbled through lime water. has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white. The very odd one. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. Blec added h U Stain removed . grease or dyes. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. to remove ink oxygen and so.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. te. taken from the air. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. when it comes into contact with. Chlorine. But the air breathe out. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. will turn it milky. "Lime water" is It normally clear. which is why the color disappears. It merely oxidizes them. but a oxygen in its place. dyes or inks from materials. for for instance. however.

When this happens. At least one of these substances is a gas. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. and so suddenly. ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. sending it into the air. but produced in such vast quantities. great or small. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones. air. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. Many chemical processes. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework. spectacular or not. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. But all chemical processes. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit.Substances Sometimes. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. or decomposes. huge amounts of energy are released . 10 . In particular. or compound. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. instead of giving out heat. to make them work. An explosive chemical mixture .

A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones.Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes. Combination is the opposite of decomposition. involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another. sometimes only partial . Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^. including bleaching. Replacement Some chemical processes.the two form two new substances. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. Exchange In other types of reactions. ^T . as shown below. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind.

If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution. This for 12 is a way oxygen. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. if too much baking soda is used. giving it a soapy taste. the It has same chemical ingredients as water. but contains extra oxygen. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). of testing Smouldering .which converts flat dough into something edible. when N the way < Bread heated. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. If a wooden splint is lit. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air. Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. through. leaving water behind. Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water.Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change .the decomposition of baking soda . y\ j .Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However. This Baking powder is easily given up.

one of the ingredients. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. is be deposited on and a the blade. If the action the copper continued. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. silver sulfide. The of replacement. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. that contain sulfur. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. or certain green addition to copper vegetables. traces of sulfur. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. as in that m and be with egg. it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. solution of iron sulfate left behind. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. brown. Thus sulfur form a black compound. so that. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 .

and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. a precipitate. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. or scum.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. forms. ' such as chalk. oxide. not only it wasteful. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. or into the joint in need of repair. two new substances are formed. and instead surface as the white scum. ignition mixture be used. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. This is unattractive. high temperature for which an has to is needed.

Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply. chrome yellow.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals. sodium which remains in the solution. the two chemical substances involved.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange. when . this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another. 15 | . sodium chromate and lead nitrate.presto! . stearate make two new substances. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap . This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. have exchanged partners to make new substances. and lead chromate." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals.Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. Surprisingly. This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder.

producing harmless "salts" and water. Our own bodies. and so does aspirin. vinegar or lemon added. Bases also have their domestic uses. iron. lime is a vital ingredient in cement.g. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. It turns red when an acid (e. plaster and concrete. After all.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. . In view of the reputation acid has. Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. contains acid. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. washing soda and caustic soda . The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. mortar. 16 Red cabbage water. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. Besides its agricultural use. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. Fortunately.baking soda. But the widest used base of soda lime. they like to keep well away. but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. too. Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. and digest food. Yogurt. carry messages around the body. The various kinds found in the home . Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load.bases . for instance. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. there are other substances .are all bases.which react with acids and make them safe.

. and begun to spill its load onto the road. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. the danger can be averted.V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed. Fortunately.

or has gone sour." so proving that they are acids. Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. Even our own bodies acid). contain citrate citric acid. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. is industry. produce acids. It is obtained from fermenting wine. Many such as Vitamin C acids. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems. for Hydrogen example. spoils the milk. Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. 18 m a the yogurt and it . that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. (ascorbic are essential to health.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive. cream of tartar. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid." Lemon juice. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. "Citrus" fruits. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal.

a corrosive. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid.WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. giving off strangely. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. hardly at all. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. Even when battery acid is diluted. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 . safely in iron containers. those at the bottom.

happens." speaking. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound . Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. Not strong and sodium hydroxide. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects.for instance." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . magnesium oxide. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. salt produced common is salt. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. The remaining components combine to form a "salt.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. Bases are the opposite to acids. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water.

is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem.A Chemical Indicator As water glass. it poured into one appears to change into wine. which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. 21 .

hydrogen.and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. to form steam. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. For life on Earth to exist. The reason why is not difficult to guess. Water's main ingredient.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. Copper oxide. this water must be in liquid form. More familiarly.) Many chemical reactions produce water. Water is so important to chemistry .hydrogen and oxygen. When substances dissolve in water. Water. (The chemical formula for water. as we have discovered. H 2 0. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug ." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. 22 . We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. is a compound of two substances . is the commonest substance in the universe. for instance. verse.Water is the most important substance on our planet. they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen.

.that Earth became life on possible. our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans.< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature. when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice . ~^f.'/'' ''. It was only then cooled. . Millions of years ago. 23 . In time.

which is also light. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide.Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. . the surface of the water. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. After a couple of spectacular disasters. 24 form Hydrogen I . the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. and will burn readily (sometimes gas. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. a WATER Oxygen . explosively) in oxygen. and safer than hydrogen. If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution). The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. in favor of Today.

and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water. the copper sulfate powder blue again. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. Effectively. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water.Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . This is known as "water of crystallization. hydrogen is left behind. the water. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away." and may affect their color. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder. a whitish powder is formed ."anhydrous" copper sulfate. such as copper sulfate. This can be used to test for (waterless) water. have water locked into them. The water must be in the form of steam. there is no color change. which causes the iron to oxidize. so producing iron removed from (rust).

Elec trolysis . articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel.. can be used for metal-plating . This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. Aluminum. is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. such as silver or chromium. and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract.metals. Once begun the gases have to evolve. Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. It > In this workshop. If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. onto articles made of cheaper materials.putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. (which are good conductors). and the hydrogen ions positive. aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest . One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. to form water. this energy would have to be put back in some way. . Today. appear at the anode (+).and most useful . By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. a more expensive much metal. one of the Earth's most common substances. the oxygen ions must be negative. When hydrogen burns in oxygen. such as 26 water. Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. a current can flow through. Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ).

In electrolysis. For example. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. and the negative ions to the anode. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte. are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes. attached to the negative terminal." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode. But rent. Instead. Ions carry electrical charges. and so can carry an electric current. ordinary salt dissolves in water." and the other. called electrodes. sugar. As with magnetism. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. two metal plates. the "cathode. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). 27 . they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct.

aluminum and silver about two volts. or cell. battery They the early 1800s. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . the voltage. enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. the greater and copper produce about half a volt. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). from nickel to copper. arranged alternately. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. The / electric current produced. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. and is able to "store" electrical energy. Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. change. once the connection is made.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well.

The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. is solution. over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. anode is made of silver. the salt will merely act as an impurity. used in bleach. and only the water will be electrolyzed. a it During electrolysis. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n .Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. As chlorine gas is given off. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. In a weak solution. Battery Salt solution 29 . For this. Chlorine. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery.

Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals.the elements. There are 90 elements occurring naturally.that is.are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . because it is light in right. not all the metals we meet are elements. Steel is basically iron to which other elements.and sulfur . for instance.a black solid . are glass. however.> For instance. carbon and gold. although many are extremely rare. a mere eight. weight and strong. silicon. when the elements carbon . such as zinc and tin. Although the majority of the elements are metals. are found in combination with other elements. -y . they contain two or more elements combined chemically. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. Combining elements A few elements. including carbon. iron and oxygen. An element. it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. and has no other ingredients. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. Most.a yellow solid cally. including aluminum. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe . have been added. and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements.objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. occur in nature on their own. There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine. is used in ship and aircraft construction. disulfide . particularly metals.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . greasy liquid! 4 . its headlights signed. comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. by definition. the bodywork steel. Before the elements were known about. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. contains only one substance. are elements in their own Aluminum. but some. Of these. Most of the materials we use are compounds . such as oxygen.

31 .

lead heavy. hard. is that they are good conductors of electricity.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. but less easy to describe. yellow. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. . has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. Antimony. . like boron. a liquid. is mercury is a liquid. however. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. One property that all metals share. Iron is light. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. Silicon. Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. but not so copper or gold. others are colorless gases. for example. the basis of the microchip. Most metals are silver-gray. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. are "earthy" solids. Some. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element.

The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides.chlorine. iodine and fluorine.physical and chemical . SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. Aluminum Actinium atoms. right. In the center are the durable metals. such as sodium and potassium. silver and gold. The properties of the elements . The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. such as copper. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals. The Periodic Table (above) NO. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 . Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry.

and ends with the power of the future . and then. essentially. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. releasing enormous energy in the process. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. creating even more elements. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. no bigger than a pinhead. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. with a minute speck.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. Every element has its own kind of atom. these helium atoms "fuse" together. First of all. the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. on the center spot. Everything in-between would be empty space. but almost no mass. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. Besides being the building bricks of the universe.nuclear energy. as the star begins to explode. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen .fire .of which most of the universe is composed. Chemistry is. During the evolution of a star. perhaps. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . under tremendous pressure and intense heat. helium atoms are formed. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. representing the nucleus.

and two electrons in orbit.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). also have neutrons in their nuclei. Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium. Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. 2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus.

oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. electrons: two. but with just electrons at the screen. Hydrogen has only one electron. each outer the ideal arrangement. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . or shared. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. easily ° O electrons an is important. This is called ionic bonding. the elements should react together easily. 36 2 L. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. electrons are element has detached from the atom. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. in its inner orbit. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. Chlorine orbit. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons.Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. then eight. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 . o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons.

This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. scientists can determine their age. By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive.25 gramme 0. The radium atom. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium. Other elements .125 gramme remains. Thus.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus.break up break away from the nucleus.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example . 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life. but also energy as they do so. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up. changing into atoms of other elements. less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year. if a gramme of fermium were made today.radon. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . The half-life can be very useful. 37 .uranium. now has atomic structure of the another element . In the alpha particle. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days.

21. 37 carbon dioxide 6. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. 22. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. 7. alkalis. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14.21. silicon 30. 37 oxidation 13. "sulfate. 13. 22. 22. 32. oxygen gases 10. 34. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. lead nitrate. 26. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 24. 37 nucleus 34. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. 12. 18-19. 33 gold 19. 26 carbon 6. e. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. 27. 33. 27. 33. 25. 34. 34. Molecule The smallest e. 7. 28. 33 and electricity 26-7. 26. acids 16-17. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. 29. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. elements are listed on page 33. 25. 29. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. batteries 17. their atoms.36 exchange 14-15. 27 copper 13. 11. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. 30. bleaching. but which do not exist on own. 37 20-1. 25. 12. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. 30.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. 22. 21 cathode 26. 18. 32. 'salts" 16. 22 28. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only.g. sodium 32 27. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. The central core of an atom. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. 30. 22. 30. 32. Neutron Acid 1. 28-9. 12. 33. 26. 9. 20. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. 21 aluminum anode 26. 29 chemical compounds 10. 16. 32-3. 24. Rusting. zinc 30. 22-3. 26. 11. 7. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 22. hydrogen 9. 29 salt 20. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 32. 35. 14. with a mass of but no electrical charge. 22. 38 8. 28. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. 14. helium 24. 24. 23. 9. 32 iron silver 13. Electron particle. 28. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. The number atom is the element's atomic number. 36 10. chromium 26.g. 24. 14 heat 10. 33 8. 24. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 29. 20. 32 15. 35. 20. 25. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. 21. 24. 26. 35 20. 14. 29. 27. 25. 27. 27. 19. neutrons nickel 26. 33 28.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. 8. 10. lead and nitrogen are not. 34. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. 14. e. 22. alkalis 20. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15.g. 30. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. 25. 27. 25 12.22 19. 13. 25. The opposite kind of substance to a base. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. 27. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. 21." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. 8. 24. \8. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. Strictly speaking. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 36 33 . lead bleach 9. 27. 26. 26. 26. 12.g. 30. 25 13. turns red in the presence of an alkali. 27. 13. 9. Sun 20 metals 19. e. 19. A particle at the nucleus of an atom.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 19. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. 29. 33 28 neon 33 14. 35. 24. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. 30. 26. 7. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. 36 electricity 26-7. 22 15. 26 20.

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and has a clearly-written expert text. to bring out the basic principles of each subject. using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments.Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. What happens when . Each book is vividly illustrated. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being.

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