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Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.


something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical

And while






known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
in the


kitchen? Yet a few simple

tests will


their presence.

more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
Obviously, far

materials. But





however they

occur, naturally or otherwise,

chemical substances are

made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
key to





Testing for acids








Replacement 2

Strong Bases



Weak Acids



Exchange 2


Strong Acids




Electrochemical Series


A Chemical Indicator




Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption







Making Chlorine by




Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table

Half-way Elements

Sharing Electrons

Donating Electrons


Splitting the



Glossary and Index












Inside a chemical plant

The structure of an atom

fuels with low ignition points . Charred wood. attempts are made to smother the flames with water.perhaps from burning wood . is almost pure carbon. wood. On the other hand. target dioxide. usually need another fire . Once lit. How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point. It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. the airport's emergency services have been alerted. while some heat is given out. cannot burn. special foam. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat. is needed for burning to take place. But nothing will burn without air. Foam has two advantages over water. either the air. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. or charcoal. Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . The vital ingredient is oxygen. All these things act as barriers. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. as with the burning plane. in the case of accidental fire. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire.just about one fifth . When this burns in air. keeping air away from the flames. such as a match. Before something will burn. Clearly. Fuels such as coal. easier to transport. keep The first the air flames. sand. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. called carbon dioxide. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. in which things more easily.such as kerosene or butane . and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. or oils are burned.is made up of it. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen. and. and is . it combines with oxygen to make another gas.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. blankets or. or something it contains. as the plane touches down.to make them burn.have to be stored under special conditions. What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. Fortunately. That is why. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. however. with a high ignition point.

that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. its ash weighs less than the original paper. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). This is because paper contains a lot of carbon. magnesium oxide. oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned.

there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air. ' . In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air.. bridges. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. However. Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful./ / . In both. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t . and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering.Cars. However. Chemically./i ///in ///. to drive off its oxygen. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. Normally. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion.

"Lime water" is It normally clear. te. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. for for instance. Chlorine. grease or dyes. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. which is why the color disappears. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. Blec added h U Stain removed . chlorine.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. when it comes into contact with. has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white. But the air breathe out. to remove ink oxygen and so. dyes or inks from materials. The very odd one. taken from the air. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. when bubbled through lime water. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. It merely oxidizes them. however. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. but a oxygen in its place. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. will turn it milky.

the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. but produced in such vast quantities. great or small. Many chemical processes. air. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. When this happens. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. An explosive chemical mixture . Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework. But all chemical processes. sending it into the air. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. At least one of these substances is a gas. instead of giving out heat.Substances Sometimes. spectacular or not. In particular. huge amounts of energy are released . substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. to make them work. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances. or decomposes. and so suddenly. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. or compound. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. 10 .the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns.

including bleaching.Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes. ^T . sometimes only partial .the two form two new substances. Combination is the opposite of decomposition. Exchange In other types of reactions. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^. A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind. involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another. as shown below. Replacement Some chemical processes. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones.

If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution.which converts flat dough into something edible. Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash. through. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. This Baking powder is easily given up. the It has same chemical ingredients as water. giving it a soapy taste. when N the way < Bread heated. and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However.the decomposition of baking soda . Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) .Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change .Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . but contains extra oxygen. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. leaving water behind. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air. Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. of testing Smouldering . if too much baking soda is used. Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water. This for 12 is a way oxygen. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. y\ j . Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). If a wooden splint is lit.

Thus sulfur form a black compound. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. that contain sulfur. The of replacement. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. or certain green addition to copper vegetables. one of the ingredients. traces of sulfur. is be deposited on and a the blade. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. so that. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. If the action the copper continued. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. as in that m and be with egg. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron. brown. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. solution of iron sulfate left behind. silver sulfide.

since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. forms. 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. a precipitate. or into the joint in need of repair. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. not only it wasteful. ignition mixture be used. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. two new substances are formed. high temperature for which an has to is needed. This is unattractive. ' such as chalk. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. oxide. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. or scum. and instead surface as the white scum. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water.

This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals. This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. sodium chromate and lead nitrate.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange. stearate make two new substances. when . and lead chromate. chrome yellow. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap . have exchanged partners to make new substances. Surprisingly. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder. the two chemical substances involved. 15 | . sodium which remains in the solution. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another.Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment.presto! . Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply.

After all. there are other substances .which react with acids and make them safe. mortar. and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. they like to keep well away.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. 16 Red cabbage water. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. and digest food. washing soda and caustic soda . Our own bodies. Bases also have their domestic uses.bases . Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. vinegar or lemon added. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. ." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. contains acid. but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . producing harmless "salts" and water. plaster and concrete. It turns red when an acid (e. too. and so does aspirin. carry messages around the body. Besides its agricultural use.g. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases. The various kinds found in the home . Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. In view of the reputation acid has. But the widest used base of soda lime. for instance. lime is a vital ingredient in cement. Fortunately. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. Yogurt.baking soda. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards.are all bases. iron.

and begun to spill its load onto the road. . the danger can be averted. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. Fortunately.V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed.

Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid. "Citrus" fruits. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home. cream of tartar. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal. 18 m a the yogurt and it . but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. (ascorbic are essential to health. Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate." so proving that they are acids. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. or has gone sour. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. produce acids. is industry. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems." Lemon juice. contain citrate citric acid. spoils the milk. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. It is obtained from fermenting wine. Many such as Vitamin C acids. Even our own bodies acid)." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. for Hydrogen example.

Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. a corrosive. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. those at the bottom. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. Even when battery acid is diluted. giving off strangely. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid. hardly at all. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. safely in iron containers. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 .WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid.

The remaining components combine to form a "salt. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity." speaking. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound . so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . Not strong and sodium hydroxide. salt produced common is salt. happens.for instance.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. Bases are the opposite to acids." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. magnesium oxide. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do.

A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. 21 .A Chemical Indicator As water glass. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need. turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem. it poured into one appears to change into wine.

The reason why is not difficult to guess. as we have discovered. When substances dissolve in water. hydrogen. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water. 22 . this water must be in liquid form. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug . Water's main ingredient. verse.Water is the most important substance on our planet. (The chemical formula for water. is the commonest substance in the universe. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. H 2 0." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. for instance. to form steam. Water is so important to chemistry .and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. For life on Earth to exist. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace.) Many chemical reactions produce water.hydrogen and oxygen. neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry. More familiarly. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. is a compound of two substances . bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. Copper oxide. they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen. Water.

. ~^f.< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature.that Earth became life on possible. when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice . . In time. It was only then cooled. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans. Millions of years ago.'/'' ''. 23 . our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam.

when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. a WATER Oxygen . and will burn readily (sometimes gas. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners.Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas. the surface of the water. in favor of Today. and safer than hydrogen. which is also light. . that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution). But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. After a couple of spectacular disasters. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal. explosively) in oxygen. 24 form Hydrogen I .

Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water. which causes the iron to oxidize."anhydrous" copper sulfate. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. Effectively. The water must be in the form of steam." and may affect their color. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder.Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . This is known as "water of crystallization. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. such as copper sulfate. have water locked into them. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water. a whitish powder is formed . the copper sulfate powder blue again. This can be used to test for (waterless) water. hydrogen is left behind. the water. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. so producing iron removed from (rust).c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. there is no color change. and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water.

aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest .and most useful . is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. Aluminum. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. and the hydrogen ions positive. one of the Earth's most common substances. such as 26 water. Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. (which are good conductors). the oxygen ions must be negative. A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. this energy would have to be put back in some way. a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. a current can flow through. can be used for metal-plating . . If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. such as silver or chromium. It > In this workshop. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. to form water.. Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity.metals. Today. When hydrogen burns in oxygen. a more expensive much metal. Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ). onto articles made of cheaper materials. Elec trolysis .putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. Once begun the gases have to evolve. and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. appear at the anode (+). But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time.

and the negative ions to the anode. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. two metal plates. called electrodes. Ions carry electrical charges. and so can carry an electric current. 27 . the "cathode. they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct. In electrolysis. sugar. As with magnetism. But rent. ordinary salt dissolves in water. are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery. Instead. For example. attached to the negative terminal. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first." and the other. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode.

The / electric current produced.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. aluminum and silver about two volts. from nickel to copper. enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. and is able to "store" electrical energy. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. the voltage. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. battery They the early 1800s. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well. the greater and copper produce about half a volt. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). or cell. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. once the connection is made. arranged alternately. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. change.

anode is made of silver. In a weak solution. and only the water will be electrolyzed. used in bleach. Battery Salt solution 29 . the salt will merely act as an impurity. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. a it During electrolysis. is solution.Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. For this. Chlorine. As chlorine gas is given off. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used.

are composed of the The countless A same basic substances .a black solid . Most of the materials we use are compounds . and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. contains only one substance. carbon and gold. Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals.that is. because it is light in right. however. such as oxygen. although many are extremely rare. Of these. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. Although the majority of the elements are metals. An element. and has no other ingredients. for instance. are found in combination with other elements. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. greasy liquid! 4 . but some. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. Most. weight and strong. comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. -y . iron and oxygen.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . Before the elements were known about.and sulfur . they contain two or more elements combined chemically. are elements in their own Aluminum.a yellow solid cally. the bodywork steel. such as zinc and tin. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe . occur in nature on their own. including aluminum. a mere eight.> For instance. Combining elements A few elements. 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . particularly metals. it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. are glass. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. is used in ship and aircraft construction. silicon.objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber. its headlights signed. when the elements carbon . have been added.the elements. There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine. disulfide . by definition. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. not all the metals we meet are elements. There are 90 elements occurring naturally. including carbon.

31 .

but less easy to describe. but not so copper or gold. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. like boron. a liquid. are "earthy" solids. others are colorless gases. for example. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. is that they are good conductors of electricity. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . Some. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. One property that all metals share. Most metals are silver-gray. lead heavy. Iron is light.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. . Silicon. yellow. however. . is mercury is a liquid. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. the basis of the microchip. hard. Antimony.

SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way.physical and chemical . The properties of the elements . Aluminum Actinium atoms. such as sodium and potassium. such as copper. Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges. right. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . iodine and fluorine. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals.chlorine. In the center are the durable metals. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 . silver and gold. The Periodic Table (above) NO.The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides.

releasing enormous energy in the process. Chemistry is. the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. During the evolution of a star. representing the nucleus. no bigger than a pinhead. Besides being the building bricks of the universe. essentially.fire . Everything in-between would be empty space. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . helium atoms are formed. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. First of all. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). with a minute speck. under tremendous pressure and intense heat. having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . as the star begins to explode. Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. perhaps.nuclear energy. but almost no mass. Every element has its own kind of atom. hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. creating even more elements. these helium atoms "fuse" together. on the center spot.of which most of the universe is composed.and ends with the power of the future . before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. and then.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising.

also have neutrons in their nuclei.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium. and two electrons in orbit. Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus. Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. 2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 .

8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 .Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. in its inner orbit. easily ° O electrons an is important. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. This is called ionic bonding. 36 2 L. electrons are element has detached from the atom. each outer the ideal arrangement. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. or shared. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. then eight. but with just electrons at the screen. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. Hydrogen has only one electron. Chlorine orbit. electrons: two. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. the elements should react together easily.

Thus. By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. now has atomic structure of the another element . Other elements .break up break away from the nucleus.125 gramme remains. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up. scientists can determine their age. 37 . changing into atoms of other elements. but also energy as they do so. In the alpha particle.radon. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year. The radium atom.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example . The half-life can be very useful. 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0.25 gramme 0. was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive.uranium. having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium. if a gramme of fermium were made today. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way.

24. 28. 27. 7. 26. 25. 7. 30. 18. 33.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. 11. 30. 26. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. e. The opposite kind of substance to a base. lead nitrate.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 19. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. 35 20. 33 and electricity 26-7. helium 24.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. Rusting. 32. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 9. \8.g. 24. 13. chromium 26. 20. 21. 22 15. 9. 21. 11. 23. 26. 27. 22. 14 heat 10. 27 copper 13. 25. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal.g. 19. 25. 27. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. 35. 26. 35. 37 oxidation 13.g. 27. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. silicon 30. Strictly speaking. 34. 22. 29. 38 8. 18-19. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. e. 28. 29. lead bleach 9. 33. but which do not exist on own. e. 29 chemical compounds 10. 30. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 32. 22-3. zinc 30. 29. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. sodium 32 27. 8. hydrogen 9. oxygen gases 10. 37 nucleus 34. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. 32 15. 29 salt 20. 10. 26. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. 19. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. neutrons nickel 26." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. 27. 36 10.36 exchange 14-15. 34.22 19. 36 33 . mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. 20. 30. alkalis.g. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. The central core of an atom. 26. 24. 27. 30. 13. 33. The number atom is the element's atomic number.21. 29. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 34. 33 28 neon 33 14. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 34. 25. 26. 12. 22. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. 21. 25. 12. 12. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 26 20. 7. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. 14. 24. 12. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 22. 33 8. with a mass of but no electrical charge. 32. Molecule The smallest e. Electron particle. 35. 30. 14. 22. 33 28. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. 29. 16. 24. "sulfate. 14. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. 26 carbon 6. elements are listed on page 33. 36 electricity 26-7. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. 21 cathode 26. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. 37 20-1. 25. 33 gold 19. 8. 25 12. batteries 17. lead and nitrogen are not. 32 iron silver 13. 22. 22. 9. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. alkalis 20. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. 32-3. 21 aluminum anode 26. 37 carbon dioxide 6. 27. Neutron Acid 1. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 22 28. 25. 'salts" 16. their atoms. 25 13. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. 24. 32. Sun 20 metals 19. 28-9. 24. 7. bleaching. 20. 27. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. 26. 30. 14. 28. turns red in the presence of an alkali. 26. 22. acids 16-17. 27. 24. 13.

pooouction .





What happens when . to bring out the basic principles of each subject.Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments. and has a clearly-written expert text. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. Each book is vividly illustrated.

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