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ttoms, Molecules and Elements
ISanklin Watts Science V
s eri es Edi tor:
L one Ion
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Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.
something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical
known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
kitchen? Yet a few simple
more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
occur, naturally or otherwise,
chemical substances are
made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
Testing for acids
A Chemical Indicator
Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption
Making Chlorine by
Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Glossary and Index
Inside a chemical plant
The structure of an atom
This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. while some heat is given out. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen.to make them burn. or charcoal. cannot burn. keep The first the air flames. sand. Charred wood. Fortunately. Before something will burn. Fuels such as coal. with a high ignition point. That is why. The vital ingredient is oxygen. in which things more easily. however. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. called carbon dioxide. is almost pure carbon. But nothing will burn without air. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. Clearly. the airport's emergency services have been alerted. On the other hand. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. or something it contains. either the air. or oils are burned. as with the burning plane.just about one fifth .such as kerosene or butane . Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point.perhaps from burning wood . is needed for burning to take place. target dioxide. it combines with oxygen to make another gas. wood. as the plane touches down. fuels with low ignition points . Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. usually need another fire . since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. Once lit.is made up of it. in the case of accidental fire. special foam. When this burns in air. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. and is . and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal.have to be stored under special conditions. attempts are made to smother the flames with water. keeping air away from the flames. All these things act as barriers. easier to transport. blankets or. and. such as a match. Foam has two advantages over water. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat.
that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . This is because paper contains a lot of carbon. which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash. magnesium oxide. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). its ash weighs less than the original paper.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned.
there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering. Normally. However. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance./i ///in ///. However.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t ./ / . Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air. bridges. ' . In both. to drive off its oxygen. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. Chemically.Cars..
Chlorine. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. will turn it milky. when bubbled through lime water. te. to remove ink oxygen and so. chlorine. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. dyes or inks from materials. which is why the color disappears. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. But the air breathe out. taken from the air. It merely oxidizes them. The very odd one. "Lime water" is It normally clear. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. when it comes into contact with. Blec added h U Stain removed . it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. but a oxygen in its place. however. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. for for instance. grease or dyes. has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white.
Roman candles contain a mixture of combined. 10 . the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. huge amounts of energy are released . In particular. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. or decomposes. But all chemical processes. Many chemical processes. to make them work. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. spectacular or not. sending it into the air. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. air.Substances Sometimes. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. When this happens. and so suddenly. or compound. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. At least one of these substances is a gas. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework. great or small. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. but produced in such vast quantities. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. instead of giving out heat. An explosive chemical mixture . ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances.
the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete.Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes. Combination is the opposite of decomposition. Exchange In other types of reactions. A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. Replacement Some chemical processes. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^.the two form two new substances. ^T . including bleaching. as shown below. sometimes only partial . involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another.
which converts flat dough into something edible. giving it a soapy taste. and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However. Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water. the It has same chemical ingredients as water. Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . through. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. If a wooden splint is lit. if too much baking soda is used. This for 12 is a way oxygen. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. This Baking powder is easily given up. but contains extra oxygen. when N the way < Bread heated. If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution.the decomposition of baking soda . Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change . a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air.Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . leaving water behind. y\ j . of testing Smouldering . you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash.
silver sulfide. brown. as in that m and be with egg. it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron. If the action the copper continued. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. Thus sulfur form a black compound. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. solution of iron sulfate left behind. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. is be deposited on and a the blade. The of replacement. one of the ingredients. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . traces of sulfur. or certain green addition to copper vegetables. that contain sulfur. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. so that.
Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. This is unattractive. 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. oxide. or into the joint in need of repair. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. not only it wasteful. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. ' such as chalk. or scum. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. a precipitate. two new substances are formed. and instead surface as the white scum. high temperature for which an has to is needed. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. ignition mixture be used. forms.
This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another. This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange. and lead chromate.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals. Surprisingly. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap . chrome yellow. have exchanged partners to make new substances. sodium which remains in the solution. Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals.presto! . when . sodium chromate and lead nitrate. stearate make two new substances.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange.Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. the two chemical substances involved. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder. 15 | .
which react with acids and make them safe. But the widest used base of soda lime. Bases also have their domestic uses. washing soda and caustic soda . been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards.bases . for instance. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident.are all bases. producing harmless "salts" and water. plaster and concrete. mortar. and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. iron. there are other substances . 16 Red cabbage water." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. and so does aspirin. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. contains acid. vinegar or lemon added. carry messages around the body.g. lime is a vital ingredient in cement. Fortunately. Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue.baking soda. Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. . Our own bodies. Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. Yogurt. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. After all. In view of the reputation acid has.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. The various kinds found in the home . they like to keep well away. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. Besides its agricultural use. It turns red when an acid (e. and digest food. too. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection.
and begun to spill its load onto the road. Fortunately.V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed. the danger can be averted. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. .
Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz. (ascorbic are essential to health. contain citrate citric acid. Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems. for Hydrogen example." so proving that they are acids. Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. It is obtained from fermenting wine.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. 18 m a the yogurt and it . with hydrogen taking the place of a metal." Lemon juice. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. Many such as Vitamin C acids." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home. spoils the milk. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. cream of tartar. produce acids. "Citrus" fruits. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. Even our own bodies acid). is industry. or has gone sour.
Even when battery acid is diluted. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. hardly at all. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. safely in iron containers. a corrosive. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying. those at the bottom. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron.WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. giving off strangely." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 .
term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. The remaining components combine to form a "salt.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. Bases are the opposite to acids. Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. magnesium oxide.for instance." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. salt produced common is salt. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. Not strong and sodium hydroxide. happens. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose." speaking. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound .
it poured into one appears to change into wine.A Chemical Indicator As water glass. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. 21 . turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need.
shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. hydrogen. Water's main ingredient." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water.) Many chemical reactions produce water. is a compound of two substances . they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions. is the commonest substance in the universe.hydrogen and oxygen.Water is the most important substance on our planet. When substances dissolve in water. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace. (The chemical formula for water. The reason why is not difficult to guess.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. Copper oxide. to form steam. Water. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug . neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry. for instance. H 2 0. verse. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange.and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. as we have discovered. this water must be in liquid form. 22 . Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. More familiarly. For life on Earth to exist. Water is so important to chemistry .
Millions of years ago. 23 .< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature. .that Earth became life on possible. ~^f. It was only then cooled. when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice .'/'' ''. In time. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans. . our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam.
. in favor of Today. and safer than hydrogen. that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution).Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. explosively) in oxygen. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. a WATER Oxygen . gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. the surface of the water. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide. After a couple of spectacular disasters. 24 form Hydrogen I . Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. which is also light. and will burn readily (sometimes gas. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal.
the copper sulfate powder blue again. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. The water must be in the form of steam. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder. This can be used to test for (waterless) water. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. the water."anhydrous" copper sulfate." and may affect their color.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . such as copper sulfate. Effectively. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water.Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . This is known as "water of crystallization. have water locked into them. hydrogen is left behind. a whitish powder is formed . so producing iron removed from (rust). which causes the iron to oxidize. there is no color change. Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water.
is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. (which are good conductors). Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. onto articles made of cheaper materials. a more expensive much metal. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. When hydrogen burns in oxygen.and most useful . to form water. Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest . a current can flow through. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy..metals. one of the Earth's most common substances. such as silver or chromium. appear at the anode (+). a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ). If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. Today. Once begun the gases have to evolve.putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. such as 26 water. this energy would have to be put back in some way. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. Elec trolysis . . Aluminum. is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay. It > In this workshop. A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. and the hydrogen ions positive. the oxygen ions must be negative. and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. can be used for metal-plating . But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present.
As with magnetism. two metal plates." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode. called electrodes." and the other.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct. For example. In electrolysis. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. the "cathode. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes. ordinary salt dissolves in water. does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte. sugar. attached to the negative terminal. But rent. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. Instead. 27 . The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. and the negative ions to the anode. Ions carry electrical charges. and so can carry an electric current.
arranged alternately. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . and is able to "store" electrical energy. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. change. the greater and copper produce about half a volt. from nickel to copper. once the connection is made. or cell. the voltage. The / electric current produced. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. battery They the early 1800s. Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. aluminum and silver about two volts. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes.
metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. In a weak solution. used in bleach. The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. Chlorine. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. For this. Battery Salt solution 29 .Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. a it During electrolysis. As chlorine gas is given off. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. and only the water will be electrolyzed. anode is made of silver. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . is solution. the salt will merely act as an impurity.
There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. iron and oxygen. but some. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. although many are extremely rare.> For instance. when the elements carbon . comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. for instance. including carbon. not all the metals we meet are elements. carbon and gold.the elements. Most. are elements in their own Aluminum. greasy liquid! 4 . by definition. There are 90 elements occurring naturally. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. are glass. have been added.a black solid . its headlights signed. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. An element. including aluminum. they contain two or more elements combined chemically. disulfide . the bodywork steel. are found in combination with other elements. Combining elements A few elements.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . such as oxygen. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe . weight and strong. and has no other ingredients.and sulfur .a yellow solid cally.that is. occur in nature on their own. particularly metals. a mere eight. is used in ship and aircraft construction. such as zinc and tin.objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber. Although the majority of the elements are metals. Of these. -y . it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. Most of the materials we use are compounds .are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . silicon. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals. Before the elements were known about. because it is light in right. however. and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements. contains only one substance.
Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. but not so copper or gold. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. but less easy to describe. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . is mercury is a liquid. is that they are good conductors of electricity. hard. lead heavy. Most metals are silver-gray. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. yellow. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. like boron. a liquid. . Iron is light. Antimony. One property that all metals share. are "earthy" solids. . Silicon.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. however. for example. Some. the basis of the microchip. others are colorless gases.
for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard.chlorine. silver and gold. SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way. In the center are the durable metals. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . such as copper. such as sodium and potassium. The Periodic Table (above) NO. Aluminum Actinium atoms.physical and chemical . The properties of the elements . iodine and fluorine. a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 .The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides. right. Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element.
First of all. the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). Besides being the building bricks of the universe.and ends with the power of the future . Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. with a minute speck. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . releasing enormous energy in the process. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . but almost no mass. creating even more elements. Every element has its own kind of atom. helium atoms are formed. under tremendous pressure and intense heat.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. on the center spot. is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus.of which most of the universe is composed. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. no bigger than a pinhead. having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another.nuclear energy. Everything in-between would be empty space. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. perhaps. as the star begins to explode. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. essentially. During the evolution of a star. and then. Chemistry is.fire . hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. these helium atoms "fuse" together. representing the nucleus. before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own.
2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus. also have neutrons in their nuclei. and two electrons in orbit.
36 2 L.Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. each outer the ideal arrangement. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. electrons are element has detached from the atom. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. This is called ionic bonding. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. then eight. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 . eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. the elements should react together easily. Hydrogen has only one electron. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. Chlorine orbit. in its inner orbit. oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. but with just electrons at the screen. or shared. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. easily ° O electrons an is important. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. electrons: two.
125 gramme remains.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. Thus. scientists can determine their age.25 gramme 0. In the alpha particle. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . now has atomic structure of the another element . having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus. less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year. Other elements . 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. if a gramme of fermium were made today. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up.break up break away from the nucleus. The half-life can be very useful. but also energy as they do so. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. changing into atoms of other elements.uranium. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. The radium atom.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example . was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium.radon. 37 . By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life.
20. 36 electricity 26-7. 13. 26. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15. 27 copper 13. batteries 17. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. 14. Electron particle. 22. 33 28. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. The central core of an atom. lead bleach 9. 26 carbon 6. 22 28. with a mass of but no electrical charge. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 26. 8. 32-3. 35. 35. 21. 25. 30. elements are listed on page 33. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. 8. 30. 27. 29. 37 oxidation 13. 33 8. 24. 9. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. 30. 26. 25. 26. 12. 29. 26. 22. \8. e. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. 25. 14. 36 10. 32. 7. 22. 22. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. 34. 30. 24. 28. 24. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. 33. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. chromium 26. 12. Neutron Acid 1. 24. 30. acids 16-17. 26. 32. Rusting.22 19. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. "sulfate. 7. The opposite kind of substance to a base. 20. 14. 18. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. neutrons nickel 26. 30. 26. 32 15. 29. 26. 29. sodium 32 27. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. helium 24. 38 8. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. 32 iron silver 13.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 25. 9. 21. 10. 21 aluminum anode 26. e. 29. 36 33 . 22. 28. The number atom is the element's atomic number. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 19. 16. 20. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 21 cathode 26. 9. 14. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 32. 22 15. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance.21. 33 28 neon 33 14. 33 and electricity 26-7. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. e. 24. 19. 22-3. 11. 14 heat 10. oxygen gases 10.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. 27. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 13. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. 29 salt 20. 37 20-1. Strictly speaking. 26. 34. 33. 13. 18-19. 24. 7. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 34. 28.g. 32. Molecule The smallest e. 11. lead nitrate. 30. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. 12. 28-9. 7. 12. 24.g. 25. bleaching. 19. hydrogen 9. 22.g. 25 13. 25 12. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. zinc 30. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. alkalis. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. 37 carbon dioxide 6. alkalis 20. 27. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. 37 nucleus 34. 33 gold 19." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. 22.g. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 34. silicon 30. turns red in the presence of an alkali. 26 20. 27. their atoms. 29 chemical compounds 10. 23. 35. 'salts" 16. 24. 33. 35 20. 21. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. but which do not exist on own. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. 27. 27.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. Sun 20 metals 19. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. lead and nitrogen are not. 25. 25. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. 27. 22. 27. A particle at the nucleus of an atom.36 exchange 14-15. 27.
using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments. to bring out the basic principles of each subject. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being. Each book is vividly illustrated. What happens when .Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. and has a clearly-written expert text.
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