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Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.


something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical

And while






known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
in the


kitchen? Yet a few simple

tests will


their presence.

more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
Obviously, far

materials. But





however they

occur, naturally or otherwise,

chemical substances are

made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
key to





Testing for acids








Replacement 2

Strong Bases



Weak Acids



Exchange 2


Strong Acids




Electrochemical Series


A Chemical Indicator




Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption







Making Chlorine by




Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table

Half-way Elements

Sharing Electrons

Donating Electrons


Splitting the



Glossary and Index












Inside a chemical plant

The structure of an atom

But nothing will burn without air. in which things more easily. blankets or. attempts are made to smother the flames with water. while some heat is given out. Clearly. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen. in the case of accidental fire. Fuels such as coal. What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. keeping air away from the flames. keep The first the air flames. or oils are burned. as with the burning plane. How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point. called carbon dioxide. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. Once lit. All these things act as barriers. Charred wood. it combines with oxygen to make another gas.such as kerosene or butane .just about one fifth . A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. is almost pure carbon.is made up of it. and. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire. or something it contains. special foam. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks.to make them burn. usually need another fire . is needed for burning to take place. It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. as the plane touches down. however. either the air. Fortunately.have to be stored under special conditions. cannot burn. target dioxide. and is . When this burns in air. On the other hand. Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . with a high ignition point. wood. The vital ingredient is oxygen. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. Foam has two advantages over water. easier to transport. such as a match. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. Before something will burn. sand. fuels with low ignition points . the airport's emergency services have been alerted. That is why.perhaps from burning wood . or charcoal.

its ash weighs less than the original paper. which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). magnesium oxide.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned. that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . This is because paper contains a lot of carbon.

and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance./ / .">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t . As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. bridges. there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air./i ///in ///. Chemically. to drive off its oxygen. However. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air. ' .Cars. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion. In both. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering.. However. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. Normally.

has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. to remove ink oxygen and so. grease or dyes. chlorine. however. which is why the color disappears. It merely oxidizes them. The very odd one. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. for for instance. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. but a oxygen in its place. te. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. Blec added h U Stain removed . Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. "Lime water" is It normally clear. Chlorine. taken from the air. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. But the air breathe out. when it comes into contact with. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. dyes or inks from materials. will turn it milky. when bubbled through lime water.

An explosive chemical mixture . substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones. In particular. to make them work. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. or compound. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. At least one of these substances is a gas. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. Many chemical processes.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. air. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. instead of giving out heat. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. But all chemical processes. sending it into the air. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. spectacular or not. and so suddenly. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. or decomposes. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. huge amounts of energy are released . When this happens. 10 . but produced in such vast quantities.Substances Sometimes.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. great or small. ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework.

A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. sometimes only partial . Exchange In other types of reactions. Replacement Some chemical processes. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones. as shown below. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind. Combination is the opposite of decomposition. including bleaching. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^. involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another.the two form two new substances. ^T .Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes.

Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash. the It has same chemical ingredients as water. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. through. This for 12 is a way oxygen. This Baking powder is easily given up. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. of testing Smouldering . y\ j . If a wooden splint is lit. Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . when N the way < Bread heated. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. but contains extra oxygen. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air.the decomposition of baking soda . leaving water behind. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red.Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change .Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water.which converts flat dough into something edible. if too much baking soda is used. giving it a soapy taste. If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution.

that contain sulfur. it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. If the action the copper continued. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. The of replacement. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. or certain green addition to copper vegetables. silver sulfide.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. is be deposited on and a the blade. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. so that. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. brown. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. as in that m and be with egg. solution of iron sulfate left behind. traces of sulfur. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . Thus sulfur form a black compound. one of the ingredients. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron.

' such as chalk. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. forms. ignition mixture be used. This is unattractive. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. two new substances are formed. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. or into the joint in need of repair. a precipitate. high temperature for which an has to is needed. or scum. not only it wasteful. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. and instead surface as the white scum. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. oxide.

Surprisingly. chrome yellow. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder. This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange.presto! .the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another.Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap . and lead chromate. when . the two chemical substances involved." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals. This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. sodium which remains in the solution. 15 | . stearate make two new substances. have exchanged partners to make new substances. sodium chromate and lead nitrate.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals.

they like to keep well away.are all bases. Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. In view of the reputation acid has. Our own bodies. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. producing harmless "salts" and water. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. there are other substances . iron. contains acid. Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. for instance.bases .which react with acids and make them safe. and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. mortar. After all." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. It turns red when an acid (e.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. vinegar or lemon added. lime is a vital ingredient in cement. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. . produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. Fortunately.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . 16 Red cabbage water. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. too. carry messages around the body. and digest food. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. and so does aspirin. The various kinds found in the home . But the widest used base of soda lime. washing soda and caustic soda . Yogurt.g.baking soda. Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. Besides its agricultural use. Bases also have their domestic uses. plaster and concrete. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases.

and begun to spill its load onto the road. the danger can be averted. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases.V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed. . Fortunately.

18 m a the yogurt and it . Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. spoils the milk. Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid." so proving that they are acids. or has gone sour. contain citrate citric acid. (ascorbic are essential to health. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. Many such as Vitamin C acids. for Hydrogen example." Lemon juice. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. Even our own bodies acid). "Citrus" fruits. It is obtained from fermenting wine. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home. Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive. produce acids. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. cream of tartar. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal. is industry.

while cheaper metals stain or corrode. those at the bottom. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen.WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. giving off strangely. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. Even when battery acid is diluted. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids. a corrosive. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked. hardly at all." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 . safely in iron containers. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying.

for instance. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound ." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases. magnesium oxide." speaking. salt produced common is salt. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. happens. The remaining components combine to form a "salt. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. Not strong and sodium hydroxide. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. Bases are the opposite to acids. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains.

and a drop of acid in the second is all you need. 21 . which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem.A Chemical Indicator As water glass. it poured into one appears to change into wine. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass.

H 2 0. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. this water must be in liquid form. for instance. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace. is a compound of two substances . neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry.) Many chemical reactions produce water. as we have discovered. The reason why is not difficult to guess. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water.hydrogen and oxygen.and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. to form steam. When substances dissolve in water.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. Water's main ingredient. Water. hydrogen. they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions. verse. 22 . Copper oxide. Water is so important to chemistry .Water is the most important substance on our planet. For life on Earth to exist. (The chemical formula for water. More familiarly. is the commonest substance in the universe. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug .

< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature. Millions of years ago.that Earth became life on possible. In time.'/'' ''. . . 23 . when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice . the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans. It was only then cooled. our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam. ~^f.

that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution).Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. in favor of Today. explosively) in oxygen. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal. and safer than hydrogen. . which is also light. 24 form Hydrogen I . own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide. and will burn readily (sometimes gas. After a couple of spectacular disasters. the surface of the water. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. a WATER Oxygen .

This is known as "water of crystallization. hydrogen is left behind. The water must be in the form of steam."anhydrous" copper sulfate. the copper sulfate powder blue again. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . Effectively. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water. This can be used to test for (waterless) water. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder. have water locked into them. so producing iron removed from (rust). Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water. the water.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals." and may affect their color. a whitish powder is formed .Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . such as copper sulfate. and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. there is no color change. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. which causes the iron to oxidize.

a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay. onto articles made of cheaper materials. a more expensive much metal. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. Today. appear at the anode (+). aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest .putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. can be used for metal-plating .. Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. the oxygen ions must be negative. If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. one of the Earth's most common substances. (which are good conductors). and the hydrogen ions positive.metals. A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. Aluminum. Elec trolysis . It > In this workshop. this energy would have to be put back in some way. When hydrogen burns in oxygen.and most useful . Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. to form water. such as silver or chromium. Once begun the gases have to evolve. such as 26 water. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ). Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. . By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. a current can flow through.

does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte." and the other. As with magnetism. and the negative ions to the anode.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. Instead. and so can carry an electric current. For example. called electrodes. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. But rent. ordinary salt dissolves in water. Ions carry electrical charges. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. two metal plates. attached to the negative terminal. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery. In electrolysis. 27 . sugar. the "cathode. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode.

Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. from nickel to copper. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. or cell. change. once the connection is made. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. battery They the early 1800s. enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. and is able to "store" electrical energy. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. arranged alternately. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . The / electric current produced. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. the greater and copper produce about half a volt. aluminum and silver about two volts. the voltage.

In a weak solution. a it During electrolysis. Chlorine. used in bleach. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. is solution. anode is made of silver. The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. As chlorine gas is given off.Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. Battery Salt solution 29 . over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. and only the water will be electrolyzed. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . the salt will merely act as an impurity. For this.

objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber.that is.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. including aluminum. including carbon. occur in nature on their own. the bodywork steel. however. greasy liquid! 4 . carbon and gold. Most.and sulfur . Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. by definition. Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals. are found in combination with other elements. such as zinc and tin. There are 90 elements occurring naturally.a yellow solid cally. its headlights signed. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. they contain two or more elements combined chemically. are glass. a mere eight. Before the elements were known about.are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . weight and strong. Although the majority of the elements are metals. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine. Most of the materials we use are compounds . and has no other ingredients. although many are extremely rare. contains only one substance. when the elements carbon . Combining elements A few elements. is used in ship and aircraft construction. but some. for instance. and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements. it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. such as oxygen. are elements in their own Aluminum. disulfide . because it is light in right. 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. have been added. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe .a black solid . Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. -y . not all the metals we meet are elements. silicon.are combined chemithey create between them a clear.the elements. iron and oxygen.> For instance. particularly metals. An element. Of these.

31 .

like boron. is that they are good conductors of electricity. is mercury is a liquid. but less easy to describe. but not so copper or gold. for example.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. . waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. however. others are colorless gases. Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . Antimony. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. Some. Silicon. lead heavy. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. the basis of the microchip. Iron is light. One property that all metals share. hard. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. are "earthy" solids. . yellow. Most metals are silver-gray. a liquid.

follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. The properties of the elements . a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 .chlorine. In the center are the durable metals. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals. Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . Aluminum Actinium atoms. such as copper. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry.The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides. right. The Periodic Table (above) NO. SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way. iodine and fluorine. such as sodium and potassium.physical and chemical . silver and gold.

essentially.nuclear energy. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). creating even more elements. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. these helium atoms "fuse" together. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. Besides being the building bricks of the universe. hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. releasing enormous energy in the process. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space.of which most of the universe is composed. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. but almost no mass.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. Every element has its own kind of atom. First of all. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. under tremendous pressure and intense heat. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . no bigger than a pinhead. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. representing the nucleus. During the evolution of a star. having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron.fire . before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. as the star begins to explode. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom.and ends with the power of the future . But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. with a minute speck. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . Chemistry is. on the center spot. helium atoms are formed. Everything in-between would be empty space. perhaps. and then.

2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . also have neutrons in their nuclei. Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus. Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium. and two electrons in orbit.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-).

Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. in its inner orbit. each outer the ideal arrangement. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding.Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 . and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. 36 2 L. but with just electrons at the screen. Chlorine orbit. electrons are element has detached from the atom. easily ° O electrons an is important. This is called ionic bonding. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. or shared. eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. electrons: two. then eight. the elements should react together easily. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. Hydrogen has only one electron.

less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year. The radium atom.radon. if a gramme of fermium were made today. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up. but also energy as they do so. The half-life can be very useful. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. now has atomic structure of the another element . changing into atoms of other elements. having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. scientists can determine their age. two protons and two neutrons bonded together .an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium.25 gramme 0.uranium. In the alpha particle. 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. Thus. The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example .125 gramme remains. 37 .break up break away from the nucleus. By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. Other elements .

36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 37 oxidation 13. 37 carbon dioxide 6. hydrogen 9. with a mass of but no electrical charge. 21 cathode 26. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. 27 copper 13. Rusting. 30. zinc 30. 7. 30. 23. 24. 28. 35 20. 33 and electricity 26-7. 25 13. 20. 26. 22 15. 32. 19. 27. 28. 12. Sun 20 metals 19. acids 16-17. 29. 34. e. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. 13. 33. 35. 25. elements are listed on page 33. 22. 24.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. 12. 24. 25. 35. sodium 32 27. 21. 29. "sulfate. 24. 22. 32. 35. 19. \8. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. lead and nitrogen are not. but which do not exist on own. 36 electricity 26-7. lead bleach 9. 24. 25. 25. 13. 26. 34. oxygen gases 10.g. 11. 12. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. 26. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. Strictly speaking. e. e. 26. 27. 24. 36 10. 32. helium 24. 30. 33 gold 19. 22. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. 27. 37 20-1. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. The central core of an atom. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 32. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 14. 33 8. The number atom is the element's atomic number. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 14 heat 10. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. 34. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 29. 22. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 30. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. 9. 26 carbon 6. 22. 16. 27. bleaching. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. 32 15. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. 18-19. 27. 29. chromium 26. 33. 22-3. 24. 14. neutrons nickel 26. 26. alkalis 20. turns red in the presence of an alkali. 'salts" 16. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 20. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. 34. 38 8. 25. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 33 28. 29 chemical compounds 10. 28-9. 27." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid.g. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. 37 nucleus 34. 24. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. silicon 30. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color.36 exchange 14-15. 30. 22 28. 14. 21. 9. 18. batteries 17. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. 12. 13. 36 33 . 19. their atoms. 27. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. 11. 32-3. 7. 25. 29. 20. 22.g. 27. 33. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. 7. 22. 25 12. 30. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. 32 iron silver 13. 21. 21 aluminum anode 26. alkalis. 8. 22. 27. 26. 10.21. 26. 26. Electron particle. Molecule The smallest e. 29 salt 20. The opposite kind of substance to a base. 25. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. 30. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. 28.22 19.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. 7. Neutron Acid 1. lead nitrate. 26. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive.g. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. 26 20. 33 28 neon 33 14. 9. 8. 14.

pooouction .





and has a clearly-written expert text. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. Each book is vividly illustrated. using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments. What happens when . to bring out the basic principles of each subject.Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being.

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