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ttoms, Molecules and Elements
ISanklin Watts Science V
s eri es Edi tor:
L one Ion
Be nc er
•N ewY ork
Syd ne> f
Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.
something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical
known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
kitchen? Yet a few simple
more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
occur, naturally or otherwise,
chemical substances are
made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
Testing for acids
A Chemical Indicator
Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption
Making Chlorine by
Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Glossary and Index
Inside a chemical plant
The structure of an atom
just about one fifth . is needed for burning to take place.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. That is why. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. All these things act as barriers. while some heat is given out. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. special foam. usually need another fire . Once lit. it combines with oxygen to make another gas. in which things more easily. such as a match. however. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point. Fortunately. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going. blankets or. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. Charred wood. and is . It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. But nothing will burn without air. Fuels such as coal. easier to transport. called carbon dioxide. and. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen.perhaps from burning wood .is made up of it. is almost pure carbon. sand. On the other hand. Foam has two advantages over water. Clearly. either the air. Before something will burn. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon.have to be stored under special conditions. as with the burning plane. Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . target dioxide.such as kerosene or butane . What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. attempts are made to smother the flames with water. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire. as the plane touches down. in the case of accidental fire. the airport's emergency services have been alerted.to make them burn. keep The first the air flames. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. fuels with low ignition points . or charcoal. When this burns in air. cannot burn. with a high ignition point. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. or oils are burned. or something it contains. wood. keeping air away from the flames. The vital ingredient is oxygen.
that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . magnesium oxide. which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned. This is because paper contains a lot of carbon. its ash weighs less than the original paper.
Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion. However. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting./ / . Normally. ' .Cars.. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air. Chemically. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. In both. bridges. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering. However.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t . to drive off its oxygen. there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air./i ///in ///. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance.
Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. It merely oxidizes them.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. chlorine. te. to remove ink oxygen and so. has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white. for for instance. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. but a oxygen in its place. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. But the air breathe out. taken from the air. Chlorine. it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. however. which is why the color disappears. when bubbled through lime water. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. The very odd one. grease or dyes. when it comes into contact with. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. Blec added h U Stain removed . will turn it milky. "Lime water" is It normally clear. dyes or inks from materials. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance.
but produced in such vast quantities.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. When this happens. 10 . spectacular or not. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework. Many chemical processes. But all chemical processes. and so suddenly. An explosive chemical mixture . great or small. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined. ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. air. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. or compound. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. or decomposes. instead of giving out heat. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. At least one of these substances is a gas. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. In particular. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. sending it into the air.Substances Sometimes. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. to make them work. huge amounts of energy are released .
Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes. ^T . involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another. Replacement Some chemical processes. A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^. Combination is the opposite of decomposition. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. Exchange In other types of reactions. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind. as shown below. sometimes only partial . including bleaching. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones.the two form two new substances.
y\ j . Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf.which converts flat dough into something edible. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. giving it a soapy taste. Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution. If a wooden splint is lit. if too much baking soda is used. of testing Smouldering . and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. through.Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change .the decomposition of baking soda . leaving water behind. the It has same chemical ingredients as water. Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash. but contains extra oxygen. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air. This Baking powder is easily given up. This for 12 is a way oxygen. and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However. when N the way < Bread heated.Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame .
it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. is be deposited on and a the blade. so that. brown. that contain sulfur. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. The of replacement. as in that m and be with egg. Thus sulfur form a black compound. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. one of the ingredients. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. silver sulfide. If the action the copper continued. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . or certain green addition to copper vegetables. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. traces of sulfur. solution of iron sulfate left behind. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere.
oxide. ' such as chalk. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. or scum. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. high temperature for which an has to is needed. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. This is unattractive. ignition mixture be used. 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. a precipitate. and instead surface as the white scum. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. forms. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. not only it wasteful. two new substances are formed. or into the joint in need of repair. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process.
stearate make two new substances. chrome yellow. when . Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another. sodium which remains in the solution.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals. and lead chromate.presto! . 15 | . have exchanged partners to make new substances. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap .Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder. This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange. the two chemical substances involved. This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. Surprisingly. sodium chromate and lead nitrate.
for instance. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. they like to keep well away.baking soda. Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases.are all bases. It turns red when an acid (e.g. ." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. there are other substances .oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. mortar.bases . But the widest used base of soda lime. Yogurt. vinegar or lemon added. Besides its agricultural use. Bases also have their domestic uses.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards.which react with acids and make them safe. lime is a vital ingredient in cement. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. After all. carry messages around the body. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. producing harmless "salts" and water. In view of the reputation acid has. and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. contains acid. washing soda and caustic soda . too. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. plaster and concrete. Our own bodies. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. and digest food. Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. and so does aspirin. Fortunately. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. iron. The various kinds found in the home . 16 Red cabbage water. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added.
and begun to spill its load onto the road. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. . the danger can be averted. Fortunately.V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed.
Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. contain citrate citric acid. is industry. (ascorbic are essential to health. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home." so proving that they are acids. produce acids. Many such as Vitamin C acids. spoils the milk. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz. cream of tartar. "Citrus" fruits. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. It is obtained from fermenting wine. Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. for Hydrogen example. Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems." Lemon juice. or has gone sour. 18 m a the yogurt and it . Even our own bodies acid).Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive.
The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. Even when battery acid is diluted. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. hardly at all. safely in iron containers. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid.WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. those at the bottom. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 . cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. giving off strangely. a corrosive.
This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases.for instance. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water." speaking. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. Bases are the opposite to acids. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . The remaining components combine to form a "salt. Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. magnesium oxide.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. happens. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound . Not strong and sodium hydroxide. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. salt produced common is salt.
it poured into one appears to change into wine. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem.A Chemical Indicator As water glass. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. 21 .
The reason why is not difficult to guess. verse. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. Water. H 2 0. is the commonest substance in the universe. For life on Earth to exist. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. hydrogen. is a compound of two substances . yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere.) Many chemical reactions produce water. (The chemical formula for water. When substances dissolve in water. neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry. More familiarly. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug ." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. Water is so important to chemistry . they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water.Water is the most important substance on our planet. for instance.hydrogen and oxygen. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen. this water must be in liquid form. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. Water's main ingredient.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace. as we have discovered. Copper oxide. to form steam. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. 22 .and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen.
our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam. .< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature. ~^f. In time. Millions of years ago. . when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice .'/'' ''. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans.that Earth became life on possible. 23 . It was only then cooled.
which is also light. in favor of Today. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas.Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. 24 form Hydrogen I . After a couple of spectacular disasters. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. explosively) in oxygen. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution). and safer than hydrogen. . a WATER Oxygen . the surface of the water. and will burn readily (sometimes gas. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal.
Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . hydrogen is left behind. the water. there is no color change. such as copper sulfate. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water. This can be used to test for (waterless) water.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. This is known as "water of crystallization. Effectively. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. the copper sulfate powder blue again. so producing iron removed from (rust). which causes the iron to oxidize. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. The water must be in the form of steam. a whitish powder is formed . Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances." and may affect their color. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder."anhydrous" copper sulfate. have water locked into them.
Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ).. If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. Once begun the gases have to evolve. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. the oxygen ions must be negative. is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay. By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. a current can flow through. to form water. a more expensive much metal. . Electrolysis is a very important industrial process.metals. this energy would have to be put back in some way.and most useful . one of the Earth's most common substances. When hydrogen burns in oxygen. Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. can be used for metal-plating . This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. such as 26 water. onto articles made of cheaper materials. and the hydrogen ions positive. It > In this workshop. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. such as silver or chromium. a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest .putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. (which are good conductors). Today. Aluminum. Elec trolysis . A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. appear at the anode (+).
attached to the negative terminal. and the negative ions to the anode. 27 . are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery. does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte. But rent.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct. For example. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. and so can carry an electric current. the "cathode. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. ordinary salt dissolves in water. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. Ions carry electrical charges. sugar." and the other. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. In electrolysis. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes. As with magnetism. Instead. two metal plates. called electrodes." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode.
enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. battery They the early 1800s. Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. change. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). aluminum and silver about two volts. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. once the connection is made. arranged alternately. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. and is able to "store" electrical energy.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . or cell. from nickel to copper. The / electric current produced. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well. the voltage. the greater and copper produce about half a volt.
a it During electrolysis. anode is made of silver. the salt will merely act as an impurity. over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide.Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. For this. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. is solution. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. Battery Salt solution 29 . the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . As chlorine gas is given off. The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. used in bleach. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. Chlorine. In a weak solution. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. and only the water will be electrolyzed.
But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. Most of the materials we use are compounds . it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. however. because it is light in right.a black solid .*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . for instance. such as zinc and tin. including aluminum. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements. weight and strong.a yellow solid cally. are glass. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe .that is. although many are extremely rare. is used in ship and aircraft construction. comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. Combining elements A few elements. occur in nature on their own. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. Before the elements were known about. but some. silicon. disulfide . carbon and gold. An element. There are 90 elements occurring naturally. iron and oxygen. contains only one substance. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. the bodywork steel. have been added. such as oxygen. including carbon. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. its headlights signed. There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine. -y . Although the majority of the elements are metals. greasy liquid! 4 . not all the metals we meet are elements. Most.the elements. Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals. and has no other ingredients.> For instance. are elements in their own Aluminum. a mere eight. when the elements carbon . particularly metals. 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon .objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber. are found in combination with other elements.and sulfur .are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . by definition.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. Of these. they contain two or more elements combined chemically.
But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. lead heavy. yellow. Some. Antimony. is that they are good conductors of electricity. but not so copper or gold. but less easy to describe. a liquid. Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . others are colorless gases. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. is mercury is a liquid. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. Silicon. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. One property that all metals share. . are "earthy" solids. Iron is light.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. however. . Most metals are silver-gray. hard. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. for example. like boron. the basis of the microchip.
right. The properties of the elements . The Periodic Table (above) NO. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . Aluminum Actinium atoms. such as sodium and potassium.The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides. such as copper. silver and gold.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals. a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 . used since ancient times coinage and jewelry. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. iodine and fluorine. In the center are the durable metals.chlorine. SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way.physical and chemical . Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges.
the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. releasing enormous energy in the process.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element.of which most of the universe is composed. Every element has its own kind of atom. Besides being the building bricks of the universe. is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . Chemistry is. Everything in-between would be empty space.and ends with the power of the future . representing the nucleus. essentially. but almost no mass. creating even more elements. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. with a minute speck. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge.nuclear energy. these helium atoms "fuse" together. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . and then. First of all. perhaps. no bigger than a pinhead. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . helium atoms are formed. before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. under tremendous pressure and intense heat. on the center spot. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself.fire . Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. During the evolution of a star. as the star begins to explode.
and two electrons in orbit. Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus. 2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. also have neutrons in their nuclei.
Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. in its inner orbit. oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. 36 2 L. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. but with just electrons at the screen. Hydrogen has only one electron. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. easily ° O electrons an is important. each outer the ideal arrangement. This is called ionic bonding. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. the elements should react together easily. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. electrons are element has detached from the atom. electrons: two. or shared. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 . Chlorine orbit. then eight. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one.
having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. Other elements .Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example . The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life. changing into atoms of other elements. less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year. Thus. if a gramme of fermium were made today.125 gramme remains. 37 . In the alpha particle.radon. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium. 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. now has atomic structure of the another element . By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. but also energy as they do so. scientists can determine their age.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. The half-life can be very useful.break up break away from the nucleus.25 gramme 0.uranium. The radium atom. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up.
30. 22. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 27. with a mass of but no electrical charge. 12. 33. 24. 33 and electricity 26-7. 14. oxygen gases 10." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. 36 33 . 24. 25. 12. their atoms. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. 26 carbon 6. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 22. 8. 7. 22. 26.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. lead and nitrogen are not. 37 20-1. 22 28. 13. 30. 8.22 19. 21. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. neutrons nickel 26. 32 15. 30. 29. 37 carbon dioxide 6.g.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 30. 25. elements are listed on page 33. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. 16.g. e. 27. 32 iron silver 13. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. 21 aluminum anode 26. 9. 22-3. 21. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. 32-3.36 exchange 14-15. alkalis. 34. sodium 32 27. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 24. 20. 27. 28-9. 34. 14. batteries 17. 35. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. 20. 30. 10. 25. 24. 32. 35. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. 9. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. 27 copper 13. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. 26. 21. 32. 27. 25. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15. 32. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. 33 28 neon 33 14. helium 24. 14. Sun 20 metals 19. 26. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. 29. Electron particle.g. 19. 22. 27. 7. hydrogen 9. 7. 29. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. 32. 29 salt 20. 35 20. 30. 24. 30. 22. 37 oxidation 13. Molecule The smallest e. The opposite kind of substance to a base. 11. 25. 21 cathode 26. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 26. 34. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. 29 chemical compounds 10.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. 22. 22 15. "sulfate. 22. 24. 29. 25. 26 20. 28. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. 26. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. 27. 'salts" 16. 38 8. 23. acids 16-17. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 33. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. e. 14 heat 10. 25 13. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. 28. Strictly speaking. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 18-19. The central core of an atom. 13. 27.21. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 33 gold 19. 27. alkalis 20. \8. chromium 26. 25 12. lead nitrate. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 25. 26. 13. zinc 30. 28. 26. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. 9. 14. 24. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. 12. 19. Neutron Acid 1. 37 nucleus 34. 34. 20. lead bleach 9. but which do not exist on own. 22. 18. silicon 30. 7. 12. 11. 33. 19. 35. 33 8. turns red in the presence of an alkali. Rusting. The number atom is the element's atomic number. 36 electricity 26-7. 36 10. bleaching. 29. 27. e. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. 33 28. 26. 26.g. 24.
using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments.Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. What happens when . to bring out the basic principles of each subject. Each book is vividly illustrated. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. and has a clearly-written expert text.