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Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.


something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical

And while






known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
in the


kitchen? Yet a few simple

tests will


their presence.

more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
Obviously, far

materials. But





however they

occur, naturally or otherwise,

chemical substances are

made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
key to





Testing for acids








Replacement 2

Strong Bases



Weak Acids



Exchange 2


Strong Acids




Electrochemical Series


A Chemical Indicator




Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption







Making Chlorine by




Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table

Half-way Elements

Sharing Electrons

Donating Electrons


Splitting the



Glossary and Index












Inside a chemical plant

The structure of an atom

Clearly. as with the burning plane. But nothing will burn without air. fuels with low ignition points . Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . in which things more easily. either the air. Before something will burn. How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point. and is . Fortunately. Fuels such as coal.just about one fifth . or oils are burned. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going. such as a match. cannot burn. keeping air away from the flames. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks.such as kerosene or butane .have to be stored under special conditions. All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. special foam. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat. in the case of accidental fire. When this burns in air. the airport's emergency services have been alerted. wood. or something it contains. Charred wood. The vital ingredient is oxygen. keep The first the air flames. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. easier to transport. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen. blankets or. and. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. however. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. All these things act as barriers. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. sand. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. That is why.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. On the other hand.perhaps from burning wood . is almost pure carbon. with a high ignition point. Once lit. It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. usually need another fire . it combines with oxygen to make another gas. attempts are made to smother the flames with water. Foam has two advantages over water. called carbon dioxide. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. while some heat is given out.is made up of it.to make them burn. is needed for burning to take place. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. as the plane touches down. or charcoal. target dioxide. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire.

magnesium oxide. which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide. that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash. This is because paper contains a lot of carbon.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned. its ash weighs less than the original paper. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash).

bridges. to drive off its oxygen. Normally./i ///in ///.Cars. In both.. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t ./ / . there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air. ' . Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance. Chemically. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! '. However. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. However.

however. Blec added h U Stain removed . lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. when it comes into contact with. The very odd one. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. taken from the air. when bubbled through lime water. but a oxygen in its place. it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. for for instance. which is why the color disappears. will turn it milky. Chlorine. has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white. Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. But the air breathe out. It merely oxidizes them. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. "Lime water" is It normally clear. to remove ink oxygen and so. dyes or inks from materials. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. te. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. chlorine. grease or dyes.

oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. In particular. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction. and so suddenly. or decomposes. others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. Many chemical processes. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. When this happens. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. 10 . Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. huge amounts of energy are released . spectacular or not. but produced in such vast quantities.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances. to make them work. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war.Substances Sometimes. An explosive chemical mixture . Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. air. But all chemical processes. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. or compound. At least one of these substances is a gas. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones. substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. great or small. instead of giving out heat. the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. sending it into the air.

Exchange In other types of reactions. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^. sometimes only partial . as shown below. Replacement Some chemical processes.Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. including bleaching. A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction.the two form two new substances. ^T . Combination is the opposite of decomposition. involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind.

Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water.which converts flat dough into something edible. leaving water behind. WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air. when N the way < Bread heated. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However. y\ j . of testing Smouldering . This Baking powder is easily given up. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. through.Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change . If a wooden splint is lit. Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. giving it a soapy taste. the It has same chemical ingredients as water.Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . but contains extra oxygen.the decomposition of baking soda . if too much baking soda is used. Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . This for 12 is a way oxygen.

solution of iron sulfate left behind. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. as in that m and be with egg. it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. If the action the copper continued.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. Thus sulfur form a black compound. brown. The of replacement. silver sulfide. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. one of the ingredients. traces of sulfur. Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . or certain green addition to copper vegetables. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. is be deposited on and a the blade. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron. that contain sulfur. so that. which it is actually a thin coating of copper.

This is unattractive. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water. high temperature for which an has to is needed. and instead surface as the white scum. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. ' such as chalk. a precipitate. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. not only it wasteful. ignition mixture be used.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. or scum. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. forms. two new substances are formed. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. or into the joint in need of repair. oxide. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water.

presto! . WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap . This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange. when . sodium chromate and lead nitrate. stearate make two new substances. Surprisingly. and lead chromate. have exchanged partners to make new substances. sodium which remains in the solution. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals. Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply. 15 | . the two chemical substances involved. This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate.Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. chrome yellow.

and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out. they like to keep well away. Yogurt. The various kinds found in the home . Fortunately. there are other substances ." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled.which react with acids and make them safe. plaster and concrete.baking soda. it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . vinegar or lemon added. Our own bodies. lime is a vital ingredient in cement.g.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. It turns red when an acid (e. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. iron.even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards. but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other. Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. washing soda and caustic soda .bases . steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. Bases also have their domestic uses. carry messages around the body. and digest food. After all. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. Besides its agricultural use. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. too. and so does aspirin. . producing harmless "salts" and water. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. 16 Red cabbage water. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases. But the widest used base of soda lime.are all bases. Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction. for instance. mortar. contains acid. In view of the reputation acid has.

emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. the danger can be averted. Fortunately. and begun to spill its load onto the road. .V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed.

spoils the milk. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. It is obtained from fermenting wine.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive." so proving that they are acids. (ascorbic are essential to health. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. cream of tartar. contain citrate citric acid. Many such as Vitamin C acids. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. 18 m a the yogurt and it . probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal. Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. for Hydrogen example. is industry. Even our own bodies acid). Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. or has gone sour. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz." Lemon juice. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems. produce acids. "Citrus" fruits. Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid.

Lead Pure gold remains unmarked. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. Even when battery acid is diluted. safely in iron containers. a corrosive. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 . giving off strangely. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. those at the bottom. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids.WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying. hardly at all.

Bases are the opposite to acids.for instance. with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. magnesium oxide. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water. happens. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. salt produced common is salt." speaking. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually . Not strong and sodium hydroxide. The remaining components combine to form a "salt. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound . Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food.

which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali.A Chemical Indicator As water glass. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem. it poured into one appears to change into wine. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. 21 .

hydrogen and oxygen.and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. More familiarly. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. Water's main ingredient. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. hydrogen. Copper oxide. is the commonest substance in the universe. is a compound of two substances . neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. 22 . Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. as we have discovered. (The chemical formula for water. The reason why is not difficult to guess. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. verse. for instance. Water. this water must be in liquid form. to form steam. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere. When substances dissolve in water. they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions.Water is the most important substance on our planet.) Many chemical reactions produce water. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug . Water is so important to chemistry . For life on Earth to exist. H 2 0. reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water.

< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature.'/'' ''. .that Earth became life on possible. Millions of years ago. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans. when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice . It was only then cooled. In time. ~^f. 23 . . our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam.

24 form Hydrogen I . Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium.Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. explosively) in oxygen. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. in favor of Today. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. the surface of the water. and safer than hydrogen. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas. After a couple of spectacular disasters. . If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal. a WATER Oxygen . which is also light. that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution). and will burn readily (sometimes gas.

"anhydrous" copper sulfate. Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances. a whitish powder is formed . which causes the iron to oxidize. Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water. such as copper sulfate. This is known as "water of crystallization. If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. the copper sulfate powder blue again. and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . so producing iron removed from (rust). there is no color change.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. the water. The water must be in the form of steam.Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . Effectively." and may affect their color. This can be used to test for (waterless) water. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. hydrogen is left behind. have water locked into them. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water.

almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current. such as silver or chromium. one of the Earth's most common substances. This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. and the hydrogen ions positive.and most useful . (which are good conductors). a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. to form water.. appear at the anode (+). can be used for metal-plating . it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ). and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. the oxygen ions must be negative. Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores.metals. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. Aluminum. But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. such as 26 water. is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay.putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest . onto articles made of cheaper materials. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. a more expensive much metal. . By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. It > In this workshop. Once begun the gases have to evolve. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. this energy would have to be put back in some way. When hydrogen burns in oxygen. If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. a current can flow through. Today. Elec trolysis . A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold.

As with magnetism. 27 . But rent. In electrolysis. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. Ions carry electrical charges. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes." and the other. and the negative ions to the anode. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. called electrodes. For example. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. Instead.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. ordinary salt dissolves in water. the "cathode. and are either positive (+) or negative (— ). are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. sugar. attached to the negative terminal. they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct. and so can carry an electric current. two metal plates. does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode.

the greater and copper produce about half a volt. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. from nickel to copper. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. once the connection is made. change. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . aluminum and silver about two volts. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. the voltage. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. battery They the early 1800s. and is able to "store" electrical energy. or cell. enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. The / electric current produced. arranged alternately. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well.

anode is made of silver. used in bleach. Battery Salt solution 29 . and only the water will be electrolyzed. As chlorine gas is given off. is solution.Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. Chlorine. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. For this. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. In a weak solution. a it During electrolysis. the salt will merely act as an impurity.

particularly metals. are glass. -y .are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . because it is light in right. occur in nature on their own. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe. Of these. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. including carbon. Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals.> For instance. disulfide . for instance. but some. Most of the materials we use are compounds . they contain two or more elements combined chemically. Before the elements were known about. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe . such as oxygen.that is. its headlights signed. Combining elements A few elements. greasy liquid! 4 . are found in combination with other elements. is used in ship and aircraft construction. by definition. An element. are elements in their own Aluminum. not all the metals we meet are elements. There are 90 elements occurring naturally.and sulfur . Although the majority of the elements are metals. iron and oxygen.a black solid . have been added. and has no other ingredients. the bodywork steel. such as zinc and tin. comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. a mere eight. carbon and gold. silicon.the elements.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. contains only one substance. although many are extremely rare. 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . however. There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine.a yellow solid cally. including aluminum. weight and strong. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. when the elements carbon . Most.objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements.

31 .

Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. lead heavy. . is that they are good conductors of electricity.Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. are "earthy" solids. Silicon. but less easy to describe. a liquid. Some. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . One property that all metals share. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. like boron. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. Iron is light. yellow. but not so copper or gold. for example. others are colorless gases. Antimony.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. . The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. however. hard. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. the basis of the microchip. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. Most metals are silver-gray. is mercury is a liquid.

iodine and fluorine. such as copper. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals.chlorine.physical and chemical . The Periodic Table (above) NO. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry. Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges.The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. silver and gold. such as sodium and potassium. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. Aluminum Actinium atoms. The properties of the elements . In the center are the durable metals. right. SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way. a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 . water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals .

34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). under tremendous pressure and intense heat. hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. Every element has its own kind of atom. First of all.nuclear energy. Chemistry is. and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. rather like planets orbiting the Sun. and then.fire . Everything in-between would be empty space. helium atoms are formed. creating even more elements. on the center spot.of which most of the universe is composed. before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. as the star begins to explode. with a minute speck. these helium atoms "fuse" together.and ends with the power of the future . The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. but almost no mass. Besides being the building bricks of the universe. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. no bigger than a pinhead. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. essentially. is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . perhaps. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. releasing enormous energy in the process. During the evolution of a star. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change .ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. representing the nucleus.

and two electrons in orbit. Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium. 2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus. also have neutrons in their nuclei.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons.

Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. electrons are element has detached from the atom. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. each outer the ideal arrangement. Chlorine orbit. Hydrogen has only one electron. but with just electrons at the screen. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. then eight. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 . eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. This is called ionic bonding. the elements should react together easily. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. two electrons which has been coated with orbit.Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. electrons: two. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . easily ° O electrons an is important. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. or shared. 36 2 L. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. in its inner orbit.

In the alpha particle. By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. changing into atoms of other elements. if a gramme of fermium were made today. Thus. having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example . 5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. 37 . The half-life can be very useful. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium. now has atomic structure of the another element .break up break away from the nucleus. The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . The radium atom.radon.uranium. scientists can determine their age. less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year.25 gramme 0. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. but also energy as they do so. was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive.125 gramme remains. Other elements .

32. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. 19. 36 10. The opposite kind of substance to a base. 30." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. 32 15. helium 24. 24. 27. 14 heat 10. 23. \8. 26 20. 33 28. 34. 22. 21. 32-3. 7. 26. 33.36 exchange 14-15. zinc 30. Sun 20 metals 19.22 19. 20. 12. 20. 21 cathode 26. 24. 25 13. The number atom is the element's atomic number. e. 19. 29 chemical compounds 10. 22 28. but which do not exist on own. 8. 26. alkalis 20. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation. 29. 22. 9. 13. 11. 18-19. 14. 32 iron silver 13. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. 37 oxidation 13. 'salts" 16. e. hydrogen 9. 12. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. 35. 26. elements are listed on page 33. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. 37 carbon dioxide 6. 27. 29. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. "sulfate. acids 16-17. 33 28 neon 33 14. 33. Electron particle. 26. 22 15. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 29. 14. sodium 32 27. 28-9. turns red in the presence of an alkali. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15.g. alkalis. 22. 9. lead and nitrogen are not. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. 35. 7.21. 33.g. 24. 25. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. 11. The central core of an atom. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22. 35. 24. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 33 8. 18. 30. silicon 30. 27. 26. 25. 30. 8. 28. 34. Molecule The smallest e. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. 22. 14. their atoms. 25 12. 37 nucleus 34. 26. 30. 20. 30.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 28. 36 33 . 27. 30. 24. chromium 26. 27. with a mass of but no electrical charge.g. 38 8. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. 24. 29.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. 25. 25. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 34. 30. Neutron Acid 1.g. 37 20-1. 26 carbon 6. 35 20. 26. 22. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. 28. 29 salt 20. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. 12. 13. 32. 27. 25. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 7. 26. 19. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. 12. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. 36 electricity 26-7. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 27. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. lead bleach 9. 34. 25. 10. 14. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. neutrons nickel 26. Rusting. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. 21 aluminum anode 26. 32. 22. 27. e. 32. 22. 16. bleaching. 22-3. 27. 22. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. Strictly speaking. oxygen gases 10. 33 and electricity 26-7. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. 27 copper 13. 33 gold 19. lead nitrate. 29.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. 25. batteries 17. 7. 21. 9. 13. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. 24. 21. 26. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. 24. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

pooouction .





Each book is vividly illustrated.Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being. and has a clearly-written expert text. What happens when . to bring out the basic principles of each subject. and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments.

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