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Chemistry is the science of substances - what they look like, what
they do and why. It isn't just a subject for scientists in their
laboratories, surrounded by bottles and beakers.
Chemistry can provide the answers to a wide variety of perplexing
problems; what happens to paper when it burns; what is water made
of; why are lemons sour? One aspect of chemistry deals with finding
out what things are made of - this involves breaking down complex
chemical substances into their basic constituents. The other side of
chemistry is concerned with the invention of new materials, such as
plastics, medicines, and even new foodstuffs.
This book introduces the subject through one of the most familiar
processes of chemistry - burning - and shows how this is related to
rusting, breathing and bleaching. Other types of chemical change such as decomposition - are illustrated by examples from everyday
life, from the homely matter of baking a cake to the splendid spectacle
of a firework display. This leads us to the two great classes of chemical
substances - acids and bases.
Since one of the products of mixing an acid with a base is water,
this is an appropriate place to examine water's curious properties.
Splitting water into its component parts by means of electricity
introduces the subject of electrochemistry, including the chemical
battery and chromium plating. The component parts are elements the basic substances of which the world around us is composed, and
the topic that is treated next. And finally, the elements can be further
broken down into atoms - the building blocks of the universe!
Chemistry affects every aspect
of our daily lives.


something as simple as frying
sausages involves chemical

And while






known that, say car batteries
contain acid, how often do we
think of all the acids around us
in the


kitchen? Yet a few simple

tests will


their presence.

more complicated chemical processes are
involved in the industrial
manufacture of synthetic
Obviously, far

materials. But





however they

occur, naturally or otherwise,

chemical substances are

made up of the basic elements,
whose atomic structure is the
key to





Testing for acids








Replacement 2

Strong Bases



Weak Acids



Exchange 2


Strong Acids




Electrochemical Series


A Chemical Indicator




Hydrogen and Water Burning Water Absorption







Making Chlorine by




Metallic Elements Nonmetallic Elements
The Periodic Table

Half-way Elements

Sharing Electrons

Donating Electrons


Splitting the



Glossary and Index












Inside a chemical plant

The structure of an atom

All of which leads us to ask: why is kerosene so dangerous. What might have been a major disaster has been brought safely under control. When this burns in air. Charred wood. in which things more easily. This How things burn Oxygen Oxygen fire before it aircraft's fuel priority is to away from is done by the smothering the flames with a special foam made up of bubbles containing carbon Most fuels contain carbon. as the plane touches down.rning An airplane has to make an emergency landing. All these things act as barriers. But nothing will burn without air. since the slightest spark is enough s& to ignite the fuel. sand. with a high ignition point. most of the fuel seems to disappear into the air. usually need another fire . either the air. On the other hand. it combines with oxygen to make another gas. called carbon dioxide. heat from the friction of its tires hitting the ground is enough to set the kerosene fumes on fire. while some heat is given out. it needs to be "lit" by some other source of heat.perhaps from burning wood . Fortunately.to make them burn. and is . The vital ingredient is oxygen.have to be stored under special conditions. Clearly. such as a match. Oxygen is so important that it is easy to forget that only a fraction of the air around us . Foam has two advantages over water. target dioxide. which dilutes the oxygen in the air in much the same way as water is used to dilute concentrated fruit drinks. in the case of accidental fire. Fuel has started to leak from one of its tanks. cannot burn. however.is made up of it. Fuels such as coal. Once lit. fuels with low ignition points . It can be concentrated on its and gives out heat energy. keep The first the air flames. Before something will burn. and. the airport's emergency services have been alerted. or charcoal. and they are on hand immediately to drench the plane with foam. wood. easier to transport. and how can foam put the fire out? When fuels such as coal. the heat from the burning process is enough to keep the fire going. blankets or. is needed for burning to take place. keeping air away from the flames. or something it contains.just about one fifth . attempts are made to smother the flames with water. A Firemen race against time to put out the reaches the tanks. is almost pure carbon. The rest consists mainly of nitrogen. special foam. That is why. as with the burning plane. or oils are burned.such as kerosene or butane . How much heat is needed to set fire to the fuel depends on the fuel's ignition point.

magnesium oxide. oxygen from the captures and deposits an ash. that will weigh more air Roll of paper Paper ash Magnesium metal than the original metal Paper ash weighs less Magnesium ash Magnesium ash weighs more . its ash weighs less than the original paper. This is because paper contains a lot of carbon.- Weighing the ash When paper is burned. But burning magnesium (the metal used in a photo flash). which is lost to the air as carbon dioxide.

Normally. As off water and /^~^^\^=^ / ^IA1 \ '^ ^ -ffl'! './ / . In both. oxygen is taken from the air to make a new substance. bridges. there is little need to difference between rusting and burning in air. and ships to be painted regularly prevent them rusting. to drive off its oxygen.">XV- JKj^ \ N>v '&&) ^r/t . Will not rust rust Cleaning an aluminum pan with wire wool to remove oxide falls exposes a fresh surface of iron to the Under boiled water and sealed air Considerable slight rust Rusting can be a protection The oxidation process affecting iron is harmful.. ' . Chemically. However. and the container sealed with oil to prevent the oxygen from re-entering. iron rusts more quickly if it is wet. it robs the metal of its shiny appearance. But the oxygen captured from the air by aluminum helps to form a protective layer that sticks to the surface of the metal and actually prevents corrosion. The chemical name for rust is iron oxide./i ///in ///. However. iron can be kept underwater without rusting if the water is first boiled. In dry open In air Only the rust (or iron oxide) it air.Cars.

Oxygen is not oxides formed as a result are s. but a oxygen in its place. for for instance. "Lime water" is It normally clear. to remove ink oxygen and so. Blec added h U Stain removed . has a stronger attraction for hydrogen than white.Divers giving off Breathing bubbles of carbon dioxide can be shown that the oxygen we breathe combines with carbon (from our food) to make carbon dioxide by a natural process of oxidation. when it comes into contact with. lime water blown through makes little change air Bleaching Bleach may be used to make grimy or yellowed materials hite again. The air around us contains only a trace of carbon dioxide. But the air breathe out. it takes The bleaching process away hydrogen and leaves form of oxidation. The very odd one. te. because of Ordinary the carbon dioxide present. when bubbled through lime water. will turn it milky. however. which is why the color disappears. but is ady contained in the bleeach together with another substance. grease or dyes. taken from the air. chlorine. Breathing into lime water turns it milky and so does not cause lime water to change we color. Chlorine. Thus bleach does not actually remove grime. but turns cloudy when carbon dioxide is passed through it. that or even to "dye" things contain hydrogen. It merely oxidizes them. dyes or inks from materials.

ohbh Casing Other fireworks involve more complicated chemical processes. spectacular or not. great or small. oxygen in the air combines with something else to make a new substance. But how are these gloriously noisy and colorful displays produced? We saw earlier that in burning. An explosive chemical mixture . the loud explosions and brilliant flashes that light up the sky recapturing the thrill and excitement of battle while allowing the whole experience to be enjoyed in safety. Some of the new substances are shot into the air as fiery sparks. huge amounts of energy are released . others erupt like lava from miniature volcanoes. firework displays are a traditional way of commemorating great victories in war. The opposite happens when a rocket is set off: a compound substance splits up into simpler ones. substances just waiting for the opportunity to change partners and rearrange themselves into new substances. instead of giving out heat. Further reactions in the nose produce decorative explosions in the sky. to make them work. Not all chemical processes are as energetic or spectacular as a firework display.Substances Sometimes. 10 . But all chemical processes. When this happens. In particular. or compound. sending it into the air. At least one of these substances is a gas. that it shoots out of the end of the firework. and so suddenly. Heat produced by friction when the match head is rubbed against the side of the box sets off a chemical process similar to that in a firework. the celebration of a major event is accompa- nied by a spectacular firework display. involve the making or breaking of partnerships between need additional heat substances. air. Many chemical processes. or decomposes. but produced in such vast quantities.the When the fuse to a rocket is rocket chemical reactions produce volumes of hot gas and propel it into the Fuse Active chemicals lit. Roman candles contain a mixture of combined.the source of the dazzling displays of fire seen as the Roman candle burns. But even striking a match involves a chemical reaction.

^T . sometimes only partial . Combination is the opposite of decomposition. involve the replacement of one ingredient of a compound by another. Replacement Some chemical processes. A simple substance gains a new ingredient in the course of a chemical reaction. Exchange In other types of reactions. including bleaching. Sometimes this new substances existing alongside the two original ones. Original chemical substances New and additional chemical substances B C A D ' 1^.Chemical changes Loss Loss and Gain When a chemical compound decomposes.the two form two new substances. the ingredients of two substances may be exchanged to exchange is complete. it loses an ingredient and leaves a simpler substance behind. as shown below.

but contains extra oxygen. you can feel oxygen bubbles being formed in your mouth. when N the way < Bread heated. leaving water behind.Splint bursts splint into Test tube containing oxygen flame . WATER s\ Wl\ Carbon <h dioxide 1 Candle u Testing for oxygen Things burn much more readily in pure oxygen than they do in air. Hydrogen peroxide solution is used as a mild bleach or antiseptic mouthwash.which converts flat dough into something edible. Bubbles of carbon dioxide are present throughout the dough. This for 12 is a way oxygen. and then blown out so that it is just glowing red. of testing Smouldering . and lift it until the loaf has cooked all ^ However.Baking soda bread r^a i Baking powder Baking soda Making soda bread involves a chemical change . through. If a wooden splint is lit. if too much baking soda is used. a lot of sodium carbonate will be left behind in the loaf. This Baking powder is easily given up. y\ j . giving it a soapy taste. If you rinse your mouth with a weak hydrogen peroxide solution.the decomposition of baking soda . Heating baking powder Loss Loss Sodium Sodium bicarbonate carbonate Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen oxide (water) . the It has same chemical ingredients as water. it will burst into flame again if put into a test tube containing pure oxygen. Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). Dough breaks down into sodium carbonate ("washing soda") carbon dioxide and water.

Replacement Copper attaches to iron Copper sulfate solution Iron Iron sulfate solution 1 Iron ^ ) Copper 1 departs 13 . That is whysilver cutlery turns black just silver ending "-ate" when sulfate. it pushes the all will eventually we usually associate with copper. The of replacement. This an example is The of copper of the way and binds with the iron instead. that contain sulfur. means silver sulfide consists of to it comes into contact and The copper sulfur. solution of iron sulfate left behind. Replacement oxygen has to 1 When an iron penknife blade is dipped into copper out blue copper sulfate solution. is be deposited on and a the blade. If the action the copper continued. one of the ingredients.Chemical names ending in "-ide" usually refer to compounds Silver combines with containing only the substances named. as in that m and be with egg. is due to a film of copper oxide which forms when copper is exposed to the atmosphere. Thus sulfur form a black compound. quickly becomes covered with a pink film. so that. silver sulfide. traces of sulfur. when it comes into contact with the iron blade of the penknife. which it is actually a thin coating of copper. or certain green addition to copper vegetables. rather than pink "sulfate" part color that sulfate has a very strong attraction for iron. brown.

oxide. This is unattractive. or into the joint in need of repair. and instead surface as the white scum. and when ordinary soap is put into hard water. Using the set-up on fierce site Iron Aluminum Aluminum is added replaces iron Scummy bath "Hard" water contains impurities dissolved in " it. ' such as chalk.Replacement WARNING! 2 THIS One To most energetic examples of chemical replacement is so powerful that it produces molten iron This makes it very useful in remote places for of the IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT a very start the reaction. Calcium stearate does not dissolve m water. high temperature for which an has to is needed. forms. One of the mam chemical ingredients of hard water is calcium sulfate. or scum. ignition mixture be used. since is it also prevents the soap from doing its job until all the chemicals causing the scum have been pushed out of the water. Sodium and calcium are floats to the familial . When soap (sodium stearate) is added to hard water. As the aluminum replaces the in the iron oxide. Called the heat pours through a hole in the special container and Thermit process. the produced by the iron molten on-the-spot repairs to iron iron structures. two new substances are formed. a precipitate. 14 ' These are sodium sulfate and calcium stearate. it uses a mixture of powdered aluminum metal and iron runs into the casting mold. not only it wasteful.

chrome yellow.presto! . the two chemical substances involved. stearate make two new substances.sodium stearate Calcium Sulfate Sodium Stearate Sodium Sulfate Calcium and sulfate are "radicals. sodium which remains in the solution.the bright yellow pigment suddenly appears! This is another example of the process known as exchange. Sodium Chromate Sodium Nitrate Very simply. 15 | ." The two metals have exchanged radicals to metals. sodium chromate and lead nitrate. This settles at the bottom of two E nitrate. this made happening is 2 can be in the laboratory by pouring one clear liquid into another. when . have exchanged partners to make new substances. and lead chromate. WARNING! i IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Sodium chromate Chrome yellow precipitate What is happening \Soap .Exchange Chrome yellow is the What name given by artists to a bright yellow pigment. Surprisingly. This type of chemical reaction is known Dissolved in water as exchange. Chromate the liquid as a very fine yellow powder.

for instance. Our own bodies. too. Yogurt. there are other substances . Corrosive acids spilled on the roads have. lime is a vital ingredient in cement.bases . producing harmless "salts" and water. The various kinds found in the home . it might come as a surprise to know how many acids there are in the home . but when an acid and a base are mixed together they neutralize each other.are all bases. 16 Red cabbage water.g. iron. and must always carry instructions on the side as to which chemicals should be used as neutralizers in case of an accident. The lime reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and hardens the mixture as it dries out.baking soda. Bases also have their domestic uses. been known to eat their way through car tires and the boots of rescue teams. it is rather an uncomfortable thought that something that looks as innocent as water can burn its way through leather. After all. of all is Testing for acids and bases Many substances react and bases. In view of the reputation acid has. Besides its agricultural use. mortar. .even in the kitchen and medicine cupboards. and so does aspirin.oses and Salts When people see a container labeled ACID. produce many complex acids to help build new tissue. Fortunately. steel and other materials that normally offer us protection. Bases are sometimes as powerfully corrosive as acids. but bluish-green when a base (such as washing soda) is juice) is added. and digest food. Bases neutralizing acids do an acid and a base neutralize each other? The two substances simply How exchange partners by a chemical process with which we are already familiar: the exchange reaction." indicator is An easily the water made m which red cabbage has been boiled. plaster and concrete.which react with acids and make them safe. washing soda and caustic soda . Containers carrying dangerous chemicals are marked with a placard identifying the chemical load. and so can be used as differently to acids "indicators. they like to keep well away. contains acid. It turns red when an acid (e. vinegar or lemon added. But the widest used base of soda lime. carry messages around the body.

V A truck transporting a dangerous acid has crashed. emergency teams drenching the acid with with neutralizing bases. the danger can be averted. . Fortunately. and begun to spill its load onto the road.

Food from sour milk Tiny organisms in milk produce Hydrogen acetate lactic acid." so proving that they are acids. (ascorbic are essential to health." Lemon juice. produce acids. Milk can be made sour artificially by adding a few drops of lemon juice or some other mild acid. Many such as Vitamin C acids. Acids can be thought of as hydrogen salts. and vinegar will all make bicarbonate of soda "fizz. 18 m a the yogurt and it ." lemon juice as "hydrogen citrate. In other fruits the sour taste is Lemon often disguised by the sweetness of fruit sugars. It is obtained from fermenting wine. is industry. Some common weak acids The sour to the taste of fruit fruit's is due own brand of acid. contain citrate citric acid. that turns the milk sour and causes This it to curdle. probably the cheese commonest acid is also beer in the made from wine that home. Even our own bodies acid). Acetic acid (in vinegar) can be thought of as "hydrogen acetate. cream of tartar. or has gone sour. for Hydrogen example. with hydrogen taking the place of a metal. Hydrogen tartrate Cream of tartar The acid "hydrogen tartrate" is better known as cream of tartar. spoils the milk. "Citrus" fruits.Weak Acids acids are dangerous Not all and corrosive. but Vinegar vital factor Vinegar. particularly to help break down food in our digestive systems.

WARNING! THIS IS A LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Testing for hydrogen • Hydrogen Explosion Strong Acids A car battery contains sulfuric acid. a lighted splint held at the mouth of a test tube containing this gas will cause it to explode with a loud "pop Electrochemical series Least Magnesium Aluminum Zmc resistant The electrochemical series gives a good idea of which metals are the most resistant to acids." or testing kit Testing gold with acid 19 . those at the bottom. while cheaper metals stain or corrode. giving off strangely. Jewelers use this fact to test to acids gold by gradually increasing the for the purity of Iron strength of the testing acid. hardly at all. But still and so can be carried warm will dissolves in rot acid. Even when battery acid is diluted. Copper Mercury Silver Gold Most resistant to Platinum acids 'Assaying. safely in iron containers. Those at the top of the list are quickly attacked. " and since hydrogen is highly inflammable. a corrosive. Lead Pure gold remains unmarked. Iron it be strong enough to fabric and clothing. The iron replaces the hydrogen in the "hydrogen Electrochemical Series sulfate. cold concentrated sulfuric hydrogen. sulfuric acid will not attack powerful iron.

with oxygen forming part or all an acid and a base each other. term for ALKALI When a although "alkali. the of the "radical" component of a metal compound . and is often used in cleaning agents for ovens and drains. "Milk of magnesia" (magnesium hydroxide) is one of the most common mild bases used for this purpose. magnesium oxide. happens. Not strong and sodium hydroxide.Strong Bases ACID Just as there are strong weak and acids.for instance. salt produced common is salt. Weak Bases A stomach upset is often brought on by eating too much acidic food. an alkali is a base that dissolves in all bases do. Bases are the opposite to acids. the hydrogen and the oxygen from the base join together to form water. The remaining components combine to form a "salt. a needed to When weak base this is combat the stomach's excess acidity. One very common strong base is strictly caustic soda - water." speaking. This has a powerfully corrosive effect on grease and animal matter. so too there are An alternative base an is weak bases. It is able to neutralize acids in the Result of eating unripe apples stomach without producing any harmful side effects. Unripe apples contain a 20 lot of acid actually ." In neutralize acid's the case of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda.

A Chemical Indicator As water glass. it poured into one appears to change into wine. 21 . turns back to water! The reason is that the water jug contained a spot of phenolphthalem. A Adding to alkali Adding to acid Water containing phenolphthalein First glass containing alkali drop of alkali in the first glass. which turns water bright red in the presence of an alkali. is it is When this "wine" poured into another glass. and a drop of acid in the second is all you need.

More familiarly.) Many chemical reactions produce water." jug is not leaking! happening is that What The is hydrogen from the gas supply and oxygen in the air burn together. as we have discovered. Considering the vast range of temperatures in the unifrom the absolute cold of the deepest regions of outer space to the incredible heat of the Sun's furnace. The reason why is not difficult to guess. For life on Earth to exist. Water's main ingredient. shows that it contains twice as much hydrogen as oxygen. Copper oxide. neither will it be corroded by sulfuric acid provided that it is kept dry. Chemical formation of water A glass jug of milk on a gas ring appears to "sweat. for instance. Water is so important to chemistry . When substances dissolve in water. We have already seen that iron will not normally rust so quickly when there is no water present. H 2 0. yet there is very little free hydrogen in the Earth's atmosphere.a microcosm of how the oceans were formed. is the commonest substance in the universe. they are brought into contact with each other and can react in a way that was not possible under dry conditions. hydrogen. this water must be in liquid form. verse.Water is the most important substance on our planet. (The chemical formula for water. bases and acids react together to form water as one of the products of chemical exchange. it is remarkable that our planet should be at exactly the right temperature for this to happen.and hence to life because it acts as a chemical vehicle for substances taking part in reactions. Water. This condenses as tiny droplets of water on the cold surface of the jug . reacts with hydrogen to form pure copper and water. 22 . to form steam. During the formation of the Earth most of the available hydrogen would have been burned up in producing the water to make up the vast oceans now covering the Earth's surface. is a compound of two substances .hydrogen and oxygen.

. ~^f.< Liquid water is the Earth's unique feature.'/'' ''. . 23 . It was only then cooled. the Earth and the steam condensed to make the oceans.that Earth became life on possible. when water was vaporized into not steam or frozen into ice . In time. our planet was I formed amid vast clouds of steam. Millions of years ago.

a WATER Oxygen . and will burn readily (sometimes gas. 24 form Hydrogen I . and safer than hydrogen. own hydrogen out of the way and takes its place (in much the same way that iron pushes half of the water's copper out of copper sulfate The sodium combines with the remaining hydrogen and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide.Hydrogen and Water Because known is it the lightest hydrogen was once used to float airships and aeronautical balloons. explosively) in oxygen. Burning Water Is it really possible to set What is water on fire? Yes. gas-filled balloons (often used for weather surveys) contain helium. which is also light. Heat from the reaction sets the hydrogen alight. the idea of passenger airships was abandoned airliners. that propel the sodium round Sodium happening WATER CD Hydrogen Oxygen Sodium hydroxide Sodium Oxygen Hydrogen ^^ \ Hydrogen solution). After a couple of spectacular disasters. But it happens to be also extremely dangerous. . If you drop sodium into the water it will burst into flame! Sodium is a It pushes very reactive metal. in favor of Today. the surface of the water. when it oxygen combines with in the air to water again. The hydrogen that is pushed out escapes as bubbles of gas.

If blue copper sulfate is heated to drive the water away. red-hot iron oxide can also be used to make hydrogen from water. such as copper sulfate. Hydrogen does not easily dissolve in water." and may affect their color. Effectively. hydrogen is left behind. When a liquid such as( pure alcohol is poured onto the powder. will turn Copper sulfate turns blue 25 . have water locked into them. there is no color change. a whitish powder is formed .Separating hydrogen from water Iron wool rusting as a steam result of m Steam Water a= . the water. This is because it has taken some water from the alcohol-water mixture to re-form the blue crystals. This can be used to test for (waterless) water.c - Hydrogen • - Bunsen burner Bunsen burner - With oxygen Like sodium. and so it can be collected by bubbling it into an upturned jar of water. The water must be in the form of steam. so producing iron removed from (rust). the same type of has occurred replacement to produce hydrogen as in the reaction of sodium with water. which causes the iron to oxidize."anhydrous" copper sulfate. This is known as "water of crystallization. the copper sulfate powder blue again. But if any water has been added to the alcohol. Absorption of Water Drying copper Some sulfate crystal substances.

is always found combined with other materials in the form of rock or clay.. Electrolysis is a very important industrial process. Elec trolysis . It > In this workshop. a current can flow through. such as 26 water. and the hydrogen ions positive. articles made of thin sheet iron are being given a protective coating of nickel. When hydrogen burns in oxygen. to form water. Aluminum. One method of doing this i-s to use electrical energy. Today. appear at the anode (+). .metals.and most useful . and hydrogen at the cathode (— Because unlike signs attract. is Oxygen bubbles sulfuric acid or salt. Once begun the gases have to evolve. aluminum can be extracted by the electrolytic process and is one of our cheapest . Negative Positive Battery Anode Cathode Electrolysis of water Water can be' split into its components by means of electricity. a great deal of energy is given out in the form of heat. can be used for metal-plating . This both improves their appearance and protects them from corrosion. such as silver or chromium. onto articles made of cheaper materials. A hundred years ago the cost of extraction made aluminum metal more expensive than gold. it that there is is easy to twice as hydrogen as oxygen see much in ). If we wanted to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen again. But is if an there the slightest trace of an electrolyte present. Causing a chemical change by means of electricity is known as electrolysis. the oxygen ions must be negative. one of the Earth's most common substances. (which are good conductors). Another important use of electrolysis is the extraction of metals from their ores. By using electrolysis a number of objects can be plated at the same time. almost Pure water totally resistant to electric current.putting very thin coatings of expensive metals. this energy would have to be put back in some way. a more expensive much metal.

But rent. attached to the negative terminal. As with magnetism. substances that "ionize" can carry an electric cur- known as electrolytes. For example. Ions carry electrical charges. does not ionize and so is not an electrolyte. are dipped into the salt solution and connected to a battery.When Chromium Only Nickel a salt dissolves in water it splits up into ions. two metal plates. they are Electroplating layers Chromium cannot easily be plated onto iron direct. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the battery is the "anode. ionizes into sodium and chloride ions. called electrodes. 27 . the "cathode. In electrolysis. sugar. and so can carry an electric current. and the negative ions to the anode. layers of other metals such as nickel and copper are plated onto the iron first. and are either positive (+) or negative (— )." and the other. Instead." Thus the positive ions are attracted to the cathode. opposite signs attract and similar signs repel. ordinary salt dissolves in water.

the greater and copper produce about half a volt.Batteries Electrolysis uses electricity to produce a chemical A battery. The / electric current produced. change. with pads of cloth soaked in salt solution in-between each just as well. A pile of nickel and Nickel copper coins separated by paper that has been dipped in salty water will do blotting Electrons will flow through the pile. or cell. Car batteries ("storage batteries") use both processes. The first batteries date from Home-made -Coppercom consisted of a stack of disks made of layer. but cannot escape until the top and bottom are connected by a wire. ^^mSS^ com paper soaked water . once the connection is made. the voltage. The voltage will depend on which metals are used for the disks. aluminum and silver about two volts. from nickel to copper. arranged alternately. The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series (page 19). enough to light may be a small torch bulb rather dimly. Nickel 28 Blotting in salty two different metals. does the opposite: it uses a chemical change to produce electricity. electrolysis reverses the chemical changes that occur when the battery is used. battery They the early 1800s. and is able to "store" electrical energy.

Electroplating C 3 §lo ^i_ Electron flow Battery Anode Articles to dipped in solution. a it During electrolysis. over reacts with the water to produce hydrogen left Sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. is solution. Making Chlorine by made commercially by electrolysis of common salt Cathode Electrolysis concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride) must be used. the salt will merely act as an impurity. In a weak solution. But the electric current (the electron flow) u is Flow actually in the opposite of metal ions direction. As chlorine gas is given off. be plated are a silver salt and connected to the cathode of a battery. Chlorine. the sodium WARNING! LABORATORY EXPERIMEnt| Hydrogen Chlorine +n . anode is made of silver. For this. and only the water will be electrolyzed. metal appears to be transferred from the anode to the cathode. The and replenishes the ions being used up from the solution. Battery Salt solution 29 . used in bleach.

is used in ship and aircraft construction.> For instance. Many a lifetime's work was wasted looking for the secret recipe.*f_|i3fe^/ ~\ '''' y^w^ 7 vN <y // J X Sulfur (^Carbon c . disulfide . occur in nature on their own. and the resulting compounds seldom have any of the properties of the original elements. the bodywork steel. such as zinc and tin. it was thought to be possible to make gold by mixing other metals together. greasy liquid! 4 . 30 Compcjund Elements Carbon . silicon.a black solid .are composed of the The countless A same basic substances . There is an almost infinite number of ways in which elements can combine.that is. for instance. are found in combination with other elements. when the elements carbon . and has no other ingredients. its headlights signed. Most.and sulfur .a yellow solid cally.are combined chemithey create between them a clear. Combining elements A few elements. have been added. such as oxygen. are elements in their own Aluminum. carbon and gold. An element. contains only one substance. comprise 98 percent of the Earth's crust. iron and oxygen. weight and strong. Brass and bronze are mixtures of copper with other metals. Most of the materials we use are compounds . particularly metals. -y . by definition. a mere eight. however. including aluminum. There are 90 elements occurring naturally. Although the majority of the elements are metals.objects of all kinds that surround us in our daily lives are made of materials chosen because they best serve the purpose for which the object was decar's tires are made of rubber. although many are extremely rare. including carbon. but some. Almost everything we are likely to encounter under normal circumstances will be made from just a few dozen elements. it can withstand high temperatures that would melt aluminum. they contain two or more elements combined chemically. But for building engines iron is sometimes preferred. because it is light in right. Steel is basically iron to which other elements. are glass. Yet all these materials and indeed the whole universe . Of these.the elements. not all the metals we meet are elements. Before the elements were known about.

31 .

is mercury is a liquid. Antimony. the basis of the microchip. known 32 is Phosphorus powder solid or a red powder. like boron. however. But nonmetals are atmosphere) the best half-way element. At higher temperatures they are better conductors than metals . for example. hard. has "metallic" and "nonmetallic" forms. Half-way elements share properties of both metals and nonmetals. . Iron is light. Silicon.a property that makes them important for the electronics industry. to Some assume bromine to is are even able different disguises! Phosphorus can be either a luminous. a liquid. waxy all \ poor electrical conductors. are "earthy" solids. One property that all metals share. Some. The properties often vary between Aluminum metals. but not so copper or gold. .Metallic Elements Metals are easy to recognize. Most metals are silver-gray. Nonmetallic Elements Nonmetallic ingredients Phosphorus as a solid (sealed because it ignites in the Phosphorus of matches is the basic ingredient The nonmetals are harder recognize than the metals. lead heavy. is that they are good conductors of electricity. yellow. but less easy to describe. others are colorless gases.

Next to them ELEMENT Amencium emerges. iodine and fluorine. such as sodium and potassium. such as copper.follow a definite notes on a piano keyboard. In the center are the durable metals. The Periodic Table (above) NO. SYMBOL Am Arsenic shows the elements arranged in this way. for 80 42 60 89 95 As which dissolve ATOMIC NO Al Antimony Argon are the reactive metals.physical and chemical . The properties of the elements . a fascinating fact table Astatine At Barium Berkelium Ba Bismuth Boron Bk Be Neptunium Nd Ne Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb N Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium 15 78 94 84 Cf c 6 58 55 Praseodymium Promethium Polonium Potassium CI 17 Protactinium Chromium Cr Cobalt Copper Co Cu 24 27 29 Cunum Cm Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Dysprosium Dy Einsteinium Es Er Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Eu Fm Pu Po K 19 Pr 59 Pm 61 91 Pa Ra Sm 88 86 75 45 37 44 62 Selenium Sc Se 34 Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Rn Re Rh Rb Ru 21 F 100 9 14 87 Silicon Silver Si Fr Ag 47 Gd 64 Sodium Na 11 31 Strontium Sr 38 Sulfur He Ho 32 79 72 2 67 H 1 Ga Ge Au Hf Indium In Iodine Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr La 49 53 77 26 36 57 Lr 103 Pb 82 Li 3 71 12 Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead 46 P Pt Ce 96 66 99 68 63 Pd No Os Platinum Plutonium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine O 41 7 102 76 8 Phosphorus Californium Cs 10 93 28 I Lithium Lutetium Lu Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Mg Mn Md 25 S 16 Tantalum Technetium Ta Tc Tellurium Te Tb 73 43 52 65 Thallium Tl 81 Thorium Thulium Th 90 69 50 22 Vanadium Xenon Terbium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Tm Sn Ti W u V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 ' 101 33 .The Periodic Table Metallic elements Nonmetallic elements C Half-way elements Inert N O gases t CI Al Si Ga Ge In Sn Sb Te Tl Pb Bi Po r Cu As Se Br n\ 85 Au Hg At Atomic number Rare Earth metals Symbol Unstable elements If all the elements are arranged by order of the weight of their individual The periodic ELEMENT i YMBOL Ac ATOMIC Mercury Hg 13 Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Mo Sb Ar 51 18 pattern that recurs like the Beryllium Bi 33 85 56 97 4 83 B 5 Bromine Br Cadmium Cd Calcium Ca 3S 48 20 98 in form hydroxides. silver and gold. used since ancient times coinage and jewelry.chlorine. water On to the far the column includes the very important reactive nonmetals . right. The left-hand column contains those gases such as helium and neon that never combine with any other element. Aluminum Actinium atoms.

First of all. having a central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. is the fact that atoms consist almost entirely of empty space. rather like planets orbiting the Sun.fire . and chemical energy the result of electron activity on the outside of the atom. atoms are tiny solar systems in themselves. helium atoms are formed. Besides being the building bricks of the universe. If our diagram of the hydrogen atom were drawn to scale it would have to be the size of a football pitch. Nuclear energy is the result of changes within the atomic nucleus itself. under tremendous pressure and intense heat. Whereas in a chemical reaction atoms of different elements combine.and ends with the power of the future . these helium atoms "fuse" together. The orbiting electrons have a negative charge. and then. as the star begins to explode. 34 Proton • Charge Mass + 1 1 ' Neutron Electron • O Zero -1 1 Zero . the study of the behavior of the electrons of an atom. releasing enormous energy in the process. Somewhere on the touch line would be an even tinier speck representing the electron. with a minute speck.of which most of the universe is composed.ms and Molecules An atom the tiniest part of an element that can exist and still have the properties of that element. creating even more elements.nuclear energy. Everything in-between would be empty space. before being hurled out into space to become planets like our own. essentially. The simplest atom is that of hydrogen . But atoms are so small that there are as many of them in a full stop as there are people in the world! Even more surprising. on the center spot. During the evolution of a star. Our look at chemistry began with the human race's first experience of chemical change . is Atomic charges The mass of an atom is m the nucleus. perhaps. a nuclear reaction actually changes one element into another. representing the nucleus. Chemistry is. and made up of protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (carrying no charge). Every element has its own kind of atom. hydrogen atoms become welded together in a way that is not possible in chemistry. no bigger than a pinhead. but almost no mass.

2 electrons 2 protons 2 neutrons 35 . Most helium atoms also contain two neutrons. also have neutrons in their nuclei. and two electrons in orbit. Rarer forms of hydrogen such as deuterium and tritium.Atoms A simple hydrogen atom consists of a single proton (+) orbited by an electron (-). Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium Helium Helium has two protons in the nucleus.

path ' O The O into o 2 Vo o o m the inner Argon has 18 electrons. electrons are element has detached from the atom. O in outer ring O o o o o o 7 electron 1 outer ring g r* a ^ ^ ^ salt crystal y*W A* g fc^ i t A^ g P gw g % r* g r^ Ag wr * ** i m Chlorine atom . Chlorine has 17 electrons: two in its inner orbit. Chlorine orbit. or shared. The picture on your TV set is produced by firing electrons in an atom try to orbits of eight. two electrons which has been coated with orbit. then eight. 36 2 L. Argon is thus perfectly balanced and refuses to combine with any other element. each outer the ideal arrangement. Sodium has 1 form molecules of sodium chloride. eight in the and seven in the outer orbit. but with just electrons at the screen. 8 o ° o o o o ° ° o o • \ • o O o fo / o next. This is and eight Covalent bonding in called covalent. in its inner orbit. arrange themselves two zinc sulfide. Shared path of electrons L Atoms of hydrogen sharing electrons bonding. Now the atoms of both elements have eight electrons in their outer sodium having lost one electron and chlorine having gained one. 9 # 1 1* w ft 4f M i^ 9 Sodiui Tl atom 9 1 .Sharing Electrons Atom argon of Outer electron ° ° Unlike other sub-atomic How many particles. Ionic bonding 7 electrons in O o o o o o O o /. and so two hydrogen atoms readily combine to allow a single orbit of two electrons. Hydrogen has only one electron. This is called ionic bonding. the elements should react together easily. The cubic structure of a but only one in crystal its outer Atoms of chlorine and sodium combine to Molec ule is due to the salt regular arrangements of its sodium and chlorine atoms. easily ° O electrons an is important. o 0#0 O o o O v ' ooloo 2 ° o ° 8 Sodium Chlorine O Donated electron Sodium If the outer electrons of two elements add up to eight. oi M r4P s* w gt orbits. electrons: two.

5 half life is 80 days gramme 0. having lost for those which have a naturally unstable atomic nucleus. work Half-life Radioactive elements are ones in which the atoms break up. Other elements . less than onesixteenth of a gramme would be left at the end of a year.Atom Splitting the /o O O O o Electron cloud Alpha particle ejected from nucleus Nucleus of radium Z± example .radon.25 gramme 0. The man-made element fermium has a half-life of 80 days. changing into atoms of other elements. Thus.an "alpha particle" - An archaeologist at in a similar way. two protons and two neutrons bonded together . The time taken for half the original element to disappear is called the half-life. now has atomic structure of the another element . was 80 days 160 days 240 days once alive. The half-life can be very useful.uranium. if a gramme of fermium were made today. release huge amounts of "Radioactive elements" are the case of radium. scientists can determine their age. 37 .125 gramme remains. This energy is harnessed in nuclear power plants. but also energy as they do so. By measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in fossil or other matter that The half life of 1 fermium gramme The 0. The radium atom.break up break away from the nucleus. In the alpha particle.

22. almost all the atom's mass is concentrated in the nucleus. 24. 26. 22. 29 salt 20. 29. 19. 26. 12. 30 Periodic Table 33 protons 35 18.A substance containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal to form a salt.36 exchange 14-15. 25 13. 26. The number atom is the element's atomic number. 30 electrochemical series electrodes 27 28 14-15. 8. 37 20-1. 21 aluminum anode 26. tritium 35 36 elements 30-1. helium 24. 36 ionization 27 magnesium 22.g. neutrons nickel 26. Molecule The smallest e. The opposite kind of substance to a base. 27. 11. chromium 26. lead bleach 9. Neutron Acid 1.g. 19. zinc 30. 27 deuterium 35 Earth bases ionic 24. sodium 32 27. \8. 33 28 neon 33 14. oxygen gases 10. 38 8. 13. 32. 30. 25. 26 20. 36 10. 22. lead and nitrogen are not. 12. 32 15. 32-3. 29. 9. turns red in the presence of an alkali. e. 14. Helium and similar gases are totally unreactive. 32. 26.g. 7. 36 electricity 26-7. 23. 27. 25. 24. Thermit process 14 tin fermium 37 calcium 14. 28. 29. 27. 28 nitrogen 6 fireworks 10 fluorine 33 34. normally A substance which contains only one kind of atom. 16. 18-19. 33 28. 22. 20. and even breathing are all forms of oxidation.22 19. from lead (metal) and nitric acid. "sulfate. 33 8. lead nitrate. 21. 29. their atoms. 33 and electricity 26-7. 28-9. Element All the Reactive Readily undergoing a chemical change. with a mass of but no electrical charge. 24. but which do not exist on own. 13. acids 16-17. 29. 12. hydrogen 9. 30. 24. 25. 7. A negatively charged atomic orbiting the nucleus of an atom. A particle at the nucleus of an atom.30 chemical reactions 10-1 decomposition 12 22. 26. A chemical compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal. 33. 22-3. 25. 32 29 antimony 32 argon 36 atomic weights 33 atoms 34-5. 30. 35. 36 hydroxides 33 34. 37 carbon dioxide 6. 26. 24. 24. 25. Base A substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water only. phenolphthalein particle of a substance that has still the chemical properties of that substance. 8. 26. e. 27. 13. sulfur bromine 32 bronze 30 6-7. silicon 30. 29 chemical compounds 10. 34. 7. 36 33 . 22 28. 21. 28-9 electrons brass 30 13. Salt A substance Indicator which can detect certain chemical changes by turning a particular color. 20. 9.21. A particle at the nucleus of an atom. alkalis 20. 30. 30." a combination of oxygen and sulfur Electrolysis Causing a chemical change by passing an electric current through a liquid. elements are listed on page 33. 26. 27. 27. 25. 33. 18. 26 carbon 6. 28. Electron particle. phosphorus 32 potassium 33 26 radioactivity 37 rusting 8.g. 34. 7. 14. 25 12. 36-7 covalent bonding 36 Crab Nebula 34 crystallization 25 16. 12. 10. Salts take their names from the metal and acid which form them. A group of atoms with Radical distinct features when combined with other elements. 22 15. 9. 26. sodium and chlorine are both very reactive. 27. 19. phenolphthalein 37 30 water 6. bleaching. mercury 32 30 electrolysis 26-7. the that smallest part of an element that can take place in a chemical process. The central core of an atom. 27. 21 cathode 26. 30. alkalis. Nucleus Atom The smaUest and part of an element that can exist have the properties of still element. e. 14. 14. Strictly speaking. is a chemical combination of with a mass of 1 of protons in an more than one element. 37 oxidation 13. 35. Rusting. 22. Proton Compound A substance which and a positive electrical charge. containmg all the atom's neutrons and protons. 33 gold 19. 22. 11. 34. 22. 25.29 boron 32 burning bonding 36 ions 26. 32. 28-9 replacement chloride 27 chlorine 9. 32 iron silver 13. 'salts" 16. 24. 34. Bases which dissolve in water are called Oxidation The chemical process of combining a substance with oxygen. half-life 34 37 nuclear energy 34. Sun 20 metals 19. 27 copper 13. 32. 24. 33. 20. 22. 35 20. 35. 30. 28. batteries 17. 14 heat 10. 21. 27. 37 nucleus 34.

pooouction .





Franklin Watts Science World People are always asking questions about the world around them. What happens when . and what are they made of? The Science World is a new eight-book series that shows how the different sciences discover answers to these and many other searching questions. using examples taken from everyday life and simple experiments. and has a clearly-written expert text. to bring out the basic principles of each subject. things burn? Why does it rain? What are volcanoes? How did the sun and stars come into being. Each book is vividly illustrated.

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