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12/9/14

capture
light energy

Photosynthesis
producers, autotrophs
CO2
waste

sun

synthesis
organic
O2
molecules waste

H2O
waste

consumers, heterotrophs

food

Cellular Respiration
release
chemical energy

digestion

ATP

SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS


Chemical Cycling Between Photosynthesis and
Cellular Respiration
Heat
Sunlight

Photosynthesis

Cellular
respiration

12/9/14

sun

Photosynthesis
plants
CO2

glucose
sugars

H2O

O2

animals, plants
Cellular Respiration
The Great Circle
of Life?

ATP

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Komponen yang dibutuhkan untuk fotosintesis:

SUNLIGHT
Gives the plant energy
CHLOROPHYLL
The green
pigments that
will absorb
photon energy

WATER
Travels up from the
roots

CARBON DIOXIDE
Enters the leaf through small holes on the
lower epidermal surface

Respiration
glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy
dioxide
C6H12O6 + 6O2

6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

Photosynthesis
carbon
sun
+ water + energy glucose + oxygen
dioxide
6CO2 + 6H2O + light C6H12O6 + 6O2
energy

electromagnetic
energy
Cahaya tampak :
400-750 nm
Energi : photons
Short-wavelength
photons are very
energetic
Longer-wavelength
photons have lower
energies
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Pigments: molecules that absorb visible light



Each pigment has a characteristic absorption
spectrum, the range and efIiciency of photons
it is capable of absorbing.

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Photosynthesis is divided into:


1.
light-dependent reactions

2.

capture energy from sunlight


make ATP and reduce NADP+
to NADPH
Occurred in grana of
chloroplast

Light independent
reaction / carbon Sixation
reactions

use ATP and NADPH to


synthesize organic molecules
from CO2
Occurred in the stroma of
chloroplast
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In chloroplasts, two linked photosystems are


used in noncyclic photophosphorylation
1. photosystem I
-reaction center pigment (P700) with a peak
absorption at 700nm
2. photosystem II
-reaction center pigment (P680) has a peak
absorption at 680nm

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A. Photosystem II Produces ATP

Photosystem II captures light energy and sends electrons from


reactive chlorophyll a to an electron transport chain that joins
photosystem II to photosystem I.

Electrons from chlorophyll are replaced with electrons from water


O2 is the waste product.

The energy released in the electron transport chain drives the active
transport of protons into the thylakoid space. The protons diffuse out
through channels in ATP synthase. This movement powers the
phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.

The coupling of the proton gradient and ATP formation is called


chemiosmotic phosphorylation.
B. Photosystem I Produces NADPH

Photosystem I receives electrons from the electron transport chain and


uses them to reduce NADP+, producing NADPH. Light provides the
energy.

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The Carbon Reactions Produce Carbohydrates

The carbon reactions use energy from ATP and electrons from NADPH
in carbon fixation reactions that incorporate CO2 into organic
compounds.

occur in the chloroplasts stroma.

also called as the Calvin cycle,

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The Calvin cycle has 3 phases:


1. carbon fixation
RuBP + CO2 2 molecules PGA use
Rubisco
2. PGAL synthesis
PGA is reduced to produce PGAL
3. regeneration of RuBP
PGAL is used to regenerate RuBP
Glucose is not a direct product of the Calvin
cycle.
2 molecules of PGAL leave the cycle
each PGAL contains 3 carbons
2 PGAL are used to produce 1 glucose in
reactions in the cytoplasm

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The Calvin cycle is also known as the C3 pathway because a


three-carbon molecule, PGA, is the Iirst stable compound in
the pathway.

About 95% of plant species are C3, including cereals, peanuts, tobacco,
spinach, sugar beets, soybeans, most trees, and some lawn grasses.

C3 photosynthesis is obviously a successful adaptation, but it


does have a weakness: inefIiciency.
One contributing factor photorespiration, the rubisco
enzyme uses O2 as a substrate instead of CO2, starting a
process that removes already-Iixed carbon from the carbon
reactions

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Open stomata minimizes the photorespiration rate.

CO2 from the atmosphere enters the leaf, and O2 produced in the light
reactions diffuses out.
plants in hot, dry climates If the stomata remain open too long, a plant
may lose water, wilt, and die the plant closes its stomata, CO2 runs low,
and O2 builds up in the leaves photorespiration

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C4 photosynthesis
Some plants can avoid photorespiration by using an enzyme for CO2 Iixation
other than rubisco PEP carboxylase

CO2 (from atmosphere) is added to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) a 4


carbon compound

CO2 is later released from this 4-carbon compound and used by rubisco in
the Calvin cycle

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CAM plants

CO2 is captured at night when stomata are open temporal, rather than
spatial separation of CO2 uptake and Calvin cycle

no specialized bundle sheath required

mostly in succulents

PEP carboxylase adds CO2 to PEP to produce a 4 carbon compound

this compound releases CO2 during the day

CO2 is then used by rubisco in the Calvin cycle

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a. Tuliskan hipotesis yang tepat untuk percobaan di atas?


b. Kesimpulan apa yang diperoleh dari percobaan di atas?

1. Apabila air yang mengandung oksigen berlabel


(18O) ditambahkan ke dalam suspensi kloroplas
yang sedang berfotosintesis, mana di antara
senyawa berikut yang akan berlabel pertama kali :
ATP, NADPH, O atau 3-fosfogliserat?

2. Bila yang diberi label adalah unsur hidrogennya,
mana di antara senyawa2 di atas yang akan
berlabel pertama kali?
3. Apabila yang diberi berlabel adalah 14CO2, maka
yang akan berlabel pertama kalai adalah : .

Mengapa tumbuhan CAM adaptive terhadap


lingkungan gurun?
Pada saat musim dingin, sayuran yang ditanam
dalam rumah kaca akan mengalami
pertumbuhan yang pesat apabila ke dalam
rumah kaca tersebut ditambahkan CO2.
Jelaskan mengapa hal ini terjadi?
Pada beberapa dekade terakhir, kadar CO2 di
permukaan bumi mengalami peningkatan.
Perkirakan dampak peningkatan CO2 ini terhadap
fotorespirasi?
Peningkatan kadar CO2 berdampak pula pada
peningkatan suhu global. Bagaimana dampaknya
terhadap fotorespirasi?

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