Você está na página 1de 253

This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized

by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the


information in books and make it universally accessible.

http://books.google.com

traveller's
A
t
a
of
Notes
or,
notes;
1891-1893
years
during
Zealand
New
and
colonies
Australian
the
Corea,
Japan,
Malaysia,
India,
through
our

Vietch
Herbert
James

0?

+-

TRAVELLER'S

NOTES.

TINS NEW YORK


PUBLIC LIBRARY

ASTUK, LENOX AND


TILDEN F(H'NdATinN8
B
L

TRAVELLER'S

NOTES

OH

Notes

of

Tour

through

The Australian

India,

Colonies

during

the

years

With

Map

and

Malaysia,
and

New

Japan,

Corea,

Zealand

1 891 - 1893,

Photogravures,

And also numerous Illustrations from Photographs by the Author.

nv

JAMES

HERBERT

JAMES

VEITCH,

VEITCH

&

F.L.S.,

SONS

ROYAL EXOTIC NUK8ERY, CHELSEA.


(For private

cireulation only.)
1896.

F.R.H.S.

i.,.. JifW ion*


2UBLIC IJBftllY

; A'IiB, IBNffS AND


TILbfcN FOUNDATIONS
B
1945
*

PREFACE.

In the following pages I have revised and brought together in a connected form some notes and
jottings made during a tour through India, the Straits Settlements, Japan, Corea, the Australian
Colonies and New Zealand, in 1891-93 ; and which have, for the most part, appeared in
Gardeners' Chroniele for that period and
the object of obtaining a

more

the following year.

adequate conception

The

This tour was undertaken with

of the vegetation of the regions visited

than can be gained from an acquaintance with such of the indigenous plants as are cultivated
in British gardens ; also to

observe, as

far as circumstances permitted,

which those plants grow in their native countries ;

and

the conditions under

especially, to endeavour to ascertain

whether our gardens could be enriched by further additions from the wealth of vegetation with
which these regions are favoured.

In pursuance of these objects, the great botanic and public

, gardens maintained by Governments in various centres were inspected, and besides them many
^private horticultural establishments were also visited.

To

gardens the notes are mainly devoted, and they therefore


v horticulturists for whose use, by the courtesy of
\ they are reproduced.

the

horticultural aspects of these

possess but little interest except for

the proprietors of The Gardeners' Chronicle,

I may add that at the outset not the

slightest idea was entertained of

* .placing them before the public in a concrete form, and that it is only at the pressing request
0 of horticultural friends that I have

been induced

to do so.

And

most gladly do I avail

1 myself of the opportunity thus afforded of expressing my great obligations to the Directors and
Superintendents of the gardens and to other friends whom I visited, to whose uniform courtesy
.and kindness I am indebted for the valuable information I obtained respecting the establishments
Sunder their charge.
J. II. V.

CONTENTS.

Part I.CEYLON AND SOUTHERN

PAge.
7 to 14

INDIA

Peradeniya
Madura
Coonoor and Ootacamund

Nuwera Eliya and Hakgala


Trichinopoly.

Part II.BOMBAY To LAHORE

Bombay
Makubpura
Baroda to Jeypore
Saharunpuh

....

Baroda
Luxmi Vei.as
Jeypore
Lahore.

Part 1 1 1.- DELHI TO CALCUTTA

Delhi
Lucknow

4:! to 60

Gwalior
Calcutta.

Part IV.PENANG AND SINGAPORE

63 to 75

Penang
JoIIORE AND BUKAH TlMAR.
Part V.JAVA

17 to 40

Singapore

Batavia

79 to 87

Buitenzorg.

I>AUT VI.HONG-KONG AND CANTON

Hongkong

91 to 96
Canton.

Part VII.JAPANSPRING AND EARLY SUMMER


Yokohama
MlYANOSHtTA
Kyoto
Paht VIII.JAPAN -AUTUMN

09 to 116

119 ti. 136

139 to 154

157 to 170

173 to 1 OS

Tokio
MlYANOSIIlTA TO KYOTO
Tokio.
-

Tokio
Cnokaizan
Hakodate
Nikko.

Fuji-yam a
Awomori
Tokio

Part IXCOREA Part X. -(QUEENSLAND AND WESTERN AUSTRALIA


Brisbane
Albany Western Australia
Wnjson's Inlet

Gympie
The Stirling Mountains
Perth.

Part XI.SOUTH AUSTRALIA, VICTORIA AND NEW SOUTH WALES


Adelaide
Ballarat Victoria
Melbourne

Broken Hill
Geelong
Sydney.

Part XII.NEW ZEALAND


Wellington to Napier and Taupo
Auckland

201 to 210
The Geyser Country
Wellington.

PART

CEYLON

AND

I.

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

PART

CEYLON

AND

1.

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

LEAVING London on October 5th, 1891, it took but two days to arrive at Rome, and three
brought me to Naples, where, in the beautiful harbour, lay the Peninsular and Oriental s.s.
Ganges, on which I had taken a passage for Ceylon.
On such a voyage the chief interest
naturally attaches itself to the Suez Canal, which, unless one should be so unfortunate as
to enter it at night, can be thoroughly well seen, owing to the slow speed at which
vessels pass through.
For about half the distance (some ninety miles in all) from Port
Said the land on either side is quite flat, and
nothing but sandy
desert for the remainder. The view on the Egyptian
hank is bcoken
by a thin streakthe fresh-water canal to Suez, f
along the

Peninsular and Oricntal S.S. "Ganges" off Naples.


banks of which some scant vegetation contrives to exist. Huge dredges are sometimes passed,
and the ferries are particularly interesting. At one of these it was our good fortune to see a
large caravan of camels on their way from Mecca to Cairo.
It was curious to note the
attendant Arabs squatting pround, and the sentinels on guard with their long gunsa survival
of former times when they were liable to be attacked en route. Even now along the line of
communication blackmail is said to be levied in the villages. Can it be true that Mahomed
chose Mecca for the Holy City, as his native village (a particularly poverty-stricken one) lay on
the direct road between these two important towns ?

CEYLON

AND

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

Arriving at Suez, a large town at the southern end of the Canal, which owes its existence
entirely to that great undertaking, but which offers scarcely any attraction to travellers, we
proceeded without delay down the Red Sea, a distance of one thousand five hundred miles,
passing at the narrow southern outlet the tiny island of Perim, now a British possession, and
then at some distance east of it, on the Arabian coast, the British port of Aden, of
which we saw but little.
From this
point the traveller has but little to interest him
besides looking forward to the end of
the five days which must elapse before entering
the harbour at Colombo, the chief port of
Ceylon, sheltered behind the magnificent
breakwater nearly a mile long, and which,
constructed by Government at a cost
of 700,000, took nearly ten years
to complete.
Beyond the groves of Cocoanut
Palms skirting the coastpeculiar
to every island and almost every
shore throughout the tropies, and
always impressive whether sown
by nature or planted by man for
ornament or for usethere is not
Port Said.
much from a plant-lover's point
of view to detain one at Colombo ; accordingly, three days after arrival I went up to
Peradeniya by the early morning train.
In the low country there was not much to see, large
tracts being under water, the recent heavy rains having quite flooded the district. As soon as the
train reached the hilly country, after passing through the Dekanda valley, the ravines and
precipitous glens of which abound with the most luxuriant vegetation, things improved, and
the scenery is very fine.
On the road we passed numerous gangs of coolies clearing away
the recent landslips.
There is scarcely any tunnelling on the line, the train creeping
round the sides of the hills, where magnificent views of the country both beyond aud
beneath are obtained. Peradeniya is one thousand seven hundred feet above sea-level, but I did
not see much of it on my first visit, having to return by the two o'clock train, the last in
the day.
Two days after, with a portion of my luggage, I went to stay at Kandy, famed
for the beauty of its situation owing to its being built on a large artificial lake, and surrounded
by low forest-clad hills amongst which are dotted the bungalows of Europeans. Not the least
curious of its peculiarities is the dull brick-red colour of the earth composing its streets.
On
the way up from Colombo numerous "paddy" fields are seen, the name given to rice in its
growing condition.
Owing to partial submersion being essential, the rice is grown on earth
terraces or banks a few yards wide, one tier rising above another, the water being prevented
from escaping too rapidly by earthen barriers channelled at one end to allow the water to
drip slowly on to the terrace beneath ; the falls from the hills supply the necessary water.
It is a remarkable sight to see these terraces rising on the side of a steep hill one above
another for several hundred feet ; the more so as they are by no means uniform in shape, but
follow the configuration of the hill.
Two crops a year are obtained, chiefly by sowing;
though if a piece be thin, transplanting is resorted to.
Ceylon does not produce anything
like the amount of rice it requires, on account of the large Tamil population imported from
southern India for the tea plantations ; hence interrupted communication with the interior
causes great distress in many districts, and of which many reports were then current on
account of the recent landslips on the railway, whereby the goods traffic was blocked for
eight days.

TI1E NEW YORK


PUBL1C LIBRA hY

ASTOli, LENOX AMs


TILKFiV ''01 tt T\t<\f
R

'

plate r

Hi

f O KYPI I A

1 * M B H A C L' LI FE H A .

fALiroT

Bearing Sled

Palm

CEYLON

AND

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

PERADENIYA.
Peradeniya is only four miles from Kandy, so I soon paid another visit there, and spent
some time with Dr. Trimen, the Director of the Botanic Gardens.
The vegetation in the
gardens is certainly very fine, nearly all being left to Nature. One of the most interesting
plants in them is Lodoicca Hcychellarum, the double Cocoanut of the Seychelles (Sec plate vi.) : with
the exception of the few plants Dr. Trimen has, he tells me he believes it does not exist out
of these islands. 1 was naturally interested, as I had seen the seeds at Kew but no livinir
plant was at that time in the Royal Gardens. Dr. Trimen has one large plant, and, I think, two
or three small ones.
The large one, planted by Dr. Thwaites, is forty years old, and is about
to flower ; it has leaves somewhat like those of a Sabal, larger than I have ever seen on
any Palm, even here. The plants in the Seychelles are said to be from one hundred to one
hundred and fifty feet high, and their age must be immense if they grow at the same
rate as this one does, which is only some fifteen feet high,
The seeds used to be found
floating in many parts of the
ocean, and in the Middle Ages
before the discovery of the
Seychelles they were believed
to be a marine product. The
seeds are said to take ten
years to ripen, and in germin
ating the radicle descends to a
great depth.
Corypha umbraculifera, the Talipot (Str plate i.),
is another of the floral wonders.
This Palm grows with great
rapidity, quite straight up until
it produces an immense terminal
raceme of white flowers, visible
in some places for miles; it then
perfects its seeds and dies. They
flower usually when from forty
Peradeniya, How of Ficus clastica wilh exposcd roots
ncar the Bolanic Garden.
to fifty years old, though one
has been known to flower when but thirty-five years old. I was fortunate enough to see two
in flower from the railway, and one in seod in the Peradeniya Gardens. OrcodiXva regia (Cabbage
Palm) and Caryota urens (Sec plate iv.) form noble trees ; the latter flowers freely, its pendulous
racemes being several feet long.
Artocarpus ineisa (Bread-fruit) and A. nobilis (Jack-fruit)
form fine large foliage ;. the fruit of the latter, though edible, has an indifferent flavour.
In the
gardens some of the undergrowth is handsome ; Sanehrzia nobilis varicgata and Heliconia a urca
striata form bushes from four to five feet high ; the latter is certainly one of the handsomest
plants I saw in the island.
Crotons grow well, though in parts they are apt to get bare.
I
saw one splendid bed, about thirteen yards through, in Colombo, composed of a large variety, and
the shape of the bed was almost perfect.
Draca-nas are well coloured, but get unfurnished.
Acalyphas make splendid bushes with highly-coloured foliage, often ten and twelve feet high.
Amhrrstia nobilis is a fine tree; it is now in flower, in fact I think it is more or less so all
the year round ; its long racemes bear from eight to ten large flowers, most brilliantly
coloured with vermilion and yellow.
It was imported here from the Burmese temples, round
which it grows, but Dr. Trimen tells me it is never found wild.
It seeds in Burmah, but

1(1

CEYLON

AND

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

rarely, very rarely, here.


Tradescantia discolor and Conoclinium grow freely, particularly the
former, when once it gets a footing.
Ferns also do well, and I saw in different parts some
really fine plants of Nephrolejris rufescens tripinnatifida.
Araucaria Cookei forms handsome
trees, and one or two Dammaras (Agathis) are very tall. Ficus elastica and Bamboo are two
of the finest sights in the gardens.
There is a splendid avenue of the former near the
gate, the roots rising often more than a foot above the soil, and covering many yards of the
surrounding ground with their ramifications (Sec plate ii.). The Bamboos are very thick, and
grow seventy feet high, especially on the banks of the Kelani-Ganga, the largest stream of
water in the island ; they are used for a great variety of purposes, from making a curry
downwards.
Dr. Trimen has formed a kind of house by stretching coarse canvas netting over
bamboos ; in it he is able to grow some Orchids and Ferns, which wonld not thrive in the
open air.
The former do fairly well, Cattleyas and Lelias being the weakest subjects, and
I understand that such is the case in nearly all .Eastern gardens, presumably on account of
its being almost impossible to give them a period of rest.
It is curious to see in flower side by side within a few square yards Cypripedium Sedenii,
C. Haynaldianum, Anyraenm sesquipedule,
Oncidium
Lanecamtm, Plndwiuipsis Schilleriana,
Dendrobium maerophyllam Vcitehii very fine, Chysis ltnotesceus and several others.

NUWERA

ELIYA

AND

HA KOALA.

Nl'WERA Eltya is about six thousand two hundred feet above sea level, Kakgala a few hundred
feet lower. Through the kindness of Judge Laurie, the District Judge of Kandy, I was able
to put up at the Cluba very considerable advantage, as the Grand Hotel wsis full of tourists.
Nuwera Eliya is about five hours' train from Kandy, the line gradually rising all the time
through tea and coffee plantations, the last named in this island rapidly going out of cultivation
owing to the disease ( Hemilcia vastatrix), for which, so far, experts have found no cure. It
was raining hard and was rather cold when I arrived, thick blankets being required at
night, and a fire in the smoking-room.
It is the great health resort of Ceylon, and is full
of British people in the hot season ; at this time, however, it was nearly empty.
The gardens at Hakgala attached to the main garden at Peradeniya are, on account of
their great elevation and consequently cooler atmosphere, used for the cultivation of plants
requiring less heat and moisture.
In extent they are some five hundred and fifty acres, but
only eight acres are really kept up, and altogether they are not very remarkable.
The Tree
Ferns and Acacias are fine, and such plants as the following : Fuchsia corymbosa, Gladioli,
Arum and Hemerocallis fulra grow and flower profusely ; Gorse forms bushes three to four
feet high ; Vinca and Boeconia frutescens eight feet high, but Boeconia cordata will not thrive.
Cryptameria japonica is now much planted, as is Grevillca robusta ; the latter is also used on
the tea estates for shelter, closely planted, narrow belts sometimes running up the whole side of a
hill, to break the force of the winds. Spirwa cantotwnsis is used for hedges all round Nuwera
Eliya, and answers the purpose admirably.
Vegetables succeed more or less.
The English
Blackberry and the Wilson Junior grow, but do not fruit. Our English Cherry forms fine trees,
but, like the Blackberry, yields no fruit.
The great weed in the low country is Lantana ; this is everywhere, and I am told in
some parts it covers miles, but it is now being supplanted by a large yellow Composite, with
Broussonetia-like foliage, by name Tithonia, introduced from California.
Another weed is Mimosa
piulica, most difficult to eradicate, as burning has no effect, for it springs up through the
ashes of burnt jungle after the first shower.
Oxalis is the chief weed of the hill district :

CEYLON

AM>

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

this, like Tithonia, has acclimatized itself. On my return to Kandy, I went to stay with Judge
Laurie, who reeeived me most kindly.
He grows a great many Ferns, of which he is very
proud, and also some Orchids. I went over tea, coffee and cocoa estates on which also Vanilla and
Pepper are both cultivated to a limited extent, the former being grown along the road-sides
on Erythrina indicathe Vanilla clinging well to its spiny bark. Owing to the insect necessary
for its fertilization (which abounds in Mauritius) being here absent, it has to be fecundated
by hand, but its production is said to be not very profitable.
Squirrels and white ants are the great pests in the animal world.
I went over a cocoa
estate belonging to a gentleman who gives a gratuity for every squirrel skin brought to him,
and who also keeps a man employed expressly to shoot these animals.
The languid muggy
heat of this place is not inspiriting.
I shall be glad to get north, where, though hot, it will
he dry.
A dry heat is enjoyable, but such places as this and Colombo, which are now
receiving the end of the rains, rather " take it out " of one. From six to eight o'clock in the
morning the weather is perfect, but after that, and when the rain comes down, the air gets
too saturated with moisture to be pleasant.

MADURA.
Novemher, 189!. Leaving Colombo one evening on one of the small boats of the British India
Company, we made for the most southern port of India Tuticorinwhich we reached in the course
of the following day. This route is largely used by the coolies crossing
from the mainland to Ceylon to work on the numerous plantations
in the island ; and as is usually the case at certain seasons, our
boat was packed with several hundreds of such. This would not
have been so unpleasant but for the fact that we had to
anchor three-and-a-half miles from the shore, and land in a
small launch, an arrangement occupying some time, and
causing much commotion and noise amongst the native
passengers huddled thickly together in the hold, owing to
the very natural desire of each to leave the vessel as soon
as possible, and to get into the launch every time it returned
from the shore for a fresh freight. As this occurred but once
in two hours the desire seemed very pardonable.
On landing, having nothing to detain me, I left
in a few hours for the city of Madura, a place of
great interest, where the timings of natives and
seemingly endless varieties of their costumes formed
a novel sight.
Here for the first time I saw
Hindoosa people entirely different in feature, form,
colour and dress from the Tamils and Telegus.
The
Madura. The Urcal Gopura, 151 fecl in height.
women wear handsome jewelbry in great quantity,
the ears being pierced sometimes in three and four
places, and large rings are worn in the nostrils.
The sights of Madura are the famous
temple, dedicated to and a chosen Residence of Siva; the Teppa Kulam, or Great Tank
(now only used for washing purposes and committing suicide) ; the palace of Tirumala,
and the Pudu Mandapam.
The temple is certainly a wonderful building.
The whole is
enclosed by a great wall, at the north, east, south and west of which are four great gopuras,
immense pagodas covered with brilliantly coloured and most grotesque figures, representing

12

CEYLON

AND

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

the powerful god in the various forms he assumes, with those who guard and those who
wait upon him. The interior is divided into low halls, open spaces, galleries, and a great
tank, to bathe in which purifies
from many sins, but the water is
thick and filthy, and of a lively
green colour. The walls of the
galleries surrounding this tank are
covered with frescoes, chiefiy illus
trating punishments awaiting the
sinful ; the work is coarse and in
some places, to a European eye,
most objectionable. The Hall of a
Thousand Columns, the roof of
which is supported, as the name
implies, by a thousand columns,
many being covered with carving,
is also interesting. In the galleries
and halls crowds of natives squat
and talk, the place seeming to be
Miuiura. Tank in the Grcat Temple.
a general rendez-vous of the
inhabitants. At the entrance of
the particular building in which the figure of the god is placed, but which is not permitted
to be seen, stands a large gold-plated column for the suspension of lights on great occasions.
Around and close to the temple are bazaars, many devoted to the sale of the famous Madura
cloths, and filled with as motley a crowd as could well he seen.
The Great Tank, about two
miles out of Madura, is a quarter of a mile square, having in the centre an island, on
which stands a domed temple, round which on great occasions and festivals idols are drawn on
rafts. The palace of Tirumala is
a magnificent building ; the court
yard is surrounded by a large
gallery, the roof of which is
supported by large stone columns ;
the interior, now used by the
Government as a justice room, is
beautifully carved and very lofty.
A fine view of the town, and the
tjreat gopuras of the temple is
obtained from the roof. The Pudu
Mandapam, opposite one of the
entrances to the temple, and now
used as a bazaar, is a large pillared
hall, the roof of which is supported
by four rows of columns, one
hundred and twenty in all, and
each
differently carved.
The
Madura. The Courtyard in the Tirumala Palaec, 100 yards square.
facade along the entrance is
adorned with carved monsters. Not far from Madura flows the great Vaiga River, on the banks
of which arc burnt the bodies of the deadan impressive sight at first.
In the distance can
he seen the Serpent Mountains and Elephant Ifock, so named from their supposed resemblance

CEYLON

AND

SOUTHERN

INDIA.

I3

to these animals, who, as the legend runs, were coming to destroy the ancient city, when they
were turned into stone by the watchful god.
Banyans (Meus indica and F. bengalensis) grow well at Madura ; many roads, especially outside
the town, are lined with them, and they afford a pleasant and effective shade. Owing to their
aerial roots being cut, that passers-by may go under the trees, they do not increase so rapidly
as they naturally would do.
In Judge Weir's garden I, however, saw a very fine specimen
with one hundred and five large aerial stems, and seventy smaller ones ; all the large stems or
aerial roots are numbered, and the tree is carefully looked after.
Cocoanuts (Cocos nwcifera)
abound round Madura, and a special variety of Banana is cultivated for food.
A small one
which only grows on the hills is particularly sweet and nice.

TRICHINOPOLY.

From Madura I went to Trichinopoly, but a short journey by train. It bears the unenviable
reputation of being one of the hottest places in India, and one of the worst for cholera.
For miles along the line of railway from Tuticorin to Trichinopoly, and, indeed, much further
up country, a formidable hedge of Agave americana impassable by
cattle, has been planted on each side.
Occasionally,
though rarely, a break from some cause or other
occurs ; but this is always filled up with a strong
wire fence kept in splendid order.
Hour after
hour nothing can be seen but the Agave, and the
flat, uninteresting country beyond. But where wells
have been sunkthe water from which is hauled up
by means of cattleone may see a large tract under
"paddy" culture.
Owing to the country being flat it
is, of course, impossible to cultivate it as in Ceylonthat is to say. tier upon tier ; the necessary water in
India is conveyed by small channels to the various fields.
The chief centre of interest at Trichinopoly is the great temple
Trichinopoly. Tank in Otc town.
of Seringham, situated on an island some distance out of
the town.
This temple, dedicated to the worship of Vishnu, is the largest in India, and
is a complete town in itself.
The approach along a road lined with Palms and other
trees, with the great gopuras, far away in the distance, of which one remains unfinished, is
most picturesque. The temple is divided into seven squares, one within another, each one
holier than the other, proceeding inwards to the shrine in the centre.
No less than
twenty-one gopuras are scattered about, and there are several tanks.
Elephants are kept
in the courtyards for religious purposes, and are for the most part splendid creatures.
From Trichinopoly I went to Tanjore to see the temple, said to be the oldest in
India.
I think I was more interested in this temple than in any previously visited : it is
smaller and more compact than the others; the entire temple is surrounded by a gallery,
on the walls of which are frescoes of punishments and miracles, and containing in one part
one hundred and eight stone gods, each god being a short circular piece of stone on a massive
base upon which believers lay flowers when offering prayers.

14

CEYLON

COONOOR

AND

SOUTHERN

AND

INDIA.

OOTACAMUND.

FROM Trichinopoly I went to Coonoor, a hill station much frequented by Europeans in the
hot season. The nearest railway on the plain is at Mettupalaiyam, the remainder of the journey
up the Nilgiri ghats some eighteen milesbeing performed in a double-horsed "tonga."
A
" tonga " is a curious contrivance on two
wheels arranged to hold four persons. It
has a moveable pole, so that at whatever
gradient the ascent may he, the weight of
the entire carriage can be thrown on the
wheels. The horses go a. fast trot all the
way, and are changed every two miles.
This is the ordinary method of making
the journey, but owing to two large
bridgesone a large stone structurehaving
been washed away about a month ago,
some five miles of road were rendered
inaccessible to tongas, and we had to
walk or mount a pony.
Coonoor is six
Tanjore On* of the 108 SUmc Lingant in the Gallerics
surrounding the Temple Courtyard. On the
thousand feet above sea-level, and is very
walls arc Pietures illustrating Miracles,
prettily situated on the side of a steep
hill, whilst all around, often hidden in the woods, are the bungalows of Europeans.
It
is a delightful spot, and I believe the most popular resort of the southern Anglo-Indians. The
vegetation is somewhat similar to that in and around Nuwera Eliya in Ceylon.
From Coonoor I rode over to Ootacamund, commonly known as Ooty, situated twelve
miles further up the hills, and a little over one thousand feet higher elevation. The principal
tree between these two places is Eucalyptus globulus, thousands of acres having been planted
to afford fuel. In a young state it burns with great rapidity ; but I am told that when old this
is not the case ; moreover the seasoned wood is valuable for house purposes.
Mr. Lawson,
Director of the Botanic Gardens and of the important Government plantations, has the floor and
wainscoting of his drawing-room made it.
I should like to have seen his Cinchona
plantations, but as they are several miles distant, I was obliged to forego that pleasure.
His
method of obtaining the bark is different from that in vogue in Ceylon ; instead of stripping
it oft annually, he removes oblong strips every three years; by this method the tree is not injured
to the same extent, and four units more quinine is obtained than they do in Ceylon ; here,
as there, the renewed bark is always the richest in this product.
He drove me round the
artificial lake, a considerable expanse of water winding in and (ait between the hills, and
through a portion of the Botanic Gardens.
The two chief trees at Ooty are the black and white Wattle, both Acacias, the former
being A. nudlissima, and the latter A. dcalbata ; both grow with great freedom, especially
A. dcalbata.
The Botanic Gardens are situated at the extreme end of Ooty, and are in
conjunction with the Governor's house and garden. I was much struck with Mr. Lawson's lawns
though he has to water artificially, they are yet very good.
In the portion of the garden
I saw, were some good single specimens of various Conifers scattered about, such as Pinus
insignis, Cupressus torulosa, C. funebris, and C. Lawxoniana, Araucaria Bidwilli, A. Cooleri, and
Cryptomeria japonica. English Oak does fairly well ; there is an excellent specimen thirty feet high.
This portion of the garden can scarcely be called botanical ; it seems rather to he laid
out with well-gravelled roads and walks for the gratification of the many Europeans in Ooty.

PART

BOMBAY

TO

II.

LAHORE.

PART

BOMBAY

TO

II.

LAHORE.

BOMBAY.
November, 1891.Early on the morning after my arrival 1 called on Mr. Carstensen, the
Superintendent of the Victoria Gardens. The gardens and the museum attached are situated
some distance from the European ipiarter. Just inside the gate is a little bedding-out ; the
effect is not so brilliant as what is sometimes seen in England, but it is tastefully done.
Alternantheras are of little use, having only an occasional tinge of red ; in the rains they
all turn green.
A good substitute is Acrva sanguinoUnta, a small purple-leaved plant which
bears clipping well ; its leaf is much smaller and has the shape of that of the purple Berberis.
Acalypha torta, with its pretty dark curled
foliage, as well as Croton elegantissimus and
Panax multijulum, are here used for bedding ;
the Croton is particularly neat, and clipping
does not seem to harm it.
From the inner gate, a broad central
walk leads to the centre of the garden,
on either side of which is a narrow border
very tastefully planted.
The groundwork is
Nephrolepis
tuberosei, growing with
great
freedom, in which are arranged triangles of
various plants, such as Torenia Fournicri (now
in flower), Hemigraphis colorata, purple, yellow,
and white variegated
Eranthemums,
and
others. On the right of this road, and close
to the gate, is a piece of water with a small
island near the centre. The island is entirely
occupied by a gigantic Pandanus odoratissimus
Bombay. Temple with carved and painted exterior.
with its branches twisted and curled in every
direction, many of the outer ones being partially submerged ; it cannot be less than a hundred feet
through.
Near, on the bank, is another with similar though certainly distinct foliage.
Round
the edge of this pond, Bamboos form nice clumps some twenty to twenty-five feet high,
and Papyrus alternifohus and Caladium tuberosum also grow freely.
On the other side of the
road, amongst many others, is a bed containing some twelve species of Brownea ; they are all
small plants, too young to flower yet, but the pinnate leaves are most striking, appearing
c

18

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

as they do in a perfectly developed condition, and beautifully tinted.


Here is also the
Opuntia-like plant cultivated in the Brazils for the preservation of the cochineal insect, and
which has a curious, small, deep crimson, cup-shaped flower. Close by, Sacaca iiulica, a handsome
tree with large pinnate foliage, was in flower ; the blooms are of the same colour, about
the same size, and are borne in heads like an Ixora, the resemblance being most striking.
The tree is particularly thick and bushy, and alwiut fifteen feet high.
The plants in the gardens not indigenous to India are mostly South American ; few
Australian species do well, with the notable exception of Metrosideros semperflorens, a handsome tree
or rather bush some fifteen feet high, which is
now in flower : its leaves and red flowers,
though numerous, are small.
Mr. Carstensen
has often tried to propagate it by cuttings, but
without success, and he has to depend on layers.
Eiaul tfpt us Globulus will live but three years, as
it always dies in the rains. E. citriodora and
E. rostrata, on the contrary, flourish.
Grerillca
robusta, of which there are one or two good
trees in the garden, does well. Mr. Carstensen
tells me Candytuft, Pansies, China Pinks and
Bombay. Tank in the native quarter.
Verbenas do fairly well, and I also saw a pretty
little bed of Coreopsis. Rarenala madagarninensis
(Sir plate v.) (Traveller's Joy) does not do here as in Ceylon, and I only noticed one plant, a
moderate-sized fair specimen.
Close to the museum is a good specimen of Pithreolobium Saman
(the Rain Tree), which grows here with almost the same extraordinary rapidity characteristic of
the tree in Ceylon.
The plant in question is now some thirty-five feet high, its spread of
branches more than fifty feet in diameter, its stem must be three feet through, yet it is
but twelve years old. Ficus elastica is fair, as is also a very similar Australian species, E.
uuwmphylla. Ficus iuilica ( Banyan)
is naturally
the
best, and
there is more than an ordinarily
i?ood specimen in the gardens.
A large cut-leaved Solanum near
the centre walk has moderatesized, dull blue flowers ; it is
a massive and striking plant
by name Solanum maronic>w.
Hound the base of some of the
single
specimens,
Nephrolepis
tuberosa,
edged
with
Pitca
muscusa, forms a pleasing thick
Bombay. The Secretariat, Court-housc, and Clock-tower from the Race coursc.
carpet.
Quisqualis floribmula is
a strange plant now in flower, producing large heads, each flower with a long tube, in colour
either crimson-red or pure white ; whether this is a matter of age I cannot say, but I
noticed no intermediate shades.
It is a climber, growing over other trees with freedom, and
popularly known as the "Rangoon Creeper." BougainvMea sple>uiens is striking with its flowers
of rich purplish blue ; what is called B. lateritia is also in flower, but the blooms are smaller
and of a reddish brick tinge.
A small plant of B. glabra is likewise in flower in a pot.
Mr. Carstensen has a nursery where he grows all kinds of plants for replacing purposes;
he has also two moderately-sized canvas houses, in which are Adiantums, a few Orchids, and

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

10

various plants of no especial interest.


A variety of Acalypha may here be seen very much
like A. musaica, but instead of the foliage being brown and red, it is green and yellow, the
effect in the distance being not unlike that produced by Abutilon Thompsoni varirgatum.
Although Acalypha torta may be cut to within a few inches of the ground for bedding
purposes, it will form a dense shrub if allowed to grow, as will all kinds of variegated
Eran them u ms.
All this class of plants form neat and effective
undergrowth at the edges of large beds, or elsewhere, under the taller
trees.
Bigmmia regalis (Otondenio sprriasa '. ) is an attractive
plant which has numerous salmon-coloured blossoms.
Pothos
aurca is here Ogrowing
grandly
on
the
.stem
of
Do
./
a Toddy Palm (Borassus jltbelliformis); it is a most
effective plant,
Ipomasa Lcari, with large blue
flowers, very similar to
our
climbing Convolvulus, trails freely
over two stumps at the end
of a walk, and is flowering
freely. I also noticed Eranthemum
pulchdlum and 'Cassia alata in
flower, a fair specimen of the
Bread-fruit Tree (Artocarpus
incisa), Datura suavmlrns, and
moderate-sized Crotons, but Ceylon is un
Bombay. Loading Grain at tlw Itocks.
doubtedly the place for these, as far as
I have yet had the means of judging.
Hippeastrums succeed in pots, and Tea Roses give
very fair results. Ipomcea Horsfalliw and /. stnuata are masses of bloom.
On leaving the gardens, Mr. Carstensen pointed out to me a handsome tree, Spathodea
camjxmulata, belonging to the Piignoniaeea', bearing large brilliant yellow and scarlet flowers,
and long pinnate foliage with round broad
leaflets.
And now a word about the Palms, some
of which are fine, though not so fine as in
Ceylon.
Omxloxa regia (Cabbage Palm) is
represented by a noble specimen upwards of
twenty feet high, and Coniplm umbrarulifera
(the Talipot) (Str plate i.) by two or three
somewhat smaller ones.
Arenga saccharifera
(The Sugar Palm) is here very fine; its long
massive Phxpnix-like leaves rising at a small
aagle from the base, often ten to twelve feet
in length, render it a particularly graceful and
impressive object.
Corns plmnosa, about
twenty feet high, has a symmetrical head ;
and Caryota urens (Sec plate iv.) in
Bombay. The Station.
flower, and C. sobolifera with broader
Grcat India Peninsula Railway Company.
leaflets than the former, are well represented.
A handsome Palm, Martinezia cargotafolia, with Caryota-like foliage, covered with long black
spines, is to be seen in a pot in one of the canvas houses, and is a fair specimen of a
rather handsome Calamus.
The vegetation immediately round Pxnnbay is not particularly remarkable.
The plant most

20

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

frequently seen is T/wspesia populnca, a moderate-sized tree with foliage resembling a Canadian
Poplar, and large yellow cup-shaped flowers which turn to a delicate salmon in the evening ;
in some parts this is very common.
Carica papaya, with a large pod in the axil of each of its
fig-like leaves, is also frequently met with ; ii forms but one stem, and does not seem to grow
very high.
Chavwa (Piper) Betle (the Betel Tree), the leaf of which is sold in the bazaars
and streets for chewing with Areca nut, is also fairly common. The chief weed is the Fibre
Plant (Malachra capitata) ; in this the Government hope they have a plant of great economic
value, and they are doing all they can
to promote its cultivation in various
parts for the manufacture of fibre.
Antigonon
Leptopus,
a
handsome
climber with pink flowers not unlike
a Japanese Spira?a, is also common ;
whilst Pisonia allxi (the Lettuce Tree),
with Brugmansia-like
foliage and
white hark, grows everywhere.
Feb
ruary is the best month for flowers
in Bombay ; at that season the
majority of trees and shrubs, etc.,
have completed their growth, and are
ready to produce their flowers before
the annual, and only, rainy season
set3 in, in May, for four months.
Near the
Reservoir are the
Bombay.Street Scene.
Dakhmas, or Towers of Silence.
These are used by Parsees for the
disposal of their dead, and no one am enter the grounds in which these towers are built
without special permission.
The towers are about ninety feet in diameter, and fifteen feet
high, and in these are exposed the bodies of the dead, which are left to the innumerable
vultures flying about. The skeletons are allowed to remain for three or four weeks, when
they are placed in a common well, no distinction being here made between rich and poor ;
all are laid in the same place.
Though the European quarter in Bombay contains many fine buildings, the most interesting
part to any person fresh from Europe is naturally the native quarter, in the labyrinth of
streets of which i? gathered together a motley crowd
from all parts of the East from China to Egypt, and
who meet for commercial purposes in this great business
mart ; many richly attired people may he seen in the
crowd, but their costume appears strange to a European.
The Cave Temple on Elephanta Island is worthy of a
visit. Carved out of the solid rock in a single night,
as superstition would have us believe, the temple is
divided into several compartments, the largest of which,
one hundred and thirty feet square, is supported
by twenty-six massive fluted pillars.
Some of the
carved figures are in a good state of preservation,
Bombay.-The Cave Temple of Ekphanta.
but many are imperfect owing to the action of
the Portuguese, who battered the temple with cannon from religious motives at the time they
held Bombay.

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

21

BARODA.
December, 1891. Due north of Bombay lies the non-tributary, independent native state of
Baroda, under the rule of His Highness the Gaekwar. On leaving the capital of the Presidency,
a night's journey brought me to His Highness' territory, as a native state always more interesting
to the traveller than those parts under direct British control.
Here, whilst enjoying the
hospitality of Mr. Henry, the Director of the Public Park, and the companionship of Mr.
Goldring, at that time entrusted by His Highness with the laying out of the grounds of his
new palaces, I had an ample opportunity of spending a pleasant week.
In and near the town are several fine buildings, including the University, the Countess of
Dufferin Hospital, the palace of the late prince named Nazar Baghin the centre of the city,
the present ruler's new palace, and his palace at Markarpura. Of the grounds attached to the
two latter I have more to say presently, but will first deal with the public park of Baroda
which was chiefly laid out in Mr. Woodrow's time, Mr. Henry's immediate predecessor. Though
undoubtedly too much space has been devoted to
roads, it is prettily and effectively laid out for the
enjoyment of the people.
The roads and paths are
well kept and in good condition ; the main roads are
twenty-five feet, the secondary ones being only from
eight to ten feet wide.
The park, bounded on one
side by one of the main roads of Baroda, and on
the other by the Vishwamintre River, is almost flat,
and entirely under grass except where buildings stand
or roads have been constructed. The river, in addition
to bounding one side, meanders through high banks,
and passes along the entire length of the park.
In
going from one end to the other, it might be crossed
four times.
The park is about one hundred acres in extent,
and it is entered through handsome iron gates supported
on either side by stone pillars.
On the left under a
Haroda Domes of the
group of trees is the keeper's lodge, whilst next to the
l'nirrrxitg from the Puhlic Pork.
rails on the right is a narrow border planted at intervals
with young Cocoanuts (Cocos nucifera) twenty feet high with handsome leaves springing from
the base, and often upwards of twelve feet long, whilst in the border beneath may be seen
Russcllia grandiflora in bloom, a pretty little shrub, the long shoots of which are covered for
about eighteen inches from the tips with small brilliantly-coloured scarlet flowers ; its one
fault is, perhaps, its somewhat straggling habit.
The stonework supporting the palings is
hidden by variegated Eranthemums and Acalyphas chiefly A. musaica. On the opposite side
of this walk are oblong beds filled with various plants, such as Cliveas, now out of flower, the
leaves of which look much drawn ; Mr. Henry finds that they require shade for their successful
culture, as do Gaillardias and Tagetes signata.
One bed in particular attracted my attention,
containing a very pretty species of Aster, dwarf and neat, much resembling A. A mcllus. At
the end of this path the river is reached at the point where it is crossed by a handsome
single-arch stone bridge (an engraving of which has been published in the Gardeners' Chroniele).
On the same bank, but at the further side of the bridge was the finest mass of Iponuca camca
in full flower it has yet been my privilege to see. This plant now flowering freely here,

22

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

though a native of South America, is quite common and seems to adapt itself either as a
climber or a moderate-sized shrub ; its large Convolvulus like flowers of a pale purplish rose are
produced in profusion, and though perhaps in England we might call it somewhat washy, it
is undoubtedly one of the most effective objects to be seen in Baroda at this season. The
purple heads of Gomphrena globosa stood out well against the white stone parapets of the
bridgethis plant is a weed here.
Starting from this point along the river bank, and passing at the end of the walk two
stumps clothed with Ipomcca scmperrirens, its pretty palmate leaves and small white flowers
faintly tinged with lilac hanging gracefully on all sides of its support, we again come into
the main road leading in a direct line to the white stone pavilion, the only spot in the park
that is the private property of the Gaekwar.
Between the gate and this pavilion is an
exceedingly pretty viaduct or bridge.
High arches of Bmi/ainvillca
splendens or B. speetabilis, covered with flowers, are passed through at
each end, the stems of which are often three inches in diameter. The
parapets of this white stone viaduct and pavilion beyond, together with the
innumerable brilliantly coloured purple bracts on the shoots of this
Ikmgainvillea, often several feet long, in the full tropical sun produce an
effect 1 should imagine difficult to surpass.
Many plants of this
Ikmgainvillea
are
scattered
about
the
park
and
elsewhere,
and B. luttritia
,
mI

with its brick-coloured flowers is also to be seen. At the end of the


small viaduct the road divides into three ; the one to the right, facing
1i
almost due south, has on one side a neat row of Bamboos, chiefly Bambusa
Tnlda and Casuarina glauca.
Besides B. Tulda, common in Bengal and
used for almost innumerable economic purposes, a variety with greyish
stems and large, brown, hirsute sheaths, has also been planted here. The
number of Bamboo species is so great that to venture on specific naming
is dangerous. The delicate Pinus-like foliage of the Casuarina alternating with the long
sub-pendulous shoots of the Bamboos gives a charming effect.
In the centre road, twenty-five
feet wide, as already stated, a huge Mango, the branches of which are intertwined with
Bougainvillen sjmtabilis, catches the eye, whilst a fine specimen of Tamarindus indicx> (the
Tamarind) is close by.
These two trees, together with Cassia mmatrana, are among those
which are most abundant in the park.
Shortly before reaching the large grass-plot in front of the pavilion, and at a junction
with a cross road, is a large oval bed, the prevailing plant being Russellia juneea, about two
feet high ; its delicate rush-like foliage and scarlet tubular flowers form pretty objects with a
background of Acalyphas and other shrubs.
A huge circle of grass surrounded by the
roadway, with a tall Thuia oricntalis strieta the only Conifer growing in the park in the
centre, and laid out with small beds filled with dwarf plants of an herbaceous description, is
immediately in front of one of the four entrances to the pavilion.
The grass is very good,
and is carefully watered ; it is thick, soft, and not coarse ; its ordinary name is Doab grass,
the Cynosurus dcutylifcca or Cyiuxhn Daetylon of science. Mr. Goldring has used it in all his
work. The beds are filled with small Nasturtiums just planted from the seed-beds, Coreopsis,
Ageratums, etc.
I have also noticed in other parts Angebmia salicariafolia a dwarf plant
some eighteen inches high, with long terminal racemes of purplish blue flowers, and Vincas,
both red and white, usually a bed of each kind, are to be seen, as is (Enothera Drummoiuli,
producing its yellow flowers freely.
In the centre of some of these beds are Mexican Agaves
or Crinums, whilst in every case there is an edging of Alternanthera, unfortunately but poorly
coloured. In one of the angles of the pavilion, Tabenormontana coronaria has been planted, and
has formed thick bushes four to six feet high, in splendid condition ; a few of its flowers were

BOMUAY

TO

LAHOHE.

2:'.

scattered alxmt, but it is not seen in perfection till later ; it requires a considerable amount
of water, and is much sought after by the natives on account of its scent. In one of the
beds near here a Clerodendron in flower attracted my attention ; Mr. Henry considers it one
of the best shrubs he has ; the individual flowers are not large, but t he heads of bloom of
moderate size are so numerous as to make it worth planting ; in colour it is white.
This
species, C. aculcatum, as well as other (Jlerodendrons, are most useful for ordinary landscape
purposes, being sufficiently showy to create a feature, and enduring a continued drought
admirably.
It is also said that cattle will not touch its bitter thorny shoots ; it is hence
useful for hedges. Grevillca robusta is scattered about, and seems to thrive ; at present there
are no specimens much over fifteen feet ; its foliage is q{ a darker tint than in Ceylon,
possibly because it does not grow so quickly.
Terminalia Catappa (the Country Almond) is .a
hamlsome ornamental tree, the bark and leaves of which yield a pigment with which the
natives dye their teeth black, and from which Indian ink is also made in some parts; a
specimen of it near this spot is a distinct-looking plant ; it has large, broad, obovate
foliage much like that of the North American Magnolia, dark green in colour, often tinged
with red ; the seed is large, resembling an Almond.
Towards the pavilion many of the roads converge, always in straight lines ; in fact, the
general principle of the park seems to be straight lines, all converging to certain points. The
Superintendent's office is a small building very suitable for the purpose, one side of which is
entirely covered with Ipanuca Lcari in flower ; whilst a nice, though at present small, row of
an interesting Palm (Hyplumc thcbaua) lines a small path on the right.
This Palm is said
to possess the peculiarity of branching ; the specimens at present are not much more than
six to seven feet high, and there are certainly two or three shoots, but whether these come
from the base, as they appear to do, or are in reality branches, is not yet determinable ; the
leaves are handsome, much resembling a large Corypha.
A little beyond are two paths, each
having an avenue of trees; one is Gaultheria longifloca, and the other Mfflingtonia hortensw,
more popularly known as Bignonw suberosa. The former is a tree of slow growth; its stem is
regular and straight, and its pyramidal-shaped head of pale green acuminate entire leaves
(not unlike in size and colour those of a large Peach or Nectarine) makes it a most distinct
and pleasing object. The latterMfflingtonia hortensis, a native of South Burmahis undoubtedly
the handsomest flowering tree I have seen in India; the largest specimen is just outside Mr.
Henry's bungalow, and I have been careful to photograph it, but those in the avenue in
question are not nearly so tall, but all, having been planted at the same time, are regular and
shapely trees ; its stem is clean and straight, the head tall, yet round and even ; the foliage
bipinnate, of a dark glossy green, but its value as a decorative object lies in the
innumerable heads of pure white flowers, with whiih the tree is covered.
The individual
flower has five unequal lobes, and is about an inch in diameter, with a tube between three and
four inches long ; the old flowers turn yellow, but do not immediately drop, as on falling
from the calyx they are caught by the stigma, from which they remain suspended for some
days. The leaves droop, as well as the suspended flowers, the whole effect being most graceful.
The largest tree must be upwards of fifty feet high, whilst those in the avenue mentioned are
probably not more than twenty-five feet.
Many other specimens are scattered about, but
all are at present covered on every side with these great heads of white flowers.
A few specimens of a handsome shrub -Duranta Plumicri and its variety albaare scattered
alx>ut in various parts of the park. The flowers of the type are blue, but its chief beauty is
in its small round yellow berries, which remain on the plant a considerable time, and are
produced in quantity. Thick bushes of regular habit form a pleasing change in a shrubbery. A
plant Tccoma stansmostly employed in this part as a screen is well represented in a large
bed close to the river, which one again touches at this point ; it grows with surprising rapidity,

24

BOMBAY

TO

LAHOTiE.

last year's cuttings being now six to seven feet high, and proportionally bushy ; its flowers are
of moderate size, of a good clear yellow colour; it is a most useful shrub, often employed to hide
outbuildings, or as a screen from a public road. Poinciana puleherrima and its variety flava,
the roots of which are used for various medicinal purposes, are both common and pretty, as
is Ixora coecinca, which flowers freely. The Nim tree, Melia Azadirachta, is a common object,
and often represented in the park ; it has handsome somewhat pendulous Fraxinus-like foliage, and
possesses the peculiarity of being deciduous for one week in the year.
Pink and white
Oleanders are scattered about in beds, and thrive well, though occasionally a little unfurnished.
Still proceeding towards the band-stand, a row of dwarf bushy Mangos, not more
than ten feet high, attracted my notice. Mr. Henry told me they were grafted plants; they
grow dwarfer, and flower and fruit
earlier than those raised from seed.
They looked very different from the
huge trees with stems several feet
in diameter, of which one sees so
many.
I fear I shall not see the
Mango trees in fruit ; it is too early.
Cassia sumatrana or simea, a common
tree in the province of Guzerat, and
most certainly in the district of
Baroda, is to be seen in perfection
in various parts of the park. It is
a pretty tree, of graceful habit, and
is recommended for its rapidity of
growth and general hardiness.
Most kinds
of succulents do well, many beds being
Baroda. Khammath Ghat and Temple.
scattered about.
Kvjelia pinnata, a native
of Madagascar, is a curious tree ; it is now out of flower, but I saw the remains of last year's
racemes, three to four feet long. Mr. Henry tells me they are usually much longer, and often
reach the ground ; as the trees arc twelve to fifteen feet high, it must be a curious sight.
On going from the direction of the pigeon-house, the band-stand is soon reached ; it is
situated in the centre of a large circular plot of grass, surrounded by beds of various simple
shapes, and filled usually with one plant, such as Coleus, Salvia farinacca, S. coecinca, Vincas,
Oaillardias, etc.
In the centre of one of the Coleus beds is a neat dwarf shrub, much
variegated with ivory-white; its name is Pedilanthus tithymaloides, with moderate-sized fleshy
leaves borne on a straight stiff stem, valuable for bedding here, but I am doubtful whether it
is worthy of space in a European stove. A bed of Zinnias (a favourite plant in this part),
growing rather tall and straggling, is in full flower round the band-stand, and is edged with
Goldfuma isaphylla, a very suitable plant for the purpose.
Nearly all the other beds are
edged with Alternanthera.
Beds of Ageratum are good, but one of Chrysanthemum Madame
Desgranges is only fair.
Borassus JIabelliformis, a noble Palm, common in some parts, is well
represented near the band-stand ; whilst two large specimens, upwards of seventy feet high, of the
" people's tree "Fwus religiosa strike one's attention on again turning towards the river ; silk
worms will feed on its leaves, and it is an object of peculiar veneration to the worshippers of
the powerful god, Vishnu, the Destroyer, as some suppose he was born amongst its branches.
Jasminnm Sambac, the flowers of which are sacred to the same god, is also used for bedding.
I was much struck with a large tree of a Mango, against which grew a curled, twisted
stem of Pterospermum brachypterum near this spot.
This creeper has grown in, around, and
almost entirely over the head of this huge Mango.
When it flowers high up all over the

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

25

Mango, Mr. Henry tells me it is a fine sight ; its main stem is about ten inches in
diameter.
Various Jasmines (about nine species are known in the district of Baroda) are
scattered about, whilst Abutilon coecincum, a pretty little shrub with small highly-coloured
scarlet flowers, is frequently seen. Plumeria acutifolia is also not uncommon ; it is one of the
most noticeable trees in India, and its long thick leaves . with their curiously regular venation
strike one at once ; it does not
grow high, and as it loses its
older leaves is somewhat bare.
Its flowers are large, white with
a yellow centre, and most power
fully scented ; they are about
an inch and a-half in diameter,
ionic in a loose many-flowered
lasting in beauty for a
long time and also
in water when
cut ; they are

frequently offered to gods in


the temple at Kandy where I
saw basket upon basket full used
for lhis purpose. This tree is
in some mysterious way supposed
by thc natives (who call it
the "Pagoda Tree") to be
connected with the success of
Baroda. Luxmi Velas Palaec.
Englishmen in the East. Cryptostegia grandiflora is grand here ; the individual flower is pale lilac, the exterior of the
corolla being somewhat darker.
Two or three small lakes (in reality ponds) are scattered about, one being near the
pigeon-house ; the principal one, filled with Nelumbium speciosum, is close to the main bridge
leading to the Superintendent's house.
The Nelumbium also flourishes in the river, and is
usually sown by the seeds being enveloped in balls of clay, and thrown into the water. On
the banks of one of these lakes a remarkable shrub is to be seen, the name of which I failed
to ascertain ; it is about three feet in height, and bushy.
Its racemes, completely enveloped
in large overlapping bracts, are about four inches long; these bracts are of a bronzy tinge;
from beneath them emerge moderate-sized fleshy yellow tubular flowersusually two at a
time.

MAKUEPURA.
The Makurpura Palace or Park, upon which latter Mr. Goldring was specially engaged,
situated about six and a-half miles from Baroda, and reached by a straight road kept in
splendid condition, is a favourite resort of His Highness the Gaekwar. The vegetation along

26

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

the road is not particularly striking ; the hedges are composed of Prickly Pear and various
species of Euphorbia, E. quadrangu-'arLi predominating. As a hedge it is perfectquite impassable
by cattle.
The entrance to the palace is through a massive archway, built in modern style of red
brick, relieved with white stone. On the left of the main drive are the stables, hidden by a
thick shrubbery ; whilst on the right a " nullah " or dry watercourse has been transformed
into a rockery. Arundo donax, with its tall plumes, grows well here, and Ipomnca Lcan,
amongst other creepers, helps to hide the barest portions.
Rinnus communis and Nim trees
thrive, and are both bold and effective plants for this purpose.
Handsome lamps, shortly to
be used for the electric light, are on either side of the drive, and beds filled with various
kinds of plants, such as Bougainvillea edged with Alternanthera, line each side. A striking
tree is planted near the stables ; it has large, upright, pea-shaped flowers, four to four and a-half
inches long ; the upper petal is a beautiful rose-pink, the lower ones being of a somewhat
lighter shade. There is also a white variety.
It is a pretty tree of graceful habit, with dark
pinnate foliage and oval pinna?, by name Agati grandiflora.
Tecoma staus, also in flower,
well supports its name as a screen plant in front of the stables. A " Horse-radish " tree,
Moringa pterygosperma, covered with its numerous white flowers, a fine specimen some thirty
feet high, is noticeable. The pods of this tree,
sometimes eaten by Europeans as Asparagus,
are said to be very good. Saecharum Sara, the
Penreed grass, is economically a most valuable
plant. Amongst other things, strong ropes for
tow-lines are made from its leaves, which are
first beaten to a rough fibre and then twisted,
by the boatmen of Allahabad; the young tops
and pith are in some parts used for food.
Having crossed a bridge, the wide path is
reached encircling the quadrant, consisting of four large
lots of grass, with the main drive still leading straight
to the palace and broken only by one huge tree upwards
of fifty feet high, of Ailanthus excelsa, with a noble
Baroda. A Courtyard in the Luxmi Velas
head. This one tree, with the exception of a moderatePalace.
sized Ficus religion, is the only one anywhere near this
side of the palace ; the effect is certainly peculiar.
The sides of the quadrant, covered
with Doab grass in good condition, have centre pieces in two instances of large handsome
bronze stags on granite pedestals, whilst something of a similar nature is to be obtained
for two others.
Beds in a continuous half-circular scroll have been made near the edge
of each quarter, whilst between each, either a lamp-post intended for the electric light but
still unconnected, or a single specimen plant, usually a Musa, has been planted.
The
beds are filled with the usual type of plants ; Vincas, Acalyphas, Goldfussia, Coreopsis,
Gaillardias, Ageratums and Mule Pinks fill the main portion ; but as they are all raised,
and surrounded by a brick edge about a foot high, covered with cement to protect them
from being washed away during the monsoon, the latter quite hidden in some instances by creepers,
in addition to which each has a thick wire arch used for the same class of plant, the effect
is pretty. The creepers most usually, in fact almost entirely in favour, are the small-flowered
Ipomceas, such as /. scmpervirens and /. vitifolia.
The fountains are very peculiar : that in front of the old palace is in an entirely different style
from the one in front of the new, the figures being but one quarter the size ; as they are comparatively
close together, the effect is one-sided. The exterior of the latter is hidden by a closely clipped

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

27

and dense hedge of double Pomegranate, allowed to grow within a few inches of the top of
the stone-work, but kept close up to it. At regular intervals iron mermaids (manufactured
in Manchester), painted white and relieved with gilt, support a pipe for the discharge of
water, whilst in the centre a taller piece with two wide shallow basins at the top, the
uppermost one being the smaller, has been placed ; it has been erected in this style by the
Gaekwar's wish, such a fountain having been in front of the palace where his childhood was
spent. The basin of this fountain is very shallow, and covered with dark green tiles.
The best substitute for a Conifer I have yet seen is planted one on each side of the
four pairs of steps leading to the terrace surrounding the fountainCastmrina glauca, about eight
feet high, thick and bushy, and cleverly clipped to almost the exact shape of Cupressus Lawsoniana
ereeta. Round the fountains are small beds filled with the same plants as those already mentioned,
and edged with Alternantheras.
A thick shrubbery shuts out the park palings and the country
immediately beyond, and here the Maranee, the Gaekwar's second wife, can walk without fear of
being seen.
In front of the shrubbery some large beds are cut out of the grass at intervals,
one in particular, filled with Casuanna glauca and Helia nth us debilis, attracting my attention.
The latter is certainly a fine plant as grown here, eight feet high, with greyish
white hirsute foliage and numerous moderate-sized
sunflowers: in one other portion of the park it is
equally showy. Further on a bed of double red and
white Oleandersslightly unfurnished comes into
view, whilst Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis and its more
handsome ally, H. mutabilis, fill another a little to
the right.
The latter is very fine, and makes
handsome bushes. The ends and corners of most
of the beds are planted with triangular masses of
Crinum asmticum, growing like a weed, Agave
recurva, Samericra zcylanica, and other plants of a
similar description. The Sanseviera yields fibre, but
I understand it is too coarse for ordinary use.
Continuing our inspection, another rockery is reached,
made Oil the same plan to resemble sandstone,
Baroda.Prisoners employed in the Palaec grounds.
and which soon narrows into a small tunnel.
It
is planted with Acalyphas, Ipomceas, Tumarix iiulica, the pretty grey foliage of which forms a
pleasing change, whilst tall Bambusa, B. Tuida, also known as Dendrocalamus Tuida, with its
long graceful shoots, relieve the whole from being too dwarf and even. Much of this rockery
is completely hidden by the yellow-flowered Ipomira sempervireus and /. vUifolia.
Still proceeding along this walk, the palace is passed lxmind the band-stand, and we soon
come to a charming little roofed rustic bridge, the sides of the steps to which are hidden by
the thick foliage of Ipomcca vitifolia.
Beneath is the lake, small, but winding prettily about,
bordered on one side by a high rockery planted chiefly with Bamboos, whilst on the other,
the park stretches up in an unbroken level towards the palace. The rockery is the largest and
prettiest in the park, and contains a small grotto, over which water trickles. The grotto has
only just been finished, and the sides are planted with Ncphrolejas tnberosa, various Adiantums,
whilst a neat little specimen of Rhapis flabellifonnis is in one corner.
A small Chinese
pagoda, used as a tea-house, is on the top of this rockery, which is thickly planted
with Bamboos, Arundo, Gossypium herbaecmn, the native wild cotton, a great favourite on
account of its pretty seeds, Ipmncca carnca now in flower, and other plants, including a fine
mass of Aloc verrucosa with its long stalks and small brilliant scarlet tubular flowers. Not
far from here a small plant of Duranta Piumicri alba was bearing its white bloom and yellow

28

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

seeds in profusion, and Combretum purpurcum was luxuriating with leaves often a foot long on
the side of the stone steps descending from the rockery.
On leaving, a group of plants is passed through composed of the pretty zebra-like Sanseviera
zeylanica and Foureroya lwvis, resembling Agave americana though lighter in colour. A wooden
corridor, prettily domed, built of teak lattice-wood, now comes into view ; it is scarcely yet
finished, but it is proposed to pave it with marble, and fill it with statuary and creepers.
Behind the corridor a fine row of Cassia sumatrana was in full bloom, whilst a little to
the left, connecting it with the palace, is a small Italian garden with two handsome bronze
vases in the centre.
Near the middle of that portion of the park behind the new palace a band-stand has been
erected on a terrace, and on each side of the road an avenue of Millingtonia has lieen newly
planted, with small beds between the trees. The band-stand is an elegant structure with a light
pyramidal roof supported by iron pillars and latticed supports, up which, and over the roof,
various creepers such as Quisqualis, Combretum, Ipolmeas and Bougainvillea have been trained.
The terrace is square, and approached from the four sides by stone stops.
Casnarina glauca,
clipped in pyramidal form, heads the
top of each flight, whilst the angles
of the square on the side of the
terrace are planted with masses of
Agare rigida ; the whole is effeetive
and neat. Behind the band-stand is
a sunk terraced garden, laid out
with Cannas and other plants
To
the left of the band-stand is the
tennis-court, latticed on one side,
against which creepers have been
planted, amongst others Anemopayma
ramnnsn, which Mr. Goldring thinks
will do well here.
Round this
is an old plantation of Zizyphus
Jujuba, no doubt marking the site
of an ancient village.
The tree
Ajtnerr.Carvtng on a housc.
does not grow high, and is not
particularly decorative, its chief value
consisting in its edible fruit, much resembling a cherry. Guavas (Psidium Cattleyanum) are also
scattered about.
It is on this park, and at Umrat, that Mr. Goldring has been chiefly employed,
but in future his attention will be chiefly directed to the park of the grand new palace at
Baroda, and a few gardens of ancient Maranees.
Makurpura is certainly a charming place,
but small and flat ; the extent of the park at present laid out is seventy acres, but it
is proposed to include more.

LUXMI

VELAS.

The park of the Luxmi Velas Palace (a magnificent building, and probably the finest specimen
of the Indo-Saracenic style in all India) was to be four hundred acres in extent, but it is now
proposed to include eight hundred. Very little work, with the exception of constructing roads,
has as yet been done, but here Mr. Goldring has a grand opportunity of distinguishing himself.
Approaching the Luxmi Velas from the south, and passing one of the main carriage drives,

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

29

the Maranee's gardens are reached, immediately in front of that portion of the palace set aside
for her use. A high bank with a thick shrubbery at the top, largely composed of Tecoma
stems, hides this from everything behind. Women are usually employed in this garden.
It is
sunk several feet below the ground-level, and turfed with good. Doab grass, kept constantly
watered. Positions have been marked out for two fountains and an aviary, whilst the grassplot in the centre is cut up into scroll beds filled with Gaillardias, Vincas, Coreopsis, Ageratums,
Coleus, Mule Pinks, edged with Goldfussia and Alternanthera, or purple Eranthemum and
Alternanthera.
Passing from here to the side facing east, where scarcely any work has been done, the
only vegetation being several great Tamarind trees which must have been there years before
the palace was commenced, a courtyard known as the Throne-room Courtyard is entered. The
chief plants are Alocasia maerorhiza varicgata (which, however, grows green here) and
Dracienas ; whilst single specimens of Caryota urens, Rhapis flabelliformis and Orcodoxa regia have
been planted. All the soil was covered with Pathos mora, which when thus grown, forms small
but highly variegated leaves ; in this form it is a very pretty
plant.
Another
courtyard, still
incomplete, contains some
specimens of Crotons.
Continuing round the east side, to the north,
with its wonderfullv handsome Durbar entrance,
we come to the frontfive hundred feet long
facing west, in front of which is a sunk
terrace six and a-half acres in extent, and a
grass gallop a mile long in course of
Iff
construction. On this terrace, which has been
excavated six to seven feet deep, a band
stand and several fountains are to be erected,
%
If
surrounded by numerous scroll beds.
Passing
round the terrace to the right we come to a " nullah,"

or dried water-course. This Mr. Goldring has transformed


into a rockery, always being careful to leave a wide
passage in the centre to afford a free outlet for the
Ajmrer. lkvrgar Musjiii.
monsoon rains.
Near by is a huge Tamarind tree ; the
rockery is planted chiefly with Musas and Ipomoeas. All round this " nullah " the previously flat
ground has been tastefully undulated.
Labour is cheap, prisoners being largely employed ; they work with chains attached to
their feet and waists.
Gangs of four men and three women are calculated to move five
hundred cubic feet of soil per day (of course not far) at a cost of H) rupee = 2s. 2J. The
women carry the soil on their heads, whilst the men work with a small pick and a tool formed
like a large hoe.
Superintendence is said to cost ten per cent, of the whole outlay on
labour.
Another large "nullah," close to the entrance, is considered to be the only other portion finished.
This has on one sidethe limit of the park in this directiona thick shrubbery, whilst on each
side of the water-course (now dry) are rockeries covered with Bamboos,. Tecoma stans, all the
Ipomoeas, including a species with peculiar Bauhinia-like foliage, from which it obtains the common
name of " Goat's foot " ; the flower is of moderate size, and purplish in colour. On the right
of this drive is a row of Millingtonias in flower, and a few Palms, such as Latania rubra
(which grows and colours well), Washingtonia filifera, and Latania borbonica have been
planted. The main roads of this park are forty feet wide, the secondary twenty feet ; the
electric light will lie used on these.
Such in brief outline is at present what, will some
day be a famous park.

BOMBAY

BARODA

TO

TO

LAHORE.

JEYPORE.

Still further north of Baroda lies the city of Jeypore, a city every one should visit if possible.
En route not far from Baroda, a handsome tree is well .represented on either side of the line;
it is very particular as to soil, and only grows in patches. Unfortunately, I was too early to
see it bloom, but M. Henry tells
me it is a wonderful sight, each
tree being literally a sheet of
orange-scarlet pea-shaped flowers
much like those of Clianthus
Dampicri ; its name is Butca
frondosa.
From its flowers the
red dye is obtained with which
the followers of the gods Siva
and Vishnu paint their foreheads
with the distinctive marks peculiar
to each sect.
Its leaves are used
as cigarettes, and for manufac
turing plates.
Babools (Acacia
a pretty little shrub, Cassia
arabica) are to he seen in quantity, and
anriculata attracts notice by its numerous
heads of yellow flowers,
At AhmedalKtd, a walled city famous
for its art manufactures, a
short stay may be made if only to visit
a pretty little garden in the
centre of the great tank, and to note
the P.ougainvilleas clipped in
men, thoroughly characteristic,
tiers as we clip Yews, and a fine speciof the branching PalmHiiphane thebaica.
It is about fifteen feet high,
and has two distinct heads breaking nway
from the main stem. A few
specimens of a tree with brick-red flowers
and Luge handsome ovate
leaves, as well as a neat little specimen
of Sesbania (Atiati) grandiflora
with its brown seed pods often a foot
long, were to be seen.
A
white variety of Tpomoca rubm-eiernb-u
trails prettily over a parapet,
whilst the arches at the ends of the
walks are hidden by Petrwa
voluMlis, producing its sky-blue flowers
freely, and Combretum purpurcum, the latter one mass of buds,
Acalyphas, Eranthemums, a
in
bed of single Hollyhocks (doing wtll),
and Abutilon coccincum were
rerolufa, and some handsome
in flower ; a few good heads of Cyeas
dark-leaved Graptaphiillum horteuse (grown
in tubs), as well as Crotons
and Draiaenas, were to be seen. Alligators
and flamingoes surround this
charming spot, which is named Kankaria Ahmedabad. Corridor in the bike.
Beyond and around
the tank Babools (Acacia arabica) form
Huspd,wUh tablets the chief vegetation, though
m Perstan. The Minaret,
Nim trees (Melia Azadirachta) and Mangoes
150 fect in height, is in the are also frequent, as is Fun>s
Courtyard of the Shah Alam distinct and peculiar white
Trimenii, easily recognizable by its
Mosque.
stem.
There is a small public garden at Ajmeer, little better than a wilderness, being evidently
quite neglected, though on account of its situation and natural advantages, were it taken in
hand quite a pretty place could he developed.

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

31

JEYPORE.
Jeypore is a wonderful city
probably, next to Hyderabad, the
most interesting in India. Picture
to yourself a city with its
principal streets two miles long
and sixty yards broad, straight
as an arrow (as are all the cross
. I
streets), quite flat, with a view
r f- vas uninterrupted as that of the
Champs Elysees, lined on each
side with rows of houses with
Mi
bazaars beneath, all two stories
high, never more and never less,
each tinted rosy pink, the huge .streets and still
larger squares thronged with people, evidently more
or less well-to-do ; cows wandering in every
direction ; strings of camels continually passing to
and fro ; nobles riding Arabian horses, armed with
Ahmedabad. Domed corridor in the Jam Temple.
curved swords, and richly dressed.
The whole is
surrounded by a high crenelated wall, above which, in the far distance, are the peaks of
the Aravalis.
Jeypore has been described as "a pink city on a blue lake"a most terse and true
description ; its climate is dry and healthy, and the temperature cool and pleasant during the
winter months. It has
a railway station, a school of arts, a water supply,
huge cotton presses, and
is lighted by gas. 1 suppose such things indicate
progress, but I ague
with Kipling, that it is a pity.
The public garden of Jeypore is considered
one of the finest in India, and by many the
finest.
It is about seventy acres in extent,
most of which is under grass in first-rate
condition, or under shrubberies with beds in
front. The roads are for the most part thirty
feet wide. The menagerie is really an interesting
one. The museum in the centre is one of
the finest buildings 1 have seen out of Europe.
The ground is cleverly and not too abruptly
undulated ; its fernery, or greenhouse of reeds,
is the largest and best I have seen since leaving
England. The whole is in first-rate order and
as clean as a new pin, doubtless the result
of European management with a Maharajah's
money behind it.
To a lover of plants it is,
perhaps, not so interesting as Baroda public
park, and it is not planted with such a variety
of trees and shrubs, but for the people I think
it preferable. Exactly opposite the double iron
Ahmcdabad. A clipped Bougainvillea,

.A2

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

gates, just outside of which is a fiue specimen of the Nim tree, whilst on the inside two
Poineiarm regia overhang the handsome iron railings supporting them, is a sunken grass terrace
reached hy a short flight of steps, a stone parapet running along the top.
It is perhaps a
quarter of an acre in extent, and surrounded by a shrubbery relieved by taller trees such as
Calocanthus indicus (?) and Cassia speciosa. Small beds are planted with a variety of plants such as
Russellia juneed and Salvia coecinea, both in flower in one bed ; also Justicias, Vincas and Canna
indica. At the end of the grass plot in the centre, surrounded by a narrow path, is a small
patch laid out in beds chiefly planted with Ferns and Koses, the latter looking sturdier and
generally in better condition than I have as yet seen in India. These beds have some specimens
of the tall Cupresssas torulosa of the Himalaya in the centre. On the left a portion of the
shrubbery is composed of dwarf plants of Plumbago capensis, whilst on the right the yellow
berries of Duranta Plumicri as well as the ivory-white racemes of its variety alba are noticeable.
A large plant of Antigonon Liptopus is entwined in a graceful manner with the long grey shoots
of Buddleia divern/olia. Further south the Antigonon was in flower ; here it is only in bud,
but I cau well imagine that the pink blooms of this handsome creeper against the grey stems
and dull green leaves of the Buddleia must be most effective ; the whole forms a mass trailing over a
space several square yards in extent. A large
Nim tree, the earth round the roots having been
bricked up for several feet, forms a pleasing
change, whilst opposite to it a small arbour
leads to a path connected with the winding
road between the gate and museum. On this
arbour Petnea volubilis was just beginning to
show its sky-blue flowers, and the delicate
palmate foliage of Ipomcca scmperjlorens covers
one side. Kound this terrace Titlu>nia tagetiflora
is planted ; it is the same Sunflower-like plant
that is fast becoming a weed in Ceylon. Here
it is straggling, and evidently not at home nor
in danger of multiplying itself to au alarming
extent. Some parts of the shrubbery surrounding
this terrace having become a little bare, a row of Crinum asiaticum has been plantedvery useful
for this objectthe light green foliage affording a pleasing contrast to the darker background.
A Qrevillca robusta, a good specimen, is in one corner, whilst close hy a row of Strobilanthes
colorata is producing its blood-red coloured flowers freely.
Not far off is a circular garden, surrounded hy a low stone wall, and laid out with heds
of various designs, each surrounded by a stone curbing.
In the centre a high arbour over a
small well is one mass of a creeper with white Hydrangea-like flowers and exceptionally thick
foliage ; it is Vallesia dichotoma. The beds are planted with (Enothera Drummondi, Chinese
Asters (doing remarkably well), Cannas, Ageratums, and Roses. Hippeastrums occupy two beds,
but a bed of prettily tinted Verbenas is perhaps the most noticeable. A fine specimen of a
leguminous tree, Dalbergia Sissoo, stands in front ; and there is on one side of this garden the
handsome ovate, dark foliage of Stereulia alata which attracts one's attention as being so different
to the foliage of all the surrounding trees. Another tree also worth mentioning is Thevetia
neriifolia ; it is rather shrubby in growth, and unfortunately, apt to be bare at the base ; it
has long, thin, closely set, narrow foliage, not unlike a Nerium, but much denser, and has
flowers of a bright yellow.
On each side of the road leading to the band-stand, and in the centre, are oblong beds
edged with Alternanthera, and planted with Vincas, Ageratum, Tagetes, Balsams in flower, which

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

33

although past their best, look remarkably well; whilst behind these beds a shrubbery in which
Tabernapmontana and the red flowers of Hamelia patens are noticeable, hides the bare stems of
the taller trees beyond.
The fernery is a sweetly pretty spot; it is high, with a broad
lantern-roof covered with small dried reeds to allow the ingress of a little sun-light.
Pretty
cork-covered baskets filled with small Tradescantia discolor, Saanfraga sarmentosa, and various
kinds of Ferns hang from the roof, whilst pedestals, often quite hidden by Maidenhair (Adiantum
Capillus-veneris), are dotted about.
A path encircles the whole house, the body of which is
occupied by a low undulating rockery with a round tank in the centre.
Cycads, small Palms,
foliage Begonias, numerous Ferns, Cyperus, Caladiums and such like plants abound, whilst
Draca?nas, often placed as single specimens on the top of the pedestals, form a pleasing variety
in colour, the whole being most tastefully arranged. Small groups of Agaves, Sansevieras,
('annas, Chinese Asters, all in pots but cleverly hidden by cork, have been placed on the
low terrace on which the band-stand is erected ; between each group is a comfortable seat.
Pausing for a moment at the band-stand, the splendid Albert Hall approached by a broad
road cannot fail to be admired ; large grass-plots, a few feet below the ground-level, on either
side are in fine condition, and
evidently carefully looked after.
On the road, a fine hedge of
Hibiscus sinensis skirts one
side, and a large " Pippul Tree,"
with various kinds of monkeys
chained to its branches, is not
far off. Further on, and nearing
the Hall, a good hedge of
Tecoma stans and Poineiann
puleherrima lines the path on
the left ; whilst on the right
a large "nullah," crossed by a
small suspension-bridge, is as
rough a place as one could
Amber.-The Deserted Marble Palace.
desire to see. Pretty peacocks
abound about this spot, and brighten it up a little. The Albert Hall or Museum is most interesting,
containing Indian products of every description, models of flowers and fruits, and photographs of
all parts of the world.
Every thing is in perfect order in glass cases, and carefully labelled.

SAHARUNPUR.
December, 1891. At Saharunpur, my last stopping place before arriving at Lahore, there is
little to see besides the Government gardens. Mr. Gallon, the Superintendent, who has been in
Saharunpur thirteen years, came there direct from the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens. The garden,
about two hundred acres in extent, is maintained for trials of new economic plants, and for
the distribution of vegetable and other seeds, and the like. Although it receives an annual
subsidy of twenty thousand rupees, it returns sixteen thousand rupees to the Treasury, and
therefore it is not a heavy expense to the Government. It is scarcely kept up for the people's
pleasure, Saharunpur not being an important place, and there being but few British at the station.
There are no beds in the garden, the entire space being laid out with winding roads, trees
isolated or in clumps, and here and there a small pond. There are two or three fine avenues
of Casuarinaschiefly C. montana about sixty feet high, a good-sized house covered with grass,
E

34

P.0MI1AY

TO

LAHORE.

and a museum of no especial interest.


There is but little shrubberyexcept in a few sjmts
near the lwundariesmost of the place being under grass. Sixty acres are set aside for seeds
and experiments with new cottons, sugar-canes, and other economic plants.
Close by the grass-covered house is a Bougainvillca glabra, thirty-five to forty feet high,
clind iing over a tree in the wildest profusioncertainly the largest mass of it I have yet seen. Two
species of Calamus, C. tenuis and C. Rotang, are represented ; the latter is a pretty climber usually
found at the foot of the Himalayas, where it forms a jungle so thick that not even an elephant
can force its way through it ; though its canes are not so useful for chairs and other economic
purposes as those of the former, I yet think it is the prettier of the two.
Besides the
avenue of Casuarinasa truly fine sight as already statedthere is a very neat one hetween
a small glass-house and the museum, of Ciqrressus scm},ervirens, each tree being from twenty-five
to thirty feet high ; there being a row on each side of a narrow path, it is like passing along
between tall pillars. An arbour leading to it is quite covered with Fk'us pumila, producing,
Mr. Gallon tells me, very large fruit.
Besides the large Bougainvillca glabra, this garden
contains the largest mass of Thunbergia laurifolia (now out of flower) I have yet seen ; it
at least forty feet from a tall specimen
hangs like a solid curtain for
it is nearly as broad as it is
of Schleichera trijuga, and
high, and so thick that
literally not a leaf or twig of
the tree supporting it can
be seen ; it forms a most
striking picture. A hand
some tree not far from this
spot is Dillenia indica with
foliage much resembling
though twice the size of
that of our Castanca sativa.
Mr. Gallon tells me its
flower is like that of
Magnolia grandiflora only
larger. The fruit is used for
curries by the Bengalese.
This garden also con
tains one large Mahogany
Ahmeiiabad. Courtyard in the Shah Alam Mosque, with a Btrrasms flabelliforinis
tree, Swictenia Ma/mgoni,
.nearly 100 fetl high.
and a
tree
I
have
mentioned as being at Baroda, Kigelm pinnata, represented by a good specimen ; many of its
last season's flower racemes are eight to nine feet long, and one in particular has reached the
astonishing length of fifteen feet ; a plate in the museum gave me some idea of what a
splendid object -this must be when in flower.
The flowers are purple, in shape not unlike
those of Rhododendron arboreum, four inches in diameter, and are fairly closely set on the
racemes, which possess the faculty of sending out a second raceme half way down the first,
the second one often reaching the ground ; a raceme, however, does not often send out a
3econd one for more than one or two seasons at the most.
The brown seed pods of
Lagerstreemia Reginw attracted my attention ; I am told its large puqile flowers aro very
fine during the rains. Bauhinm varicgata with pink and white flowers, very common in the
jungle, is well represented here.
There is also a large Fig tree, a fine specimen of Ficus
retusa, with numerous aerial roots, which I first took to he a Banyan, but upon closer
examination I found its foliage was much smaller.
Mr. Gallon believes that he has the largest Araucaria Cunninghami in India ; it is

liOMIiAY

TO

LAIIORK.

certainly a splendid specimen about seventy feet high, and quite symmetrical. Not far from
it is one of the chief ponds with a fine variegated Agave americana on the bank, and a large
mass of Papyrus aiUiquorum in the centre. This is so thick that one can easily understand
how a clump of this species could have hidden the infant Moses, but withal it is most
graceful ; it is at the foot of a tall Phamix sylvestris.
Several Phoenix are within the
grounds, which Mr. Gallon thinks must have been brought there by the Arabs, as they are
all large trees, and no young ones are to be seen near them. A very curious sight is one
of these Phcenix fifty feet high, the lower portion of the stem of which is completely encircled
by a Ficus religiosa. The Ficus is, of coui'se, much younger than the Piicenix, and having
been planted near it has completely encircled its stem ; it is most curious to see the black
stem of the Phcenix rising apparently out of the whitish stem of the Ficus at about ten feet
above the ground.
A pretty creeper in flower is a white CombretumC. decandrum ; it was
growing over a mop-headed tree, Phyllanthus indica, some thirty feet high. As the creeper
is only five years old, it must have grown with great rapidity.
On a knoll not far from another pond is a pretty little group of Conifers, consisting
chiefly of Cupressus funebns, C. scmpervirens, so
frequent in the south of Europe, and Pinus
longifolia with its long pendulous needles,
a well-known native of the lower zone
of the Himalaya. Pinus Gerardu(na has been tried several times,
but it usually damps off in the
rains, doubtless on account of its
coming from a higher elevation.
The individual specimens in this
clump are not large, but the effect
is good since they cover the sides
i if a rising piece of ground
with the pond beyond it. The
finest foliage-tree in the garden
is the Teak Teetona grandis.
It
is a noble tree, either singly or
Akmedabad.-Jumma Muyid.
in avenues, the individual leaf being of a dark dull green, and often a foot in diameter. Palms
are not numerous nor particularly good, as it is of course too far north for them, several
degrees of frost being frequent during the winter months. There is, however, one grand clump
of Livistoim chiimtsis (Latania borbonuw). A large Bauhinia Vahlit, one of the most destructive
plants known in the forests, with a main stem two feet in diameter, winds and curls in, around,
and over a fine specimen of Ficus cordifolui ; the leaves of this Bauhinia are often a foot
broad, but the pale yellow flowers are small and inattractive.
Near the end of the garden, and close to the Casuarina avenue, is a plantation of
considerable size of the Loquat (ErwUdrya japonica) ; some of the trees are large and bushy,
and in splendid condition. Here it fruits in spring, whilst on the hills, and I am told, in
Japan, it fruits in the autumn ; the sale of its fruit is remunerative. Vegetation is, of course,
very different here to what it is at Bombay or Baroda, and many trees are absent that flourish
further south.
Millingtonia, for example, although it grows, it never flowers as it does further
southa few solitary bunches on the top are all it produces ; it has also the disadvantage,
for exposed positions, of being shallow-rooting, and the storms play great havoc with it. A
pretty shrub I had not seen before is Holmskioldia sanguinca ; it flowers most freely, its
chief beauty consisting of its large red tubular calyx, the corolla being almost imperceptible;

36

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

its long sub-pendulous shoots are covered with bloom. English Pears do not succeed well here, but
Mr. Gallon showed me a young plantation of a Chinese variety which he says is very good for
cooking.
He has also forty varieties (not very dissimilar, I fancy) of Chinese Peaches; he says
they are goodnot cling-stonesand more juicy than ours, which he is not able to do much
with.
It is a curious fact that Artocarpus integri/olius (the Jack-fruit), common in Ceylon, will
grow at Saharunpur fairly well, whilst the Bread-fruit (A. ineisa) is a complete failure. A
very pretty grass, which should be hardy with us, is Eulalia nepalensis ; it is dwarf, but
its plumes droop gracefully ; where it is wild on the hills it grows higher than E. japoniea,
and is very plentiful. Cycas cireinalis and C. revoluta thrive admirably ; I noticed one largebranched specimen of the former.
The method adopted here of propagating these Cycads
is to make slits a few inches long in the bark of the main stem, and in about twelve
months the young plants appear and can be easily detached.
C. cireinalis is found to be
freer in this respect than C. revoluta.
Roses are very good, quite equal to those in England ;
they strike freely from cuttings, and they are also budded on a Rose now found in the
jungle in quantity, though evidently introduced at some lime or other.
Frosts are common at
this time of the year, 43 and 5 being
usual, whilst in the hot season 90 in
the shade, and occasionally 9'>, is the
ordinary temperature.
It is surprising
that some things planted in the garden
withstand such extremes. Panax, Crotons,
Dieffenbachias, Aralias and such like
have all to be housed under glass in
the cold seasonit being hopeless to
plant them out permanently.
Mr. Gallon recognises three distinct
species of BougainvilleaB. glabra, B.
mx'riosa, and B. speetabilis. Of B. glabra
one form is called the old variety,
Ahmetlabad Marble Tombs of H'tmten in a City Cemetery.
and
has
pale
pink
flowers
that
appear all the year round; another much brighter, blooms only in the cold weather, and
a third the one I have seen so much of and which seems to grow everywhere with
large dark flowers, blooms more or less all the year round ; all three varieties have the smooth
characteristic foliage of B. glabra in England.
The true B. sjx'ciosa with dark flowers and
hairy foliage, generally flowers in March ; whilst B. speetabilis flowers from September to
May, being at its best in February.
The vegetable gardens, upwards of sixty acres in extent, at one end of the grounds,
interested me much. They are chiefly kept for seed purposes, to supply soldiers and other
residents. Nearly all kinds do well, and wonderful tales are told of Veitch's Autumn Giant
Cauliflower ; it is said to be very fine, and if models speak truly, it must indeed be so, a beautifully
finished one in the museum being nearly two and a-half feet in diameter Acclimatized seed
is usually very good, though rigid selection is necessary. Onions, I.ceks and Parsnips are found
by experience to germinate seldom from home-grown seed.
The difficulty, no doubt, lies to a
certain extent in its being necessary to sow in October, and consequently it is impossible to
get quite fresh seed from Europe.
All kinds of annuals do well ; amongst such, the common
Dandelion is cultivated as an annual on a somewhat large scale for medicinal purposes, it being
used chiefly for liver complaint.
A house covered with grass, tied pretty thickly on wire netting, the supports being of
iron, is near the museum. The grass used is Poll in ia eriojmla, and it withstands the heavy

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

37

rains and scorching sun for about two years.


From the roof hang some good specimens of
Aerides in bamboo baskets, these being found superior to pots or any other contrivance. Some
of the Aerides odoratum and multiflorum, as well as a few pieces of Dendrobium moschatum, were
very large, and in fine condition. This house has a low circnlar dome, from the centre of which
four paths radiate at right angles.
It is not filled with anything of any especial interest, but
chiefly with Dieffenbachias, a few Palms, a Philodendron or two, and in the centre, under the
dome, a good sized Livistona chinensis (Latania borbonica). The prettiest sight in the house
is certainly Oxalis rosca, grown in pots ; rows of these line each side of the paths,
the numerous flowers, brightly coloured, appearing above the low dwarf trifoliate leaves.
Oxalis
asinina, pale sulphur in colour, with leaves bearing a strange resemblance to a pair of ass's
ears, is another pretty species. The museum is chiefly filled with native-made modelssome
very good of flowers and vegetables, whilst coloured plates and photographs abound.
It is the
home of Mr. Duthie, the chief of the Botanical Service of the Northern Department of India.

LAHORE.

DECEMBEr, 1891. The town of Lahorea large station, being the capital of Punjab and the
residence of the Lieutenant-Governor, Secretariat, and other Government officials, has a large
European population. There are .1 few
^^^^^^
fine modern buildings, but the native
portion of the town is dirty and
uninteresting.
Meean Meer
a large military centreone
of the most unhealthy in
India, and that most dreaded,
I am told, by the British
soldier, is situated but three
miles off. The most inter
esting places in and around
Lahore are the Shalimar Gardt
(the abode of love), the mausoleum
of the Emperor Jahangir at Shah Darrah
the Jumma Musjid and the fort
Lahore. In the Jumma Husjid.
containing a fine armoury and some ancient
buildings. The Shalimar Gardens, six miles out of Lahore, consist almost entirely of groves
of Oranges and Mangoeschiefly the latter. They are let for a fixed sum by the Government to
a native whose father rendered some service during the Mutiny, and he makes what he can
of the fruit. The Mangoes probably do well here, as they are sheltered and looked after,
otherwise they will not thrive so far north ; they have generally disappeared from the ordinary
landscape, which is singularly uninteresting.
The Agri-Horticultural Gardens at Lahore are worth seeing: they are one hundred and
sixty-nine acres in extent, and are maintained by Government for exactly the same reason, and on
the same principles, as Saharunpur. These two places are, in reality, large nurseries where
plants, seeds, etc., are sold, and experiments carried on. The gardens at Lahore are in charge
of Mr. Hein, a Dutchman, who has been twenty-five years in India, and which he expects
never to leave. Near the centre of the garden are two halls, the Montgomery and the Lawrence

38

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

named after former Lieutenant-Governorsnow used for dances and as libraries.


The main
roads leading from several gates converge towards these halls.
In front of the entrance to the
Montgomery Hall is a small band-stand on a circular plot of grass, the chief attraction being
the small beds which contain Crazy's best and finest Cannes, obtained direct from him. Great
hedges are abundant, and nearly always consist of the yellow-berried Duranta, so often mentioned :
in some cases they are eight to ten feet high, forming thick and useful shelters. Mr. Hein
has many hundreds of Chrysanthemums in pots; they usually begin to flower in November,
but many scores of varieties are still in bloom. Mr. Hein has obtained seed from most
European firms, but finds that saved in the garden the best.
Near one boundary is a plantation of Populus nvjra and P. aiphcatica, kept for planting
on the hills and colder districts.
At Lahore they seldom live to
attain more than eighteen feet
in height. Large beds of Roses
are kept for cut flowers, and for
obtaining cuttings for sale purposes.
Between two such beds, a narrow
path, lined on each side witb
rows of Vines, attracted my
notice ; they are all different
varieties, and include Muscat,
Frontignan, and Black Priuce.
The fruit ripens well, but, with the
exception of the latter, all the sorts come in together;
lUack Prince, however, continues in good condition, coming
in first and going "<it last; its fruit usually ripens
in duly and it is considered the best. Some of the
Knglish reaches are good, such as Wellington and
Royal George, which ripen about June; but the late
chics, Harrington, I.ellcgarde, etc.,
are worthless.
Inarched Mangoes grow if carefully protected when
young during the cold
season ; one or two
are wild in the
garden, but they
must have received
protection, naturally
or otherwise, or they
would never have
attained the size they
have.
The Mango is by no means the common tree it is around Baroda and further south
generally, and though a few Plantains thrive, they are not the best varieties, and even the
ordinary ones do not fruit regularly, as their fruiting season is during the cold weather, here
too severe for them.
One, if not the chief, feature in this garden is a large plantation of numerous varieties
of Limes, Pomeloes, and in particular Orangesthe collection, especially of the latter, is large.
We tasted many and found great variety in flavour; it was a splendid sight, the Orange trees
being literally weighed down with fruit.
The Pomeloa huge fruit with large bean-shaped
seeds, and flesh much resembling a coarse orangewas better than I had ever tasted it,

BOMBAY

TO

LAHORE.

39

and most refreshing. The flesh of the different varieties varies in colour from pale pink to
dark carmine. A cartload of common Limes is worth only fourpenee, but the Oranges obtain
a good price. These are usually propagated by inarching, the operation being performed in
March just before the rains, when the sap is active. The vegetable garden is large, and of
considerable importance from a salesman's point of view; all kinds do well, and countrysaved seed is found to be thoroughly good, but nevertheless a fresh strain from home from
time to time is obtained.
There are some fine individual specimen trees: Dalbergia Sissoo is common in the garden, as
are large and graceful trees of Casuarina montana ; the latter is a common tree round Lahore, many
roads being lined on either side with fine specimens. The Dalbergia wood is found to be the
best, next to Mahogany, for furniture, especially as Mahogany will not thrive so well so far
north. Other good trees are Acacia stipulate,, whilst Cassias with long brown seed-pods are
most numerous. A fine-foliaged tree is Terminalia Bellerica with large ovate leaves and
reddish mid-rib, as well as AlcurUes moluccana (the Candle-nut tree), the seeds of which,
hard as a nut, and somewhat
resembling those of a Mango,
are full of oil, especially
beneath the outer rind ; the
natives remove this, and roast
the kernel for eating.
The
leaves of this tree are most
handsome, often a foot wide,
and the same shape as those
of Acer Pscudo-Platanus. It
is rather too_ cold at Lahore
for Poineiana regia that is so
fine at Bombay, but one or
two good trees are to be seen,
probably the finest being in
front of the Montgomery Hall.
Pinus longifolia of which
there is a row near the
Hall flourishes and forms
handsome trees often sixty
feet high. Not far distant
Shalimar Gardens shaded by Mango Trecs.
from this spot are two splendid
specimens of Euealyptus Globulus, both over one hundred feet high.
Nim (Melia Azadirachta)
will not thrive in the gardens, it being rather too wet ; but I am told they arc found in
the camp at Meean Mcer three miles away. This tree - next to the Babool (Acacia arabica) is one of the commonest met with in North-west India.
Bougainvilka speciosa and B. lateritia are fine here ; B. glabra I did not see so much of.
The first two named are well sheltered under straw mats in the cold season. In one part of
the garden a particularly fine specimen of B. latentm, some ten feet high and nearly as much
through, is literally covered with flowers under its straw protection.
I have never seen one
so fine anywhere.
Calliandra hamatomma is a pretty flowering shrub; in the Jeypore Park 1
saw a particularly fine plant of it ; it only differs in flower from Callistemon speciosus in having
round heads instead of long racemes, for in colour the two are almost identical. The foliage is
small and pinnate, drooping at night, when the pinme close as in Mimosa.
Calamus tenuis
and C. Rotang are both represented, though small, being "scarcely more than six feet high ;

40

KOMIUY

TO

LAIfOltK.

they have not yet been long in the garden, but it is not likely they will grow with the
luxurianee they do at Saharunpur.
Acalyphas, Crotons, Dieffenbaehias and all that class of
variegated plants will not live out-of-doors in the cold weather, and Dracaenas also lose their colour
and get shabby; accommodation for all these is provided in a long, low grass-roofed house.
(rirrillca robusta is good, as is also Cupremis imnpervirens, some specimens of which, standing
tall, erect and solitary, are thirty feet high.
A native of Australia, Sttrculia populnca, with
small acuminate Poplar-like foliage, forms a graceful pyramidal tree from sixty to seventy
feet high.
The hest Palm in the garden is really a fine specimen of Salxi! columnaris about
twenty feet high, with large broad leaves almost bending to the ground ; it is a fine sight,
and is said to be twenty-five years old. Oxalis rosca, O. alba and O. variabilis rubra are
cultivated in pots, and flower profusely.
Mr. Hein informed me that he has a white Thunbergia laurifoHa obtained in this wise:A
specimen of the type seeded freely; the seeds germinated and the seedlings eventually flowered round
the mothei plant, all of them bearing white flowers.
Unfortunately, next year a big tree fell
on the parent plant, and killed it ; the white-flowered seedlings, however, lived, and Mr. Hein has
distributed them throughout India. Ficus elastica grows and forms fair-sized trees ; but to one
who has seen it in Ceylon, or even further south in India, it is not a very impressive object.
Mr. Hein pointed out to me a tree which he believes makes more wood than any other in the
garden ; the quantity formed is certainly surprising. This is Pistaria integerrima, a native of
the Hill districts, a tree which branches most freely, and hence its value, apart from ornamental
purposes, is considerable.
There is a great difference between the class of trees growing at Lahore, and even at
Saharunpur, and those seen further south.
Man)' that are common in Bombay and even in
Baroda are unrepresented further north, and the further one goes in that direction the less
interesting and the less varied becomes the vegetation in the parks and gardens. The vegetation
of the open country would hardly exist were it not for the Babool (Aracia arabica) ; and at
Delhi, were it not for the Nim trees, there would scarcely lmj any at all. By travelling at night
through north-west India nothing is lost. When I have been forced to go by day I have found
it most uninteresting and wearisome ; for miles scarcely anything is noticeable but the Babool
on a sandy dried-up plain.
Here and there a few acres are under cultivation, a mud village
not lieing far off, whilst dry water-courses (often as broad, and I have seen some broader, as
the Thames at Westminster Bridge) are occasionally crossed by low bridges. The difference
from Ceylon, with its luxuriant and rampant vegetation literally on all sides, is most marked.

T1H3 NU, YOHK


PUBL1C WHHARY

ASTOlt, L!.Mt\ .a "I,

PART

DELHI

TO

III.

CALCUTTA.

rART

DELHI

TO

III.

CALCUTTA.

DELHI.
Although there is little to tempt a horticulturist to spend many days
in the town and neighbourhood of Delhi, I could not leave it without
driving out to the old city which is of more than usual
interest ; to reach it one passes in reality through the
remains of seven cities, all that is now left of its former
grandeur being heaps of stones, old mosques, and
tombs. One can readily believe that when the old
kings reigned here the area covered by buildings was
At
as large as London is at the present day.
Lalkot, one of these cities, the most curious and
probably the finest structure in India, next to the
Taj, is to be seen.
It is a pillar built of red
sandstone, and known as the Kutab Minar, two
hundred and twelve feet high, the top being reached
by three hundred and seventy-eight
steps ; it tapers from a diamete
of fifty feet at the base to nine
feet at the top ; the
exterior is fluted with
semi-circular and rectan
gular projections. It was
erected six hundred and
fifty years ago, but the
huge letters of the Koran,
with which it is en
crusted, stand out to-day
as fresh as ever. It was
a tower of victory, and it
certainly soars above every
thing for miles round, being
distinctly visible eleven
miles distant from Delhi. Drlhi. The Kntab Minar, its basc enerusted with letters of the Koran 2 fcel in hright.

44

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

GWALIOR.
DEcembEr, 1891. Gwalior, like Baroda, is another of those native States which manages
its own internal affairs, guided by the ever watchful eye of a British Resident.
Whilst
staying with Mr. Maries our old Japanese traveller, and now for some years past
Superintendent of the Maharajah's parks I spent a most pleasant week in a State
little known and little visited.
Most of the time was naturally
passed in the extensive gardens
which surround two palaces, both
huge white stone structures of
comparatively recent date. These
two palaces (the older of which
is certainly the handsomer) are
surrounded
by a high wall
four miles in extent, enclosing
fourteen irregular walled-in spaces.
The entrances are guarded, and
access forbidden to all. These
fourteen walled-in spaces, usually
with a white stone pavilion in
or near the centre, form a
Delhi Dcwan-i-KhasAuditnec Hall of whit~ marble, inlaid with
perfeet maze ; the pavilions were
precious slones asd ijold.
formerly used as rest-houses,
the roads and paths in each enclosure always converging towards them.
Large gateways
lead from one enclosure to the other, and each enclosure is laid out with large beds, or
rather shrubberies, enclosed within a low close-cut hedge, usually of Liiwmitiin nlhi or Duranta
Plumicri.
In every case the shrubberies consist of Oranges, Limes, and Guavas, some in a
wretched condition, others fairly good. Mr. Maries is not
allowed to alter these and plant them as he would
like, as they were laid out by the late Maharajah,
and
must
not
be
touched,
although
doubtless
in time he will be able to
modernise and improve them as he has the
portion of the ground around the new palace.
In some of these enclosures a thick jungle
of the common Plantain is to be seen,
cultivated to serve as
dishes for the
Maharajah and all living in the palace,
about two thousand leaves being required daily
It thrives fairly well, but the climate here is
cold for the choicer varieties.
Mr. Maries pays a daily visit to the gardens, and
lielhi.-Hunu(.'<nns Tomb.
usually enters by the gate nearest the railway into the
enclosure known as the Old Deer Park.
This is but a few acres in extent, and here
he has been allowed to make several improvements.
A white stone museum, the
foundations of which are only just laid, is in course of erection, and over this he is to have
full charge, a task after his own heart. A nice level tennis-lawn of Doab grass, for the use

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

45

of the Maharajah, his friends, and his tutor, is a little beyond, flanked on one side by a
model plantation of inarched Mangoes, which have but recently been planted. On the other
side, near the wall dividing this from the next enclosure, are some splendid dwarf Roses, better
than many seen in England.
They are grafted on ltcsa gigantca, a species growing with great
freedom here, and are kept for cutting purposes, Mr. Maries being able by judicious pruning
to supply cut Roses all the year round. Those 1 saw in the Old Deer Park were pruned in
October, and have now shoots a foot long, and some nice
| _m
plump buds.
A long oblong bed of Marechal Nicl is
very striking; it grows with such luxuriance as to be
little better than a tangled plexus of branches. The
foliage is of a good colour, the plants being
evidently in a healthy condition.
Behind the tennis-court is a level stretch of
Doab grass maintained for tent-pegging, with a
young row of newly-planted Dalbergia robusta, at
present not more than ten feet high, on either
side.
Its pretty oval leaflets are, 1 think, more
graceful than the foliage of Dalbergia Sissoo, so
common about here. Within the Old Deer Park,
but a few yards from the tennis-court, is a coveret
court for the old English game of tennismuch like
one at Hampton Court ; the bank outside has been planted
with young Bcanmoiitia grandiflora,
unquestionably a
Agra. The Taj Mahal.
splendid sight when in flower.
Some Eucalyptus robusta,
but two. years old and ten feet high, are near here, as well as some beds of Jasminum Sambac
and other plants producing flowers held sacred, and especially grown for cutting for " Poodjers,"
or worship, as well as for "Durbars." One of the niches in the tennis-court is planted with
Acaliipha Macfarlancia splendid colour herebrighter, I think, tltan I have seen it elsewhere.
The next enclosure to the Old Deer Park is full of Limes and Oranges, whilst another
contains (iuavas, of which therp are about fifteen varieties. A fine avenue of a species of
Artocarpus, commonly known as the .Monkey Jack, is on one side of the sacred bathing-tank,
whilst on the other are some Hue Peepul
trees (Ficus religiosa) and some Mowah ;
beyond are several irregularly-shaped
shrubberies of Oranges, Limes, Ouavas,
and Custard Apples (Anona), enclosed
by low closely-clipped hedges usually
Duranta and Lawsoniaand occasionally
of j Jasminum pubescens. a plant verv
CcaItor. The ncw Palace of ll. Maharajah.
. ,,
suitable for the purpose.
We soon entered Mr. Maries' nursery and propagating department, chiefly filled with plants
ready for permanent plantations or for decoration at the palaceit was remarkably clean.
There are two or three small glass-houses, a long pit, and two large enclosures, one here and one
other in another part of the garden, that in the nursery being covered with the dried canes
of Monje-grass, whilst the latter, further away and near the palace, is covered with dried
Khaso-grass, supported in both cases by wire netting on iron rafters resting on rough stone pillars.
The two small houses are chiefly used for raising seedlings more particularly young Ferns, in
which Mr. Maries takes great interest ; he has a special method, which is certainly very
successfulIus Ferns are wonderfully fresh and green when it is considered that they are grown

46

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

in the plains of Central India. In one house are some young Admntum tenerum, as well as a
curiously curled variety of this species ; some Adiantum Regina and Lustrea lepida seedlings only
a few inches high, and some young cuttings of Coleus bright showy varieties recently struck ;
whilst in the house opposite, some Conifer seeds, chiefly Thuias, were germinating freely.
Casuarinas were also to be seen in a seedling state ; these are considered, as in other places
where I have been, most difficult to raisealthough when once started they soon grow into tall
trees. Arundinaria faleata was also being propagated in this house. Pine-apples are cultivated
in a glass-covered enclosure (not included in the two mentioned), with large pots of healthylooking Eucharis and Rhapis flahelliformis ; one species of Rhapis, which Mr. Maries calls R. elegans,
much like our R. humilis, is here grown for decoration. Some young Caryota mitvs, a branching
species of quicker growth and with broader leaflets than C. ur(ns, are also in the grass-covered enclosure
ready for planting out.
Some Latanias and Coryphas, two to three feet high, were very
healthy, as well as some Oreodoxas, and the handsome Lirmtoiui Jenkinsii from Assam.
Mr.
Maries pointed out some plants of what he considers to he a new Pterisa native of Xepaul ;
it is certainly very pretty, with fronds two to three feet long.
The glass pita lean-to against a high wallis just beyond the little office, and parallel
with the glass-houses ; it is chiefly
*9a I
used for striking cuttings, and at
the present moment is partially
filled with some store pots of
Murraya erotica, Gardenias, Rosa
gigantea, etc.
Immediately at the
end of the glass pit is the immense
grass-covered store-house.
In this
store-house plants are kept ready for
decoration, and newly-rooted cuttings
from the glass pit are often tem
porarily placed there.
In it were
also some clean young Livistonas,
Areca sapida, A. lutescens, as well as some
Kentias, which Mr. Maries says do well outside;
Gwalior. Carved sandstone Well.
also some pretty foliage Begonias, hybrids
raised on the place between Begonia Rex and a Sikkim species with pretty bronze and silver tinted
foliage. A few Dendrobium Picrardi, the only species that anything can be done with, hang from
the roof at one end, whilst Adiantums of all kinds line the stone beds filled with small plants in
potsclean and healthy and ready at a moment's notice to be sent to decorate the palace.
Outside this store-house are small plants ready for planting out, an operation usually
performed in the rainsthough it is found that by keeping plants in pots they can be planted
during the cold season, if subsequently and judiciously watered. A quaint kind of brush is used
for washing the Palm leaves, as well as for painting lights, and reflects credit on Mr. Maries'
ingenuity.
It is a short piecesix to eight inches longof the base of a midrib of a
Phoenix leaf, one end for about half an inch being fringed; it makes a cheap and durable
article. I saw it effectually used on the foliage of some Livistonas. A few other Orchids
besides the Deiulrobiinn Picrardi on the low roof are grown, such as Rhynchostylis retusa
and Aerides multiflorum ; they are, however, not in good condition, having been neglected during
Mr. Maries' stay in England during the previous summer.
On passing by a low doorway marking the limit of the nursery in this direction, and dividing
it from the road adjoining, not far distant, at right angles to which is the road leading up
to the main gateway of the palace, a large lake with an island in the centre is reached.
In

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

^7

this portion of the park immediately in front of and around the palace, Mr. Maries has been
allowed to plant as he likes, and the English forms of the beds, shrubberies, etc., are easily
recognised. The road between the nursery wall and the lake is shaded by some fiue Peepul
trees (Fiais religiosa), and leads into a broad gravelled path, flanked on one side by a
tall, handsome iron fence and on the other by the lake.
In front of the iron fence Rose
Cloth of Gold and Rosa citriodora has been planted, which in time will hide the stone parapet,
three feet high, supporting the ironwork.
Beyond the iron fence is the dreary waste of the
natural country, little else but sandy dry soil and Babool ; though in one place there is a
large pond from which the water in the tank is obtained. During the rains the lake or tank
rises high, and last year broke down portions of the road running along the top of a large
embankment which leads to the main gate. Adjoining the iron fence is a high wall, broken
in the centre by the main gateway, which is exactly opposite the palace, and at the end of
this wall, several hundred yards in length, are the elephant stables, in which thirty fine
animals are confined.
I am told when one breaks loose, especially if it be a "mad" one,
there is sad havoc in the garden. Against this wall Bougainvilleas and Roses have been alternately
planted, whilst on the opposite side from the lake up to the road leading from the main
gateway to the palace, is a thick shrubbery, chiefly composed of Acalyphas, with taller Xims
(Melia Azadirachta) behind. The plants massed in the bends of this shrubberyan idea, I am
told, of the young Maharajahconsist of Bougainvilleas, Acalyphas, Poinsettias, Poinciauas,
Bamboos, etc., and near it, close to a little path leading to the grass-roofed house already
mentioned, is a young Mango, the young foliage beautifully tinted with a rich glossy
brown, a feature not uncommon even in seedlings.
Another fine tree in this shrubbery is
Colvillca racemosa, its racemes on superficial glance not much unlike those of a Tritoma, but
pendulous and larger, and when expanded much frequented by blue humming-birds, forming
a striking contrast in colour with the red blossoms ; the tree in question is only three
years old, and is already thirty feet high.
There is also leading away from the high boundary wall and parallel with the lake, one
of the stone irrigation canals, which in this park are very perfect, and deserve some
mention. The water is obtained from nine reservoirs on the hills, the largest reservoir bemg little
less than a mile square, and is distributed in every direction through the park in open stone
canals varying from one foot to six feet broad. The one I have mentioned, leading away
from the high boundary wall, is one of the largest, and is shaded on either side by good
specimens of Mimusops Elengi, the flowers of which are held sacred.
Between this main entrance
road and the elephant stables is a fine row of MUlingtonias. The grass-roofed house in the
shrubbery, on the borders of the lake and close to a plantation of Casuarinas and Mahogany
(the intention being to cut the former out when the latter have grown sufficiently strong), is
chiefly filled with good-sized Crotons planted out.
Water trickles through it in an open canal
prettily edged with rockery, which is planted with Ferns, chiefly Adiautum tenerumAnthuriums, Philodendrons, Moustaa deliriosa and other plants are dotted about. The Crotons,
which occupy nearly the whole space of the house, are kept so that the young shoots
may be struck for decorative purposes, for it is found that Crotons, planted out. will live
through the cold season under a grass roof, but those in pots require the protection of glass.
At, the end of this grass-roofed store-house is a small glass-house, chiefly filled with Kerns, and
kept for the Maharajah's especial use to select from whenever he likes, as he has evinced a
great fondness for these plants, which were almost unknown here before Mr. Maries came. In
this little house are Crotons, Pteris Bausci, Gymnoyrammn. pemvmnum argyrophyllum, as well as
many Adiantums, all looking wonderfully fresh and healthy.
The lake is again soon reached.
I noticed that Jasmiuum pubexccHs and Ixoras are often
used for edging the shrubberies on this side. A new marble rest-house is to be built on a low

48

DELHI

TO

CAUTTTA.

embankment not far from here, and it is proposed to cover it with Baugainvilha glabca, which
should produce a pretty effect.
A Chinese Hainan a graceful, drooping, low shrubis also used
here ; it is exceedingly pretty, but I was unable to ascertain the botanical name. The Water
Palace, a white stone, domed structure on the edge of a large tank, is passed on leaving the park.
Just before I left the park, we had a look at the vegetable garden.
All kinds are
certainly good except Peas, these being scarcely up to the mark, and considering last season in
England, it was perhaps scarcely surprising that they were so. Cauliflowers, Turnips, Carrots
and Lettuces were quite as good as they arc ordinarily grown at home.

LUCKNOW.

.1ANUARY, 1892. A short stay was made at Agra and Cawnpore, to see the sites of the terrible
days of the Mutiny, and then on to Lucknow, my next stopping place, where a gre it change is
noticeable in the vegetation compared with that which I had Keen accustomed to see for the
last few weeks. The dry sandy
jungle, consisting of but little
else than low scrubby Babool,
gives place to land which is for
the mosl part under cultivation,
and the plants in the parks,
gardens and streets are like
those in Horn bay and Baroda.
Mr. Ridley is in charge of
Wingfield Purk and the Horti
cultural Gardens al Lucknow.
Wingfield Park,
about forty acres
in extent, is an

extremely well-kept place, only a few


hundred yards from the mad leading to the
famous Residency and one of the principal
thoroughfares in the European quarter.
There are no gates, the entrances being
marked by two white stone cnrbings. The
roads are twenty feet wide, hard, clean,
and in perfect condition, and are covered
with a peculiar red sand which seems
to hind well. (Iut of Colombo I have
seen nothing like this red earth which
gives a very good effect, as the roads
Gtralior. In the Elephant Stables nj the Maharajah.
wind in and out through the grass.
The whole of the park is one large lawn, and around the largest pavilion is extremely
well kept. Small figures on still smaller pedestals are scattered about, especially on the centre
lawn and from time to time, whilst driving round the park, occasional glimpses
of small white stone circular pavilions, usually on the summit of slight hillocks or knolls,

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

49

are caught.
These light, elegant, small white stone structures, usually consisting of an
arched dome supported on light pillars, are very attractive, but the statuary being much
too small, seems almost lost.
On entering the park by the approach nearest the town, one finds on the right a road
encircling the park, from which, at a right angle to it, is another running parallel with the
shrubbery, defining the park limits in this direction; other roads wind in and out between the
grass plots.
Large trees are dotted about, usually isolated, and no recent planting seems to
have been done ; a few clumps are also to be seen. Amongst the large isolated specimens I
noticed many Eugenias, some Phoenix, a few fine Ficus religiosa (the Peepul Tree), and some
especially good Poinciana regia, several of the specimens being quite thirty feet high.
I think
the long bi-pinnate foliage of this beautiful tree is handsomer here than I have anywhere
previously noticed it ; its large, twisted, thick brown seed-pods are not infrequently two feet
long.
Xims (Mdia Azadirachta) are also to be seen, as well as a few fine Teak trees
(Ttetona graiulis), which arc as handsome a feature in the landscape here as anywhere.
Not
unlike this in appearance is HHerophragma adenophyllum
the foliage is thick, the individual
ovate leaf being large and the form of the head
regularly pyramidal.
Several are scattered about
the park, and an avenue of this tree leading to the
horticultural gardens is very handsome.
Another tine
tree, worthy of especial mention, is Alstoma scholaris,
a tall evergreen of symmetrical outline, the head not
spreading much and having at the end of each shoot
a verticil of longish, thick, fleshy, ovate leaves ; a
good specimen near one of the main roads is nearly
thirty-five feet high.
Tamarinds are also scattered
about.
In the fork of the two roads, parting at right
angles to each other and encircling the park, is a
Camtporc. The famous Well with angel by ifarochelti
pretty, graceful clump of a not too strong-growing
bcaring the inscription:
Bamboo, in front of some fine old Tamarinds. On " Saerett to the perpetual memory of a greed company of Chrisnan
people, chiefly women and children, vho near this spot were
either side of the road bearing to the right are some
eruelly murdered by the followers of the reltel Nana JJhnndu
Pauth of lUthnr, and cast, the dying vith the dead, into the
single specimens, the light of the road being flanked
mii Mow on the xr. day of July, MDCCCLVII."
by a shrubbery and hedge hiding the public street
outside ; whilst on the left is a broad stretch of grass several acres in extent, with single
specimens dotted about. Following this road for a short distance, a rising knoll with a "suttee"
(marking the spot where a woman had thrown herself into the fire consuming the body of her
dead husband) soon comes into view. A clump of tall Babools crowns the summit.
1 was
much struck with the entirely different aspect of the Babool from that it usually bears on the
dry sandy desert. Here it is a tall, black-stemmed, not unhandsome tree, though its foliage is,
of course, insignificant ; whereas on the desert it is nothing but a low, scrubby, thorny bush
spreading for hundreds of miles. The favourable situation in Wingfield Park, where it doubtless
does not sutler too severely from drought, makes a wonderful difference.
Crossing a small white stone bridge spanning a former " nullah," and not far beyond it, Mr. Ridley's
bungalow is reached, standing a little back and almost hidden from the road.
It is approached
from almost every direction by six or seven roads, all converging into a broad circle around a
piece of grass, with an insignificant piece of statuary on a wide stone terrace in the centre.
In the forks formed by the junction of these roads are clumps of trees, some very pretty,
particularly two, one a fine Ficus with some young Phonic sylwstris beneath it, and the other a
thick broad bush of Bougainvillca glabra covered with blossom, more especially its young,
G

50

DELHI

TO

CAI/TTTA.

sub-pendulous, long shoots, gracefully arching on every side. The bye-path to the bungalow
from this open space, where so many roads and paths meet, is but a few yards longt
and has on one side a fine row of JuniperuR chineioriit, strong and healthy, looking evidently
at home, whilst the stems of three tall Phoenix soar up behind ; beyond the bungalow,
the attention is immediately arrested by the broad spreading flat head of a more than
usually fine Pmneiana regia.
Circling round the bungalow to reach again the main road, one passes close to one of the
small white stone pavilions referred to, on the top of a small knoll.
On three sides are three
tall Cusuarina equisctifolia, always graceful, with its fine needle-like foliage; below the knoll is a
fine mass of l'ougainvillea and some clumps of Agave serrulufa, a handsome species with
sub-erect, short stilt foliage, producing offshoots freely. A shrubbery partially hides the road from
this pavilion.
On again reaching the main road, on either side of which is a fine specimen
of Heteroph vagina adenophyllmn, and not far from it, a tall Milliiijtonw horteims shading a
young Cyeas revoluta, and opposite to these a Grevillca rofwsta twenty-five feet high, the
centre pavilion and that portion of the park most carefully looked after comes into view.
A few small statues are dotted about near here, and a glimpse
is caught of the light graceful pillars of one of
the small pavilions in the far distance on
the other side of the grounds. The main
pavilion is, as I have said, of white
stone,
oblong
in
shape,
and
is
erected
on
a
low
stone terrace.
Opposite its four straight sides are four
beds one hundred feet long by twentyfive feet wide ; the designs worked out
in
these beds, though simple, are
tasteful, particularly when it is considered
how limited must necessarily be the
number of bedding plants at Mr.
Itidlev's disposal. The plants chiefly used
are Alternanthera and Pyrethrum ((iolden
Lucknow. The Jumma Musjid
Feather), the first I have seen in India.
The two beds facing the end of the building are the handsomest, one being laid out with broad
diagonal lines of Phlox Drumnumdi, whilst at each end is a circular arrangement, that nearest
the pavilion being filled with (lolden Feather and Alternanthera ; that at the other end has
a small Livistona as centrepieee encircled by the white variegated Anthericum and a few
other plants, amongst which I noticed Chanuepcuce Camiboior. The bed at the end of the
building opposite to this is laid out with small tiles in diamond-shaped patterns, with pretty
white, black and green stones between each. These stones are in straight lines, running between
the small diamond-shaped beds containing the plants, and produce a novel and pleasing effect.
At the end of one of these beds is the fernery, a flat-roofed structure covered with the stems
of Monje-grass, tied to wire netting.
In the distance on the left a tall Bougainvillca glabra
rises straight up over a dead tree for more than thirty feet, and on the same side is a
tank with a Cyperus alternifolius shading a kneeling Venus, with a thick shrubbery behind it,
most noticeable in which is a fine Arenga saecharifera with long stiff leaves, a Caryota, and a
tall Orcodoxa regia.
On both sides of the long bed is a path covered with the same red sandy
earth. The entrance to the house is lined on cither side by a row of Biota oricntalis, none
of the specimens being less than ten feet high, behind which, on each side, are two tall
Cabbage Palms (Orcodoxa regia), the tall straight stems slightly bulging at the base, rising

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

.",1

clean and smooth for nearly thirty feet. On one side of the house is a row of low Crotons,
whilst the other is hidden by a row of scarlet-flowering Cannas in very good variety.
Within
the fernery, the paths of which are all covered with red tiles, are low undulating rockeries,
over which Selaginellas, Ficus repens and other creeping plants are growing.
It is thickly
planted with such tllings as foliage Begonias, Ferns (chiefly Nephrodiums and Nephrolepis),
Crotons, Dracamas, and many small Palms ; a few Aerides and Raccolabiums hang from the
roof in good condition, also some pans of Nephrolepis philippimnsis and Adiantums, chiefly
A. tenerum. Sanehezia nobilis varicgata is represented in this house, but is not highly coloured.
One comer, planted entirely with Alocasia Jenningsii, is very attractive. The lawn between the
long beds is laid out with large circular beds of Roses, and many dozens of these Rose plantations
surround the pavilion.
Keeping to the right of the pavilion, towards the exit in the direction of the Sikandra
Bagh and the Horticultural Gardens, a fine single specimen of Podocarpus maeroj>hylla in grand
condition is passed. On the right of the road near here, leading to the exit, is another small
piece of statuary shaded by a Nim tree, with Poincianas and some large Ficus elastica, in single
specimens, close by. At this point a mass of Acalypha musaica, in the angle of a shrubbery,
affords a pleasing contrast in colour.
On the left, close to the exit, lined on each side by
thick bushes of Tecoma stans, is a plantation of tall Eucalyptus rostratus upwards of sixty feet
high, the whole group, having some good plants of Biota oruntalis beneath, being very effective.
A large mass of Beaumontia grandiflora, six feet high and several feet through, is close by
in fine condition, behind which are some tall isolated specimens of Pinus loiu/ifolia with their
long greyish green drooping foliage.
Passing through the exit in this direction, along a road several hundred yards in length,
lined on both sides with a row of Heterophragma adenophyllum, the fine avenue tree already
mentioned, the Sikandra Bagh is soon reaclied ; it is, however, worth while to make a slight
detour to the left to see a plantation, several acres in extent, of Eucalyptus citrwdorus ; most of
the plants are very young only a few feet high, but in one place some older specimens have
shot ahead. The stems of these are tall, thin, and straight, without a single blanch, the heads
being also small and but scantily clothed with foliage ; it certainly is not an ornamental tree
as seen here.
On the opposite side of the public road, running alongside the Sikandra Bagh, is the
commencement of the fruit and vegetable gardens, generally known as the Horticultural Gardens,
also under Mr. Ridley's superintendence.
The first fruit grove is a plantation of Malta
Oranges, the bushes quite weighed down with fruit, many scores on each. At the end of this
plantation is the vegetable garden, in which all kinds are grown ; on each side of the
narrow paths, with which it is intersected, are channels for irrigation.
Passing from the
vegetable garden through another plantation of Oranges, a further quarter is reached, evidently
but recently planted, the trees being arranged diagonally twelve feet apart in the row. A
plantation of Loquats beyond this is particularly fine, and there is another of Peaches, in
bushes twelve feet high. English varieties are, 1 think, not grown in any case they are not
offered for sale; those they have, it is found best to transplant in December.
In front of the
Peach plantation is a row of an did Ceylon friend, the Jack-fruit (Artoearpus integrifolius). Near
here is a strip of ground with a narrow path in the centre, between two young rows of a very
pretty tree PolyaUhm lonjifolia.
Here are numbers of pots of seedlings, mostly annuals, many
kinds of which are cultivated.
1 noticed pans thick with Marigolds, Nasturtiums, Poppies, Phlox,
Petunias and others, and in pots, ready for sale, were numerous plants, little groups of each,
labelled both in English and the vernacular.
Behind this is a plantation of Leechee (Nephelium
Litehi), whilst a large one containing all the best varieties of Mangoes is close by. Around
the Mango bushes are many hundreds of young inarched plants not yet cut off.

52

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

On leaving that portion of the nursery where plants in pots are ready for sale or planting
out, a triangular piece of grass is passed, along one side of which are some neat specimens of
Cupressus funeh-is about eight feet high, and also several masses of the stiff-growing, short-leaved
Yueca scrruUUa.
Here is a pretty fernery, etc., covered with stems of the useful
Monje-grass.
The front of the house is covered with Iponuea palmata, flowering freely ;
whilst exactly opposite are two small AraucarUi Cunninghami thirty feet high.
Behind
the house is a splendid specimen of Arenga saecharifera , some of its tall stiff leaves being
twenty feet long, whilst opposite is a Bougainvillea trailing over a fine tree of Albizzia
procera, which cannot be less than fifty feet high. The side of the house nearest and but a
few yards from the road, is hidden by a thick hedge of Calotropis Acm, a stiff-growing plant
most useful for the purpose. The house contains many plants in pots on brick beds ready for
sale, and many more are planted out on the low rockery, with which a portion of the house is
filled. Palms, foliage Begonias, Ferns, Crotons and Draca-nas
are those mostly seen.
In the centre of the house
are two Brownea grandiecps (Sec plate iii.) planted out ;
they have already pushed through the roof, and will
\
soon be too large for the place.
,1
I"' Bo %
Leaving the house, and following the short path
leading straight to the main road, one passes on the left
a good thick plantation of Biota oricntalis compaeta,
twenty plants in all, eight to ten feet high, in good
condition. Ascending a short flight of steps, the path
at the top of which has a bed on each side planted with
a few rows of Cmton bicolor, Kussellias, Hibiscus and Cannas,
the main road and exit is soon reached.
A small path leading from the house by the side
of the Shall Najaf is shaded on one side by tall Millingtonias with Hibiscus beneath them,
and on the other by a shrubbery edged with Alternanthera.
Pilea muscomi is also
effectively employed for this purpose.

CALCUTTA.
January, 1892.The Botanic Gardens of Calcutta, at the village of Seebpore, about an hour's
drive out of the city, is a wonderful place.
It is two hundred and seventy-two acres in extent,
and possesses numerous fine avenues, the most noticeable being one of Grevillca iobusta, two of
Orcodoxa regia, their stems rising straight and tall, like great gun-barrels, and another along the
river-bank, three-quarters of a mile in length, of Terminalia Catappa sixty to seventy feet high,
with great ovale red-tinted foliage as large as that of a Magnolia.
Other remarkable features
of these gardens are a splendid glove of Bamboos in great variety ; a clump of Browneas,
triangular in outline, fifty feet at the broadest end, and two hundred feet long ; an avenue of
the same genus over a hundred yards long, forming a perfect tunnel of shade ; Palms such as are
rarely seen elsewhere; fine trees of Mahogany; a noble avenue of Casuarinas ; a grass-covered
house of octagonal shape, each side of which is thirty yards longone of the finest octagons I have
seen in or out of Europe ; a Banyan one hundred and six years old, the main stem of which
is sixteen feet in diameter ; a splendid avenue of the Toddy Palm ; miles of roads with numerous
ponds winding in and out in every direction, in which the Vietoria regia lives even in cold weather,
and turtles squat on its leaves and eat them ; and a frontage one mile in length along the bank
of one of the world's finest water-courses, the great Hougli River. As a garden it is like the
Taj as a building: hear what one may, or picture to oneself what one will, when both
have been visited there is still ample room for surprise. The luxuriance of the vegetation tells

PLATE 111

B R0WN KA G UAN D I C K P S

THC NEW YOUK


PUBLIC II MAP. Y

AKTt.'il, MT'tX ' [I


TULiEN h.'f' Mi\i 'tINS
B
L

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

53

a tale of what the hot season must be like; in England we cultivate to grow, but at Seehpore the
difficulty is to keep within bounds. Mr. Proudlock, an old Kew man, accompanied me round
the garden.
The shape of the Botanic Gardens is peculiar. Standing on the bridge, the view is very
pleasing. In the tank were some Victoria regia with one flower about to expand. A few plants
live through the cold season, but not all, and turtles prove very destructive to their leaves. For
three-quarters of a mile along the river bank extends the superb Terminalia Catappa avenue
a magnificent sight; the stems are tall and straight, the heads pyramidal, and the large handsome
foliage prettily tinted with red ; most of the trees are from sixty to seventy feet high.
Turning from the pond, and looking at the river still front the same bridge, one is struck by the
great breadth of the stream, which in the rains often rises twelve feet, when its force at that
time must be irresistible. A little to the left of the road, along the river bank towards the
east, is a great grove of Bamboos, and opposite to it a clump of Pinus longifolia.
Some of
these Bamboos are very fine, and very many species are here represented ; those I chiefly noticed
were Dendrocalamus dbovatus,
thirty-five feet high and
twelve feet through so thick
as to be perfectly impregnable,
the stems standing close to
gether like a bundle of lead
pencils; Melocanna bambusoides,
of straggling habit, but pro
ducing strong stiff canes,
used for pig-sticking ; the
large -caned Gigantochloa
maerostachya ; a fine speci
men of
Bambusa nutans,
somewhat straggling in habit ;
Lucinow,
a yellow-stemmed variety of
Bambusa vulgaris ; a very pretty clump of Bawbusa xana with thin
stems and overhanging foliage, a remarkably graceful species ; and a
very peculiar species, Dinochloa Maelanardii, with twisted curled stems
twenty feet high. Dendrocalamus giga ulcus is represented by a fine specimen, though not so large
as those in Ceylona very fine specimen at Seehpore is seventy feet high, but at Peradeniya I
think the clumps have a larger circumference ; I measured some fallen sheaths, and found them
exactly two feet across.
A peculiarity is noticeable on the young stems of Dendrocalamus
gigantcusfor almost their entire length they are covered with a thick whitish wax-like excretion
that is absent in the older canes.
At the north end of this clump of Bamboos, commences one of the avenues of Orcodoxa
regia, which has a white stone vase at the end, from which the other avenue of the same
Palm runs down to the river bank. These two avenues are wonderfully fine ; their regularity,
evenness of stems, etc., would lead one almost to think they were the work of man, and not
of Nature. Near the end of the Oreodoxa avenue first referred to is a young avenue not
long planted, though the specimens are already of considerable size, of Swictenia Mahagoni
maerophylla, a large-leaved variety of Mahogany, which originated in this way :Some seed was
sent out from Kew of what was supposed to be the typical Mahogany, but a very short time
after germination, Dr. King noticed the seedlings varying considerably from the type, having larger
foliage, hence he gave them the distinguishing name maerophylla. Adjoining this is an avenue
of the Rain tree fPithecolobium Saman).

54

DELHI

TO

OALCUTTA.

If one continues along the river bunk through the Terminalia avenue, after having been
through the clump of Bamboos, a fine clump of Dendrocalamus Hamiltonianns, so common in the
valley of Sikkim, is passed, and also one of Bambusa siamensis, which is exceptionally graceful
and pretty. On the river bank Mr. Proudlock pointed out to me the remains of a stem
of Corypha data, the principal portion of which had been shipped to Kew on New Year's
Day. The stump of this Palm was exactly two and a-half feet in diameter, and the peculiarity
lies in its great spiral stem, the twist being sometimes in one direction, and sometimes in the
opposite one, the reason of this variability being unknown. When the stem referred to arrives at
Kew, both instances of tlns peculiar twist will be represented in the Royal Gardens. A little
further on, the bank is being raisedin some places as much as five feet, partly to keep the
Hougli within bounds in the rainy season, and partly to improve this portion of the garden
as much as possible.
I may here mention that much has been done all over the garden in raising the ground in
certain parts, and causing it to undulate.
The whole place, Dr. King tells me, was formerly
perfectly flat ; indeed, much must have been done artificially to make it the beautiful spot it now is.
The roads are very solid, made of broken bricks, bound with fine sand on the top; they are
quite level, that is to say, they do not slope away on either side, on account of the heavy
wash during the rains ; for the same reason, the grass, which in places is very good, is two
inches below the level of the roads.
Before
reaching the great clump of Browneas already
mentioned, on which were
a few isolated
heads of bloom (for it is yet too early for
these
magnificent
plants
to be in full
flower), a fine clump of Calamus, twenty feet
through, is passed.
The Mahogany avenue
touches the Brownea group at this point, on
the left of which is a pond with undulating
banks, on one of which, amongst the luxuriant
vegetation, is a tall Poineiana riyiii forty feet
Lucknow.- Entranec to the Sluih Najaf.
high, its large graceful foliage reaching to the
water's edge ; it is loaded with the thick long
brown pods peculiar to these plants. Masses of Palms on the other banks rise in the distance.
The eastern boundary is now reached, with the Howrah Gate, the principal entrance, at
one end. This entrance is reached from Calcutta through the dirty native village of Scebpore,
but a road is being constructed along the river bank to obviate passing through this village.
Before reaching the Howrah Gate, another pretty view of the same lake is obtained, with the
island in the centre; a group of Bamboos with dwarf Pandanus beneath, and some great
Sissoo trees (Dedbergia Sissoo), a most English-like tree, are seen beyond it On the right of
the road leading to the Howrah Gate is a row of Jomsia Asoca (Saraca indica), its bright
red pea-shaped flowers being very handsome ; and close by are some specimens of Blijhut
sapida, an African fruit known as the Akee, said to be very good, and four fine trees
of AibnwHiia dujitata (the Baobab), a deciduous tree with large Malvaceous flowers. A great
bush of Fitus Roxburghii, spreading twenty yards through, is very striking with its large
leaves usually a foot long and ten inches broad. Near the gate some more alterations in the
ground level are being made, and I was much struck with the type of people employed in making
them so different from the cringing, lazy Bengalee.
Mr. Proudlock informed me they were
Danghars from a hundred and fifty miles up the country, and spoke in very high terms
of their working capabilities and general character.
They receive, at the present rate of the
rupee, from 5s. 8d. to Hs. Qd. pur month.

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

Standing at the Howrah Gate, one notices three main roads leading into the gardens ;
one skirts along the north side, shaded by a fine avenue of Burai<mis flabelliformis (the Toddy
Palm) ; the second along the east running into the Tenninalia avenue on the river bank, and the
third towards the centre of this part of the gardens. That on the east side is the one I
traversed from the river bank, and it will be most interesting to follow the third road which
winds gently through grass, on which are fine single specimens, clumps, etc., towards the
centre of the grounds, and in the direction of the celebrated Palmetum. Near the gate is a large
Peepul tree (Finis rdigiosa), over which on the great stem and branches are many creepers
ihiefly lMiilodeudrons, a fine Tectona grandw, and a tall (lirrillen. robusta with its rich dark
foliage; it is strange to me how this plant lives and grows on the hills of Ceylon and on the
Nilghiris, at several thousand feet elevation, as well as in the recking oven-like temperature of
the hot season of Calcutta. On the left, and not far down the road winding towards the centre
of the garden, is a Hue clump of Palmsgreat Licualas, handsome Phoenix, and a tall Caryota
urens ; whilst on either side are some tall even specimens of Araurar'm Cunninghami. A large
bush of Bmigainvillea glabra, the shy-flowering form, is here in full bloom. A fine avenue of
Casuarina equisctifolia lines a portion of the roadgreat trees, dwarfing all beneath them ; near to
which are two fine specimens of Finalyplus resinifenis. Over one of the Casuarinas is a Fiais
rejx'n.s, many of its leaves being four inches long.
Tall graceful trees of Cupressus
tondosa are on the left of the road, with some fine pyramidal specimens, fifteen feet high, of
JunijMrus virginmna ; on the right rises a tall Araucarm Vookii, and a fine group of Lirhitona
chinams. A moderate-sized Bignonia from Colombia, called magnifica, was in flower; it has
a pink tint, and close to it is a specimen of the fine Bauhinia diphyllanot remarkable, 1
am told, on account of its flowers, but possessing very pretty foliage, so light and graceful,
that in the distance it is not unlike Adiantum Farleyensc.
On the right of this road is another lake, with banks sloping to the water's edge, and
winding in and out. A great Albizzia proccra not less than one hundred feet high, with foliage
to the water's edge, overhangs it at one point. Beneath it on one side is an Amherstia wlol'is,
whilst a fine specimen of a Pterocarpus from Java is close by. Still following the same road,
and | Kissing on the left a fine clump of Araucariasthe specimens ranging from thirty to
thirty-five feet high, chiefly composed of A. Bidwilli, A. Cunninghami, and A. Cookii, as well as a
dwarf shrub, Quassia amara, from which our Quassia chips are derived, and which has a very
curious pinnate foliage with winged petiolesthe avenue of Casuarina mentioned above is reached.
Over one of the trees creeps Porana paniculata (the Bridal Creeper), with long panicles of
white flowers. Beyond this short avenue Mr. Proudlock pointed out to me a shrub, Strophanthus
dichotomy, with shoots several yards long, turning and twisting about over the grass on all
sides.
He tells me it bears a most gorgeous red flower, with thin wavy thread-like
petals six to seven inches long. Close by is a Nutmeg which has to be protected during
the hot season, and two groves of Palms. Here the road again divides into three, and the
Palmetum proper is reached.
At this portion of the grounds the garden is only a few
hundred yards wide. At the commencement of the Palmetum, the Borassus avenue, mentioned
as lining the road on the north side from the Howrah gate, is clearly seen.
The roads are beautifully smooth and carefully rolled, t he motive-power being small plump
little bullocks in splendid condition and exceedingly pretty creatures, so different from those
often seen in the villagessome with great open sores, and many with tails twisted out of
shape. The average Hindoo practises great cruelty on the animal, which from religious belief
he dare not kill.
At the commencement of the Palmetum, near a small pond on the left, is a fine Livistona
group, in the centre of which is the best specimen of the Egyptian Doom Palm, Hyphane
thrhtica, I have yet seen.
It is most distinctly branched, and is not far short of thirty feet

DEI.III

TO

CALCUTTA.

high. From the base rise three shoots, two of which are three times dichotomously branched,
the branches being several feet long. Masses of Palms are dotted about Phoenix, Livistonas,
Oreodoxasand on one side is a most effective mass of Latania glaucophylla with broad grey
foliage and stiff upright grey stemsa most distinct feature in this part of the garden. In a
thick bed of Rhapis, much likein fact Mr. Proudlock thinks it ishumilis, so thick as to be
impregnable and in this respect resembling an old Yew hedge, is a tall graceful specimen of
Caryota urens.
Continuing towards the centre of the garden, a short avenue of tall Oreodoxa
(not one of those already referred to) is reached, on the right of which is a large winding
lake, and in the centre an island completely covered with a small forest of Palms great
Oaryotas, tall Elaeis guinmimx, and the long stiff foliage of Amuja saecharifera rising many yards.
The growth is wonderfully luxuriant, and being left principally to Nature, the effect is most
impressive.
Near here, on the left of the road, creeping masses of various Pandanus cover
very many square yards, and some fine Arengas and Oreodoxas are growing behind a circular
avenue of Polyalthia longifolia. There are some fine single specimens of Palms, the most noticeable
being Corypha Gdmnga with large broad palmate leaves, and Corypha rlata with a stem
three to four feet through, with great stiff spiny petioles and broad palmate leaves several
yards across. The specimen in question is not very high compared with its surroundings, but is an
immense mass. A group of hybrid Plxenix is very pretty, and although Plurnix rupkvlu does
well here, it does not grow much higher than eight to ten feet. Rareimlia marfoyiwa rii'nsis-the
first I have seen since leaving Ceylon is represented by two fine specimens.
At the end of the Palmetum is a bridge over the largest lake, somewhat narrowed at this
point. From here the view is directed towards the Hougli Piver, and to the bridge from which
I started. Standing for a few minutes on this bridge I noticed some fine Elacis guinmtsis,
1'hienix ru.picola, a pretty variety of Aura vmihigascarit'uHis, a large Dnulrocalamus giga ulcus,
an Attalea Cohune with tall still' Pheenix-like leaves twenty feet long, a great bush of Sanchezia
covering many yards, green from the luxuriance of its growth, a tall Cocos flexuosa and
some Ipimuca vUifolia.
This concluded my walk in the smaller and most interesting
portion of the garden.
Storting again in the afternoon from Dr. King's bungalow, we directed our steps towards
the north, Mr. Proudlock again kindly placing his time at my disposal.
On our way we
passed some toll Mahoganies with trunks like great Elms at home. Opposite the bungalow is
a Nipa fruticans with long stiff leaves, which when split are used for thatching houses.
Another winding lake with numerous arms, all of which cannot be seen from any one point,
thus rendering the effect very pretty, is soon reached in this part of the garden, and in general there
seems no lack of water.
Oreat bushes of Bauhinias covering many square yards aie near, and a
magnificent Terminalia Catappa over a hundred feet high, with handsome red-tinted foliage, rises
straight upwards from the edge of the grass ; a row of Mahogany (Smetenia Mahagimi)
with stems four and a-half to five feet through, is a little beyond.
Stereulm alata is a fine
tree, with a tall pyramidal head on a smooth straight stem ; there are some near the great Banyan,
situated in this end of the garden. The great Banyan is a fine sight; its main trunkfortyeight feet in circumference is one hundred and six years old; in 1886 it had two hundred
and thirty-two aerial roots, many of them large enough to form the trunk of a fine tree; now there
are, of course, many more. The space covered by this gigantic tree is about seventy yards
through. On one side a huge branch, which must have been upwards of forty yards long,
was torn clean out by a cyclone, how I cannot imagine, and many others are supported, some
by brickwork. The tree is in good condition, and apparently growing as freely as ever, and as
there is little vegetation in its immediate neighbourhood there seems to be no reason why it
should nut go on for a long time.
Philodendrons, Anthuriums and other creepers grow over
its main stem and along its principal arms.

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

57

I am told much alteration has been made in this part of the garden ; it is now covered
with grass, gently undulating, and has fine roads, whereas previously it was quite flat, and
more or less overgrown. A portion near is quite English in its aspect, being planted with
Dalbergias and such like, and were it not for the stems of a few tall Phoenix, one might be
looking at an English landscape from the distance.
Before reaching another fine avenue of
Polyalthia hngifolia, regular pyramidal specimens upwards of thirty feet high, Mr. Proudlock
pointed out a bush of Lagerstrannia tomcntosa, which produces its orange-red flowers during the
rains, and which is then a magnificent sight. On the other side of the avenue we made a
detour to look at a Cannon Ball tree, a specimen of which was recently figured in the Gardeners'
Chroniele. It was not in fruit, but I saw some flower-buds borne on the main trunka curious
sight, as it is two and a-half feet in diameter, the old flowering-stalks, some of considerable
length, still persisting. Its name is Couroupita guianeusis, and it is a native of the West Indies.
Opposite another fine Terminalia is the Brownea avenue before referred to ; the trees are not yet
considered to be in full flowerit is still too cold (though as I write the thermometer is 72
in my cool room), but 1 saw many hundred heads of blooms, chiefly B. coecinea and other
species, but none of B. grandiceps.
They were, however, not large, and evidently not fully
developed. This avenue, or rather tunnel, about one hundred yards long, must be a magnificent
sight in the flowering season.
There is but little perceptible cessation of growth in these
plants all the year round.
The pond or lake with its winding banks is again touched at this pointit has three
islands on its surface clothed with a rich vegetationand in the distance a view is caught of
the long Grenllca robusta avenue from forty to fifty feet high. The Palm house, the great
octagonal structure before mentioned, is now reached. Karely have I seen a prettier sight than
the interior of this place, with its winding walks and low rockery-edged beds. All kinds of what
we call stove plants, Palms and Ferns, most tastefully arranged, grow with extraordinary freedom,
the great point being to keep the plants from overcrowding. A pretty creeper up one of the
pillars supporting the roof is worth naming Faradaya papuanawith white, powerfully-scented
flowers not unlike a Honeysuckle. On leaving the house and looking north, a great Parkia
biglandulosa is seena tall tree with small pinnate foliage, and also a Sterculia ornata
completely covered with creamy white racemes from top to bottom. Passing a specimen of the
Log-wood tree, the Little Banyan is reachedlarge enough in all conscience it is nicely draped
with Philodendron and other creepers, and the soil round the base of the main stem is
hidden by Tradescantia. Near here is a model plantation of the best varieties of Mangoes, and
in the distance I caught sight of tall pillars of Thunbergias, blue and white, draping old
C'asuarina stems seventy feet higha fine sight although they were not in flower.
The flower garden is now soon reached, on the right of which is another large though low
house, flanked on either side by two tall Araucaria Cunninghamii.
Beds of various shapes,
filled with such annuals as will grow, fill this garden.
I was too early to see any results,
particularly as the coldest season is now over, and it daily becomes warmer, but Mr. Proudlock
tells me they are good. Within the house are many kinds of plants, which, by-the-bye, do
equally well outsidePothos, Ferns, Alocasias, Palms, Anthuriums being amongst the number.
I expect these houses are most useful in the hot weather as shade, especially for Ferns.
Outside the house, in front of a fine clump of Crotons, is a large bush of Ixora maerothyrsa on
which fine broad heads of flower are now being borne ; and a little beyond is a group of
Conifers composed of Cupressus scmpervirens, Biota oricntalis, Podocaipus chinensis, the three species
of Araucaria already named, Cupressus torulosa, and Pinus longifolia with leaves fourteen inches
long, of a rich green, glistening in the suna very beautiful Pine, and more luxuriant here,
though not so tall as I believe I have seen it in other places.
A large bed of Euphorbia
heterophylla near here attracts notice ; the verticil of bracts at the end of each shoot is
II

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

curiously coloured, one half of the bract being bright vermilion-red and the other bright green ;
there is no intermediate shadethe line of demarcation between the two colours is sharp.
Near the Eose garden, not far from this house, is a fiue group of Palms, but the Roses
are poor; in fact they cannot be expected to be otherwise here.
I was surprised at the sight
of a Magnolia gramUflora, Exmouth variety, in fine condition ; it is shaded by a jungle of
Browneas and an Amherstiaa curious mixture.
Another long house now comes into view, in
which are the Nepenthes in fair condition, and some Orchids hanging from the roof, as well as
others on the brick beds.
Many of the Orchids are good Vanda Roxburghii, Cypripedium
Spicerianum, Stanhopca eburnea, Calanthes and several Phala?nopses being in flower.
On the
rockery near the doors are Ferns and many low-growing stove plants.
A curious plant, a
native of the Andaman Islands, was pointed out to me by Mr. Proudlock Uydnophytum
andamaucnsc. It is grown as a pot plant, and has a curious short round thickened stem and
thread-like foliage.
The nursery for all kinds of small plants, and several glass-houses for use in the cold
season are a little beyond. Cattleyas, Ladias, and Phahenopses are found to require this protection
in the cool months, but the two former are nevertheless not good ; it is too wet for them
during the rains.
These glass-houses are not heated, or Cattleyas and Ladias might perhaps
do better.
I noticed some magnificent plants of Aiucctochilus Dawsonianus, as well as some
Vanda teres, grown on teak sticks in fine condition ; they receive partial shade.
There is a
fine house of Dendrobiums, certainly the best Orchid genus grown in India. All kinds are
represented deiisijlorum, albo-sanjnineurn, Dalhousieanum and moschatum being amongst the best.
Cymbidiums were also good, and Phaius Wollichii especially so.
A Calcutta Nursery.Mr. Chatterjee, well known to many English horticulturists, has a
shop in the European quarter, close to the Government House ; here he sells his porcelain pots,
and makes his bouquets, button-holes, etc.chiefly the employment of his younger brother. All
his plants for cut flowers are grown at a nursery between here and Benares (at Baidyanath
Junction), which he tells me is one hundred acres in extent; by special arrangement, the
Bombay-Calcutta mail stops daily to take up his cut flowerschiefly Rosesand Ferns. He is
also about to start a branch establishment at Darjeeling, in fact, the nucleus is formed,
where he will grow Ferns, Pelargoniums, etc., in the hot season, bringing them to Calcutta in
the cool one. His Calcutta nursery, about ten acres in extent, is situated some distance from
the European quarter, quite at the opposite end of the town where he is building a new house
a very large and imposing structure.
On either side of the entrance leading into the grounds are fine clumps of Livistona
(Pritehardia) Martiana, that on the right, relieved by a few Oreodoxas, being several yards
long and from ten to twelve feet wide. The show-house is three hundred and fifty feet long by
thirty-three feet wide, its sides, end and top being covered with Oollu-grass tied on wire netting
which rests on thin T-atst-iron supports inserted in the ground. A low brick bed runs the whole
length of both sides, on whichmany of them sunk in soilare pot plants such as Crotons,
Dracamas, Palms (chiefly Areca lutescens and a few Pritchardia pacifica), flowering Anthuriums,
and A. erystallinum, all ready for sale.
The centre of this house is laid out in large beds
about eight in all, nicely undulating and edged with rockeryof various forms, circular,
oblong, diamond-shaped, etc. ; two of them with small tanks. These beds entirely occupy the
body of the house, and are divided from each other by cross paths running into the broad
main path extending all round the house. They are planted with all kinds of stove plants, Ferns
and Palms. Most striking is the large diamond-shaped bed in the centre, planted with Draca?nas
handsome healthy plants two to three feet high ; the bed slopes on all sides, and is well arranged,
the soil being completely covered with Selaginella Martensii. Only the best varieties of Dracaena

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

59

are grown, such as metallica, Regina, Ban-sci, Cooperi, elegans rubra, and Duffii, and a variety from
Australia with a short red leaf very good and pretty ; the best of all is named Mrs. Hoskins,
a very fine plant with stiff, pendulous, intensely dark leaves eight inches broad ; it was found
by Mr. Ohatterjee's brother in the Fiji Islands.
The next most handsome hed is one forty feet long by twelve wide, filled with the best
varieties of Crotons. The plants, varying from two to four feet high, look in splendid condition ;
the soil, likewise, quite hidden by Selaginella Martensii, rises towards the centre of the
bed. The varieties most represented are the best we have in England, but two or three others
are particularly fine.
C. rubro-vittata is one of the most striking ; it has a broad, red, jagged
band down the centre of an almost black leaf ; Indian Prinee, with long, narrow, curled, subpendulous leaves twelve to fifteen inches long, orange and black in colour, is also good, as is
The Czar, and Sir Ashley Eden, another fine orange-tinted variety. The other beds are a mixture,
as I have said, of stove plants, all planted out.
In that nearest the office is a large bush
of Heliconia rosco-striata with very pretty pink-lined foliage, nearly six feet high and six feet
through, and opposite is a Maranta Simonsii almost as large ; close by is an Alocaxia gigantca
ten feet high, the hastate leaves being four feet long. Another Alocasia is one Mr. Chatterjee
has obtained from Singapore ; it is not handsome, but peculiar from its having on the
lower side of the mid-rib of every leaf another smaller, very well-developed leaf. In the second
bed are some good Marantas, Aralia greicillima several feet high and therefore rather bare of
foliage below ; Dracamas, some dwarf Panax such as P. Victoriw and P. multifida, the same large
leaved Selaginella running all over the low rock-edging. In another bed further down is a pretty
variegated Zingiber by the side of Z. HArceyi, which, though not so highly variegated, is a
stronger grower.
Anthnrium erystallinum is very pretty when it thus gets a chance of
luxuriating by being planted out ; Piper ornatum and some Justicias are also good. In the third
bed is a fine plant of Stevensonia graiulifolia.
Cycas Rumphii in another bed is good, with
stronger and broader foliage than C. cireinalis. Adiantum peruvianum grows strongly, and Pavetta
lxtrbonica is quite at home.
Marantas and other low-growing stove plants are numerously
represented, and in the bed at the end of the house, with water running through it, is a
pretty Dcacwim nmbraculifera and some fine Calamus, whilst in another corner is a Pritehardia
graiuhs four feet high, in good condition.
Bearing to the right is a large enclosure, also under Oollu-grasswhich is entered from
the show-house; here, in long beds edged with brick, stand hundreds of voting Crotons,
Draca-nas, Heliconia aurca striatarather green, howeverIvory Palms three feet high,
Panax, Aralias, including some young A. Chabricri (Woodendron Chabrieri), a good batch
of Dicffenbachm magnifica, and a few plants of a new and pretty Asparagus which I do not think
will prove so generally useful as those we have. From this house one passes into the
Orchid-house, in the centre of which is a tank surrounded by four level stone-edged beds
three feet high, on which plants are placed. At both ends of the house are four large squares ;
these are filled with Phahenopsis suspended about four feet from the ground from iron wire
stretched tightly across between iron uprights at each end of the bed. As all the plants
hang exactly on a level the effect is very pretty ; they are chiefly in low pans, wooden baskets
being seldom used, and are potted in broken burnt brick and peatno moss is used. In
these squares hang suspended several hundreds of Phala'nopsis amabilis and P. Schilleriam> ; the
latter are good, clean, healthy young plants, as are the majority, though not all, of the
former.
Cattleyas and La?lias hang around the house on all sides. On one of the stone
beds close to the bank are Vandas, chiefly V. tricolor and V. cocrulca ; on another is a fine
batch of Phaius grandifolius. Some Dendrobium superbicns suspended near are very good, having
long, strong, stout stems, as has D. undulatum. Of the latter I measured some strong healthy
stems four feet long. Oneidium Kranierwnum amongst the Cattleyas on one side, looks well,

60

DELHI

TO

CALCUTTA.

and Oncidium ampliatum majus is healthy, and producing plump bulbs. It is from this house
that the Orchids are taken into the show house, first described, during the annual exhibition in
March. Mr. Chatterjee tells me he sends a lot to England and Australia for sale by auction,
and finds it pays him. A large Fints repens, with leaves three to four inches long, covers the
west side of the grass-covered house.
We then returned, and passed by the potting-shed to a very large house, two hundred
feet long and sixty feet wide, that was being built.
It has low brick walls, and is to be
covered with Oollu-grass. Down the centre runs a broad brick bed, on either side of which two
narrower ones were in course of construction, with paths between, making five in all ; a cross-path
through the middle of the house divides these beds.
Several tanks were being made, in
which fountains are to be erected to play all day.
Mr. Chatterjee buys his materials, and
erects the house himself, and he has selected for this one a site parallel and close to the house
first described. The potting-shed leads into a pretty little fernery sunk below the level of
the ground, and is reached by a few steps. Here are chiefly Adiantums, fresh and clean,
including as fine a batch of A. Furleyensc as I have seen in India. Small Aroids are good,
and a row of young Phalcenopsis Schilleriana hangs on one side from the roof.
Beyond this
house is a row of frames for propagating purposes, which Mr. Maries has the credit of
having introduced into India, such things being formerly unknown. The frames in question
are of glass, three hundred feet long, and contain newly-rooted cuttings of Crotons, foliage
Begonias, store pots of Coleus, Caladium argyrites, Dieffenbachias
in variety, Alocasia
Thibautiana, Cyrtodcira fulgidu, of a much richer colour than with us ; there are also several
pits of Adiantum. Close by, outside, is a large specimen of Croton Kingianus nine feet high,
planted out only three years ago ; it is a very showy variety with large yellow variegated leaves.
Behind this Croton are some Vanda teres and Renanthera coecinca, the former three to four feet
high, the latter with shoots five feet long, though shoots twice that length are occasionally
produced. These are grown on teak sticks outside, fully exposed to the sun, all the year round ;
in the warm weather they receive water twice daily, but in the cold season only once. Under
this treatment they flower well.
Behind the pits are oblong beds leading up to a large pond
opposite the entrance to the grounds ; there is also a fine stretch of grass between the gate
and the pond. In the centre of these beds is a row of Roses in fair condition, with annuals
on each side.
Crossing a small bridge, over the neck of another long pond which runs up to the
extremity of the grounds, the Palm-house is soon reached, a structure one hundred feet long
and fifty feet wide, also covered with grass. On one side of this bridge is a fine Bauhinia several
yards in diameter, whilst near the house is an exceedingly pretty flowering shrub with very
numerous four-lobed yellow blossoms two to three inches in diameter Brunfelsia americana. The
contents of this Palm-house are chiefly Areca lutescens of all sizesmany hundred plants. These
Palms stand in pots in squares, ready for decorating dwellings.
Even at this moment Mr.
Chatterjee tells me he has three hundred out on this service. A few Kentias and a Chamaxlorea
or two were scattered about.
In the centre is a raised stone circular tank with some fine
large plants of Asplenium Nidus in pots, on short supports just above the water-level.
Round
the sides Orchids hang from the roof in considerable quantity. Dendrobium aggregation, D. nobile,
D. fimbriatum, D. mperbicns, D. chrysotoxum and 1). Farmeri were very good, as were several
dozens of Phalamopsis Schilleriana. At the end and along the sides, placed on the ground
within a low brick edge, were many hundred pots of Ferns, chiefly Adiantum Collisii and
A. tenerum. I must not forget to mention that before reaching the Palm-house is a model
plantation of Mangoes, including over one hundred varieties, arranged according to Mr. Maries'
classification.

PENANG

PART

IV.

AND

SINGAPORE.

PART

PENANG

AND

IV.

SINGAPORE.

PENAN G.
JANUARY, 1 892.Leaving Calcutta and its busy river full of shipping, a four days' voyage on
a sea of glass during warm days and matchless nights brought me to Rangoon, at the mouth
of the Irrawaddy, the chief sea-port of Burmah. Though in itself a place of considerable interest,
there was little to attract me horticulturally, and after a brief stay I went on board a small
steamer and ran down to Penang.
Early on the second day of my stay at Penang, Mr. Curtis, the Assistant Superintendent of
the Public Gardens, accompanied me up Government Hill on ponies. The gate of the Public Gardens
is close to the base of the hill, and but a few hundred yards distant is Mr. Curtis' house. The
ascent is very steep, and the height of the hill two thousand five hundred feet. On the summit
is one of the Governor's houses and a signal station for incoming and outgoing vessels.
Near here Mr. Curtis has a vegetable garden, where he is tolerably successful with most
things.
Peas and dwarf Beans are fairly good, and like Parsnips, Lettuce and Onions, are found
to be best from acclimatized seed. Chinese Radish is grown, as is a Chinese Cabbage, from
cuttings; the latter has no heart, and though not of first-rate quality, is yet valuable where
so few vegetables are procurable.
A very handsome Conifer growing on the summit of
this hill is Daerydium datum ; it is of regular pyramidal form, and grows from twenty to
thirty feet high ; its foliage is thick, and dimorphous like that of a Juniper. Podocarpus
chinensis also thrives well, as does Grevillca robusta, of which 1 saw some fine tall specimens,
planted but two and a-half years ago.
Sjwthodea campanulata, with large orange and scarlet
bell-shaped flowers, was in bloom, and I had the satisfaction of seeing on the trunk of a tree
that rare production, a fertile frond of the true Pla tycerium biformea curious kidney-shaped
formation several inches in diameter, but it has been occasionally seen much larger. From the
summit of the hill one can see across to Province Wellesley on the mainland, with Kedah and
Perak in the distance. The first named, an English possession, is a fertile stretch of land, chiefly
under Tapioca, Sugar-Cane and Cocoanut cultivation.
Some of the estates are very large,
employing two thousand coolies. In Perak much Coffee is successfully grown, but the climate is
unhealthy.
I met one man who recently lost one hundred coolies out of five hundred ; he
himself is ill, and has just been ordered home.
Turning from the top of the lrill to descend, we passed a little thatched house where
Mr. Curtis keeps a few plants for the Governor's use.
He has there some fine Phaius
grandijolius, collected in Perak, and close by is a row of Juniperus virginiana, growing freely.
The highest point in the island is only two miles from Government Hillit is two thousand

64

PENANG

AXD

SINGAPORE.

seven hundred and fifty feet high. Descending the hill on foot, for it is too steep for ponies,
the new Sanatorium is passed, a strong granite-built house for the use of Government
officers, and a view is caught of many bungalows dotted about the hill. A curious Myrtaceous
plant much resembling a Casuarina, Bmckia frutescens, grows near the summit ; it is as unlike a
Myrtacea as anything well can be. Tea Roses grow well, but hybrid perpetuals are more or
less failures. The vegetation on the hill generally is very rich, and great trees with tall straight
trunks are common. The most important Natural Order represented in the island, both as regards
commercial value and the number of individuals, is the Dipterocarpea? ; some of the trees
belonging to it are magnificent. Many Eugenias are also to be seen. A common Palm on the
hill, as well as in the tidal swamps along the coast, is Eugcissonia tristis; it is stemless, all its
straight Kentia-like leaves springing from the base. This Palm is of great economic value in
the island, its split leaf-stalks as well as its dried leaflets being extensively used for thatching.
Nipa fnUicans is also used for this purpose. Mimosa pudica is here, as in Ceylon, a most
tiresome weed, almost impossible to eradicate, and particularly abundant on Government Hill. The
most interesting of all to me was the thick undergrowth of Gleicheniasflagellaris, dichotoma,
and fongissimathe latter not so common as the two first-named, all growing with great luxuriance,
and forming magnificent fronds, those of fongissima being many feet in length.
In every
direction up the sides of the hills there is a thick carpet of these handsome plants.
I also
saw many specimens of Dipteris (Polgpodium) Horsfieldii, with its large round fronds, growing
in shade high up in the hills ; it is a most striking picture.
At an elevation of two thousand feet, Mr. Curtis has constructed on the side of a hill an
experimental garden for native and introduced fruits.
It was commenced in 1885, but
it has not yet had a sufficient trial to give many results.
It is known, however,
that English fruits will be of no valuea result that one can scarcely he surprised at.
Round this garden and alongside the road is a hedge of Bambusa nana, forming a very thick
and useful boundary mark, this with Pithecofobium dulce being the two finest hedge plants in
the island. Areca Palms (Areca Catechu) with their tall thin stems and small tufts of leaves,
are most common ; from time to time we saw a Chinaman cutting down its bunches of large
red seeds for chewing purposes ; a hooked blade at the end of a long Bamboo was the
instrument used.
Durians, Mangosteens, Cloves, Nutmegs and Cocoanuts are very abundant ;
of the two latter we saw large plantations. The Nutmeg is really very ornamental with its
large, thick, rich green foliage and regularly pyramidal head. A few Mangoes are to be seen,
but not the quantity met with in certain parts of India, and Bread-fruit is frequent, but is
not always the best kind, it being the well-known seedless variety of the Malaccas. Pine-apples
escaped from cultivation are common, often hanging over the path from the rock above.
In descending, we made our way through the Azer-etam Valley to the village of the
same name, from whence we took a " gharry " back to the gardens. A view of this valley,
enclosed on all sides by the hills, presents a pretty picture ; all one sees are acres of the wavy
heads of Cocoa-nuts, cultivated for commercial purposes by Chinese, whilst on one side up the
hill to the forest boundary are plantations of Spices, broken here and there by masses of
jungle intermixed with the tall stems of the Betel-nut (Areca Catechu) and other trees. This
forest boundary, under Mr. Curtis' charge, requires a little explanation.
It is a large portion of
the island on the summit of the hills, of which the Government has taken possession, and in
which they refuse to allow anything to be cut. Before this was done, enterprising planters,
chiefly Chinamen, were constantly cutting down jungle, always pushing higher and higher up the
hills, for their Spice groves, until there was danger of the rainfall of the island being affected.
Within what is known as the forest boundary, no one may now cut down a tree, and the
enforcing of this rule gives Mr. Curtis on the average one prosecution a week.
He has
occasionally to make tours through these woods, and has at certain points watchmen to inform

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

65

him of any too-enterprising planter.


Driving home from the foot of the hill, we
through groves of Cocoanuts as rich and as numerous as in Ceylon. The heat is very great
it is now the hottest season, but the coolest at night ; rain is much wanted for the
vegetation, though there is no danger of a dearth of water for the inhabitants, as the island
possesses a magnificent unfailing supply, doubtless owing to its hilly character.
The Public Gardens.These are fifty-five acres in extent, and about four and a-half miles
from Georgetown.
They are of horseshoe shape, quite surrounded by a range of hills
about five hundred feet elevation. All the ground is undulated ; I do not think there ian he
a dozen consecutive level square yards in the garden. On account of the natural situation
and the amount of water, the garden is extremely pretty, and when the newly-planted trees
have grown larger will be still further improved.
The place is thus far young, Mr. Curtis
not having been at work on it more than six years, tln? first of which was chiefly employed
in clearing jungle. A road extends completely round the garden sufficiently wide for driving,
and smaller paths wind in and out.
On one side is Mr. Curtis' bungalow, in a commanding
situation on a hill about two hundred and fifty feet elevation, overlooking the whole place.
There are three thatched houses dotted about, various glades, a large waterfall at one end, and
two streams of water running through the gardens.
Near the only entrance,
on the side of the main road,
K
is the largest of the plant
houses, covered with the split
leaf-stalks of a Palm. Here
are cultivated such plants as
would burn or could not other
wise stand the excessive heat
without protection. On either
side of the entrance are two
bushy plants of Ptychosperma
Mncarthuri each about ten feet
high, very handsome, as seen
here. Part of the entrance is
covered with Anemopayma racePenang. Tamil Coolies carrying water for plants in keroscne oil tins.
mosa. In the centre is a low
undulating rockery of irregular shape, whilst on each side are other rockeries extending
along the length of the houses.
In the centre bed are some fine plants, notably a
Cycas cireinalis twelve feet in diameter, each leaf being at least six feet long. Anthurium
regale is particularly fine, and Nepenthes phyllamphora, running up one of the pillars supporting
the roof, is noticeable. Alocasia Johnstonci, with its curious brown spiny petioles, grows nearly
ten feet high, and not far from it is the best plant of Anthurium Vcitchii I think I have yet
seen out of England ; it has now leaves two and a-half feet long.
But perhaps the largest
Aroid in the house is a magnificent Alocasia from Calcutta, the specific name of which is not
determined ; a fine rather dwarf-growing Philodendron gloriosum, nine feet through, overhangs
a Nepentlus ampullaria and N. Rtifflesiana growing luxuriantly on the side of a small tank.
On the right-hand side of the house are some fine Anthurium erystalUnum, foliage Begonias,
Anthurium x Ferricrensc in flower, Eucharis in flower, by the side of some strong plants of
Admntum peruvianum and Nephrolepis davallwiiles fureans.
At the end is a large clump of
Angiopteris eveeta, eight feet high and not less than ten feet through, as fine as I have
ever seen it.
Much of the rockery is covered with Selaginellas and other low- growing

6(i

PENANC.

AND

SINCAI'OltK.

plants, amongst which may be mentioned Acrotrema mstatinn, interesting as being one of the
few plants included in the Dilleniacea? that is not a tree.
On the left-hand side of the
house are Davallias, Aspidistra elatior, Curmeria pieturala, and Philodendron gloriosum.
Marantas
grow particularly well, and Hdiconia rosca is as strong and highly coloured as at Calcutta.
Cyrtodcica fulgida, C. chontalensis, Gymnostachyums and Fittonias as well as Fii-us repens help
to hide the rock, as they grow with great freedom and an; highly coloured. On a pillar near
the entrance, Finis villosa, with its clinging, overlapping leaves, is very pretty.
Caladiums,
Dracwna Goldicana and others also do well in this house.
On regaining the main road (which is eighteen feet wide), and proceeding for a little
distance, a nice grove of the Betel-nut Palm (Areca Catirhu) stands on the right, at the
foot of the hill. Though not so graceful as the Cocoanut, it has a tall slender whitish stem,
and, with its small tuft of stiff leaves, is of great heauty.
Near a fine Ficus Roxburghii, with
its immense cordate leaves such as I saw at Calcutta, is a good specimen of Livistona chinensis.
It does not grow so long and thin as with us in pots; here the foliage is closer, and the
habit of the plant symmetrical.
On the left of the road, not far from the entrance, is the
band-stand on .a low grass terrace, and around it are circular beds filled with red and white
Vincas, Zinnias, Coreopsis, and a pink-flowering plant, a species of Beloperone. The handsomest
of these beds is certainly that filled with Crossandra undulwfolia ; it is one blaze of bloom
the flowers are of a beautiful brick-red tint and are continuously produced for nine months
out of the twelve. Opposite the band-stand, right under the hill covered with jungle, which
bounds the garden, is a small thatched house, the roof Iieing made from leaves of the Nipa Palm.
Round the pillars supporting the roof are small circular rock-edged beds planted with Marantasi
Justicia carnea flowering well, Davallia Duffii, Tradescantia discolor and other small-growing
plants of a like kind.
Behind this house for a few yards up the hill the jungle has been
cleared and planted with Heliconia aurca, Anthuriums, Philodendrons and other Aroids. They are
still young, but are growing with great luxuriance, the first-named being here, as in every other
part of the garden, very highly coloured.
Cut into the grass, on the right-hand side of the
road near this spot, is a fine bed of Gardenias ; whilst on the left, over a broad stretch of
undulating lawn, the garden can be seen stretching away to its opposite boundary.
Its
frequent undulations, numerous and varied single specimens of plants, the stream running
through the centre, the great waterfall thundering at one end, and the whole enclosed by hills
covered by vegetation as thick and luxuriant as can anywhere be found, is a scene that well
repays one for lingering a moment and looking upon from this point.
In a group of recently planted Palms 1 noticed Livistona Adansonii, with its glaucous
twisted foliage, near a tall Cucos plumosus, and a thick specimen of Ptychosperma Mamrihun
eighteen feet high, with many offshoots.
An Areea-like Palm (Arehontophoenix Alexandra) is
also very pretty ; whilst another, with stiff Kentia-like leaves, each one of which is at a
sharp angle with the main stem, is not only pretty, but of economic value, as its stem, when
split, being as hard as whalebone, is found very useful for fences and other structures; its
name is Oneosperma Jilamentosum.
Against the side of a hill, somewhat rocky and
precipitous, Mr. Curtis has planted Philodendrons and Pathos aurca, the latter having magnificent
highly-coloured leaves ; the top is clothed with a natural undergrowth of Gleichenias.
A large
Cymbidium on the stem of an Alst&nia scholaris attracts the attention, and the tree itself
is deserving of mention from the fact that from its stems the natives obtain a sticky
juice for snaring birds.
The road leading to Mr. Curtis' bungalow is on this side of the
garden, but before reaching it I noted one or two other plants.
Near a Maltese
cross-shaped bed of Crossandra and a capital bed of blue Plumbago in full bloom, is a
specimen of a common jungle tree with pendulous catkin-like flowers, not unlike a Willow
(Crypteronia pubescens), and near it is a piece of the true yellow-stemmed Bamboo. Another

T1K r.X YfMK


PUBLiC KlIUiASY

AS?.';;, LL'XX AND


mm::s i ,x r nations
L

CARYOTA URENS (KITUL)

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

67

striking plant, belonging to the Araliaceae, is Brassaia aetinophora, lately received from Sydney ;
its foliage is much like an Aralia, but the leaflets, usually ten in number and often a foot
long, are cut to the base of the leaf. The Durian (Durio zibethinus), known for its powerfullyscented fruit, is represented near here, and on the bank of the stream, under shade, are some
superb massive bushes of Hclwonia aurca.
I also noticed two or three Alsophilas with straight
stems and even heads.
Under the shade of Caryota urens some Crinum asiaticum collected
in the island were doing well. The road to the bungalow here winds tortuously up the small
bill amongst the thickest jungle which Mr. Curtis has not yet been able to clear away.
It
is beautifully shaded amidst the wild and natural vegetation.
Opposite the road is the nursery, enclosed by a hedge of Hibiscus varieties. Beyond this,
and before reaching the waterfall, the ground undulates considerably, and many single specimens
as well as a few clumps of various species have been planted, but nothing has yet attained
any great size. Amongst the single specimens Bauhinia purpurca was in flower, as well
as the magnificent Spathodea campanulata, the flower of which is about the size of that
of a Vegetable Marrow, orange and scarlet in colour.
In Ceylon I saw trees covered
with blossoma most beautiful sight.
Araucaria Cookci forms regular specimens ; and
Panax, Russellia floribwtula, Sericographis GhicsbreghtiaTm and Acalypha torta are used in
some of the beds.
Opposite a young group of Palms on the top of a high knoll are
some Spathodeas, Plunuria acuminata, a grove of the fine Cassia fistulosa, and an old friend,
Mimusops Elengi, with its thick, rich glossy foliage.
The Logwood (Hwmatoxylon campechianum)
also grows freely.
The whole park is under grass, coarse but good, especially when it is taken into
consideration that rain had not fallen for several weeks, and watering by hand had not yet
been commenced. Where possible, Doab grass has been laid down ; but as this is diUicult to
get, it is only used in the parts of the garden most in view. Near a small bridge
approaching the waterfall is a fine specimen of the wild Cinnamon twenty-five feet high,
clothed to the ground with rich glossy foliage.
On a hillock to the right are some Wormia
Burbidgci four feet high and not less than five feet through, overhung by the long
pendulous shoots of Bougainvilleas.
A tree much planted in the garden is Calophyllum
Inophyllum ; its leaf, like that of Ficus elastica, is thick and glossy, and one was covered with
pretty heads of powerfully scented white flowers with rich golden yellow stamens ; a valuable
oil is pressed from the seeds, and the timber is excellent.
The habit is symmetrical, and
a tree in flower is a pleasing sight.
A small collection of economic plants at the
end of the garden includes Camphor, Nam-Nam (a native fruit), Cola Nut (like Cocoa, from
Kew), Chinese Leechees, Jack- and Bread-fruits.
This has been made too recently for any
results, but in time the experience gained in this garden will doubtless prove useful to the
planters in the island. Opposite, near a Poineiaim regia and young Grevillea robusta, are
different kinds of Rubber plants and some Liberian Coffee ; among the Rubber plants is
Landolphia Kirkii, a climber from Africa.
The waterfall, as I have said, is the main water-supply of Georgetown ; pipes run from
the new reservoir at its base through the garden.
It is upwards of five hundred feet high,
as it comes from the top of the hills surrounding the gardens, but the fall of water is
broken several times in its descentit is the great sight of the island.
Beyond the waterfall
the hill rises abruptly, and is of a rocky nature, upon which Aroids have been planted that
will doubtless cover it in time. Near a small pond on the right and on both its banks arc
Cacti and other Mexican plants, of which Mr. Curtis has determined to make a feature,
and to devote this spot to that object. With this idea he brought many of this class of
plants out from Kew with him, but as yet they are too small to plant out. Beyond this point
is the finest plant in the garden, a magnificent Grammatophyllum speciosum on a rising mound,

G8

I'ENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

isolated from other plants, and surrounded by a shrubbery. We carefully measured it its
circumference is forty-two and a-half feet, its shoots are from six to seven feet long, its
seed-pods seven and a-half inches long including their foot-stalks, and without them five inches
long and two and a-half inches in diameter ; one of last year's racemes, of which there were
thirty, is seven and a-ipiarter feet long.
The plant is in fine condition, nearly all the shoots
being clothed with foliage of a good colour. Beyond this plant the ground is much undulated
rising on the right, falling on the left. Near a very fair bed of Cockscombs and a very
good one of Balsams is a specimen of the Fishing-rod Bamboo from Siam a tall
strong-growing graceful variety. I was also surprised to see a bed of the dwarf yellow-flowering
Honeysuckle, blooming splendidly ; it looked to me much like Lonicera japonica. In Saraca
iiulica, with its immense heads of Ixora-like flowers, I recognized an old fiiend ; a nice
specimen is opposite the small Lily-pond, where Victoria regia and other Water-Lilies are to be
seen. Near here is a mass of the natural jungleleft when the garden was first laid out ;
it was to be cleared away, or at least cut through in a few days. It is thick, almost
impenetrable, and wonderfully rich and varied ; Cocoanuts and Areca Catechu soar above the
other trees, but the lower vegetation is one mass of tangled foliage. There is a good specimen
of Erythrina Crista-galli in the garden, as well as a very fine specimen of the Nutmeg
(Myriitica fragrans), quite an ornamental tree twenty feet high, and clothed from the base
with foliage of a rich glossy green.
The office, including the rich herbarium of the Penang flora, collected by Mr. Curtis,
is on this road, near the entrance ; it is a neat, low-built structure, enclosed by a thick
hedge of Panax elegantissima about four feet high, the ends of the shoots being bright yellow.
Opposite this is a very handsome low-growing PalmCyrtostachys Renda.
It is somewhat
stiffer, but in possessing many young offshoots, resembles Areca lutescens; its chief beauty
unquestionably lies in its brilliant red stems, petioles, and leaf midribs. I am told it is very
fine in Java. One of the best houses, octagonal in shape, is in the centre of the garden ;
its roof is made of the split leaf-stalks of a Palm, and it has open sides.
Many Orchids in
pots are here in flower.
Calanthe veratrifolia, Dendrobium Dcarci (very good), a nice variety
of Cattleya Gaskelliana, Phalamopsis amabilis, a splendid specimen of Ccdogyne asperata, Arundina
bambuscefolia, Vanda intignis, Calanthe vestita lutca and C. Regnieriana were all in flower, side
by side with Achimenes, Ferns, Aroids, and small Palms.
Before leaving the garden, the nursery, as clean and neat as the other parts,
deserves a few words.
Here are four long Palm-stem roofed houses, in the first of which
are all the latest varieties of Cannas growing well in pots. Young Draca?nas and Palms for
sale and planting out are also on one of the low side beds. Cattleyas and La-lias are good,
better than I have seen them in the East, and Leptotes and Dendrobiums suspended from the
roof are doing well. The opposite side is filled with small-foliage Begonias, and the centre
bed with young Palms in pots, wonderfully healthy and neat.
The house parallel to
this is the Orchid house. I was rather surprised at the quality of its contents, but Mr. Curtis
considers that before he left for his recent trip home the plants looked still better.
Pilumna
fragrans, Lycaste Skinneri, Angraxum sesquipedale, and Zygopetalum Mackayi looked well, and
Cypripediums are also largely represented.
C. insigne, C. nivcum (from Kedah, on the mainland
opposite Penang), C. Godefroyce, C. Loivii, C. Lawrenecanum, C. coneolor and C. Rothschildianum
are equally good.
I also saw nice plants of Ccdogyne Dayatut and some still larger ones
of C. asperata.
Dendrobiumsall kinds, particularly the moschatum varieties and Dalhousicanum
do as well as possible, and other East Indian Orchids thrive.
The fernery is very good,
and many of the specimens of great size. Amongst the largest and best grown are Adiantum
trapeziforme, Farfeynw, tern-rum, Secmanni, Bausci, and Fergusonii.
In another house was a
row of Achimenes and Gesneras in pots, both well flowered.

Tirrr new york


pitlio i;ir.LtAHY

A.v:s:;
TlLitt.:'

' : . -.I>
r'.''n*i- N8

RAVE N ALA MAD A OAS C AR I F. N S I S

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

<if)

There was no object in staying longer, unless I made an excursion to the mainland ; but
after talking the matter over, it was agreed that Java would prove more interesting and
probably more useful from a learner's point of view.
I therefore decided to go on to that
island, after first spending a few days at Singapore.

SINGAPORE.
February, 1892.The Botanic Gardens at Singapore, presided over by Mr. H. N. Ridley, the
head of the Botanic and Forest Departments of the Straits Settlements, are situated a little
over three miles out of the town, and are very pretty and well kept. The roads are broad
all covered with red earthhard and smooth, and the grass, on which are planted the various
clumps and single specimens, is remarkably fresh and green (doubtless owing to a continuous
rainfall), though a little coarse.
All the ground is gently undulating, so that from scarcely
any point can much of the gardens be seen at one time. The
gardens, sixty-six acres in extent, are entirely surrounded by public
roads. The road from the town to the gardens, leading past the
Government House, is very prettyfirst passing between clipped hedges
of a Bambusa known here as nana (which, however, when unclipped
reaches a height of from ten to twelve feet), then past a large
grove of fine Mangosteens, and occasionally past rows of Chinese shops
those traders of the East apparently in the majority everywhereand
often by some fine specimens of Ravenala madagascaricnsis (Sec
plate v.), Poineiana regia, and SjxUhodca campanulata, the last two now
bearing their gorgeously-coloured flowers.
On entering the garden, one is at once struck with the general
cleanliness and neatness of the place, the broad smooth road, twenty
feet wide, having on one side a grass-covered slope dotted with many
single specimens, and on the other some fine groups of Palms ; whilst
both sides are very effectively lined with oblong and small circular
beds filled with dwarf flowering plants.
These beds are tastefully
filled with Tagetes, Coleus, Alternanthera, the pretty dwarf yellowflowering Asystasia lutca, and a taller blue-flowering Acanthada
Singapore. Avenue of Kentia
species of Barleria one sheet of clear blue medium-sized blossoms. I also
Mamrthuri flowering and
noticed Isotoma longifolia with its numerous long white tabular
flowers, amongst others. Many of the small circular beds have centre
plants such as a variegated Ananas, or a young Cabbage Palm (Orcodoxa regia).
On the
slope to the right of the road, on a thick rich hwn composed chiefly of a broadleaved Paspalum with a woolly kind of flower, and Paspalum conjugatum with a curious
dichotomously-branched spike, are many single specimens, including some Conifers, the most
noticeable being two fine specimens of Arauca>-m Bidwillii and Cunninghamii, the latter a
bushy regular specimen thirty feet high; Daerydium datum, distinguishable by its close
small thick foliage, appearing in the distance like a solid dark green pyramid. Podwarpus
and Biota are also represented.
Opposite this bank and before reaching the pond are some
fine gronps of the Sago Palm, Metroxylon lave. The bases of these clumps are impenetrable
masses of various-sized offshoots, and in each clump several main stems have gone ahead and
tower up to nearly seventy feet. Their large spreading heads are not unlike those of a Cocoanut
Palm, but lack the peculiar pale green of that species, and are not so graceful or wavy, but

70

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

nevertheless the leaves, often twenty feet long (in the young vigorous offshoots even longer),
form a most impressive sight. One of these Sago Palms was in flower, a many-branched head
bearing several hundred seeds, each as large as a Greengage plum. Near these groups, against
the boundary hedge, is a fine African Oil Palm (Ebvis y u iucarns) with a head twenty-seven
feet in diameter, on a trunk of about the same height, clothed the whole of its length
from the base upwards with the lower portions of the dead petioles of former leaves. The
leaves have been cut oft', but the bases of the leaf-stalks remaining are evidently persistent
for a considerable time.
Between these groups of Sago Palms the Ravenalas are very fine
objects with their half-circular immense heads of flat leaves. In front of these large groups and
close to the row of flower-beds are some single specimens, including a magnificent bush of
the Gum Copal tree (Hymencea verrucosa), a Broumca coecinca with its long, often somewhat
bare, drooping shoots, studded with numerous heads of brilliant red flowers ; and a Saraca
indica, a native of Java, with heads of flower produced on the old wood, not unlike an Ixora
in shape as well as in colour, which varies from pale yellow to brick-red some of the heads
as much as eight inches across.
These heads of flowers are very numerous, and produced as
they are on the old wood on very short stalks, look as though they have been " stuck on "
without any choice as to position and without any definite object.
In the pond now reached, grows Nelumbium, the pretty, long-stalked peltate leaves being
thick on and above the water's surface. The lake is large and long,
and contracts at one end ; on its right bank near the road are some
single specimens, but for the main part it is open, the view over its
entire surface, with the exception of a small island in the centre,
being almost unbroken.
Opposite an Amherstia bearing its brilliantly
coloured drooping racemes, is a young Spathodm campanulata, its shoots
terminating in its equally gorgeously painted large-lobed campanulate
blossoms, and near a tall Daerydium specics about forty feet high
(a native of Malaya) is a pretty little Verschaffeltia splendida ; whilst
opposite, on the sloping bank, are various specimens of Cupressus
Singapore.Jinricksha and
7 .
n .,
,
,
r.
-.r
, ,fChinesc Coolic
funebris. luirther up the pond are a couple of nne Mangoes and Mtmusops
Elengi (the highly-scented and, in India, sacred flowers of which I
have so often mentioned) ; in its branches are two fine Aspleuium Nidus with splendid
foliage of the richest pale green, the individual fronds being often five feet long. Beyond
these is a small-leaved Fig tree (Ficus Benjamina) with scarcely any main stem, but with
numerous thick branches (in their turn again much branched) springing in every direction from
almost the base of the tree, the entire tree resembling a huge round even ball when seen from a
distance.
To its branches many Orchids Phalamopsis, Coelogyne, Aerides, etc. have been
attached ; the second named seem to do best. The leaf of this Ficus is small scarcely two
and a-half inches long, but it has the unmistakable whitish, smooth bark of the genus. A
few feet from its base is an Areca-nut (Areca Catechu), its tall slender stem soaring like an
arrow, straight up through the twisted, irregularly branched Fig, and its small head rising above
the topmost leaves of the Fig; it cannot he less than one hundred feet high. Near this Fig
are two fruit treesone Picrardia dulois, a native of Malaya, with strings of fruit somewhat
like a Grape, sub-acid in flavour, and a favourite with some Europeans ; the other, a
specimen of the Sentel (Sandoricum indicum), is not much in request.
Passing through two groupsone a fine group of Mangosteens (in themselves, apart from
their splendid fruit, very handsome trees) with their large opposite leaves eight to ten inches
long, varying in colour according to age from the palest to the darkest green, and so thick
and glossy as to resemble on a very large scale a fine Camellia at home ; and the other a
mixed one composed of Broumca grandiceps, a Hibiscus with large purplish red flowers,

PENANR

AND

8INOAPORK

7!

many Crotons, and a large Spathodea rampamdata, the vermilion and orange Bowers of which
are scattered all over the roadwaytwo very interesting plants are seen one on each side
of the road, almost opposite each other. One is a large tree of the deciduous Pteroearpus
indicus, in the branches of which is an immense mass of Renanthrra araehnites, its hundreds of
dead roots hanging down and clinging to all the branches within reach, truly a magnificent
plant, growing very freely. Opposite to this is a thick bush of Brownca grandiceps in flower
(Sec plate iii.), thirty-three feet in diameter. It is curious how much of its foliage is hidden
where no light can possibly reach it, and that many of its gorgeous flowers are in a similar
position. This is, 1 think, the finest individual bush of this plant I have yet seen.
Pausing
for a moment, and looking hack to the rear of the Mangosteen clump before referred to, a view
is caught of some splendid Ravenalas near some tall Areeas, the effect of which is very fine.
Proceeding onward, some small heds helow the hand-stand, and a specimen of the famous
Champae (Michelia Champaca) opposite a large Calophyllum Iuophyllum which I mentioned as being
so fine at Penang, are passed. The beds are filled with various plants, amongst which I noticed
MosWmil erythrophylln with broad large deep crimson bracts two and a-half inches wide,
very hairy in a young state. The five-petalled
flowers are of a beautiful creamy yellow, with
a centre of short rich crimson hairs. In other
beds are Grammatophyllum speciosum, Vanda
Hooikeri, and Arachnanthe Loivii, all doing
well ; whilst in a sunk terrace below are
some magnificent beds of Crotons six to eight
feet high, of the richest crimson and yellow,
but unfortunately rather bare beneath.
A
dead flower-stalk on a Stauropsis lissochiloides
near here shows the scars of more than thirty
flowers. The space around the band-stand on
a grass terrace, surrounded by a road thirty
feet broad, is very prettily and effectively
planted, and beyond it on another raised
terrace are numerous oblong and circular beds
planted with Hibiscus, LoniceraS flowering
Singapore.Funeral of a wcalthy Chinaman, the banners
freely, Alternantheras, Dracsenas, Crotons, often
testifying to the virtues of the deecascd.
with a centre-piece such as Ravenala or
Caryota.
Pairs of Palms at the head of the steps leading to the band-stand render the
general effect very pretty.
Hearing away in the direction of the Superintendent's house, and passing a fine pair
of Oreodoxa regva and a Stevensonia grandifolia thirty feet high with a thick head, each
leaf overlapping the other, a young avenue of Sabal Palmetto, a native of the Southern United
States, North America, is reached.
The plants are not much more than twelve feet high,
but the broad grey palmate leaves borne on thick stiff stalks springing direct from the
base, yield a particularly pleasing effect.
From this point to the Palmetum, situated
on the slope immediately beneath the Superintendent's house, is a long avenue of the
graceful and delicate-looking Javanese Palm, Rlwpaloblaste hexandra, whilst another of
Arenga saecharifera leads back to the main public road.
This last-named avenue is
somewhat spoiled by the trees on one side being twice as high and twice as large as
those on the other, though both sides were planted at the same time, but from some
unexplained canst; have failed to thrive equally well.
The long dark leaves of the Aren,ras
(which I have so often mentioned) are very fine ; at their base they are enveloped

72

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

in stiff strong brown spiny hairs.


Behind this Arenga avenue are long beds of Bromeliacese
containing a representative collection of this highly interesting family.
The Palmetum is still
youngonly established about six years, consequently the majority of the specimens are small ;
among the number are several species of Areca, Calamus, Oreodoxa, Cyrtostachys, Ptychosperma
(Kentia) Macarthuri, Verschaffeltia splendida, and many others, amongst which I must not forget
to name a very fine plant of Corypha Gebanga, which I do not remember to have seen since
leaving Calcutta.
At the end of the Palmetum is the nursery with many young Palms in pots, and seed beds
of others, including one of the Kentia Macarthuri, as thick as Cress ; here also are large
quantities of Crotons, Coleus, Alternanthera, etc., for refilling the numerous beds scattered all
over the garden. In this nursery, alongside a narrow ditch, the Arundinas luxuriate and flower
freely; there are two species here A. densa, a fine large one, not unlike in colour and size
Lcrlia autumnalis, and A. chineiisis, maroon and white, and much smaller in size, but still
pretty and effective.
Crossing over from the nursery to that part of the garden still
under jungle, a magnificent bank of Glewhrnia dulwtoma and G. flagellaru comes into
view, growing, as is demonstrated by the forest of young uncurled fronds, with extraordinary
vigour. In one part this splendid bank, in my opinion one of the finest sights in the garden,
stretches in an unbroken line along the road, and but a few feet above it for nearly one
hundred yards, reaches over undulating ground for
several yards back to the jungle line.
Passing
towards the band-stand, lined on one side by beds
in which are fine bushes of flowering Sanchezias,
Coleus, Honeysuckles, Draca?nas, large clumps of Panax,
and a fine blue Solanum, as well as Acalyphas, Tagetes,
and smaller front row plants, a large open space
from which several roads diverge is reached. Opposite
this are two tall trees with some fine Platycerium
biforme hanging from their branches, their long sea
weed-like bunches of leaves, from four to five feet
long, waving backward and forward in the wind.
Snujajmrc. Malay Dwelhmjs in the V tllagc oj Scranygtmg.
Here are also some Caryota Cumingii, from the
Philippine Islands, one hearing twelve spikes of flowers and seeds, some ripe, some unripe, in
addition to a spike in bud, and three emerging from the stem, all of different sizes. The long,
thick, pendent strings of seeds or flower buds are objects to be seen only in tropical lands.
On this side of the band-stand are also some plants worth noting. Near a thick bushy
Rhapis flabelliformis, twelve feet through and quite as high (a fine specimen), is a Fayraa
zeylanica in bloom; its drooping flowers with reflexed segment are almost as large as those of
Lilium Harrisii, and also highly and sweetly scented ; its large obovate foliage too is wonderfully
glossy and handsome. Another fine tree is Melanochyla auriculata, with stiff sessile leaves eighteen
to twenty-one inches long, somewhat like those of Costaiwa sativa in shape. Returning towards
the fernery, a delightfully cool and pretty nook, its principal feature being the great Angiopteris
the Orchid house is reached.
On stages are many in pots, the Calanthes, especially C.
veratrifolia, now freely flowering, being amongst the best.
East Indian Orchids generally are
weak, but Coelogynes are good.
Cypripediums are well represented, C. barbatum, C. Stonci and
C. Rothschildianum being among the best. There are also many Dendrobiums, Bulbophyllums and
other genera, but it is clear Mr. Ridley's inclination leads him to the kinds that are doubtless
to him more interesting from a botanist's standpoint.
The plant house, but a few yards from the Orchid house, is an immense oblong enclosure,
shaded in some parts by wooden bars, and in others not shaded at all.
In the centre is a

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

73

round stage, from which radiate six broad cemented paths six feet wide. Another path of
equal width makes a circuit of the whole house.
In the central area is a miscellaneous
collection of plantsCrotons, Hibiscus, Aroids, Dracaenas, Ananas, Panax, and small Caryotas,
whilst in a small glass bowl a fine plant of Ouvirandra fenestralis is producing two of its
dichotomously-branched flower spikes.
The two portions of the house not shaded from the
sun by roofing are those at each end devoted to Crotons, some of which are highly-coloured
and very beautiful specimens.
The Aroids are also good, including many kinds of Alocasias,
Anthuriums, etc., and also some fine plants of Marantas in low tubs ; foliage Begonias, grown
in the same way, are represented by a large and varied collection, as are Caladiums in pots,
Dracamas, and Bromeliads.
At one end on a four-feet stage are flowering plants in pots,
amongst which are Tagetes, Datura, Impatiens, Eucharis, Torenia asiatica, Dahlias growing like
weeds, Phlox subulata, Begonias and Gaillardias.
The bank of Ferns at the further side
of the house is very fine, more particularly the huge Angiopteris eveeta. There are also some
tubs of Nephrolepis, Davallias, Aspleniums, and Adiantums, all of a fresh and lively green.
Passing from this house to where the annual Singapore flower shows are held, in the
direction of the office, two avenues attract attention, one leading towards the band-stand,
and the other to the aviary ; the first consists of Cyrtostachys Renda, and although the
individuals were all planted at the same
time they now vary in height from three
. feet to twenty feet, a curious phenomenon,
for which there is no apparent cause. The
lovely long red leaf sheaths of this Palm I
have before mentioned.
The other avenue
is of Kentia Macarthuri, nearly all bearing
seeddrooping racemes of small red berries
the size of a small cherry.
On either side
of this avenue are many single specimens
of Palms, all carefully and distinctly labelled.
Amongst these is a Licuala paludosa, a thick
impenetrable mass, much like a Khapis ;
Hyophorbe Verschaffdtii, a native of the Mauritius, in flower; Oiumperma lwrrida (the Nibong),
its thick stems clothed with long black spines, and with a graceful spreading head ; Areca
lutesceus is represented by a splendid mass fifteen feet high and as much through, whilst a
specimen of Ebeis guimxnsis, with a stem a yard in diameter, has leaves from twelve to
fourteen feet long forming a thick round even head ; Caryotas are well represented, as
is the remarkable Martinezm caryotcefolia, and near the office is Phetocomia chnyata, a curious
plant, its snake-like stem armed with rings of long thin spines with which it clings for
support, The specimen in question is growing horizontally, and for several yards is supported
on Bamboo uprights.
The herbarium, in the same building as the library and office, contains a large collection
of Malay plants, many of which Mr. Ridley is having painted by a clever Cingalese artist, a
relative of the man who has done such good work for Dr. Trimen in Ceylon.
I saw many
of his drawings, and was surprised at the amount of detail in his work, and the dexterity with
which he handles his brush. The aviary and menagerie contain many interesting specimens.
The principal approach is lined on each side by rows of a graceful Guatemala Palm
(Synec/mnthus jibrosus), some of the undeveloped young leaves of which stand straight up in the
air like a needle, whilst others partially droop; the leaf-sheath encircling the stem is often
three feet long. Opposite this avenue is a grand bush of Wormia suffrutwosa fifteen yards
in diameter and almost as high, a truly immense piece ; its noble foliage, relieved by pretty
K

74

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

yellow flowers and buds, renders it very effective.


From this point it is not far from the
gate, and if the tour so imperfectly described has been made, a fairly good general view of
the garden may be said to have been obtained.

The experimental grounds, commenced in 1884, are at a little distance beyond the botanic
garden proper. To reach it, one passes through an avenue of Eugenia deusiflora, considered
the best avenue tree for the island of Singapore, and certainly its large thick, leathery foliage
affords an efficient shade. Passing along this, the jungle is on the right, in which Bromeliads
grow and flower, and Nepenthes Rafflemana produces pitchers freely.
In this experimental
and economic garden are all kinds of plants yielding dyes, oils, spices, resins, fibres, as well
as many medicinal plants, etc., carefully labelled and arranged as to their particular economic value.
Also noticeable is a collection of Oaks, of which six or seven are indigenous to the island;
their acorns are very large and handsome.

J OHO UE

I HAD the
and on my
the Strait,
for Johore,

AND

BUKAH

TIM AH.

honour of calling with a friend on the Sultan of


expressing a wish to go to Johore, he said that
and his son would receive me. The drive to
some fifteen miles distant across the island, over

Johore, who received us kindly,


his boat should fetch me across
Kangi, the place of embarkation
a perfect road and through the

PENANG

AND

SINGAPORE.

75

most lovely scenery, is a most enjoyable trip.


The Strait is about three-quarters of a mile
broad, but seven sturdy Malays soon placed me on the opposite bank, where I learned, with
regret, the Sultan's son was ill. However, I saw Mr. Kerr, the secretary of the club, who
kindly showed me the very little there is to be seen in Johore. The Chinese are there in
force, and here I saw for the first time their gambling-tables, not allowed in British possessions.
The system of gambling is very simple, and dependent on the way in which a square of pith
or wood, painted red and white, turns when twisted in a brass receptacle.
On my return 1 ascended the highest peak in the island, named Bukah Timah, with Mr.
Fox, of the Singapore Botanic Gardens.
It is only a few hundred feet high. The road to
its base is lined by the magnificent avenue of Poiuciana regia (now, unfortunately, fast
decaying, and being replaced by Eugenia densiflora), which so struck Lady Brassey, and
which she mentions in her Voyage of the Sunbcam.
We also saw some fine Mangosteen,
Coffee, and Pepper plantations.
From the summit of this mountain a charming view of the
entire island, with the many small ones off its shores, is obtaineda view that well repays
the time devoted to the ascent.
On descending, we left the road and struck into the virgin jungle ; I never came out of
anything in such a mess, or saw anything so wild and impressive of its kind. We often
passed, always descending the slope of the hill, beneath or above great fallen trunks of giant
Dipteroearpea.', some so rotten, decayed, or eaten by ants, that by the slightest of efforts one
could poke a cane through a trunk several feet in diameter. Rattans occurred in every direction,
and it was impossible even to guess where they ended, and often where they commenced.
On the fallen rotten trunks were many Sonerilas, beneath the granite boulders small filmy
Ferns, and at the base of the hill many specimens of Angiopteris eveeta. We also saw amongst
many Aroids the pretty Alocasia siugajmrnsis.
This hill is the only place in the island
where granite is found, its huge boulders, slippery with mosses, assuming the most fantastic
shapes; beneath these boulders is the great hunting ground for rare and out-of-the-way
plants.
Tigers, living on the wild pig, are often found in tlns jungle, and we passed
more than one of the pits formerly used for their capture.
On the morning of the day on which this letter was posted (February 10th) I went to see
a Mangrove swamp, at the other side of the island, but in another direction from the garden.
In Singapore town, with the exception of the large Chinese quarters, there is not much to see.
The Chinese are in great force, and I should imagine more numerous than any other of the
many nationalities represented in it; some of them are fine strong fellows, but their
domestic economy is not to be imitated.

PART

V.

JAVA.

PART

V.

JAVA.

BATAVIA.
February, 1892.Excellent services of Dutch and French steamers connect Java with Singapore,
and on one of the former I secured a lierth, and for the first time sailed south of the
Equator, arriving at Batavia on January 29th, and leaving it again by the same vessel on
February 6th, in the meantime having spent the most interesting eight days I remember since
leaving home.
The island is very beautiful, and most interesting.
One is struck even
on the first day with the difference hetween the Dutch and the English in their colonies.
What would be most infra dig. in India is commonly done in Java: as one instance, ladies
dress partly in native costume in the early morning hours.

BUITENZORG.
Ox January 30th, 1892, I went up to Buitenzorg, a journey lasting about two hours. Buitenzorg
is nine hundred feet alwve sea-level, and is much resorted to by the people of Batavia,
some even residing there, and going to and fro every day for business pirrposes. The hills
are not high, but prettily situated ; not forming a continuous range more or less of the
same elevation as in Ceylon, but rather low ranges in separate groups.
Tea is cultivated extensively, and the quantity of Rice grown is extraordinary ; on
splendidly irrigated ground, there are miles and miles of it, not only as far as Buitenzorg,
but even up to Garvet.
The Javanese get three crops in two years always on the same
laud. The Cingalese get more, but it is considered here that three crops do not impoverish the
land as the greater quantity raised in Ceylon may do. In Java I was informed twenty-three kinds
of Rice are cultivated, one it is said with black seeds. When young the varieties differ a little
in the leaf, and I first thought I saw a different grain, but a German I met with, who has
been twenty-five years in the island, tells me Oryza sativa only is cultivated. The Rice is sown
in beds under water, and comes up very thick.
In six weeks from the time of sowing it
is pulled up by hand, and pricked out in the large fields about six inches apart, and
indeed, the labour of hand-planting, or, rather, sticking the root downwards in the mud,
for it is nothing else, speaks well for the industry of the Javanese. Bread- and Jack-fruits
are fairly common ; Cocoanut and Areca Palms are very abundant, and Musas and Bamboos
most plentiful.
The uses to which the stems of the last named are put are innumerable.
Houses and fences are made of it ; it serves as spouts for water-cans, to hold drinking

80

JAVA.

water, and a smaller stem as a tumbler to drink out of ; bridges are constructed with
it, from the supports to the floors ; it is used for hand-carts, and is eaten in curry ; the
natives fish with it, and put it to many other uses too numerous to mention. The vegetation
along the railway line is rich. Lantana grows as a thick hedge, as freely as in Ceylon, but
the Palms are nothing like so luxuriant, nor do I think is the general vegetation.
We passed over a good many waterfalls, sometimes hundreds of feet below us, and now
rather full, as it is the rainy season, and yet the thermometer ranges from 80 to 86 daily,
rendering the atmosphere very oppressive. The early morning and the evening, only for about
an hour in each case, are the only pleasant times.
Coffee and salt are Government
monopolies. This appeared to me strange, but it is explained by the fact that the Government
acquires all the rich virgin land, and as it does not pay to plant the former on poor soil,
a very considerable revenue is acquired in this way. A good deal of Tea is planted, though
I saw but two large plantations, the owner of one of which told me that during a drought
last year, which lasted seven months without a drop of rain, he lost a million plants. John
Chinaman is represented in Java, but not to such an extent as at Penang and Singapore, as
the Dutch do not encourage the immigration of Chinese ; perhaps they are wise in this, for it
is certain that in some things they have ousted the English in Penang, the chief cause
probably being that they are content with smaller profits, and more particularly is this the
case in the cultivation of spices.
Botanic Garden.The Botanic Department in Java, under the direction of Dr. Treub, has
three establishments a mountain garden fifty acres in extent ; an agricultural garden about
two and a-half miles out of Buitenzorg, two hundred acres in
extent; and the scientific garden at Buitenzorg ninety acres
in extent. The last is severely scientific and very thorough.
It is laid out in plots on undulating ground on the banks
of a small river ; the plots are irregular in shape and
size, and divided by narrow paths of small round stones,
which, owing to the heavy rains, are particularly suited
for the purpose.
These stones are stuck into the earth
on end, and though they answer the wished-for purpose, are
not always pleasant to walk upon. In the corner of each of
these plots, and facing the paths, are wooden posts about four
feet high, painted white.
On these iii plain black letters
are the names of the Natural Order or Orders represented in
A Javanesc Fishermanthat particular quarter. Of each genus, each species is represented by two specimens, one
of which has a good large white label with its name clearly painted thereon in black,
whilst both have leaden labels nailed to their trunks, should the wooden one be
lost. On the leaden label is a number corresponding to a numbered catalogue. The garden
has existed seventy-five years, and was arranged in this manner about fifty years ago ; thus
nearly every specimen is a tree, and as one turns from plot to plot, and from Order to
Order, in many instances one looks through a small forest of trunks.
If a specimen of
foliage is required for comparison, a man has to climb the tree to get it.
The house of the Governor-General of Java is in the garden, and there are some pretty
views around it ; in front is a large pond with two arms, one filled with Vietoria regia in
flower, with many dozen fine leaves, some developing, some in their prime, and some decaying
all touching each other, as is shown in pictures of it from South America.
1 have never seen it
so fine as on this pond. The other arm is filled with the white Nelumbium, flowering freely,
its large flowers, pointed buds and flat-headed seed receptacles standing on a stalk sometimes

JAVA.

81

three feet above the water ; its foliage is very thick and forms a splendid mass. In the
centre of this pond is an island with bushes of Durante, Plumicri, their long bunches of golden
yellow seeds hanging thick to the water's edgea lovely sight ; as well as some fine
Acalyphas and tall Cyrtostachys Reuda with its pretty scarlet leaf-sheaths.
From the Governor's house to the entrance extends a fine avenue of Canarium commune,
forming a lovely tunnel of foliage eighty feet high. The stems of these Canariums are covered
with creepers in the wildest profusion, some portions being quite hidden. Pathos aurea,
with a stem sometimes two and a-half inches in diameter, clings with extraordinary
tenacity, ascending and encircling the trunk in a corkscrew-fashion, its fine highly coloured
leaves hanging down on all sides ; Philodendrons and Anthuriums grow with equal freedom,
their rich glossy foliage producing a fine effect. Hoyas are creeping over some of the trees, but
were not in flower ; Asplenium Nulus is most common both high up in the forks of the
branches and encircling the main stem itself.
Near this avenue are Dr. Treub's house, offices,
laboratory, nursery and gas-engine. Another small avenue formed of Orcodoxa regia leads from the
Governor's house to the main road of Buitonzorg. These trees are yet young, and there are finer
specimens of this Palm in the garden.
Behind this are some magnificent Bamboos fifty to
sixty feet high and many yards in diameter, gracefully drooping, and a fine avenue of
Livistona, chiefly L. rotundifolia and L. ovalifolia, many of them not less than ninety feet
high, producing a very curious effect with their long straight stems and small tuft of
leaves on the top. This avenue is one of the finest sights in the garden ; it leads from an
entrance in the main road past that portion of the grounds set aside for the collection of
Rattan palms, to the nursery, offices, etc.
On one side all the stems, to about twelve
feet from the ground, are covered with the purple-flowering Ipomcea, blooming freely, and near
them are many young Palms, species lately received and there planted, as the original
Palmetum is now full.
On the other side, in the centre of a large grass plot relieved by an edging of purpleleaved Oxalis, is a small red stone obelisk, on the pedestal of which in gold letters are suitable
words stating it to have been erected to the memory of Johannes Elias Teysmann. Round the
oblong grass plot is a narrow path and beds Idled with China Roses in good condition, whilst at
one end is a thick impregnable bank of Bamboos. The collection of Rattans is most interesting.
Cave is necessary in walking through, as the young shoots armed with their short rows of strong
sharp thorns, half circular in shape, hang down in all directions.
The main stems
twist and curl over themselves and over each other like long snakes, and often
up the stems of the tall Cedrelas which shade them.
Tall Oreodoxas, O. olerarea in
particular, with a stem not less than ninety feet high, like the barrel of a great cannon and
almost as straight and smooth as a lead pencil, as well as many Areeas, Cocoa and other Palms,
edge this interesting Rattan enclosure. One of the Cocos, C. oleracca, with leaves strong and
stiff, from twenty-five to thirty feet long, is a fine sight.
With one or two other Palms
near the Governor's house, and an avenue, a short one, but still a veritable tunnel of the
same strong-growing Bamboo, the ornamental portion of the garden may be said to be
exhausted, and I will now attempt to give some little idea of the main portion.
Near the chief entrance is a fine Amherstia forty feet high, a very good specimen not now
in flower, but its long brown young leaves still render it very pretty, and near this on the
stem of a Canarium commune, about four feet from the ground, is a fine Grammatophyllum
speriosum with forty-six racemes of flowers, some with twenty-four open blooms and many more,
buds to expand ; the plant is about fifteen feet through, some of its stems being nine feet
1ong a truly splendid sight.
On entering the gardens, by far the major portion lies on
the right. The first Order is the Leguminosa?, with some fine trees.
Though not now in
flower, its Bauhinias, Amherstias, Browneas and Poincianas must make a grand show in their
i.

82

JAVA.

season. Descending a short hill, one soon espies all kinds of Pandanus, their tall crooked
naked stems, with short tufts of stiff leaves on the top, being sometimes thirty to forty
feet high.
This OrderPandaneseis certainly a remarkable one to look at.
Opposite the
Pandanere is the collection of Cycads, including not large but wonderfully even specimens,
whilst on the other side of the path are the Orchids, which Dr. Treub says do not thrive
satisfactorily. They are nearly all attached to the stems of Plumicra aeuminata, mentioned
supra as producing a flower held sacred in India. Probably the best amongst these Orchids
are Bulbophyllums, some Dendrobiums, and certainly the Ccdogynes. Erias are good, but
Saccolabiums and some other East Indian Orchids are weakly.
The Palmetum is next reached. Dr. Treub tells me that next to Kew he believes Buitenzorg
has a greater number of Palm species than any other botanical garden in the world, and here
are certainly some wonderfully handsome specimens.
Amongst the most noticeable is a noble
tree of Corypha australis with a stem three feet in diameter and thirty-five feet high, and
a fine head of immense palmate leaves.
Cyrtostaehys Rinda is finer here than I have yet
seen it, thirty-five feet high, with wonderfully straight stems, and heads of stiff leaves like
Areca lutescens, but the leaves are shorter and stiffer ; its red leaf-sheaths are very striking
from a distance.
There are also, on the slope towards the river, some fine Attaleas
particularly one, A. maerocarpa, with a stem thirty-six inches in diameter ; its leaves
are from twenty to twenty-five feet long, forming a splendid spreading head, and in
their axils are the thick bunches of seeds, each as large us an ordinary-sized Plum.
Phcenix
sylvestris is remarkably handsome, its spreading canopy of leaves regular and thick, the lower
ones gracefully drooping. Amongst the Oncospermas are some fine specimens, their numerous
stems rising from a common base to a great height, several ascending as much as eighty
feet ; all with good heads of leaves, a foliage both ample and graceful.
Caryotas,
Phoenix, Borassus, Oreodoxas and Areeas, many with their drooping bunches of red seeds, are
well represented, as well as the various kinds of Cocos, one of the finest of which is a
C. oleraau with a stem two and a-half feet in diameter, and a splendid head of thick
leaves. Dr. Treub has a fine Ludoicea mydidlarum (Str plate vi.), not so large as Dr. Trimeu's,
but nearly so ; its leaves are ten feet broad and very hard, and when the stalks are tapped
with a walking-stick, it is like tapping iron.
Mctroxybm datum is a curious Palm ; its
strong, stiff stalks have circular, always slightly ascending lines of brown hairs, but even without
this peculiarity, it is a pretty Palm of itself.
Near the Palmetum is another very interesting Orderthe Conifene. Araucarias are well
represented ; A. excelsa will not thrive here, but
Bid villi and A. Ilidei, upwards of twenty
feet high, are good amongst others. Small Uupremix Knightii, and some larger C. Goreniana and
C. fiuwbrw nearly thirty feet high, are pretty. Junipers and Daerydiinn datum also do well.
There is also a handsome Podocarpus (P. polystachyus) with leaves eight inches long, somewhat
resembling P. maerophyllus, but stronger. Two of the finest trees in the Conifene are Pinus
macivphylla and Agathis alba, both splendid specimens upwards of sixty feet high. Dr. Treub is
particularly proud of the latter, and it certainly is remarkably even and handsome. The Fernery
under thick shade is a wonderfully pretty place; tall tree Ferns with their long graceful
fronds, as well us the dwarfer Nephrolepis, Onyehiums, Scolopendriums, Nephrodiums,
Microlepias and others are doing well. There are but few flowering plants to be seen in the
whole place, a notable exception, however, being the Pavettas (Rubiaceu'), of which there is a
large collection, many bearing, at the time of my visit, their Ixora-like heads of bloom.
Beyond the Palmetum, Dr. Treub pointed out a large semi -circular piece of ground on the
river bank, full of only rough stones and boulders with a little coarse grass, and a bed of
Cereus, Opuntias, etc. He told me that during a very heavy rain-storm the river had overflowed,
and so sudden and so great was the rush of water that the side of the slope was washed

I.ODOIC F. A SEYCH F.LI.AR UM


Poi'BLE ( (X OA-NUT Pat.M

Tire j;:rw York


PUBLiC LIEI'.ARY

HLDEN h'-l - t'VT ttNa


1
L

JAVA.

83

clean off'. Nothing but these Mexican plants will now grow there. The collection of Figs
(some with fine stems) is very large, and the Euphorbiacese, an extensive Order, is well
represented. Some of the finest trees are included in the tropical Order Dipterocarpeae, and,
as I have said, being all more or less fifty years old, one can well imagine there are some
grand trunks to he seen. Of the heads a clear view is seldom obtained, as all are planted
in the quarter amongst many others belonging to their Order.
The Herbarium of tropical plants is most complete and is in course of revision, a truly arduous
task. . Owing to the dampness of the climate, all dried specimens are enclosed in tin cases opening
outwards and painted black. Beneath this, on the ground floor, is a museum of economic
products, all carefully arranged and labelled in glass cases. One case contains all kinds of fibres,
others seeds, gums, rattan, oils, gutta-perchas and barks, thus rendering the museum a very
interesting place. Outside this is a laboratory at the disposal of the analyst; and here amongst
other things, arranged in glass bottles, are plants, and the various parts of plants, all reduced
to powder, ready for experiment.
The library contains many fine works, and receives the
of every society of note
scientific journals
time to time Dr. Treub
in Europe. From
and valuable
works,
also purchases rare
are issued three journals
From the gardens
tical one in Dutch, and
including a pracfrom which Dutch is
a scientific one,
which the articles
excluded and in
German or English. Dr.
must be in French,
plants with the excepTreub tells me all
tion of ornamental
ones are given away
free to applicants ;
but ornamental
ones are only given
in exchange, no
money being ever taken for anything. The temperature
at Buitenzorg varies all the year round from 73 3
to 85 Fahrenheit, and the rainfall is between four
and four and a-half metres (160-175 inches).
The most striking fact at Buitenzorg Gardens is
the system and thoroughness of the whole establish
Javanesc Bridges.
ment.
The staff Dr. Treub has at his disposal
includes twelve Europeansall (with the exception of one German) Dutch, and five of whom
are doctors of science. These thirteen in all have six departmentsscientific and practical.
At the disposal of the scientific portion is a large well-fitted-up laboratory, in which all
instruments, etc., necessary for the investigation of subjects relating to pathology, physiology and
bacteriology are provided, and to which a gasometer filled with gas made from petroleum has
been recently added.
The gas is not used for lighting, but for obtaining excessively high
temperatures and for other scientific uses. There is also a dark room, and another close to
it with a large camera for scientific and photographic purposes. In the large laboratory are five
tables at the disposal of any Dutchman or foreigner desirous of following a course of study at
Buitenzorg. There are usually three or four availing themselves of this privilegeat the time of
my visit there were five, including an Oxonian and a professor with a grant from an
Austrian society ; but those who usually study here are principally Germans who often come
with a grant from some scientific society. Holland gives a biennial grant for one student.

84

JAVA.

The time devoted to the course of study is six mouthsa month for the journey each
way, and four mouths to work at Buitenzorg. All is freetables, instruments, an extensive
library, etc.
Agricultural Garden.The agricultural garden is, as I have said, about two and a-half
miles out of Buitenzorg, and two hundred acres in extent. It is most interesting, and contains
large quarters of all kinds of economic plants.
Here are made trials of plants said to be
of practical use in the colony, and the result is duly reported on. Large plots of Arabian
and Liberian Coffee are in almost irreproachable condition, though a few small light brown
spots show that the disease exists, but still in too small a degree to be harmful. All kinds
of Rubbers are largely represented, one of the best of which is the Hevca brasilicnsis. Gambier
is also grown, and a large plot of Ficus elastica is very interestinglarge trees with their
stems all notched and scarred where they had been cut for the sap. Mahogany, Chinese and
Assam Tea, Cacao, Pappaya, Eucalyptus alba (a handsome tree from Timor), Vanilla, Cocoa,
Pepper (always grown in the shade), Elwis guineensis (the African Oil Palma magnificent plot
containing four rows of splendid
trees, many of the trunks being
three feet in diameter, some
seeding and some flowering),
Oranges, Rice, the poisonous
Upas tree and many kinds of
grasses are amongst the objects
to he seen at this place. One
does not see a dozen trees or
a hundred in close proximity,
but what is done is thoroughly
done, and to each subject a
large plot is assigned ; of
Coffee there are several acres.
Cardamon and Cinnamon are
Java.My cmnpanions to the Crater oj Papandaya.
also grown, and trials are HOW
being made with Ipecacuanha
(Psychotria ipecacuanha), which, however, does not seem to promise very well. Besides the
above, a small plot has been set aside for medicinal plants, two of each species of which
are grown.
An extensive well-filled laboratory, also provided with gas made from petroleum as at
Buitenzorg, is at the disposal of the Director of this department, as well as apparatus for
making experiments with the products of some of the plants, such as dyes, the extract of
Gambier or of oil from the seed of the Eheis, and the like.
To the ordinary visitor this
agricultural garden proves more interesting than that at Buitenzorg, as this is practical and the
other purely scientific.
On leaving the garden I went on to Garvet where I arrived on the
evening of February 2nd, and at once made arrangements to start on an excursion to a
partially active crater on the morrow.
Ascent or a Volcantc Mountatn.One of the most interesting things I have yet seen since
I have been away is the crater of Papandaya, an excursion to which I made on the morning
of February 3rd. I left the hotel at Garvet at 4.:!0 a.m. in a small cart, miserably equipped.
We were two hours reaching the crater up a very steep rocky path, which I never should have
thought a pony could have ascended. At first we went through some cultivated grounds, Castor

JAVA.

85

Oil, Maize, and several acres of Arabian Coffee in splendid condition, the ends of the shoots
loaded with bunches of berries.
1 looked for disease, but saw none. The plants were much
taller than those I had seen in Ceylon, and the foliage of the richest green ; they were so high
and so thick one could only see a few yards into the plantation.
Enclosing a crop of
Maize was a clipped hedge of Brugmansia, of which the flowers were inattractive, but the
foliage was of a delightful shade of green.
The hedge was kept nearly straight by long
pieces of split Bamboo, tied lengthways to the main stems of the Brugmansia.
Goldfussia
isophylla, treated in the same way, I also saw used as a hedge plant. Lantana was very
frequent, and a pretty Cassia, possibly C. fistulosa.
We soon got above the cultivated portion of the hill, and into the jungle proper, by
far the finest I have yet seen, certainly thicker and more luxuriant than in Penang.
The tree Ferns one thousand five hundred feet from the base, and to about one thousand feet
from the summit, were magnificent.
I believe they were Cyatheas ; their stems were often
twenty to thirty feet high, and one I noticed in particular could not have been less than fifty
feet. It is now the wet season in Java,
and these Ferns were growing freely truly
a wonderful sight to look down upon ;
the rosettes of young fronds had been
produced in such rapid succession that they
were apparently all of the same age, and
were actually of the same tint of light green ;
the youngest fronds, usually six or seven in
number, stood erect and all about the same
height, from one and a-half to two and a-half
feet. Near the top of the mountain many
acres of the jungle had been burnt, but though
the stems of these tree Ferns were quite
charred, they were yet growing ; nothing else
in the whole charred forest, except a few
dwarf Ferns, had started. It is very curious to see the pale
green of the young tree Fern foliage, probably the only living
thing there, standing out against the background of burnt black
and brown wood, a clump of about two dozen in one place being
particularly striking.
Of course one could not see far, as the
burnt trees stood too thickly together, and frequently tangled masses
of climbers hung from the branches like heavy curtains, rendering
Java. The Crater o/ Papandaya.
a good view still more impossible.
At the base of the hill a
large Bamboo was magnificent, perfectly impenetrable, but it soon ceased, and did not seem to
have a vertical range of more than a few hundred feet.
This also applies to Plantains.
The vegetation on both sides of the rough rocky road was so dense as to render it impossible
to enter without clearing ; in some places one could only see a few feet into it, in most
others scarcely a score of yards, and where the Gleichenia carpet hung down, not six inches.
This Gleichenia, not so common or so frequent on this hill as in Penang, must be either
G. flagellaris or G. dichototna ; I did not see G. longmima.
The path, as I have said, was very steep, the ground rising on one side and falling abruptly
away on the other. Where it fell away to a considerable depth, a glimpse might be caught over
the thick jungle for some distance, and this kind of view was more particularly obtained where
water was descending the hill. Passing over such streams (they are not large) and looking
down the ravine, I saw as luxuriant and rampant a vegetation as I ever dreamed of. Some

JAVA.
of the tree stems were large (these probably belonged to the Dipterocarpeae), but it was not
the rule, thick undergrowth being more general.
Many of the stems were covered with
Epiphytes, and high up in the branches above I saw many more either Epiphytes or Parasites.
Several Ferns weie thus growing on stems, and also a small climbing Fig. Asplenium Nidus was
magnificent, completely encircling some trunks, its thick masses of dead leaves hanging down
often six to seven feet long; it was most frequent, but never had that regular circular
habit it acquires under cultivation at home. Other Ferns were numerous, but not striking, except
one, a Blechnum, much like B. brasilwiise, its young fronds often two feet long, tinted with
reda most beautiful species.
The vegetation generally was very varied, but when looked
at closely, of no especial beauty.
The creepers were numerous, and often hung from the
branches above in tangled masses of dead and living vegetation, more frequently the former.
I also saw a very weak sickly-looking Nepenthes, and of that but two specimens.
As one nears the crater, and at about eight hundred feet below it, all this richness
ceases, and the path and surrounding land changes to bare rock, on which nothing is growing
but a low shrub, presumably a Myrtle. The path is now very rough ; now passing between
huge boulders, evidently rolled off from the mouth of the crater, and at some time or other
pitched headlong downwards ; and now over natter ground, on which are small pieces of sulphur,
lava, and a whitish stone not unlike chalk. The crater is about half a mile in diameter,
completely enclosed on three sides, and open on the fourth to the country beyond, of which
a lovely view is obtained.
One side of the mouth, about four hundred feet deep, has a
little scant vegetation, but this is not easy to reach. The other two sides are completely baresheer
precipices of rock from three, hundred to four hundred feet in depth. The fourth side slopes,
so far as I could judge, by a series of small plateaux to the plain beneath, but, of course, all
that can be seen is the top of the jungle, the "paddy" fields below, and a hill of wonderfully
even pyramidal shape beyond. The crater proper is interesting. There is probably not a
living thing in the placebird, insect, or reptile. In one place volumes of smoke, so dense
that one cannot see through it, pour out and reach even the top of the mouth of the crater ;
the ground round the hole where it issues being thick with golden-yellow sulphur of a
lovely colour. The main volume of smoke, which comes steadily forth, must be forty to fifty
yards in diameter, and besides this, there are several smaller ones. Boiling water bubbles
and hisses out in places, and in one spot hot air rushes forth with a noise as if issuing
from a locomotive safety-valve. On approaching and hearing this noise, I looked for a waterfall,
and was considerably astonished to find that it was caused by the escape of sulphurous air,
attesting the great pressure beneath.
The whole scene was most interesting and instructive.
The floor of the crater presented a rough uneven surface, in some places covered with
loose stones of all sizes ; especially was this the case at the base of what appeared to
have been a landslip from one side of the mouth, huge boulders in extraordinary positions
being numerous at this point.
Coming back from the foot of the hill in the same carriage, I had a good view of the
country wonderfully rich and fertile along the whole distance, about ten miles; on each side of
the road the land was under cultivation, chiefly " paddy " rice of various kinds.
The Kice is
plucked by hand, tied in bunches, and carried by coolies on their Bamboo rods, several bunches
being made into a bundle and suspended by a string. The rods, about six feet in length,
are carried on the shoulders, with an equal weight attached to each end. The coolies travel
when thus loaded at a slow swinging trot.
The hotel garden at Oarvet is rather pretty, and presents a curious mixture.
Alternating
with a row of Crotons are Chinese lioses in pots, nicely in flower ; and in another portion I
noticed a pot of Maranta between a Mule Pink and an Ivy-leaved Pelargonium.
Sanchezia
grows side by side with Habrothamnus and Abutilon, all flowering freely. Tea Roses in large

JAVA.

ST

pots do well, and the Cocoanuts, many with- fine fruit, are thoroughly at home. Garvet is
two thousand two hundred feet above sea-level, and the crater of Papandaya nearly five
thousand feet. It is not known when the latter last indulged in an eruption, but a crater
which can be seen from the garden is said to have been active some fifty years ago.
Lake Bagendtt.On February 4th I made an excursion to Lake Bagendit, a most lovely
spot, lying in another direction from Garvet.
The country, comparatively flat for a few miles,
was almost entirely under cultivation, chiefly Kice, apparently in the most splendid condition.
Water is plentiful (at this season, at least), and no difficulty seems to be experienced with
irrigation.
We passed through several villages remarkably clean looking, especially when
compared with the mud hovels the natives in the out-of-the-way parts of our own India live
in.
On each side of the main street is a neat fence of split Bamboo strengthened with
tarred string, and all the little Bamboo houses, on supports a foot or so from the ground, stand
thickly within under the shade of Cocoanuts and other trees.
The entrance to the chief part
of the village is marked by a small Bamboo gateway resembling a triumphal arch.
The lake I went to see is about an hour's drive from the hotel. On its shores are two
villages, by one of which it is reached. On arrival I understood by signs from the driver of
my carriage that I was to get out, and was subsequently conducted to the shores of the lake
through the main street of the village. Here were several canoes, each being the hollowed-out
trunk of a tree. I soon espied a small summer-house arrangement, about twenty feet square,
with a Bamboo floor, open sides and pointed grass-roof.
This, by the assistance of various
men, women and children, was tied on to three canoes, a chair fetched, and myself duly
installed inside. We then rowed about the lake, two boys with short paddles being placed
at each end; it is one of the loveliest spots imaginable; it is not large, but is
surrounded by low hills, gently undulating, and mostly under cultivation ; behind these low
hills rise taller ones, three thousand to four thousand feet above the level of Garvet.
On
our return I was struck with the beauty of the lake approach to the village, beneath its tall
Cocoanut and Areca Palms. On landing, the head-man of the village appeared, and was paid
the tariff price, 2i gilders.
At Garvet, early every morning the sky is clear, the sun hot, right overhead, and the
weather pleasant.
Between 8 and 9 a.m. clouds spotlessly white begin to roll up the
hill-sides ; about noon these become quite thick, hiding the hill-tops all round the basin in
Which Garvet and the fertile plains I have described are situated ; between 2 and 3 p.m.,
after a most oppressive heat, they break, a performance which is repeated every day.

PART

HONG-KONG

VI.

AND

CANTON.

PART

HONG KONG

VI.

AND

CANTON.

HONG-KONG.
March, 1892.After returning from Java, it was my intention to make the best of my way
to Hong-kongabout eight days' voyage north-east from Singaporeand it was in the early
days of March that my boat dropped anchor in the fine harbour at Victoria, Viewed from the
deck of a steamer the town has an imposing frontage, the buildings being particularly massive
in order to resist the terrible typhoons which are in the autumn of annual occurrence, and by
which the colony has on more than one occasion suffered severely.
The Botanic Garden, under the superintendence of Mr. Charles Ford, immediately in the
rear of the town, is prettily situated.
Behind it rises Mount Gough, one thousand eight hundred
and twenty-five feet, whilst below is the harbour with its shipping, and beyond that the hilly wildlooking coast of China. The gardens have been formed about thirty years, and are twenty acres
in extent. Except two artificial terraces, they are on the side of a somewhat steep hill. On
these terraces are flower beds on grass lawns, and the broad paths are of gravel, but elsewhere it
has been found necessary, on account of the steep slopes and heavy rains, to make them of cement.
Entering by the lowest gate, but a few yards from Government House, one ascends a long
flight of handsome stone steps, along the sides of which are placed many pots of pretty
flowering plantsNasturtiums, Pinks, Helianthus, Conocliniums, Heliotropes, Geraniums, Acalyphas,
and dwarf bushy plants of Rhapis. On the top of these steps is the first of the terraces,
some thirty yards broad, flanked on one side by an embankment supporting a public road,
and covered with Ophiopogon japonicus, Nephrolepis, etc, and falling away at the other end by
winding paths to a second entrance.
On this terrace are two large plots of grass in good
condition, surrounded by spotlessly clean gravel paths ten feet broad.
In the centre of these
grass plots are four very fine specimens, perfectly even and well furnished, of Pittosporum
Tobira, eighteen feet in diameter.
Round these are various oblong and circular beds filled
with many dwarf-flowering plants, quite English in appearancePansies, Pinks, Heliotropes,
Antirrhinums, Verbenas, Carinas, Double Daisies, Marigolds, Phlox subulata and Nasturtiums were
all flowering freely and relieved by other beds of Sanchezia, Acalypha (both clipped low),
Alternanthera, Coleus and Ceutaurea. It is only in winter these flowering plants live. The
front of this terrace has a hedge of dwarf clipped Bamboo, with a long bed of Agaves and
other Mexican plants in front, relieved by four fine specimens of Araucaria excelsa from
forty-five to fifty feet high in each case. Behind this terrace is a flight of steps leading to
one above it. On either side are fine flowering bushes of the highly-scented Jasminum racemosum,
and along the edge runs a wire fence covered with creepersBignonia venusta, an old Indian

92

HONG-KONG

AND

CANTON.

friend, being well in flower ; amongst others I noticed Clematis Meyeniana (a native of
the island), Passiflura racemosa and Stephanofis floribunda. Half way across this terrace is a
large stone tank with a handsome fountain, surrounded by aquatic plants, including
many masses of Papyrus antiquorum, as fine as I have ever seen it, its tall leaf-stalks and
filamentose heads reaching a height of six to seven feet, gracefully waving about with every
breath of air. On the edge of this stone tank are many pots of flowering plants, some
trained on wire globesGeraniums, Heliotropes, Cobo:a scandens, Jasmines, Abutilons, Pansies,
Habrothamnus, and on each side, occupying the greater part of the terrace, are
large beds of Tea and China Roses, fine bushes producing a profusion of bloom. Behind the
terrace is a broad steep walk, leading to a statue of Sir Arthur Kennedy, C.B, etc.,
Governor of the Island from 1872 to 1877, together with some remnants of an Araucaria
excelsa avenue, of which only one or two fine specimens remain, the typhoons having
destroyed the rest.
Still ascending and bearing to the right is the road leading to Mr. Ford's new house, a
handsome solid edifice erected but a few months ago by Government. It is on the opposite
side of the public road to this portion of the garden.
Near the gate, in some fine masses of
Eucharis grandiflora now flowering freely, are specimens of the Star-Anise of China (lllicium
verum), a tall rather gaunt-looking Jacaranda mimosa:folia, and a fine pyramidal Juniperus
chinensis, a truly handsome Conifer as here grown, as is Podocaiyus chinensis, which is largely
represented in the garden. Passing along in the direction of the houses, I saw a pretty tree,
a native of the island, Turpinia arguta, with numerous heads of pale yellow flowers and
thick fleshy Ardisia-like leaves, and generally I could not but be struck by the number of
the Chinese plants which have this thick, crenulated foliage. On a dead tree close to the
entrance to the fernery was a specimen of Vanda coneolor, having moderate-sized, dirty brown
flowers with a lip of a somewhat paler tinge, certainly not a showy plant.
There are two houses, spotlessly clean, having brick beds along the sides with another in
the centre newly white-washed, paths of cement, and roof composed of Bamboo neatly split.
In the fernery were many good specimens, each with plenty of room ; an enumeration of the
various species is scarcely necessary, as most of those we have at home are representedand
well represented. Amongst the finest were three found wild in the islandDavallia eleganis,
Cibotium glaucum producing when wild, Mr. Ford tells me, fronds fifteen to sixteen feet, and
occasionally twenty feet long, and Angiopteris eveeta. It is remarkable over what a wide area and
under what different conditions this Fern seems to thrive. Alsophilas were also good. The
larger of the two houses is devoted to Ferns, the smaller to Orchids and a small general
collection of stove plantsAnthuriums, Alocasias, Begonias, Pancratiums and Crotons, but for
these lt is now rather too cold, and they did not look their best. The Orchids looked well,
perhaps because Mr. Ford does not try to grow the South American species, which here as in
all other parts of the East always prove a failure. Amongst the best to be seen at the
time of my visit were Cymbidiums, Calantb.es, particularly C. vestita ; Vandas, Coelogynes of
the C. flaecida section ; Dendrobium densijtorum, D. fimbriatum, D. aduncum and others, amongst
which I), aggregatum was largely represented. Mr. Ford tells me he has found this wild on
the Lofan Shan in South China, previous to which it was not known to exist in that region at
all.
He showed me the plants he brought overthey are certainly D. aggregatum, but it
seems curious this species should spread into China ; there is, however, no doubt about it. Eria3
do well, and Ancectochilus are particularly finelarge pans of most beautifully netted and
minutely veined brown glossy foliage ; of these A. Roxburghii was the best.
Outside the plant house I recognised an old Indian friend in Pterocarpus indicus
surrounded by some fine clumps of Alpinia nutans, about as good a screen plant as could well
be found. A large bush of another Hong-kong native, Raphiolepis indica, commonly known as

HONG-KONG

AND

CANTON.

93

the " May-flower " by Europeans on account of its numerous small lovely white flowers now
being freely borne, is near a large bed of Rhododendron hdifolium', a most appropriate specific
name ; the foliage is the very fac simile of that of a Ledum. It has large white flowers. It
is curious how many plants growing in the far East, this Raphiolepis amongst the number,
bear the name of " indicus," when they are not known in India. Possibly it may be that in
the earlier part of the century, when specimens were taken home from the East by ships
which usually touched at Indian ports, those entrusted with the naming had but few data to go
upon, and as the vessel was known to have sailed from India, it was surmised the plant was
found there. The Azalca indica is another instance.
I must not omit mention of another plant of which it is said Mr. Ford is the only man
in the island who knows the exact spot where it is found, and that he, on account of its limited
area, will not divulge his secret. This is Rhodolcia Championi with large purplish red flowers
profusely borne all over the treeor, rather, large bush one in the axil of each leaf, and almost
invariably several at the end of each shoot ; its leaves are oval, thick, leathery and handsome,
with very long petioles.
There is also a very handsome Gardenia here possibly G. ijlobosa ;
Francisceas or Brunfelsias also do well ; B. Hopcana is just now a mass of purple and white flowers.
Perhaps the biggest tree in the garden is a Ficus return, with numerous large aerial roots
ranging from three to nine inches, and sometimes more, in diameter.
These have been
conveyed in Bamboo canes filled with earth from the branches above to the exact spot
required, or to the one which seemed most likely to offer sufficient support to the tree, the
usual method pursued with Banyans in India. On these roots are many Phalsenopsea rooting
freely. Mr. Ford found he could not do much with them in a house, so he transferred them
to this tree with marked success, possibly another proof that Epiphytes succeed better on living
than on dead wood.
Near this spot are some tall Camellias, now rapidly passing out of
flower, and some Ardisia crenulata in fine condition, freely berried.
The Molucca Oil-plant
or Candle tree, Alcurites tmloba, is very handsome in these gardens, with its striking foliage of
a rich glossy colour. The oil for which it is famous is made from the seed. Up the trunk
of one of the Aleurites climbs Pothos aurca, but it is not so fine as in the Tropies.
It
is curious to walk through, say, a dozen acres, and find Pansies, Daisies, Antirrhinums, etc.,
as at home ; Araucaria excelsa, Phahenopsis rooting freely ; Pothos aurca with leaves a foot
in diameter ; a Conoclinium in flower opposite a Pelargonium, and China Roses in front of
a Stephanotis.
Of course, if it were not the winter, the first three named, now growing and
flowering, could not exist ; whilst the last namedAraucaria, Stephanotis and Pothosare more
or less at a standstill at this season.
By this time we had concluded our circuit of the garden in this direction, and we again
descended to the terrace flanked on the side by Opuntias, of which O. Dillenii is here wild ;
Cycas media, with a peculiar flat twisted leaf, handsome withal ; Cercus triangularis, common in
South China, being found on many pagodas, houses and monasteries, and other plants of a like
description, including a fine specimen of Enaphalartos caffra. An interesting tree, the Coffin
Wood tree (Persca Nam-mu), said to be very valuable, as the Chinese highly prize it for coffin
manufacture, is represented by a nice even specimen close to this terrace. It is said to be of great
importance of what wood a Chinaman's coffin is made, and one skilled in the art will discern
a difference in two pieces of wood which to an European expert arc quite similar.
At
Shanghai, 1,800 taels are said to have been once paid for a specimen of the abovea fact (or
possibly a fiction) which reached Kew, and, I am told, excited much curiosity.
A fine tree
now freely seeding, much scattered alxmt the garden, is Hctemjmimx fragrans, with rich dark
green thick pendulous pinnate foliage, forming a most striking feature wherever it has been
planted. There are some handsome specimens of it near an avenue of Grevillea robusta.
The above are the most interesting objects ill the principal part of the gardens ; there is,

94

HONG-KONG

AND

CANTON.

however, in addition to the above, a much smaller section near Mr. Ford's house on the other
side of the public road, containing many Cbnifera? and the Palmetum. Passing on towards this
I saw a grand plant of Magnolia fuscata covered with its downy buds, and a specimen of
Symplocos decora, fifteen feet high, flowering profuselya most pretty sight when covered from
top to bottom with its heads of white blossoms (not unlike those of the Orange), as this one
happened to be at the time. I also saw a Cananga odorata (the Ilang-Ilang), from the greenish
yellow flowers of which a valuable scent is extracted, chiefly in Manila. It flowers in the
autumn, and is just now carrying its clusters of dark blue seeds.
Among the Conifene are
some good specimens, and amongst the most noticeable are an Araucaria Rulci ten feet high,
even, and well grown; some good bushes of Podocarpus chinensis; and an Araucaria Cunninghami
not less than fifty feet high ; but the most striking is certainly a Queensland species, Callitris
rhomboidea, the foliage of which is as thin and graceful as a Casuarina, but withal so
thick-set that it forms banks of the richest pale green.
The general habit of the tree
is pyramidal, and it is one of the handsomest of Conifers for warm climates. A good climber
near here, trailing over an old Pine which it has succeeded in killing, is Casalpinia
vernalis, a native of Hong-kong, bearing pyramidal heads of sulphur-coloured flowers, and
possessing the fine pinnate foliage characteristic of the genus.
Podocarpus latifolius, with
lea,ves six inches long, should certainly grow in England as P. chinensis does, and a
handsome addition it would be to the British Pinetum.
The Palms are good but not
numerous, and though only planted in 1874 have grown into fine specimens, especially the
Caryotas, Acanlkopluenix Alexandrw from Queensland, Oreodoxa regia, Arenga saecharifera and
Rhapis JUiMliformis.
Livistona australis flowers well when twenty-five feet high, and
Areca lutescens forms thick clumps.
Leaving the Palm house and passing round the edge of the gardens to Mr. Ford's house,
one has a high rocky mound on one side, and a low undulating valley on the other. Over this
mound trail Gleichenia dichotoma and G. longissima, the latter particularly attractive ; whilst in the
valley below are many dozen tree Ferns, tall Alsophila tomentusa with stems from ten to
twelve feet high, their wavy heads being of very pleasing contour.
Below these, many Ferns,
chiefly Nephrolepis, have been planted, rendering the whole spot very pretty, and in the hot
season, 1 should imagine, quite a refreshing sight. Among Mr. Ford's duties is the supervision
of the forests of the island, and the instruction of Chinese pupils in botany.

CANTON.
Canton is eight hours' journey from Hong-kong, up the Pearl Rivera large stream,
sometimes with hilly and sometimes with flat banks, along which much Kice is cultivated. The
approach to the town is very curious, on account of the immense number of small and large
" sampans " and " junks," usually arranged in lines, forming complete streets. It is estimated
that three hundred thousand human beings have their home in this enormous fleet, and have
never had a house on shore. The town is exceedingly interesting. One is forced to have a
guide, or risk being hopelessly lost in a very few minutes, as the streetsvarying in width
from six to twelve feet (they usually average ten feet)form a most bewildering maze.
These
narrow lanes are paved with large slabs of stone, often very uneven and very dirty.
I arrived
during a heavy rain, which lay about the streets just as it fell.
All are very
dark, on account of the innumerable long signsusually in scarlet and goldhanging from the
higner stories, and often on looking up, all that can be seen is a thin streak of light ; some
streets are in fact entirely roofed over. On each side are shops, usually very neat and clean, and
entirely open to the street, each shop being usually its own factory, where one can see the

HON<J-KONG

AND

CANTON.

i):i

articles for sale being produced. The only way to get about in these narrow, thickly-crowded
lanes is in a chair borne on the backs of three coolies, and to get out whenever it is
desirable to examine anything more closely than can be done at a distance.
It is a pleasing
trait of the place that one can enter any shop and be courteously received ; amongst the most
interesting of these are the silk and Jade stores.
Canton has over a million of inhabitants, and the huge wall surrounding it, fifteen to twentyfive feet wide, is six miles in circuit, the whole space within them being filled up with a
maze of narrow lanes as described. The place is full of temples, every street has n altar,
and every shop and house a niche, in front of which is a bundle of burnt and half-burnt
joss-sticks. The best temples to see are the Temple of the Five Hundred Genii and the
Temple of Horrors. The former comprises many courtyards, huge guardian images, pavilions, and
a small pagoda, and it is that which is most visited.
In the central hall, arranged in aisles, are
the five hundred images, life-size, no two alike, in a sitting position, and all richly gilt.
Much
money is said to he spent when the idols, watched over by seventy priests, are appealed to on
certain great occasions.
The courtyards of this temple were almost deserted, affording a striking
contrast to the large one in front of the Temple of Horrors, so named from its large plaster
groups of almost life-size figures representing the mode of inflicting and the variety of punishments
in the Buddhist Hell. The courtyard of this temple is thronged with a most motley lot of
riff-raff, gamblers, fortune-tellers, pedlars, quacks, etc., the noise being deafening. . The gambling
is usually for coins called " cash," a hundred of which aie equal to about Id..
The famous Examination Hall containing eleven thousand six hundred and sixteen cells, is
situated in a huge courtyard flanked on either side by rows of cells five and a-half feet long by
three and two-thirds feet wide, in which, with a wooden board for a bed, the students are locked
until the time allotted for answering a paper has elapsed. The examination occupies three
sessions of three days each, and only about one bundled and thirty are passed for Government
service. The execution ground, used as a potter's field, is a small triangular piece of ground
only seventy-five feet long and twenty-five feet broad at the widest end. The average number
of annual lieheadings (an operation performed with great celerity and dexterity) is three hundred, in
batches of ten to twenty at a time. Against the wall lean several wooden crosses, on which
offenders of the worst description are tied and put to death with attendant horrors.
I also visited
a species of police court where my presence aroused much interest. A row of minor officials,
little boys and hangers-on, collected iu front, and discussed "the red-headed barbarian": the
texture of my overcoat was examined and, I was gratified to notice, apparently approved of.
On my arrival the court was not sitting. In a yard, the lower end of which was roofed over,
were three small wooden tables with two chairs on each side. On a bench close by lolled what
appeared to be minor officials ; against two posts squatted two wretched unkempt heavily-chained
animal-like looking men, whilst a third was huddled up in a basket, having had to be carried
into the place. After waiting some time, four more or less richly-dressed officials appeared and
seated themselves at one of the tables. One of the prisoners was led forward and grovelled on his
knees.
He was cross-examined (witnesses are, I believe, unknown), but refusing to answer, he
was tied to a form by his great toes, thumbs and pigtail, and placed against a post, resting on
his knees alone, to think it over.
The position was uncomfortable, but to Chinese coolies
certainly not torture, as what they can endure without flinching or uttering a sound is
extraordinary.
Another prisoner was then led forward and his cross-examination began, the one
in the basket being asleep all the while, the whole thing evidently rather boring him than
otherwise. The high officials now had refreshmentplates of little sweets and hot tea, after
which they smoked a kind of double-barrelled metal pipe, refilled by a servant for every puff,
one filling of tobacco only giving one puff of smoke. The two prisoners under examination
were, I was told, accused of burning twenty houses and killing three people.
The system

96

HONO-KONG

AND

CANTON.

pursued is to get them to confess under the bastinado, hitting on the jaws with heavy flaps
(all of which hang on the court-wall ready for immediate use), or by some other torture, and
then by cross-examination either to break down or support the confession.
Situated at one end of the town on the city wall is a five-storeyed pagoda.
It is
reached by the same narrow lanes, which in this quarter smell to such an extent as to be
absolutely painful. From the top of the pagoda a fine view of the hilly country beyond is
obtained, those hills immediately under the walls being honeycombed with thousands of graves,
small stones marking the spot where the poor are laid, whilst large tiers of semi-circular
brick-work with gaudy lettering, much resembling the entrance to a railway tunnel, denote the
burial-places of the rich and great.
Hearing there were some gardens on the opposite bank of the river, I went across and
visited three. The impossibility of making one's self understood (for the guide, as in India, knows
but very little English) is a drawback. These gardens have only plants in potslarge porcelain
variously-coloured (usually a shade of blue) jars filled with stiff lumps of blackish
earth, quite wet. The porcelain jars are arranged on stages, one row above the other, in about
four or five rows. The most interesting thing I saw, and it was really clever, was the training of
a small thick-growing Privet-like looking plant (Ligustrum sinense) into various shapessuch as
men, women, fishes, dragons, sampans the hands, feet, heads, and in the case of animals, eyes
being constructed in porcelain in a most realistic manner, and inserted or attached to the
figure in an equally ingenious fashion. Everything was in proportion ; the work must have
taken a considerable time, as the plants are by no means young, and usually from two to three
feet in height. Bamboos were trained in zig-zag fashion ; I did not notice any other mode
of training. Camellias, low bushes, in flower or covered with buds, were largely represented, as
were also Hydrangeas, foliage Begonias, Euphorbia sanguinca in flower, Nasturtiums, low-growing
Dahlias, Lonicera japonica, Tagetes, a small single purple Malva flowering freely, Poinsettias in
bad condition (it was too cold 'for these at that season), Oranges, China Roses, nice dwarf bushy
plants flowering well, a single red and a purple Azalea, a species of red -Dracaena, and very
many tree Pa?oniesstrong clumps which when they had not a flower-bud were huddled
confusedly together, one on the top of the other.
If they had a flower-bud, they were removed
to a stage and looked after, a dollar being asked for each plant.
Whether this was the
" white man's " price or not I cannot say, and could not bargain as I did not mean to buy.
I saw three only in flower out of several hundred, and they were certainly not remarkable.
I
also saw a fine plant of Magnolia Soulangeana nigra bearing many flowers, and several dozen
pots of Bletia hyadnthina in bloom.

PART

JAPAN-SPRING

VII.

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

PART

JAPAN-SPRING

VII.

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

YOKOHAMA.
In March, 1892, I landed at Yokohama, the chief treaty port of Japan, and thought, with some
amazement, of the difference thirty years had wrought since the day when my father, John
Gould Veitch, first set foot on the
same spot.
At times he went
armed, and, with one exception,
seemed never to have considered
it safe to leave the settlement
for more than a few milts. The
exception referred to was an
ascent, or partial ascent, of
Fuji-yama, when the British
authorities supplied him with a
guard of ten men.
At the
present time it is almost needless
to say one moves in perfect
safety amongst these people, who
have surprised the world hy
the rapidity with which they
have adopted Western ways and
customs.
In this respect the
educated classes have been won
derfully successful, whilst the
great mass of the people look
good - humouredly
on,
neither
desiring nor encouraging such
drastic changes.
On every side
Yokohama.
one is met with that courteous
The One Hundred Steps.
kindness and willingness to help
characteristic of the Japqualities
which always make a visit to
his country a pleasant one. The port of Yokohama was but a small fishing village until it
was selected by the Americans on account of its good anchorage as one of the treaty ports.

318673B

100

JAPAN. SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

It therefore follows that the fine temples, etc., and general objects of interest, for which
many Japanese towns are famous, are here, I may say, entirely absent.
The verdict is, and
the professional guides confirm it, that there is nothing to see in Yokohama.
It was very cold in Japan at the time of my arrival, and everything was backward, Maples
and other deciduous plants showing no signs of growth, whilst many plants, such as Cycas,
Rhapis and Ferns, were still kept in sheds.
I have been to a village
known as Kawasaki accompanied by two fellow travellers ; a great
monthly fete was being held, and the sight was a very pretty and
interesting one, especially in the temple.
On the road I saw
the system of training fruit trees recently figured in The Gardeners'
Chroniele. A flat trellis covering the entire orchard is laid beneath
the heads of the trees, only a few feet high, and the branches
tied down to it.
In the temple, dedicated to Buddha, I bought
a small medal of the figure, when a priest in return took us to a
buck court, and showed us a curiously trained Bamboo stem. The stem
was tall and straight, and still growing, but between each node one side
was compressed, and the other elongated.
At first sight one might naturally
suppose that this was caused artificially, but subsequent specimens which I saw conclusively
proved this mode of growth to be but a peculiarity of the variety.
Locally it is known as
the " Tortoise-shell " Bamboo, certainly a most applicable name ; the stem, quite straight, was
about eight feet high, with a small-growing head. The garden was very pretty, and contained
some little boats with sail set, made of Cherries and trained evergreens. Much Rice is cultivated
around Yokohama, and I fancy in no very different way from what
is usual in the Far East. All one sees at this season are bunches of
black stumps, the remains of last year's crop. The private residences
are prettily surrounded with Conifer hedges, and occasionally
possess small gardens.
The hedges are chiefly Retinosporas, and
sometimes Cryptomeria japonica, though I have seen several good
ones of Citrus trifoliata. A Pinus, which I think there can be but
little doubt is P. densiflora, is also largely represented, both wild and
cultivated, frequently in porcelain jars, trained into curious shapes.
The principal nursery is the Gardeners' Association, to which
I think all the smaller nurserymen belong, and to which they
send their produce.
In the Association grounds were many Conifers,
among which I recognised some old friends. The deciduous plants,
Maples, Magnolias, Azaleas, etc., were only so many bare sticks
at that season.
I saw but a few Abies, with one exception, and
that was in a private garden.
To the other nurseries I
have only paid a few visits. They are very small places, containing
usually mere trained, or rather deformed plants, in large porcelain
jars, the plants most usually treated in this way being Cherries,
Plums, Retinosporas and Pines.
The two first named have often
a very old stump several inches in diameter and from one to
two feet high, from which several young shoots, now clothed with
Young Japan.
buds, have been allowed to spring ; tin two last are dwarfed,
rounded specimens.
Plant combinations are also occasionally indulged in ; thus a small
Cryptomeria, two or three shoots of Bamboo, and a sprig of Nandina domestua may all be
seen growing in a small jar.
These combinations are a particular study, and I have
purchased a book showing many such. Another plant much used for dwarfing is Podocmpus

JAPAN.SPUING

AND

EARLY

SUMMEB.

101

irumrophyllus and its silver and gold variegated varieties. A frequent sight is a specimen with
a stem two to two and a-half inches in diameter, and a perfectly formed pyramidal head
eighteen inches high.
A very common plant in the nurseries is Nandina domestica, bearing
a profusion of red berries ; it sometimes grows from six to seven feet high. A larger-leaved
variety with pure white berries is also common, but its leaves lack the bronzy tinge of the
true N. domestica.
Daphne odora was splendidly in flowercompact oval bushes three to
four feet high and as much through ; in some instances covered with the reddish white,
powerfully scented blossoms, the pure white variety also being frequently represented.
This
plant is to be seen in the gardens of most private residences. Near the town are two fine trees
of Magnolia Kobus, one nearly thirty feet high, with a large, round, evenly-shaped head, the
tip of nearly every shoot, many hundreds in number, bearing a flower just emerging from the
hirsute calyx.
As these blossoms will all be open without a single leaf on the tree, it
should be a remarkable
sight.
I met with these
trees one afternoon in
a hedge on an embank
ment bounding a private
place on the very out
skirts of the town, and
noted the place in order
to return and see them
when in flower.
One of
the
best
private gardens in or
near Yokohama belongs to
a great silk merchant,
by name Nozawaya. This
garden is only thrown
open to the public twice
a year, but I obtained
admission, and was well repaid by the sight.
It
is a large place, full of little hills, little forests,
a little river, very little summer-houses, little
Yukoha ma. Strect sceiw.
paths all covered with mats about two feet wide,
which wind round the little hills, and by little
bridges over the little river.
The whole big garden is little, and most curious ; one
cannot help smiling in going round it.
In this garden are clumps of Cherries on short
stems ; from a little hill you look down on them, whilst a few yards' walk places you
beneath them.
A path with a Bamboo fence one and a-half feet high, runs round the
clump, and leads to another little hill covered with Tines two to three feet high.
Clumps
of an Abies, which on examination proved to be A. fimm (bifida), are opposite some
Bamboos ; whilst Hetinospora and some really fine trees (some fifty to sixty feet high) of
Cryptomeria japonica are well representedthe only laige objects in the garden (for I was
a foot higher than any of those native gentlemen who kindly accompanied me).
Here I
saw many clumps of the yellow-edged Bamboothe only place in which I had yet seen
it, possessing the same peculiar characteristic as with us.
This garden is very curious,
but I believe that there are others at Tokio still more so.

102

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

TOKIO.
Aprtl, 1892.Whilst at Tokio, I was able to visit some private gardens, two of which
belonged to the Emperor ; they were both pretty, though not large.
The first contains
a large pond, spanned by a wooden bridge shaded by fiat-trained Wistarias. The Oaks, Pines,
Maples, Podocarpus, Sciadopitys and Camellias formed by far the greater part of the vegetation.
One of the prettiest gardens I saw at Tokio belonged to a friend of Mr. Yoshida, a young
lawyer.
The whole of the centre was occupied by a pond surrounded by uneven sloping
banks, on which were trained Pines,
clipped red Maples and Retinosporas,
whilst on the highest points are stone
lanterns ; the whole arrangement is
very effective.
These lanterns, corres
ponding to the mandarin's umbrella
still in use in China, were once a
sign of nobility, and were borne in front
of the Daimios in former times.
Each
bears the crest of its owner, and it
was customary for wealthy men to
present stone repliques of their family
lanterns to temples and shrines.
The
temples in Shiba have many hundred
such about seven feet high, standing in
rows.
:t n interesting horticultural exhibition in
Amongst the most noteworthy objects was
the cultivation of the Arorus gram ineus.
In low fiat
trays, from six to twenty-four inches long, are small
stones covered with water to represent a lake and
rocks ; in this is a larger stone, often red or white,
though more usually of a greyish tinge, and on
this stone are one or two clumps of Acorns of
the brightest pea-green, living and growing thick and
straight in the barest film of soil. The stone chosen
Shiba Park, Tokio. The gateways of temples
is often of varied and curious shape, to heighten the
s/uuled by Sciatiopitys verlicillata.
effect.
Another curiosity which promises to be pretty
later in the season is Davidlia bullata. The rhizomes of this Fern are bound together by wire
into all sorts of shapesballs, anchors, ships, birds, etc. These shapes are strong solid masses
of living rhizome and moss, tightly and firmly held by wire, and I was told that when in leaf,
nothing is seen but the image in Oavallia foliage.
Pipiis speetabilis is very pretty, and much
cultivated in porcelain pots ; it flowers with the greatest freedom, as does P. japonica and its fine
varieties, though I do not fancy the Japanese have any finer than we have.
European flowers
Petunias, Mimulus, Hyacinths, Primulas, Polyanthus, Pansies, Geraniums, Cinerarias, etc. are
comparatively new and much admired.
The two first named are extremely well cultivated and
produce enormous flowers, but the remainder are not so well grown. Hyacinths, single bulbs,
fetch a good price ; wretched varieties, imperfectly grown, Is. to Is. 6rf. each.
Rhapis and
Cycas are both largely and well cultivated the way the former is done might well teach us

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EAIiLY

SUMMER.

103

a lesson.
It is kept closer, many more shoots are obtained, the foliage is reduced in size
and rendered more graceful, and all in a smaller pot than we usewhich may possibly be the
cause. Clipped Retinosporaa and miniature Pines are, of course, in great force, and very cheap.
One Pine I saw, about eighteen inches high, was wonderfully like a real tree growing wild. It
was thought a good deal of, and placed apart from others, certainly one of the most successful
examples of training 1 had seen.
Of course chance has a good deal to do with these thingsMagnolia Soulangcana nigra is very fine and I recently saw two rows of it flowering profuselySome of the Camellias in nurseries are also good, particularly a large red and white variety; the
ground beneath the trees was almost hidden by the large number of fallen flowers. The
single red variety grows wild, often forming medium-sized trees, though I do not remember to
have noticed any above thirty to thirty-five feet.
Aska-Tama is the name of a public garden on the outskirts of the city, situated
on the top of a hill, from which a fine view of the country beyond is obtained.
The
landscape is chiefly made up of a few large factories with tall smoking chimneys, fields
for the cultivation of Rice then lying fallow, and many large patches of Rape, at this season
flowering well in solid yellow
patches.
The Rice is sown
annually, but the stubble is
left in after the harvesta
circumstance I have not seen
before, probably because within
the Tropies another crop is put
in as soon as one is oh".
Tokio is a huge place, the
distances are great, and the
means of locomotion slow but
certainly cheap.
For long
distances one must have two
men to a jinricksha, costing nearly 5s. a day.
As a rule,
however, one can manage with one man, though if the
day be hot and the journey long, the pace is very slow.
Around the imperial palace, legations, the hotel, and
TokioStreet seene.
one or two of the principal streets it is fairly easy to
find one's way, but once in the side streets one soon gets lost, so strikingly similar is the one to the
other, and there is in reality but very little difference between them. One curious thing is that to
a European all the individuals in Eastern nationalities resemble each other very closely. One has
to meet a Jap at least two or three times before one would recognize him again amongst
others ; with Chinamen it is still worse, and the same is noticeable in India. White men,
on the other hand, equally resemble each other to Easterns, and they rarely recognise a
European until they have seen him several times. The other day a Jap told me I was in
his grounds only on the day before a startling assertion, as 1 had never been near the
place.
All Englishmen find the same thing, unless they have resided some time in a country,
and have learned to notice more trifling details about persons than casual visitors are able to
do. One cause of the difficulty is that all young Chinese and most young Japs are clean
shaven, only elderly men, especially in China, wearing even a moustache.
In this district I saw no Abies.
Sciadopitys and Ketinosporas (Cypresses), nearly always
R. obtusa, and perhaps R. obtusa aurca, R. pisifera and R. Jilifera are to be seen ; in one place
were some fine rows of the latter genus, well filled with plants ten to twelve feet high. R. pisifera
is here wild, sometimes reaching thirty-five feet with a straight and strong stem.
Cryptomeria

104

JAPAN.SPUING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

japonica is also cultivated and much used for hedges, when it forms a thick strong mass ;
old plants in parks and around temples, etc., are very fine, often attaining one hundred and
twenty or even more feet in height.
C. elegans, so common under cultivation as hedges, etc.,
at Yokohama, I have not noticed represented by a single specimen at or around Tokio. Small
Rhapis are much grown in jars for decoration, and other Palms are seen occasionally, but this
is the only one I have noticed in general cultivation or in quantity.
Amongst some of the
prettiest variegated plants are a very finely silver-variegated Ulicium rdigiosum and a yellow
variegated Ilex latifolia.
A double pink Plum, the colour of Paul's Thorn, is extremely
pretty ; if not so useful for forcing as Cerasus pseudo-cerasus, it would yet make a fine grafted
standard.
Corylopsis spicata is very handsome when in flower, of which I saw a large round
bush, ten feet high, covered with its pendulous yellow blossoms. An elongated form of Citrus
japonica appears good, though it does not form the neat little plants like the small Japanese
Oranges cultivated in Europe.
The fruit is of elongated oval shape and I think distinct,
but the foliage is that of the ordinary Orange.
Paeonies are much cultivated both in the
open ground and in pots.
Stauutonia hexaphylla is common, and grows freely ; it is often
trained along fences, which are sometimes quite hidden by it. Camellias in the nurseries
are good as clipped plants, the ordinary red variety being mostly seen.
In one place I
saw several rows of neatly clipped pyramidal plants, ten to twelve feet high, covered
with flowers.
The price of Rohdea japonica, selected varieties, is surprising.
Young Mr. Yoshida
told me good varieties fetched 500 yen
a yen being equal to 3s.
(1 = 6i yen,
is a fair estimate).
I was much interested,
and with an introductory aid called on Mr.
Shino, a well-known grower of this plant.
His place did not look like a nursery, and
was quite enclosed from public view.
On
entering, I was received by a very superiorlooking Jap, who lived in a house far
above
the ordinary state, and who was
On the Sumidagawa River.
evidently well-to-do.
Immediately behind the
house was a long case of wood, the sides being of wire. In this were three rows, one
above the other, of small Rohdca japonica, in the neatest and prettiest of small porcelain pots.
The plants were small, some green, and some curiously variegated.
The soil in very small
lumps, not bigger than the smallest beads, had been lightly and carefully pressed down
round the plant, and looking very neat, the whole, pot, soil and plant, resembling a toy. One
very pretty variegated form had the tips of the leaves for about two inches of the purest
ivory-whitenot a tinge of green in it ; there were four leaves about nine inches long
price 50 yen = 7 10s. Another had an irregular bar of the purest white across the leaf,
but this, 1 was told, was of no great value. A fine yellow variegated form was also for sale
at only 3 yen. On my asking to see ' the best variety, I was shown a plant streaked with
white ; this plant had eight leaves, and one small offshoot ; it was a dwarfed form about
five inches high and twelve inches wideprice, 2,000 yen.
Of course, this may have been a
prohibitive price for an exceptional variety, though I heard afterwards that the prices generally
were fair and reasonable. Another handsome variety, but not dwarfed, was variegated with
white, and had four stiff, upright leaves, fifteen inches highprice 100 yen = 15 at the
current rate. Some of the dwarfed forms had very broad foliage, quite oval, such as I had
not seen in England. I tried to linger and watch a man potting, but he promptly stopped, and
I was marched off to teadoubtless very polite, but there was considerable method in the

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

105

politeness.
I, however, noticed the plants were watered by immersiondoubtless so as not to
disturb the neat appearance of the soil. It is curious that a plant on which we set so little value
is so highly prized here. There were many scores of plants besides those in the case mentioned,
all standing in rows in the same blue-and-white porcelain pots, and spotlessly clean and neat.
Curiously-trained Pines, a small pond, paths formed of stone slabs a few inches above the
soil that one might
always walk cleanly ; small undulating grass banks ;
Kohdea, the costly case referred to in front
two sheds of
matted floor of a large room ; the
of the openwhole certainly within half an acre
all far away from the town,
in absolute seclusion and tran
quillity, was very delightful
the evening I was there,
but brought forcibly to

my mind what I had recently read about


the monotonous uneventful life of the
average Jap.
On my way back I passed a high
bank covered with Bamboo (Sec plate
viiL), the same species I had seen in a
garden at Yokohama, but different from
anything I have seen elsewhere. It makes
apparently but one long, strong, straight
shoot, and no offshoots as in other
Bamboos here and in the Tropies ; it
is very handsome, but has a singular
appearance. The Cherries in this neigh
bourhood are mamiificcnt.
Tinted photo,
. ., : U betng the custom
,
,
,. a, stuauj
,./,,

1
Cemetery
near Slnba
to ;bury, tn
graphs, which I have in my possession,
posture, tlie monuments arc unusually closc together.
give a very complete idea of their
beauty ; one looks up, and walks under a ceiling of the softest pink.
At Mukojima, a row
of these Cherries a mile long by the river bank, in some places faced by a row on the
opposite side of the road, is a sight it will be difficult to forget. They are planted around
most temples, and these are legion, and also many private houses. Cherries are, in fact, to
be seen everywhere in and around Tokio, and it would be difficult to imagine anything more
beautiful for the few days they are in tlower.
The species is known scientifically as Prunus
Maine; it is really an Apricot,
o

10U

JAPAN. SPRIK>;

AND

EARLY

SlMMKIi.

In Shiba and Uyeno Park are several avenues and open spaces planted with these Cherries,
that are thronged daily with many thousand people to sec them while in bloom. Shiba is chiefly
famous for its temples built by the Tokugawa Shoguns, full of wonderful lacquer and carved
work.
The Pines and Cryptomeria japonica are very fine in this park, especially immediately
in front of the temples. In front of one is a much finer Sciadopitys than in Uyeno, though
possibly not so old, and having the appearance of being a weeping variety, though its drooping
habit is probably caused by age. Kerria japonica is very fine here, quite different from
what it is in Europe.
It is by no means uncommon, many gardens having one or several
good bushes, the ends of the long shoots bearing many flowers, of a rich golden yellow.
It is here freer flowering and more showy than in England.
Yokohama, Aprtl 25th. Things have much changed since I was last at Yokohama. The
grounds of the Gardeners' Association are now pretty with young Maples and other plants.
Wistarias, both the blue and white, are just commencing to flower freely in pots, though those
outside will require some weeks more. Daphne Qenkwa, Amclanehicr atiuulensis and EnkuuUhus
japonicns are now very good, the two latter forming nice bushes covered with flower. Pseonies
will now soon open ; those in pots in about seven days, those outside in about three weeks.
So far I have not noticed any very striking varieties.

MIYANOSHITA.
May, 1892.Sinie 1 left Yokohama a week ago, it has rained every day except one. Not
only has it rained every day, but in almost every instance, the entire day.
My first halting
place was Kamakura, chiefly celebrated for its great bronze figure of Buddha, known as the
Daibutsu, the interior of which is used as a temple. The figure is forty-nine and a-half feet
high and ninety-seven feet in circumference ; but perhaps a better idea of its size may be
formed from he following dimensions (the whole being, of course, in proportion) : circumference
of thumb, three feet ; length of eye, four feetthese are said to be of pure gold. The figure
is formed of sheets of bronze, cast separately, and welded together. The temple of Hachiman
is also prettily situated near the same village, and approached through a fine avenue of Pines,
which merges into two young groves of Cryptomeria. In front of the temple is a grand and
historically famous Ginkgo nearly twenty feet in circumference, and not far distant, on the
banks of a Lotus pond, are three Willows, stated to be nearly seven hundred years old.
Ihx
integrifolia was flowering well in this part of the country, and so freely as to make it really
pretty large close bushes some twenty feet high.
I clambered up the hill behind the temple,
and found It-is japunica growing and flowering freely. I have since seen it in other places in
still greater quantity. Around this village and in the temples, Rohdeas, Dendrojtanax japonicain,
Cherries and Maple (Acer paltnatum) are not uncommon. The temples alone have a few red
Maples.
In the surrounding country Barley and Beans, as in the whole of the Hakone
district, are largely cultivated; the former looks magnificent. Rice is still backward.
At the next place 1 went to, Enoshima, 1 spent the night ; it is a peninsula at low, and
an island at high water. On arriving and going to the best native inn, I was informed that the
Empress was expected on the morrow, and I could not be taken in, and so quarters had to he
found elsewheremy first experience of eating and sleeping in Japanese style. Regarding the
former I heartily support the opinion of Murray's new guide-book, " Many who view Japanese
food hopefully from a distance have found their spiiits sink and their tempers embittered when
brought face to face with its unsatisfying actuality."
However, rice, fish, bamboo and soup
are fairly good and palatable, and with a few things of one's own, one can do pretty well.

JAPAN. SrRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

Sleeping accommodation is comfortable except the


pillows, whiih are either of wood or of hard
rammed straw. One sleeps on four and under one
padded quilt, and tries not to think who slept
there before. These quilts are very warm and
comfortable, but needless to say, the animal kingdom
is largely represented.
Next day it rained the
entire time, and the Empress did not come.
I
went around the island only a few hilly acres
covered with an undergrowth chiefly of low Bamboo
beneath Pines and Oaks My next intention was to
ascend Mount Ozama, four thousand one hundred
feet, but after waiting at its base nearly two days
for favourable weather, was forced to abandon the
idea owing to the incessant and heavy rain. The

ll'at/ftidc Acivbats.

107

108

JAPAN.SFRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

mountain is ascended by a series of stops, but it is said, probably with much truth, to be
a most fatiguing climb.
I soon arrived at Miyanoshita, a well-known health resort, with sulphur springs, and hotels
managed by Japs on western methods.
On the road I traversed the magnificent avenue of
Pines lining the old Tokaido route the most frequented and most famous road in the
whole empire before the revolution of 186.8 and the introduction of railways.
About
Miyanoshita, which itself is in a hilly district some one thousand four hundred feet above sea
level, several pretty walks are to be made and mountains to be ascendedin fact, a level walkis almost unobtainable. Two of the principal excursions are to Lake Hakone and back by the
crater of Ojigoku, and to the Temple of Saijoji. The lake, a very pretty one surrounded by
hills, is situated about five miles from Miyanoshita.
On the road Pyrus japonica, only a few
inches high, was flowering freely, and Violets were very common. The commonest plant of all
was perhaps a Bamboo with short, stiff, slim, close-set stems some three to four feet in
height, covering the sides of many bills.
B. snmmenms is also met with. Around this district,
known as the Hakone region, it is usual in the early months of every year to burn the low
forest on the sides of the hills, and many are therefore now bare, having as yet scarcely
recovered from the effects of the fire. Near Like
.
Hakone is a fine avenue of Cryptomeria japonica
over a hundred feet high, the stems quite straight
and very close together, seldom with an interval
greater than six feet between each tree,
and often less.
In order to return to
Miyanoshita, I rowed across the lake,
and noticed a pretty Azalea in flower
on the banks.
Its blossoms are pale
reddish-purple, and perhaps rather washy,
but being produced freely, and when
reflected in the water from the banks above
are very pretty.
On approaching, on the
ivt urn journey, the crater of Ojigoku, or "big
hell," the path is lined with Picris (Andromeda)
In flood timr.
japonica, about twenty feet high, growing in a very
straggly ugly manner, its reddish-brown main stems being
the most striking feature.
I noticed a good deal of seed on these plants. The crater is a
large open space devoid of vegetation and reeking with sulphur.
The temple of Saijoji is perhaps a more interesting excursion.
One first ascends upwards of
three thousand feet to Myo-jin-ga-take, and then descends to one thousand four hundred feet,
where the temple is situated, and has been there for nearly five hundred years.
Violets were
flowering prettily all over the slope, and on and near the summit only were a dwarf Aster
and a brown Adonis, both unknown to the guide and people in the village below. The Aster
was rather small, perhaps an inch in diameter, and of the usual Aster blue. The Adonis was
fair-sized, and the brown of a distinct pleasing shade. On nearing the temple we passed down
a gorge, in which were great bushes of Aucuba japonica vera flowering freely, with branching
panicles, growing in the shade of Cryptomerias, and with plenty of moisture they were wonderfully
luxuriant.
The temple is surrounded by a great grove composed of many hundreds of
magnificent Cryptomeria japonica, with stems varying from three to six feet in diameter. It
contains many buildings, staircases and courtyards spread over a considerable area.
In
one of the courtyards is a nice clump of the black Bamboo nearly twenty feet high, whilst
growing around on every side in the wildest profusion is Iris japonica ; flowerin" thus in
quantity it is singularly effective.

japan.sru1ng

and

MIYANOSHITA

early

TO

summer.

109

KYOTO.

May, 1892.On leaving Miyanoshita en route for Kyoto, I proceeded over the summit of
Otome-toge (three thousand three hundred feet elevation) to Gotemba, a village at the foot of
Fuji-yama, chiefly known as the starting-place for those making the ascent of this mountain from
Yokohama. The ascent of Otome-toge, as of other hills 1 have been up, is particularly steep and
fatiguingin some places scarcely a vestige of a path, and what there is has arisen from the passing
to and fro of wood-cutters and their pack-horses.
In some places the pathway ascends sheer and
straight, even the pack-horses having to be provided with straw shoes tied around each hoof.
From the sunimit of Otome-toge, commonly known as the "Maiden's Pass," one of the most
perfect views possible of the Sacred Mountain, Fuji-yama, is obtained, as well as of the fertile
plain at its base. The view is extremely fine, Fuji rising in the form of an unbroken snow
capped pyramid right ahead, completely . dominating the surrounding chains of hills.
Its
regular pyramidal form, its great height (thirteen thousand feet), four times that of any
mountain within sight, and above all, its isolation in the centre of a large plain, renders the
sight a most impressive one.
Descending from Otome-toge, with Fuji all the time in
view, one passes through grass-covered slopes, which commence
some one thousand five hundred feet from the summit. The
Aster I mentioned in my last letterwhich Professor I to, of
Nagoya, informs me is Aster ineisusis largely represented,
springing up on all sides a few inches above the grass.
Pyrus japonica, but a few inches high, was also freely
flowering.
Picris (Andromeda) japonica, though not so
fine as around the crater of Ojigoku, is to be seen,
and in many places the undulating slopes of the
mountain, especially near the summit, are covered with
low-growing Bamboo.
On the plain round Gotemba
the vegetation is much richer. Nearly every vacant space is
naturally under cultivation, chiefly Barley and Turnip, but the
hedges round the homesteads contain many tall and pleasing
specimens of Camellias, Retinospora pisifera, small Cryptomerias,
In gala cosiumc.
and Thuia dolabrata is more frequent than I had yet seen it.
Bushes of Berberis covered with yellow buds just expanding, and
Dandelions are common in all the hedgerows. The quantity of water round this village and
spread over this plain is at all times great, but doubtless at this moment greater on account
of the recent heavy rains.
All the fields are splendidly and systematically irrigated for the
sake of the Ricea crop which goes on when the Barley comes oh"which should be in a
few weeks' time.
The seedling beds of Rice, only a few inches high at present, will be by
that time in a fit state for transplanting.
From Gotemba I came through by rail to Nagoya, the fourth largest town in Japan, lying
a little over two hundred miles west of Yokohama.
The line for the most part passes
through fertile plains, or over huge beds of rivers.
It is curious that in this part of Japan
how out of all proportion are the beds of rivers to the amount of water they contain. The
beds are extremely wide, often more than a quarter of a mile, in one instance I noticed it
was nearly a mile across, whereas the stream of water is often only a few yards in width,
even after the recent heavy rains.
That part of the bed which is exposed is very shallow,
only a few feet deep, and invariably composed of sand, interspersed with stone boulders, and

110

JAPAN.SriMNC

AND

EAKIA

SUMMER.

without a trace of any vegetation whatever. The fertility of the country is surprising, and
nearly all of it seems to be under Barley.
The quantity grown is out of all proportion to
any other crop ; it looks in magnificent condition, and is evidently carefully cultivated. Just now
the ears are nearly fully formed, and the corn will soon begin to ripen.
It is cultivated on
elevated ridges like Asparagus, with trenches between, and has recently been again earthed
upthat is to say, coolies with a long kind of flat spade (often the blade is eighteen
inches long) walk along each trench, take off a thin spit from the bottom, and lay it on the
ridge, close to the stout stiff stems of the Barley. When this crop comes off, Kice is put on,
lieing transplanted from seedling beds.
Many fields are pink with a low-growing plant not
unlike a Silene in colourthe effect in the distance is pretty.
I was informed that these
fields are lying fallow for a season, and have been sown with this plant, Astragalus lotoides,
useful for no other purpose than as a manure.
The great Tokaido route is, for the most part, lined with Pines, some of them fine
specimens, especially near Nagoya, a town containing a famous old castle, near which is a row
of Ith a.i vernwifera, the Lacquer plant, which does not apparently attain a great height.
I
may here mention that the crest of the most celebrated and powerful
family of the Shoguns in feudal times, was three
Asarum leaves enclosed in a circle, with the
tips inwards.
That of the Imperial family
is now the ideal Chrysanthemum, in its
regularity and symmetry a perfect florist's
Cineraria.
The Imperial family also
frequently use for private purposes a crest
composed of the leaves and flowers of
Paulmenia imperialis, now flowering well,
and one of the most beautiful of trees.
I made an excursion to Ibori, a
village fifteen miles out of Nagoya,
reached by jinricksha over a very bad road the usual
condition of all country roads in Japan. This mode of
travelling long distances is most trying, and after several hours
riding every bone in one's body seems to ache. No wonder
Stone LanUrns in Tcmple Courtyards.
Europeans rarely leave the heaten track, but confine their
attention to a few of the principal towns.
In the village are several small nurseries chiefly
containing neat rows of variegated Maples, Sciadopitys, Cryptomerias, Eetinosporas, Podocarpus,
etc. Azalca mollis, in large bushes, was flowering well. In this part of the country, the sides
of the hills are often covered with low-growing Azaleas, a brick-red small-flowered species
predominating, and when thus massed, they produce a most charming effect ; it may with truth be
said that the Azaleas are to Japan what the Heaths are to Europe.
A very pretty plant I
saw flowering in one of these nurseries was Rchmannw glutinosa ; of which there were several
clumps beneath the shade of a Cycas. Though only growing a few inches high, it produces
tubular flowers of a pleasing purple colour, and about two inches long, somewhat like those of
our common Foxglove to which the plant is closely allied, and in sufficient quantity to make it
distinctly decorative. In the village is nothing remarkable, except an old Pine with a straight
stem about six feet high, and a flat-trained head covering many square yards ; it is neatly
and cleverly trained.
From Otsu beyond Nagoya I came to Kyoto, via the Temple of Miidera, the village of
Karasaki, and the mountain Hiei-zan. The Temple, not far from Otsu, along the shores of the
lake, covers with its adjacent buildings a considerable area. Many of these are hidden by the

PUBLIC Ii::i:.\i'T

A . . .
TtL

BAMBOO AT

KIOTO

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

1ll

fine groves (if (Jryptomerias and Oaks surrounding the temple. The Maples, chiefly the typical
Acer palmatum (polymorphum), are also justly famous. The village of Karasaki, about three miles
further along the shore, is nothing but a fishing hamlet, yet celebrated all over Japan for
the most curious Pine known.
Its height is not great, about fifty feet ; the circumference of
the trunk at the base is about twenty feet, though at a few feet from the ground, owing to
its dividing into three main forks, it is thirty-seven feet, but the following dimensions are also
extraordinary : length of branches from east to west, two hundred and forty feet ; length of branches
from north to south, two hundred and eighty-eight feet ; number of branches, three hundred
and eighty.
It is impossible to step out these distances to see if they are even approximately
correct, owing to the numerous supports, both of stone and of wood, on which the great
main branches rest. There are many dozens forming a whole scaffolding of wooden legs and stone
cushions, but nevertheless I see no reason to doubt the approximate accuracy of the dimensions
given.
Old wounds caused by time and decay have been stopped by plaster, and in one instance,
a small roof has been erected over a particularly bad spot.
A small Shinto shrine stands in front of this tree, which
from its great age has obtained the reputation of sanctity.
Proceeding still further between cultivated fields on the
one hand, and the blue waters of the great lake on the
other, the foot of Hiei-zan is soon
reached, and then commences as
toilsome and as steep a four-mile
climb as one can well wish for.
1 am not surprised at the Japs
considering it a pilgrimage to ascend
some of these mountains. The side
ascended was well clothed with
vegetation, the magnificent groves of Cryptomerias
all along the sides and ravines being most striking ;
Violets and Epimediums were flowering freely.
The
species of the latter I believe to be E. maeranthum,
though without any books or material for comparison
it is difficult to be certain, and but little reliance
can be placed on the native names, as one plant
may have several names, and not infrequently one
Ihearfcd r.eihwspora.
name does duty for more than one plant.
The
under-growth is largely composed of the low-growing Bamboo, so common
in Central
Japan, intermixed with which, at the base of the mountain, are many of the common
brick-red Azalea.
The summit of the mountain was bare, with the exception of low
Ham boos, a state of things which continued for about the first thousand feet of the descent, a
most abrupt and curious change from the side facing the lake. The view from the summit
is magnificent. On one side the lake, its shores, with the chains of low hills beyond; on
the other, a panorama of the great ancient town of Kyoto, spread out on a fertile plain.

KYOTO.
IMMEDIATKLY after my arrival here it rained with solid determination, and with a
consistency which forces admiration. There is no mistake when it rains in Japan, but when
it ceases, it does cease, and the sun frizzles everything up half-an-hour afterwards, and
continues to do so until it again begins to rain.

112

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

The garden in Kyoto known as the Old Imperial Garden, which the Mikado used during
the Shoguns' power, is an interesting old place, but no longer carefully kept up.
It is not
large, the main portion being occupied by a lake, so narrowed in the centre that a small
stone bridge crosses it.
In shape it is not altogether unlike an irregular figure eight. In
the centre of one portion a small island, on which are many young Maples, is connected with
the shores by two quaint stone bridges, each beneath a thick arbour of Wistaria, now flowering,
its long racemes and still longer shoots trailing over the sides and parapets of the bridges,
reaching almost to the water. The Wistaria is flat-trained on a Bamboo roof ; of such there
are many specimens, that at Kameido, near Tokio, being probably the finest.
It is impossible
to convey an idea of the beauty of this plant thus grown, the many dozens of spotless clear-blue
racemes hanging down through the Bamboo support producing a charming effect, totally different
from that which it does in England. Around this lake, on the undulating ground, are some
fine specimens of trees, often overhanging and reaching to the water's edge, and evidently of
considerable age.
Ilex latifolia, fifty feet high, is larger than I have ever seen it, and
was flowering freely. Judging from the size of the specimens usually met with, I conclude this
tree is of slow growth.
Photinia scmdata, a common
plant and one much used for hedges everywhere I have
been, is also well represented, as are Podocarpus and
Salisburia (Ginkgo biloba), the young green leaves of
which are very pretty.
Camellia japonica, Eriobotryas,
Ilex inlcyra, Cherries (Pnmus Mume) and some lovely
flowering bushes of double Kerria are all to be seen
on the shores of the lake.
The finest specimens in
the garden are those of a deciduous tree which I believe
to be Aphananthe aspera allied to Celtis and Zelkova.
My guide examined the people in the garden about it,
and elicited this satisfactory information : " It fruits after
the summer."
I suggested that this was not unknown,
when the equally surprising statement, " It fruits before
the winter," was made, with such a touching politeness
A big Pine.
and with an air of such . profound conviction, that I really
had to give it up.
It is
tree of the noblest proportions in every way, though the
individual leaves are small.
In another quarter of the town and from a bridge (known as the bridge communicating
with Heaven) in a monastery of the Zen sect, one looks down upon a lovely gully, famous
for its Maples, which 1 went to see, it being a really pretty spot.
Around these temples, as
well as growing wild on the hill-sides, the Maples and Oaks are now generally beautiful, as
are also Dwspyros Kaki, Photinia glabra, Cherries, Eheagnus and Wistaria ; whilst of flowering
plants in bloom, I recently noticed Viburnum plicaturn (very good), China Roses (most free),
Cereis chine mis, Caragmm arborescent and Thermopsis fabacca.
Tree Pa;onias were coming into
bloom and those which had received a certain amount of protection, such as a slight awning
were already in flower.
1 certainly saw nothing new or what I had not previously seen.
The gardens of the monasteries Kinkakuji, Ginkakuji, and Nishi Hongwanji are highly
interesting ; the latter is the largest monastery and temple in Japan, as well as being one of the
wealthiest. Its paintings are famous ; some rooms contain only paintings of geese, others of
peacocks, whilst one of the most striking has its sliding screens decorated with Bamboo and sparrows.
The largest of all has a Pine stretching from one screen to the other, carried along the whole
of one sideit is wonderfully executed, even the minutest grey scabs on the bark being reproduced.
Perhaps the most interesting of the three gardens is that adjoining the first-named, though I must

Til? N-W YOKK


PTT.LIC LlisKAKT

a-vc:t, r-- . x ,-,:'i>


TiLH.--.;. t t, ;t nu\a
n
i

JAPAN.SPRINO

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

113

not forget to mention that in front of the large and magnificent temple Nisid Hongwanji is
an "Icho" (Ginkgo biloba), credited with the power of extinguishing fire, and said to be the
largest in Japan ; it is certainly not the highest, scarcely reaching fifty feet, but its spread
of branches is very great.
The Chinese garden behind the Kinhalcuji Monastery, attached to the Zen sect of
Buddhists, is from four hundred to five hundred years old, and most prettily situated.
It
contains a lake, in which are some huge carp and red-fish, a golden pavilion, and a curious
Pine in the form of a junk, certainly one of the most curious of the many interesting and
strangely trained Pines in the whole Empire (Sec plate viiL).
This remarkable example of
horticultural skill stands alone in a courtyard, the resultaccording to the attendant priestsof
over three centuries of patient labour.
Trained as a sailing junk the main trunk forms the
mast, and two opposite branches springing from the stem but a few inches from the ground
form the basis from which the whole upper structure of the hull has been formed. The hull
is thirty-five feet in length and somewhat exceeds the height of the whole tree; the remaining
branches on the main trunk are bare of foliage from twelve to eighteen inches from their
base, the foliage being confined to the distal part of the branches, the branchlets of which
have been trained in continuous winding circles so that the leaves and young shoots now rest
on thick layers of twisted, interlaced, stiffened wood, the accumulated training of many scores
of years. The garden and the islands on the lake are planted chiefly with Pines, Acers and
Azaleas in excellent taste. In the courtyard before the monastery is a fine specimen of an
evergreen Oak; the priests call it "Ichii" (Qucreus Gilva). The stem is four feet in diameter,
straight and even, the head round and symmetrical, the total height about forty-five feet.
About ten miles due south from Kyoto is the village of Uji, surrounded by Tea
plantations, long famous as producing the finest tea in Japan. The Tea plant is cultivated in
a way different from what I have seen elsewhere.
In nearly all the fields, the plants in the
rows, ranging from two and a-half to four and a-half feet high, were so old and so intergrown,
that each row was a thick hedge several feet through, and only once did I notice solitary
specimens. Picking commences the second week in May, after which the tea is cleaned
over by girls in the peasants' houses, and then subsequently rolled between the hands of coolies.
There are, of course, no great drying or cleaning establishments, each peasant's house working
independently in a small way. Many fields were entirely covered with straw-mats on a low
scaffolding of poles, and if looked at from above, such as from a high part of the road, one
looked down on several acres of mats. I assume that this is done on account of the plants
having reached a picking stage, and, it being impossible owing to the cost of labour to pick all
the fields at once, the owners endeavour to retard the further growth of the young shoots. Rain
and sun are excluded, and almost all light, for even from the roof of mats a row hung
down all round each field, the tops of the plants being hidden from view. One of the choicest
kinds is the Gyokuro (Jewelled Dew), varying in price from 5 to 7i dollars, equal to 14s. 3d.
and 21s. 3d. per lb.
The Uji plantations are said to date from the end of the twelfth
century, though it is believed tea was introduced to Japan from China by a Buddhist Abbot
Dengyo Daishias far back as the year 805.

TOKIO.
I have obtained sixty specimens of Japanese woods, varying in weight, grain, colour and other
details noticeable on close observation, and also a representative lot of Bamboos. A collection
of cereals and silks 1 made subsequently.
Chamwrops excelsa grows with great freedom in Japan,
p

114

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

and is now flowering profusely. The stipulate fibre at the base of the leaves, as well as the
strong base itself, is of economic value, and therefrom are manufactured brooms, brushes, twine,
strong rope, most serviceable door-mats, etc.
I bought all the products of this fibre I could
hear of, which makes a most interesting exhibit.
Many of these were exhibited at the
Temple Show in 189."i and subsequently deposited in the Museum of Economic Botany at Kew.
The most famous place in Japan for Wistarias is the temple of Temmangu at Kameido, a
suburb of this vast city.
Round a pond (bridged by a characteristic semi-circular Japanese
stone bridge) in front of the temple are numerous plants both of the white and blue Wistaria,
trained on a flat Hamboo support about six feet from the ground. These trees are of great age,
and produce many hundreds of racemes, each from fifteen to eighteen inches in length; they hang
down through their trellised roof in the most glorious profusion, and present certainly one of
the most beautiful floral sights
in Japan.
The white variety,
known as If. iutiertilmfnl.i, seems
to flower a week later, but the
plants are equally old
and
equally profuse with their magui-

fieent racemes. Beneath these


Wistarias are many low bcoad
benches, on which the Japanese
sit, sipping their tea and
smoking. Around the pond
children play, feeding the carp
and gold fish, whilst through
the centre of the grounds,
over the semi-circular stone
Tokio. Tlw Afoat awl Pine-topped Walls of the Imperial Palace.
bridge, wends the ever-constant
stream of Shintoists going to
worship Sugawara-no-Michizane in the temple known as Temman-Daijizai, "The Perfectly Free
and Heaven-filling Heavenly Divinity."
One of the most curious sights of Tokio is the Oji-zo-sama, a fair held nightly in
various parts of the city, at which are sold toys, plants, etc. The flower and plant stalls
are the most numerous.
The fair, if it may so be called, is held in this quarter not a
stone's-throw from the outer moat of the Imperial Palace, and along the "Ginza," the
great main artery of Tokio, on the 7th, 18th and 29th of each month, always at night.
That held on the 18th of April, 1892, I visited, and rarely saw a more striking spectacle. Along
each side of many streets were arranged booths, in front of each flaring lamps, giving a
strange colour to the Pines, the Pinks, the Ardisia berries, and delicate Tea Roses.
On a
low seat sat the owner, a peasant, the poorest of the poor, selling at low prices the
productions of his bit of ground, situated somewhere in the outskirts of the city.
Ever to
and fro wandered a thick crowd of the poorest classes, clean in person, for no Jap is anything
else, but wearing clothes old and worn, betokening their lowly state.
Often one saw people
carrying away their purchasesan old woman, bent with age, carefully bearing off an old dwarfed Pine

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

115

as bent, crooked and old as herself ; or a young girl with a child strapped to her back,
carrying in her hand a porcelain tray, holding a piece of stone resembling a rock which had
on its sides a stone lantern or two, at its base a small house, and around it, pebbles, to be
subsequently covered with water to represent a lake ; also on its summit a clump of fresh green
growing Acorus gramincus, a toy and a plant, nature and art in one, lake, rock, house,
lantern and forest reduced to the space of a dozen square inches. The Pinks were lovely
splendidly cultivated, and Ardisia erispa was well berried.
Potentilla fruticosa was amongst the
flowering plants, though the most numerous of all were Roses. Pines, Retinosporas and Cycas
were the favourites amongst the non-flowering plants. To watch all this was a curious and
entertaining sightthe glare of the lamps, the stalls, the thick crowd, sometimes impassable,
the noise of the vendors praising their plants, the purchasers quarrelling over the price, the
ceaseless clack-clack of the wooden shoes, the constant laughter on all sides ; now varied by a
sabred policeman, scarcely over five feet high, removing firmly some unfortunate who had
partaken too freely of sake ; now by a band of socialists pushing and elbowing their way
through the harmless throng.
Osmunda regalis now coming into flower, is noteworthy on account of its young flowering
shoots forming a most palatable dish when
warmed through and eaten with sauce.
The scales of Lily bulbs with melted butter,
a dish I have only seen at Kyoto, is
also by no means unpleasant, and the
shoots of a small-growing Bamboo, when
plucked young and treated in the Japanese
fashion, are firm and crisp, forming an
excellent vegetable.
The Botanic Gardens. The herbaceous
grounds and shrubbery are very full of labels
but of
little else.
Amongst the trees
flowering at this season, a foremost place
must be given to Cornus brachypoda, the
sluba Park, Toki0m_Utuler the Piilcs,
whole extent of its long spreading branches
being covered with tlat heads of white flowers ; it is a striking tree.
Styrax Oixissw is
commencing to open its flower buds.
I note that it blooms here far more freely than with
us, and it is no exaggeration to say almost as freely as S. japonica does at Coombe Wood.
S. japonim is later, from seven to ten days, and as may be imagined, marvellously floriferous.
Pinns koraicnsis is very handsome. I have, so far, seen none but small specimens, but in this
condition I prefer it to any of the four Pines found in Japan. Many of the quarters in
which the trees are planted in straight rows are edged with Bletia hyacinthina, both red and
white, now freely flowering. Tea (Camellia Thca) is also used for the same purpose ; it bears
clipping, and forms a continuous, close, strong edging eight inches high. Amongst other flowering
trees now to be noticed is Robinia Pscud-acacia, used for avenues, and in this respect often
alternated with Weeping Willows. Both are most cruelly pruned, the heads being cut till they
are flat.
Holesm corymbosa and Ghditsch'm japonica were full of buds, and promise, when
in flower, to he a fine sight. Spiraa Thunbergii and S. prnnifolia were over; but *S". cantonensis
(our S. Reevesiana) and S. betulifolia were in full glory truly handsome shrubs.
Mvnziesia
pentandra (very similar in foliage to Enkianthus japonicus) was exceedingly pretty, as
free-blooming and not unlike Picris japonica, with flowers of a pleasing dull red colour, the
stalks of the young shoots being also quite red.
Certainly the most striking portion of the Botanic Gardens is the landscape garden, in pure

lit>

JAPAN.SPRING

AND

EARLY

SUMMER.

Japanese style, situated on the side of a low hill, with an exceedingly picturesque lake at
the bottom ; it is most favourably placed, and one of the best pieces of work 1 have seen.
The hill, backed by Oaks, Abics firma, and other large trees, is covered with many hundreds
of perfectly-clipped thick bushes of Enkianthus japonicus, presenting a lively green with their
young shoots ; amongst these are young Pines and Maples. Over the lake hang flat trained
and twisted Pines; where this narrows are stone bridges, or large flat stones in the water for
one to walk over, whilst on the bank facing the hill is a tea-house, where the Japs sit and
loiter away their idle hours.
Nurseries.It being now the season for Roses, with an introductory card I called on a
cultivator bearing the reputation of being the leading grower in Tokio. His nursery is situated
in a district apart from all others 1 had yet been in, but as full of nurseries as any other.
The number of such establishments round Tokio is very great. It is difficult to form even
an approximate estimate of the number, but that it exceeds that of the growers at Boskoop,
Ghent, the bulb grounds of Holland, and the seed growers round Erfurt or Quedlinburg is, I
think, clear.
It is easy to wander for a day from nursery to nursery in one district alone,
return the next day and continue one's walk, and yet never enter a previously-visited
establishment. Most are neat and clean, and contain a stock, the striking similarity of which
I have already referred to. In all the districts, Pines and Eetinosporas in pots form by far the
largest percentage of cultivated plants.
In some, much care is devoted to Plums and Cherries,
in others Oranges are a leading feature ; whilst in those establishments above the ordinary,
young plants of nearly all those with which we are acquainted in England, may be
generally noticed in an afternoon's stroll. The Roses are chiefly Teas, and certainly not the
later European varieties, nor do they offer opportunity for special comment.
As might be
expected, they grow with much freedom, often make large bushes, and flower in profusion.
They are pruned long, as in India, in my opinion too long to make smart plants, but so well
is the wood ripened that the plants do not sutler. Japan is not 20 nearer the equator than
our country without benefiting in this respect.
Variegated plants are much cultivated
Podocarpus, Ophiopogon, C'leyera, Qucrent euspidata, Daphniphyllum, Pittuqmrum Tobira, Ilex
latifolia and Eriobotrya japonica are amongst those most frequently seen, including both
silver and golden variegated forms of many of them.

PART

VIII.

JAPAN-AUTUMN.

PART VIII.

JAPAN -AUTUMN.

TOKIO.

August, 1891'.The chief florists' flower to he seen at present in Tokio is the Convolvulus.
With the Morning Glory, Japanese specialists have done much, being rewarded not only by
obtaining the most distinct and varied tints, but also by producing forms of foliage different
to any I have seen. Of the leaves, I have made a collection, and I find that the variety in
the form of the leaf is as great as in the colours of the flowers,
and that there is certainly a wider difference between the various
forms and distortions of the former than between the various tints
and . shades of the latter.
The pronounced colours, leaving out of
consideration the innumerable intermediate tints and shades, are rich
and good, though they are not so many as might be expected.
Rich
violet, a glossy carmine, a good clear dark blue, white and pink,
are well-fixed colours present in every collection ; between these
are every conceivable tint, from a dirty, repulsive-looking brown
to lilac, dull shot brick-red, and sulphur. Spotted and mottled
varieties are common, many are also edged with white, but
striped kinds are almost unknown ; I saw but one or two, and
I doubt whether these are constant.
Leaving my quarters at .i.:50 a.m. on the 19th inst., two
sturdy men rolled me through the dark and deserted streets
of Tokio to Iriya, in the district of Shitaya.
I sighed as
I entered that districtrows of nurseries I had never
entered nor heard of, notwithstanding the many dozens I
had toiled through in the various suburbs of this great
city. Soon after 4 A.m. I alighted, and found myself in a
AbUs firma.
narrow street with high split Bamboo fences on either
side. As these were not less than nine feet high and it was still dark, the view was confined.
At 4.15 a nursery was opened.
I entered, and drank straw-coloured water, a compound
the Japanese affectionately call tea, and waited for the sun to rise. The household began to
bestir itselfthat is, its various members picked themselves up from the floor, rolled their
quilts up, removed a couple of walls (composed of sliding screens), opening the entire house
to the garden, came outside, dipped a hand in a tin receptacle containing about a pint of
water, passed it carefully over the face, used coarse salt as a dentrifice, put themselves on the

120

.TArAX.AUTUMN.

top of wooden clogs, bowed low and with dignity to the foreigner, and were ready for the
day's work. Soon after 4.30 a.m. the sun began to rise and the folded bnds of the Convolvuli
to open.
In an hour all the plants, placed for the night on the ground, were arranged, their
pots sunk in porcelain jars of various designs, on wooden stages in a low shed.
Some
remaining over were arranged in blocks to form winding paths, and carefully shaded even at
that early hour, for by 9 to 10 a.m. even with these precautions all the blooms have faded.
As rapidly as the sun rose so rapidly did the flowers open. Visitors began to enter the
nursery and exhibited much interest in the plants, many of the Japanese being " grands
amateurs " of the Convolvulus.
The plants were from two to two and a-half feet
high, trained round fine stiff straws much as we train our greenhouse creepers ; they bore
from one to eleven open flowers each, three, five and seven being the averages, such plants
varying in price from 4 to 8 sen ('.,d. to (id.). each. A few large plants from four to six feet
high were very fine. The single varieties are the most common, though the double, to my mind
less beautiful and beyond question less showy, are apparently more highly prized.
Among the
latter there is considerably less variety, added to which the cup, unable to contain the large
petaloid stamens, frequently splits on one side, the delicate contour and symmetry of the flower
being naturally destroyed.
I visited many nurseries, all side by sidestreets of nurseries a district of Convolvulus. All
have a close resemblance to each other in every
respect.
Besides the nurseries are enclosures
containing groups of life-sized figures with
Convolvulus trained over them. These represent
legends or historical events, the figures having
the hair dressed, and the clothing (a frame
work covered with moss) cut in ancient fashion.
The foreigner has the privilege of paying
'1 sen to enter here, though by the general
giggle which invariably prevailed on my
depositing the modest copper, I am convinced
the Japs paid but one.
These little scenes
an; pretty and carefully designed; the open
Convolvulus flowers covering a naked sword,
A Japanesc Jfwrtery
creeping up clothing, or arranged in a woman's
hair, are very effective.
In one enclosure I literally lost myself in a large maze of split
Bamboo eight feet high, covered with trailing Convolvulus in great variety.
A somewhat
powerful scent of an artificial fertilizer pervaded all the nurseries.
Neat glass bottles with
labels and instructions in Chinese characters, on small stands, contained the mixture, which
was evidently freely applied.

FUJI-YAMA.
I HAVE just concluded a journey on and around Fuji-sanbetter known as Fuji-yama,
It
is, as everybody knows, the most beautiful, the highest, and the most famous mountain in
Japan, rising on all sides in an unbroken sweep from a somewhat extensive plain, to a height
which has been variously estimated from twelve thousand two hundred and thirty-four feet to
twelve thousand four hundred and thirty-seven feet.
It is scarcely to be wondered at that such
an impressive and exceptional effort of nature should be held sacred by man, especially in earlier
days, but to judge by the hundreds of pilgrims who weekly make the ascent (except for the

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

121

young and active) this by no means light ascent, the religious awe and deep reverence with
which the volcano is regarded is as keenly alive within the breast of all classes as ever it
was. The mountain dominates all around it. From its summit at sunrise, lakes, towns,
provinces, mountain ranges and the ocean are all visible, though in a few hours these are
often obscured by billowy masses of dense white vapour of indescribable splendour. Occasionally
a break occurs, and a glimpse is caught of the plains below, but it is rare. The mountain
is celebrated for these cloud effectstruly a most impressive sight; several thousand feet below,
a sea of cloud, nothing else and nothing more, the only land in sight the peak on which you
stand" the only island in the world," as a writer has well put it. The continuous change of
form, the rapidity of motion, the calm isolated peak rising majestically above the constant
turmoil, all combine to give splendour to the picture. For only two months in the year, in
the height of summer, is the entire ascent possible. Large rifts of snow are present all the year
round, and the temperature at night is often but little above freezing point, although in the
plain below it is between 70 and 80 Fahrenheit. The crater of the volcano, quiescent for
many years, though by some not considered extinct, has been variously estimated at depths
varying from four hundred and sixteen feet to five hundred and eighty-four feet.
In diameter
it is close upon two thousand feet, and is surrounded by a complete circle of sharp peaks.
From Gotemba the ascent can be performed for the first six thousand feet on horseback,
but I preferred doing it on foot. After leaving the railway
station, for an hour we passed over level ground, well
wooded and sprinkled with wild flowers, before we reached
the foot of the actual ascent.
In this stretch I saw
many plants that also occur in Corea, Pueraria Thuribergiana,
Pinks, Campanulas, etc. ; Boeconia cordata, Hydrangca involuerata
and //. punetata were flowering and seeding freely ; Clematis,
Diervilla, Tiger Lilies and Scabious were all flowering and
common. Retinospora obtusa and Cnjptomeria japonica were
the most noticeable Conifers.
Starting at two o'clock one
afternoon, with an interpreter and two coolies carrying
food, clothing, etc., and travelling at a leisurely pace, we
reached hut No. 4 at 6.:!0 p.m., where we stayed the night.
1 must here digress to mention that Fuji is divided nominally
into ten stations on those sides which are accessible, No. 1 station being at about six
thousand feet elevation, or at the point from which it is necessary to send horses back ;
all the stations are not, however, kept up.
Over a slightly rising undulating plain, under coarse grass with nought but a few Pines
and stumpy vegetation generally, we wended our way for the next one thousand five hundred
feet to the commencement of the forest, a forest thick and rank, but containing no individual
specimens of great size.
Tsuga Sicboldi, Larix bptohpis, Pin us Thutibergii, Lindera obtusiloba,
Astilbe japonica, Pwris japonica, Oaks and a few Maples, chiefly Accr rufinerve, were noticeable.
Larix leptolepis is worthy of especial mention ; it grows on the plains, and it is the tree
found at the highest elevations on the mountain.
On the south and east sides I observed it
at eight thousand to eight thousand five hundred feet a scrubby stunted bush; at from
two thousand to four thousand feet it forms good trees with trunks two to two and a-half
feet in diameter ; and on the plains, though scarcely attaining that size, the specimens are of
even and shapely form.
It affords in a few short hours a striking lesson on the effect
of environment and altitude.
1 may mention that of the three sides I ascended or descended the mountain, that from
Gotemba, though the least arduous and the one most usually selected, is decidedly for me the
Q

122

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

least interesting from a horticultural point of view ; the path is composed of loose ashes
somewhat fatiguing to traverse. Beyond eight thousand five hundred feet the vegetation only
consists of scattered plants of a red or white-flowering Polygonum and a very handsome Thistle
which thrive in the bare ash, to within some two thousand feet from the summit. From eight
thousand feet to the summit a smooth sharp incline of ashes, dull purple or reddish purple
in colour, relieved occasionally by the Polygonum or Thistle, is all that is to be seen ; the
narrow path, trodden firmly by the feet of thousands of pilgrims, is visible nearly all the way
as it ascends almost straight or with but slight deviations. At every hut it is usual to stop and
rest both the coolies and oneself. These huts are of wood at first, but near the summit they
are composed of lumps of lava lined with boards. The one in which we passed the first
night was looked after by a woman. In size it is about twenty yards by ten, and has a floor,
a door, a fire-place, and no chimney. Ten men beside myself lay there ; the men presumably
slept, but insects engaged the major portion of my attention. The door was carefully shut at
eight o'clock, and not opened till three o'clock next morning, owing to the cold.
After breakfast we proceeded over the waste of fine ash, a monotonous wearisome climb
to the summit. As we neared it, large boulders became frequent, over which it was often
necessary to climb. Early in the morning my interpreter began vomiting,
and at last got so weak, he could not go fifty yards without resting.
This much delayed us, and we did not arrive till five in the
evening. The interpreter ate nothing at all ; on reaching the hut
he lay down, fell into a heavy sleep, and was delirious through
the night.
He ascribed it subsequently to the rarified air,
but I was loth to believe this, and thought it only fever.
However, soon after reaching the summit, I had sharp pains
in the back of the head, which continued through the night,
and did not vanish till I reached the plain next day.
I
also noticed the lower we got, the better the interpreter
seemed to be, and half-way down he was again able to eat.
I am therefore forced to think the change from the heat
below to the cold above must have been the cause of his
sickness.
Another man in the hut that night was in the same
Clipped llclinosporai.
condition as the interpreter, and I am informed that many Japanese
suller in that way on making the ascent. My companions consisted of fifteen men, all pilgrims
or coolies, who lay in rows, head to feet that is, as you looked down the row, first you
saw a head and then feet, and so on.
I lay in one corner, rather apart, on thick quilts,
rich in animal life, as far from the fire as possible as there was no chimney.
On the summit
are colonies of priests, and numerous huts and small temples for worshippers of the Shinto faith.
On the Gotemba side, three huts and a small temple form a square, all being built up with
blocks of lava.
The sunrise, was fairly good.
I once had to get up on the Iiigi very early to see one,
and was struck by the similarity of my feelings on both occasions. Skirting the crater, we
began the descent at six o'clock in the morning, facing due east, our ultimate point on the plain
being the village of Yoshida ; below us in the distance we could discern ita small blotch on
the landscape. The descent was sharp, our coolies quitting the trodden path, and taking long
strides through the loose rolling ash, straight down the mountain side.
The ash, some six
inches deep, helped to carry us down, and we progressed at a rapid rate for about four
thousand feet, leaving the interpreter far behind. The feeling was most exhilarating, but the
strain on the muscles of the legs is too great to he long sustained, unless one is used to it.
After a short rest we entered the forest, or rather the low vegetation which soon led to the

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

123

forestquite different, and to me more interesting than that on the south side. Some flowering
grasses were pretty at eight thousand feet, and a large Campanula (C. punetata ) is very common ;
it flowers with equal freedom on the plains, and is much like C. Medium, varying in colour
from white to pink.
Birches and Rhododendrons were also noticeable. At six thousand feet
Tsuga Sicboldi began, and was met with in quantity all the way down handsome trees,
attaining a height of from seventy to eighty feet, and covered with last year's cones. At a short
distance beyond I came to Abics Vcitehii, and of this the forest is mostly composed. On
account of the close proximity of the trees one to another, handsome specimens are rare, and
even when the tree has space to develop, it grows tall and slender.
I can scarcely call it
symmetrical, though, at the same time, on account of the closeness of its rich dark foliage, so
silvery beneath, the effect is very grand. Veitch's Manual mentions specimens one hundred feet
high. Possibly, on the northern mountains, Maries saw it attain this height, but on Fuji-yama
the average height I noticed was from fifty to sixty feet. Trunks, which must have been taller,
lay about, felled by Nature's hand. Pica Aleoquiana is not so frequent on this side as on the
Ootemba side.
As all students of our
Conifer literature know, it is a regular
and handsome tree. Rodgersia podophylla
forms a considerable percentage of the
thick undergrowth in parts, and tons of it
could be collected without difficulty. Its
eaves are often little short of two feet
in diameter.
On this side the huts are more
pretentious, and usually have a little
temple attached, at which we sometimes
saw one or other of the many hundreds
of pilgrims we met muttering prayers.
liarittt/ Chdltintj.
These huts are buried in the Abies
forest, the trees rising on all sides,
magnificent in their severe and silent grandenr. The path is steep
and often rough, and I was not sorry to reach the bottom station, where
horses are obtainable to carry one to the village of Yoshida, seven miles distant.
Women seem rarely to make the ascent, as 1 noticed but three. Passing lirst ove;
slightly falling ground, hidden by long grass and innumerable flowering shrubby and
herbaceous plants, Anthericums, Hemerocallis, Platycodons, Campanulas, Pinks, Scabious, low
bushes of Lexpedeza Sicboldii, Lychnis grandiflora and Lycoris radiata, we soon reached level
ground. I may here mention that I do not understand how it was my father did not meet
with Platycodon Maricta, Rodgersia podophylla or Clerodendron trichotomum.
Presumably, as
regards the first and last named, he did not leave Yokohama during theii flowering season ; and
with respect to Rodgersia, it is probable that he ascended and descended the mountain at the
Ootemba or south side, where I did not meet with it. Platycodon round the base of Fuji is as
common as Dandelions in an English country lane. As I have said, on the east side tons of
Rodgersia could be collected, and as to Clerodendron, flowering bushes in the shrubberies on the
hill-sides are not uncommon, although I did not meet with it on Fuji itself.
Shortly before reaching Yoshida we came to some fine groves of Pinus Thunbergi, certainly
the best I have seen. The trees were not too close, nearly all of them from seventy to eighty
feet high, with a fine head. Often the stem for forty to fifty feet had no branches or foliage,
and in every instance, at a few yards from the ground, it assumed the well-known red-brick
tinge.
These groves cover a large area, and are singularly handsome.
To their stems

124

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

cling Ampelopsis tricwpidata and Acalw japonica. Nearer the village a mound is surmounted
by a good grove of Retinospora obtusa fifty to seventy feet high, and some Abics brachyphylla.
Cryptomeria japonica is also good.
Immediately around Yoshida are many fields of Mulberry
1 nishes, cut close back in the spring, the result naturally being strong young shoots.
Sometimes
rows of them are planted hetween Tea, Beans or Potatoes. The Mulberry is cultivated for
the silk-worman immense industry around the whole base of Fuji and in the province of
Koshu generally, the silk produced in this district 1 iearing the reputation of heing heavier than
any other in the country.
In the villages, in house after house, women and girls may be
seen sitting at this season, winding the silk off the cocoons, a dozen or so of which are in
a small metal pan of water close by each worker. Large flat round baskets of cocoons are
spread about the floor as further supplies.
Yoshida is a long narrow village, far from a railway, although it possesses a policeman and
one jinricksha.
It is quiet, picturesque and sleepy, surrounded by glorious scenery most
conspicuous being the
great cone of
Fuji
rising behind it. From
Yoshida, mounted on
an execrable pony, I
skirted the base of the
mountain, reaching at
evening the village of
Hitoana. There was no
road, merely a narrow
bye-path over a grassy
plain or undulating
ground, broken by great
clumps of Pines, with
low hills covered with
greenery on either side.
Hemerocallis, (Enothera,
Tiger Lily, Convolvulus,
Campanula, Hypericum,
Geranium, Platycodon,
Anthericum, and Scabiosa are present in the
(I.) Tcaching the young idca
wildest profusion. Near
Hitoana we entered a
thick forest, chiefly of deciduous Magnolias, Qucreus dentata, Maples, Carpinus, etc., often impassable
without hatchets, so rank is the vegetation. Thunderstorms, so common around Fuji at this
season, were frequent during the day ; the lightning and thunder were magnificent, and the rain
fell in torrents.
Not a house or a hut for miles, nothing but the forest and the rain, and
the coolies marching stolidly ahead. Before reaching our destination, the forest ended abruptly
astonishingly so, and we found ourselves on a great plain many miles in extent, with
scarcely a dozen trees to be seen.
Such a sudden change seemed to me curious, and
apparently without cause ; the plain is covered with long grass four to five feet high.
At Hitoana there is no inn, so we put up with some priests, one of whom was enjoying
his bath on the verandah ; the bath was a tall circular tub, over which peeped his shaven
head. A large section of the community subsequently entered the bath. A priest came to
me, and though he went down on his knees and hands with the most polished courtesy, and

JAPANAUTUMN.

125

begged me to follow the universal example, I felt bound to decline, as being wet through was
bad enough. I therefore refused the second ordeal, and fear I deprived the villagers of a looked-for
spectacle. In most villages the roofs of the cottages are neatly thatched, with a layer of earth
on the top. In this are frequently tangled masses of 7m japonica, and on two occasions I saw the
Tiger Lily. When these are in flower, the effect is curious and pretty. Around the base of Fuji,
in addition to those plants named, Maize and Tobacco are cultivated, and also, as in oiher parts of
Japan, large patches of Coloa>sia antiqnorum for the tuhers, which furnish a favourite article of
food, as well as large quantities of Edgeuvrthm pupiirifrru, the brownish bark of which is employed
in the manufacture of tough paper peculiar to the far East, and which I here saw for the first time.
From Hitoana up to the mountain is but a wood-cutter's bye-way, but hearing that the forest
on this side was densest, I determined to ascend, at least a short distance. Leaving the village,
we ascended a grassy slope to about two thousand feet.
At first a small path could be found,
the grass on both sides, rank and coarse, reaching our
knees; but subsequently the local guide most successfully
lost his way, and we wandered about up hill, down
dale, and over dry torrent-courses, in strong, tall grass
from five to six feet high, still trying to make the
limit of the forest above us. The process was somewhat
fatiguing, but in three and a-half hours we arrived at
a wood-cutter's hut, on the forest limit, and after a
rest penetrated some distance up the mountain. The
aspect of the vegetation is totally different from that
on the Gotemba and Yoshida sides. I could scarcely
believe that a few miles off I had left a mountain
slope covered with Abies, with a thick and luxuriant
undergrowth, and here I found myself, from the
commencement, in a deciduous forest with trees of
immense size and of great age. Fine specimens were
numerous, and great fallen trunks lay across a pathway
trodden by none but a few wood-cutters. There being
often little undergrowth, views were obtainable of the
dense forest on both sides, rendered more impressive
by the complete silence. Conifers were present, but rare.
I have often noticed the almost entire absence of
small birds in Japan. A few sparrows are occasionally
(II.) Tcaching the young idea.
seen, but other kinds are very scarce. All I saw of
Fuji seemed destitute of animal life, and we did not even turn up a snake.
I again reached
the railway, after leaving Hitoana, at Suzukawa, some twenty miles distant, and came by train
to Tokio. En route I noticed those crops already mentioned, the country bearing much the same
general aspect. The heat is now great in Tokio, and the nights on this account are very trying ;
at 1.30 a.m. my thermometer registered outside the window, about forty feet from the ground,
82 Fahrenheit. To-day at 11.30 a.m., in the same position, it marks 88.

CHOKAIZAN.
Acting on
excursion in
in northern
the railway

the advice of Professor Sargent, of the Arnold Arboretum, U.S.A., I made an


the autumn to Chokaizan, situated within a short distance of the Sea of Japan,
Nihon. Thanks to the services of a jinricksha company found at Sendai where
is left, I arrived in three days at the foot of the mountain, and put up in

126

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

a small fishing hamlet.


Twice I have met with these companies, and find them good, as
they supply relays of men every few miles. On one occasion we did fifty-five miles in one
day, including a high mountain pass ; and on another, ten miles in one and a-quarter hour,
an average of one mile in seven minutes.
On these occasions the roads were trunk
roads or " kokudo." I was once on a country cross-road or " rido," and it took four and
a-half hours to get over twelve miles, despite the exertions of two powerful fellows. Another
advantage, and an important one appertaining to the main trunk roads worked by the
companies, is the certainty of always obtaining men. On one occasion on a side road I
arrived in a village, and found that an M.P. on the previous day in the course of an
electioneering tour had passed through and taken every coolie the place possessed ; on another
I required four men, but I was told the road was so bad that eight were necessary ; only
two being obtainable, my luggage and boy (interpreter and cook) had to fall back on pack-horses.
At the best, a day in a jinricksha is fatiguing, but when on roads with loose sand and stones
six inches deep, as along the west coast line, it becomes somewhat exhausting.
A few miles north of Tokio is Sendai, noteworthy for the manufacture of articles more ornamental
than useful, from fossil-wood found on a hill close by. The native name is " jindai-sugi," the wood
in all probability being Cryptomeria. 1 obtained several examples, as well as a piece of fossilized
Pine, and a roll of cloth called " shifu-ori," made
from silk and paper, and suitable for hot
weather; the plant from which the paper used in
this cloth is obtained is Broussonctm papyrifeca.
Not far from Sendai a somewhat high range of
mountains is crossed by a pass kept in perfect
condition. This range runs through the centre
of the island almost unbroken, from Shiznoka
on the south coast to the most northern point.
JtF
^Hf
Twice I crossed it
once
rout<
Chokaizan,
between Sakunami and Sekiyama, and again on
the return journey to Kurosawajiri, shortly
after leaving Yokote.
On both occasions I
was struck with the extreme lx?auty of the
The Lav.
scenery, and the richness of the varied deciduous
vegetation.
The road, in jierfect condition,
running along the sides of the hills, and frequently hewn out of solid rock, passes through
narrow valleys and deep ravines, every turn revealing fresh views. All sides are shut in by
steep and inaccessible mountains, clothed with the densest deciduous forest, from the banks of
the torrent below to their very summit.
Acer palmatum, Sliirnx japonica, Qiwreus scrrata,
Viburnums, Bcrehcmia raeemosa, and tall handsome specimens of sEsculus turbinata and Magnolia
hypoleuca were all seeding freely.
Beyond Sekiyama and as far as Moto-Aikai, on the banks
of the Mogamigawa, one of the most important streams in northern Japan, our way lay for
the most part over a wide plain chiefly under Rice, then fast ripening. Villages are numerous,
and bear a totally different aspect to those further south, all the houses having one end
facing the street, and constructed of heavy lieams and walls of mud and chopped straw. The
general effect is more that of a huge barn than a domicile.
The dress of the women is
somewhat different, and their head-gear peculiar ; a broad band is wrapped, just above the eyes,
tightly round the head, and a similar one over the nostrils and moutha protection against
dust or cold.
Many of the house walls were literally hidden with strings of Tobacco leaves,
drying in what ought to have been an autumn sun, but there was and has been generally
very little.

JArAN.AUTUMN.

127

From Moto-Aikai to the somewhat important seaport Sakata the jinrickshas ran over the
smooth undulating southern bank of the Mogamigawa, here a broad shallow stream ; hills on
cither side, with broad belts of Cryptomeria made the scenery attractive. To the south lay the
peaks Haguro-san and Gwassan, the latter, the highest, being upwards of six thousand two hundred
feet elevation above sea-level, curious as being connected with a non-existing mythical third,
the three together being known as San-zan, " the three mountains." The non-existing peak,
bearing the name of Tudono-san, is marked on Japanese maps, and mentioned in some European
books ; sign-posts point to it, its ascent is discussed by pious pilgrims, but on the authority
of the Imperial Survey Department, it does not exist.
I of course asked for it, and a
direction was pointed out ; but when I hinted my doubts, my " boy " (a Tokio man) laughed
and said no more. Since then I have met with the following statement :" Though not in
itself a mountain, it is a hollow on the shoulder of a mountain called Umba-ga-tuke. This
spot is considered sacred, and is a goal for pilgrims. Those who affirm and those who deny
the existence of the sacred mountain would therefore seem
to be equally in the right, as the question turns on the
definition of the word mountain, or rather of the Japanese
word " san."
From Sakata (where I purchased old lacquer at prices
laughable when compared with those at Tokio and elsewhere
frequented by wealthy Americans and globe- trotters) it was
but a short way to the village of Fukura, where 1 had
decided to stay. Skirting the sea-shore, for the most part
beneath fine plantations with little or no undergrowth,
Chokaizan looming in the north, 1 was deposited one
soaking-wet afternoon in a small hamlet of some half dozen
habitations.
Fortunately a hot spring had given an excuse
for a fair inn, and during my stay visitors were not
infrequent. A dreary place this Fukura not a chicken,
hence I went eggless.
Fortunately I had ample supplies.
The afternoon I spent wondering where and how I was to
begin, not a particle of reliable information being obtainable;
it is easy enough to talk of doing a mountain, but when
you start for a great mound a hundred miles round at
its base, the prospect is apt to be overwhelming. How
ever, before I left I worked the south, south-weet,
and south-east slopes, rendered far easier than it at first appeared by the circumstance that
there was not a tree above seven hundred feet, but only low scrub.
Chokaizan is seven thousand one hundred feet above sea-level, but the slope is gradual,
and the distance to the summit is considered to be nine ri (1 ri = 244 miles). The first
recorded eruption took place A.i,. 861, the last, an insignificant one, about thirty years ago; its
volcanic force is said to be becoming extinct.
Immediately behind Fukura the undergrowth in
parts is almost entirely composed of Quercus dentata, low bushes, cut down for fire-wood.
I
first ascended from Fukura, the usual route, but soon perceived there was little worth the
troublelow shrubberies of Quercus, Lespedeza, Eulalia, etc., entwined with Vitis, Pueraria, and
other creepers. Wood-cutters were busily at work. At six hundred feet altitude I was able to
obtain a more general idea of the vegetation of the mountain.
Below stretched the plain,
dotted with villages partially hidden by groves of Zelkova, Diospyros, Camellias, Cryptomeria,
Bamboos, Oaks, Mulberries, etc.
It was, I may say, entirely under Rice, from the lower
slopes of the mountain to the Pine-belt lining the sea-shore. To the south-east and east are

128

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

numerous groves of Pines which I subsequently found to be singularly fine, and two long
lines of dense deciduous vegetation, evidently along the banks of mountain torrents.
One,
the most easterly, extends to a wood, in the recesses of which lies buried a Buddhist
temple.
Here the vegetation is richer than in any part visited, and I spent, as far as the
weather would allow, the best part of two days in and around it. Fairly easy of access,
through the numerous wood-cutters' trails, it is yet in itself, apart from these, frequently
impenetrable.
The banks of the torrents are so steep that it is only by clinging to the
Bamboo and undergrowth one can descend.
In the wood along the torrent banks, wood
cutters are active, and I crossed several clearings, usually carefully replantedyoung Cryptomeria
as often as anything, the young plants inserted within a foot or two of the old stumps. I
also came to a plantation, still quite young, of Pyrus Toringo.
In the groves, and more
especially in that surrounding the temple, are fine specimens of Elm, Zelkova, Beech, Rhus,
Camellias with stems nine to eighteen inches through, Magnolia hypolenca forty to fifty feet
high, Acer pietum, A. cissifolium, and quite a small forest of A. palmatum unfortunately without a
seed ; as well as Cherries, Pyrus, Chestnuts, sEsculus turbinuta, Euonymus, Linderas, and Oaks. The
undergrowth is rich, Bamboos
being most frequent ; in parts
are a few distinct species of
Ferns. I brought away some
seed, but nothing, I fear, of
great value ; the fact is, all the
really good things are known
and already in England.
In returning to the railway
we again skirted the sea-shore
as far as Akita, meeting with,
as was to be expected, Hosa
rugosa, flowering and seeding ;
Juniperus littoralis covered with
berries, a low, pretty grey
Artemisia, and groves of rather
poor Fine.
From Akita we
In the Rke fieldsraising water from a lower to a higher leecl.
travelled due east.
Outside
the town much Rice was being
harvested, the peasants standing, despite the cold, knee-deep in liquid mud, and using a short,
triangular, slightly-hooked blade on a stout handle.
Tied in small bundles, the Rice is
conveyed to the sides of the fields, and there hung on rough scaffolding, especially erected
for the purpose, several rows deep, to finish ripening.
The task of cutting is frequently
left to the women, the men loading the pack-horses, etc. On the slopes of the mountain
passes, Puccariii Thunforgiana was being cut, tied in bundles, and hung outside the huts to
dry.
From its fibre, rope and twine are manufactured, specimens of which I hnve sent to
Kew.
I also for the first time saw bundles of " utsuji " (Irfspedezn Si<batiUi), stacked to dry.
On inquiry, I was informed that the small wooden nails required for lacquer boxes and
other fine work are manufactured from its stiff branches.
Kurosawajiri, where the railway
is again reached, is approached by a fine avenue of young Pines several miles long,
destined, provided Nature does not destroy it, one day to be probably famous; from that
place I took train to Awomori.

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

129

AW O MORI.

Behind the village of Awomori, the northernmost port of Nihon, lies a tall blunt mountain,
Mount Hakkoda, the summit of which is iapped with Abics Maricsii, and naturally strong was
the desire of Professor Sargent, my travelling companion, and myself to see tlns little-known
Conifer in its native surroundings. Mount Hakkoda is but
six thousand feet elevation, but owing to its lying at some
distance, and to the path approaching it traversing more
than one considerable rising, the ascent and descent occupied
altogether three to four days. Before arriving at the summit we
passed through a rich and varied vegetation. At low elevations
Hex arimta, covered with its small black fruit, spreads over
acres, whilst lining the ever-ascending path we picked out
Viti.i heterophylla with its handsomely coloured fruit, Euonymus
Hamiltonianus, Akebia lobata, Rosa multiflora, Berehemia
racemosa, Dicerilla japonica, Polygonum sachalinensc, Ilex
Sugeroki, Rhus Osbeckii, Mcnzicsia pentandra, Epigwa asiatica,
the distinct northern form of Hex integra, Viburnum furcatum,
Selling the Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) in
bearing on all sides its highly tinted fruits; Daphniphyllum
the public strects.
humile, much dwarfer than the southern species ; Rhodo
dendron Albrcchtii, R. brachycarpum, Skimmia japonica, Fraxinus wngicuspis, Rhus tuxicotlendron,
Viburnum Wrightii, Aralia spinosa, Acanthopanax ricinifolium, A. triadophylloides, Ciphalotaxns
drupacca, fruiting at three thousand feet elevation; Alnus jirum multinervis, Hydrangca paniculata,
Crmcfurdia japoniat, Acer pietum, A. palnmtum, A. japonicum, and the
lovely little A. capillipes covered with golden samaras at a height of three
thousand to four tbousand feet.
At higher elevations both Empetrum
nigrum and a white-fruited Oaultheria were common.
Splendid isolated
specimens of forest trees it was frequently our good fortune to meet with
Hemlock Firs with ripe cones, probably the northernmost limit of the
tree ; Betula Ermanni, yEsenlus turbinata, quite
as handsome as the European species ; Pterocarya
rhoifolia, stately trees, sixty to eighty feet in
height; and last, but not least, Magnolia
hypolenca, its cones of brilliant scarlet fruit, six
to eight inches long, standing rigid above the
immense foliage.
This fine deciduous tree,
wherever met with, is in its way unequalled
for decorative effect by any other tree in
the forest flora of Japan.
The flowers are
creamy white, of great substance, measuring
from six to seven inches in diameter when
fully expanded, delieiously fragrant, and produced
at the end of nearly every shoot on the
adnlt tree.
Its fruit and foliage are equally
Street scene.
striking, and as it is met with as far north
as the forty-third and forty-fourth parallels of latitude, and at considerable elevations, there
is strong hope that we may yet see it in its full glory in Great Britain.
R

130

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

Within a few hundred feet of the top of the mountain we came to a collection of low
straw huts in which we passed two nights. They were too low to stand in, and as they were
without window and chimney, we were only too glad to remain at full length to avoid the
fumes of the smoke of the large fire rendered necessary by the intense cold.
Immediately
above these huts lies the forest of Abics Maricsii, a most handsome and striking Fir.
The
forest occupies but a limited area ; it is by no means thick, nor are any of the trees of
great size. In winter the snow must lay here several feet deep. At the base of the trees is
an almost impervious mass of tough thick Bamboo, to get through which, even in the
wood-cutters' track, was often no light task.
Off the track there is no other course than
to cut one's way with a hatchet.
At a lower elevation, closely clinging to the surrounding
rocks and never more than a few feet high, covering the bare slopes on every side, is Pinus
pumila, and during the descent we met with a few specimens of what Professor Sargent
considered to be Pinus pentaphylla from fifty to sixty feet in heighta new species described and
figured by Dr. Mayr in his " Monograph of the Pines and Fire of Japan."

HAKODATE.
September, 1892.From Awomori a small Japanese steamer nightly makes the journey to
Hakodate, the only treaty port in the northern island of Hokkaido.
It has a pretty harbour at the base of a tall peak and with
the usual landing-place for the few visitors who go so far north.
The island is in many respects different from Nihon, and it is
believed cannot have been connected with the main island for
geological ages, so different are its fauna and flora.
Possessing
as it does vast primicval forests where the aboriginal Ainu and
the bear still exist, it will always be an island of more than
ordinary interest to the botanist, so fine and so various are some
of its trees, a circumstance that did not escape the experienced
eye of Professor Sargent, who has published in Garden and Forest
the significant fact that on the slope of one low hill he saw
forty-six species and varieties of plants.
Several exclusions in various directions from the Port soon
clearly showed that autumn was rapidly approaching, the colour
and condition of seed being more advanced in the colder climate
of Hokkaido than in the southern island.
For days in almost
ceaseless rain we followed small paths in thick low woods, in
which on every side we met with seed of Rhus trichocarpa, Vitis
A unodland secne.
Coignetiw, Viburuum fureatum, Euonymus nippanicus, Acer japonicum,
whilst among the taller trees Elm, Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Magnolias and sEscuius turbinata
were all bearing fruit. Abics sachalinensis as a young tree when seen in groves is singularly
handsome, and its wood is much employed locally ; this species is common in places. The
deciduous Oaks of the northern island are represented by several species, most of which can
be met with around Junsai-numa, situated on a charming lake.
Of Quereus glandulifera,
Q. erispula and Q. grosscscrrata there is no difficulty in getting seed.
Qucreus dentata is
very handsome, and its acorns and foliage of great size.
Doubtless the confusion in the
nomenclature of these Oaks in our nurseries is to a great extent caused by the various
species growing together, and sufficient care not having been exercised in collecting the acorns
as they lay mixed on the ground.
Accr Miyabei, a fine Maple and quite new to science, is

131

JAPAN. AUTUMN.

named after the genial Professor of Sapporo Agricultural College, and is seemingly scarce.
It
is altogether not unlike the Norway Maple in general appearance.
Two specimens, well laden
with seed, were near a station on the line to Sapporo, and I had a good opportunity of
examining the tree.
Sapporo, the capital of the island, in itself is not of great interest to the traveller.
The town is of quite recent origin, having been created by official iiat during the present
reign. It possesses a few fine buildings, including an Agricultural College on Western principles.
On a thickly-wooded hill behind the town are some fine specimens of deciduous trees, including
Certidiphyllum japonwum twenty-one feet in circumference, Betula Maximouwzii, Ulmus montana,
Carpinus conlata, the finest of the genus, Magnolia Kobus, M. hypolcuca, Acanthapanax ricinifolium
forty feet in height, and many othersa surprising wealth of species in so small an area.
From Sapporo I returned direct to Tokio with the object of making an excursion to the
district of Nikko for the purpose of collecting seed, very little of which, owing to the unusually
damp season, was to be obtained.

TOKIO.
A fruit and vegetable shop in Tokio is not uninteresting
at this season.
The fruit offered in greatest quantity,
whether hawked about the streets, or sold by poor and
needy vendors at the corners of the leading thorough
fares, is naturally the Persimmon (Diospyros). Of the several
varieties commonly met with, the most usual are a large
pale one and a smaller variety of a deep rich orange colour.
Pyrus sinensis is still met with, though its season is evidently
passing ; poor in flavour, and gritty in texture, it would
meet with but little favour in European countries.
For a
Pear it possesses the peculiarity of having a deep depression
at both ends, and is Iwth in colour and shape not unlike a
large Russet Apple.
The finest variety I have met with
is cultivated round Nugata, in the north, though Awomori
supplies the capital to a large extent. A seedless Mandarin
Orange largely exported to America from Kioto, Grapes
from the fertile plains of Koshu, Figs from the districts

Dwarfed Pine.

surrounding Tokio, Pomegranates just bursting, and Chestnuts,


the choicest of which hail from Tamba, are met with everywhere. Lilium tigrinnm bulbs,
scraped white and kept in water, look appetising, and- when boiled are very sweet.
Roasted
Locusts in a tray close by were not so attractive, nor is one tempted by the solid tubers
of Colocasia antiquorum.
Dried Plums, small yellow Chrysanthemums for salad, and Ginkgo
seeds the latter a dish for epicuresare amongst the articles for sale often seen.
In every
street are sacks and bags of Phascolus radiatus, which, when crushed to a pulp, forms one of
the chief ingredients of the countless Japanese sweetmeats. Vegetables, supplied by the same
vendor of Locusts and Persimmons, are large, but I should imagine coarse, with perhaps the
exception of the Gurken ; beautiful miniature Cucumbers, Beans, Carrots, Turnips, Onions, and
Horse-radish are all fine, but the palm must undoubtedly be given to the Sweet Potato.
Costing but | sen per pound retail (i.e., considerably less than {d.), it is cheaper than
rice, and is an invaluable food for both man and cattle. It yields excellent starch and
alcohol, and for a change is sometimes preferable to the ordinary varieties.
Handsome
it cannot be calledlong, round, tapering at both ends ; and in colour a dirty crimson.

132

JAPAN. AUTUMN.

NIKKO.
Ntkko is wholly a mountainous district lying about a hundred miles north of Tokioone of the
loveliest places in the country, the most visited by Europeans, and on account of the surprising
variety in its flora the most
interesting for the plant lover.
Of this flora a very accurate idea
may be obtained by following the
usual route from
the Nikko
Mausoleums, via Lake Chujenji,
to Yumoto, as the paths pass
through richly wooded groves,
resulting from an exceptionally
heavy annual rainfall.
Several
days may be devoted to the
inspection, for so rich and varied
is the vegetation that lwth pleasure
and profit must accrue from it.
Most noticeable during a climb
Nikko. The Saered Monkey in the annual religious festival.
towards Lake Chujenji, at an
elevation of four thousand four
hundred feet, were Hydrangca inrolucrata, good dwarf bushes flowering freely, H. paniculata, a
straggling bush often twelve to fifteen feet in height, Styrax japonica and a few S. Obaxsia,
Stephanouulra flexuosa, Stauntonia hexaphylla, Glycine ehineusis, Boeconia mrdata, Tsuga Sicboldii,
Picca Aleoquiana, P. polita, apparently by no means common, Cryptomerias, Itetinospoca obtusa,
Magnolias, Cornus brachypoda sometimes forty feet in height, Vornus Kouxa, Viburnum tovwntosum,
Acanihopanax rioinijolium, Stuartia Psendo-Camdlia, Euonymus Hamiltonianus, Clethra canesceus,
Hamanwlis arborea, Puerarm Thunbergiana,
Oaks, chiefly Qucreus scrrata, Leech, Birch
very fine, the white bark having a
peculiar orange tinge new to me, the
trees often with stems three feet through,
as large as anything in the deciduous
forest, also
Elms, Chestnuts, RJius
Taruvdendron ; whilst amongst shrubs
and climbers I noted Actinidias, Lespcdezas, Pynis Toringo, Lindera ofrttisiloba,
Berehemia racemosa, Vitis in variety,
Nuts, Clematis Uibuhm, and Schizophragma
often climbing from thirty to forty feet.
Nikko. The procr.'simt of a hundred men in ancient atinmir during
the an n ual religious festival.
On arriving at the lakeone of the
prettiest spots imaginable, oblong in
shape and surrounded by low winding hills, thick with vegetation to the water's edge we
examined the grounds of a small temple, and were rewarded by finding several nice specimens,
including a Pinus Koraicnim and two Sciadopitys, perfect cones of vegetation.
From Chujenji the next point to be made is Yumoto, also on a lake five thousand feet
above sea level. Sheltered on one side by a Hemlock Fir forest and on the other by belts of

m Nr\V 71i11 K
pi:blio i:i;:;ary

4mt.It. i.K.\ AND


T1LtiE\' K .' .1. ,1''\3
B
L

CRYPTO MERJA JAPOXICA AT NIKKO

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

133

Abics homolcpis, and surrounded by low forest-clad hills, this small village stands in the wildest
solitude rich in plant life.
In the distance rise the great peaks of Nanteizan, O-mango,
Ko-mango, and Tarozau.
A narrow trail from the village leads to the forest of Abics
homolepis, interspersed with which are Tsuga Sicboldii and Picca Ajanensis ; the first-named is
by no means a handsome tree, Tsuga Sicboldii, Puxa Ajanensis and P. Aleoquiana being more
striking.
Thuia dolobcata forms a thick and luxuriant undergrowth, evidently growing with
rapidity when thus sheltered. The more one travels in Japan the more one is inclined to
believe that the finest trees have been planted.
So thickly populated is the country that,
except in inaccessible spots, large areas uninhabited are not to be found. The amount of
wood felled for firing and, above all, house building, is naturally enormous, as nothing else
is in ordinary use for
these purposes. Hence it
is only around temples in
palace gardens, etc., that
one can hope to see the
native trees of the country
in anything like their
natural size and grandeur,
where, watched over by
the priests or attendants
and
untouched,
it
is
possible to form some
idea of the true size and
great age to which some
may attain.
The famous
Mausoleums
of
Nikko
buried deep in groves of
Cry}>tomeria japonica (Sec
plate, iv), each specimen
with a stem three to
seven feet in diameter
and from a hundred
to a hundred and fifty
feet in height, have shown
what this tree may be,
though the groves in
Nikko. A Car in the annual religious festival.
actual
grandeur
are
excelled by the avenue thirty miles in lengthwalls of solid greenby which the shrines are
approached. The same applies to Eetinosporasnot till one enters the grounds of the Nikko
Mausoleum does one realise how grand they can be ; and nowhere in the country have I seen
any approaching them in size. Specimens from eighty to a hundred feet high stand side by side
with tall Cryptomeria, with stems three to four feet in diameter. One, a magnificent specimen,
had a circumference of nine feet at eight feet from the ground, devoid of foliage for most of
its height and straight as an arrow. Whether it was Retinospora pisi/era or R. obtusa it was
impossible to decide, more especially as the Japs plant these two species indiscriminately.
The Chrysanthemum.As is the case with several of the favourite plants of Japan, the
large-flowered forms of the Chrysanthemum hail from China, a small yellow-flowered kind, of
great repute for medicinal purposes, being the best known of the indigenous species.
Its

134

JAPAN. AUTUMN.

petals when treated with vinegar also serve as an article of food, and yield in addition a
valuable and powerful scent.
It is probable that from this form the Imperial crestthe
famous sixteen-petalled Chrysanthemumhas been adopted, a crest met with in some form or
other in everything appertaining to official life. At the present time the large-flowered forms
are as popular in Japan as in this country, and private exhibitions of this universally admired
flower are frequently held in the grounds of amateurspublic competitive shows being almost
unknown.
In the month of November gaily dressed crowds of all ages throng to the gardens
of the most famous growers, who throw them open for the occasion, and dispense native
hospitality in by no means a niggardly fashion.
In contrast to our own arc the methods employed in Japan to display the flowers to the
best advantage. These are never cut, but dressed on the plants where grown, suitable sheds being
erected for
Bs
proteetion against inclement weather ^ during the exhibition period.
It
was my privilege to visit
many such private exhibi
tions, all more or less
similar, the largest being
held
in
the
gardens
attached to one of the
palaces of His Majesty
the Mikado at Tokio,
through which I was
permitted to wander at
leisure accompanied by
the
courteous Director,
Monsieur Foukouba. Here,
surrounded by quaint
Pines and old stone
lanterns, were displayed to
privileged guests examples
of the highest culture, and
efforts of the most wondrous
Nikko.-The High Priest in the annual religions fidivaL
patience that could be met
with, even within the Island Kingdom of the East. There are practically but two methods
of training usually followedone, as symmetrically-trained bushes, each bearing from twenty to
forty flowers, the other with a single bloom on a single stem.
At the time of flowering the
plants are protected by light reed sheds, the single-stemmed plants being usually in four to
six rows, with from thirty to forty plants in a row.
In each row the plants vary but very
slightly in height, those in front rarely exceeding three to four feet ; the back row
is necessarily some two to three feet taller. Healthy foliage reaches to the base of each
plant, concealing the thin wiry Bamboo used as a support. Amongst specimens grown in this
manner individual blooms of extraordinary size are met with as well as occasional monstrosities,
such, I believe, as are not to be found out of the country. Supported on thin wire rings
these huge blooms measure as much as sixteen inches and three-quarters in diameter, whilst in
exceptional cases the breadth of individual petals exceeds an inch and three-quarters.
Such
extremes are, however, by no means beautiful, in fact, the first-named is rather the contrary, as
the flower consists of only one outer row of thin attenuated ray petals with a large yellow
disc, whilst the latter is a curled and twisted jumble without any particular form. Any
minute differences in varieties, either in form or colour, are eagerly sought for, and when
detected carefully preservedthe more curious and bizarre the greater the value.

JAPAN.AUTUMN.

135

An ordinary observer is, however, soon convinced that such forms are not generally popular,
though they are the hobby of certain of the larger amateurs, possibly because their successful
cultivation offers greater difficulties, but more probably owing to their lack of beauty. The
usual and certainly the most popular system in vogue of exhibiting the Chrysanthemum is to
train the plants in bush form, in such a manner that all the flowers slope towards the
observer, the back rows in no way being hidden by those in front, this being accomplished
by an evident devotion of time, and with a precision most striking to a Western onlooker. In
a large shed the plants stand in diagonal lines, equi-distant from each other, there being rarely
more than three or four rows, each plant bearing as stated twenty to forty flowers, all the
shoots on each being so trained on Bamboo supports as to permit the blooms to form a
gradual slope towards the front. Such an effect is very brilliant, as the shed contains hundreds
of what would be termed in England fair average blooms, which would prove useful in
the groups at our great metropolitan shows. Whilst dealing with Chrysanthemums in bush
form it is interesting to note that in the autumn of 1892 there stood in the Mikado's garden
at Tokio six single specimen plants in tubs, each bearing from three hundred to four hundred
and fifty blooms.
These plants stood
in two sheds, three in each, side by
side, all being trained with
truly
marvellous accuracy in the shape of a
four-sided pyramid, each bloom equi
distant from the other ; from the lowest
row, comprising from forty to sixty
blooms, only about eighteen inches above
the tub, the pyramid terminated in a
single flower at the apex.
From the
cultivator's point of view, and as a
monument of human skill and patience,
the pride with which the aged cultivator,
whose life had been devoted to the
plant we are considering, dwelt on these
wonderful efforts, seemed to me very
pardonable.
The grafting of several
Hori-kiri.An Iris Keempferi Nurscry.
varieties on one stock is occasionally
resorted to, and on one occasion I met with a whole shed full of such. Three varieties are
generally considered sufficient for one stock, but the effect is not good, it being a matter
apparently of considerable dilliculty to get even three varieties, which, when fully grown, attain
the same dimensions, the result
being several tall shoots of some strong-growing sort
overtopping and dwarfing one less favoured in this respect grafted on the same stock, added
to which the colours of the varieties selected do not always strike one as forming a
harmonious whole.
Another use to which the Chrysanthemum is put, and one of very great interest to a
Western visitor, is, I think, peculiar to Japan. Not content with formal exhibitions of the
larger-flowered varieties, Japanese nurserymen employ the dwarfer and smaller-flowered forms
to lend colour and beauty to representations of stirring deeds and great events in past history.
The favourite spot for this custom is in the small village of Dangozaka, lying at the foot of
a steep incline within a short distance from the capital. Here every spring and autumn the
local nurserymen erect large booths and miniature theatres, where are exhibited life-size figures
so grouped as to represent favourite or well-known legends, famous war scenes, or great historical
events. The faces, hands, and feet of the figures are of papicr maelw, the features of the

136

JAPAN.AUTDMN.

first actors of the ilay serving as models, whilst the long flowing clothing worn prior to the
advent of Western ideas, as well as the stage fittings, etc., are in the spring composed of
Convolvulus, and in the autumn of Chrysanthemums. With the latter we are at present
interested, and the method pursued is very simple. The figures of either man or beast, or
the representations of ships, houses, etc., according to the requirements of the scene depicted,
are formed of wire, in which dwarf-growing living plants, well supplied with bud and flower,
are fixed, having been turned out of pots with the ball intact.
From time to time the
whole is looked over, plants replaced, etc., the show thus continuing for several weeks.
Thousands flock to these miniature theatres, and with breathless interest gaze for hours on the
stages, which revolve on pivots, thus permitting two scenes to be on constant show.
By the
side of the stage the proprietor sits, and in a loud monotonous voice describes the scene, and,
with much beating of wooden blocks, dwells on the bravery of a past hero or the stirring
fate of some noble lady who preferred death to dishonour, two topies of which the Japanese
never tire.
Though blooms are not cut for the purpose of public exhibition, they are frequently
employed for house decoration, the end sought for with the Chrysanthemum, as with every other
flower, being to create effect by simplicity, an art in which the Japanese stand unrivalled.
In a single, double, or three storied Bamboo or bronze vase, an arrangement of from three to
seven flowers and foliage is made to produce, in the hands of a cultivated Japanese and to
his Eastern eye, an artistic effect sometimes difficult for a Westerner either to copy or to
understand.
The object sought for is much that of suggestion, the peculiarities of growth
at different seasons being faithfully imitated and striking resemblances to living plants being
often produced with a few cut sprays. Carefully avoided by well-learnt lessons and patient
observation is anything which may appear unreal or to deviate in any degree from Nature
their only master.

PART

IX.

COREA.

PART

IX.

COREA.

COREA.
Before leaving England it was decided that a journey through Corea should be undertaken
with the object of investigating the vegetation of the country and of introducing, if possible,
any new plants that might be discovered suitable for British gardens. Very little was known
of its flora from herbarium specimens, so that it seemed to offer a new field for botanical
research. That Corea possessed a luxuriant vegetation was evident from the occasional glimpses
obtained, from vessels passing near the shore, of the verdant slopes and thick forest growth
that clothed the lofty mountains bordering the east coast, and from the casual reports of
missionaries and others who had made their way into the interior.
These circumstances
together with the geographiial position of Corea warranted in a great measure the strong
hopes entertained of finding beautiful plants hitherto
unknown in gardens, and which would prove valuable
additions to our horticultural resources.
These hopes
are not yet destined to be realised.
Since my journey through the country, Corea was,
for a time, the seat of the war that broke out between
China and Japan, and in consequence public attention
was temporarily turned in that direction in a far
i
higher degree than at any previous period, and much
general information respecting the country and its
people has appeared at intervals in the periodical press
Coram Gentlemen the long loosc sleeves
and other publications ; nevertheless, a brief sketch
indicating their position.
of the most obvious geographical features of the
country will not be irrelevant before proceeding to narrate the incidents of the journey.
The general configuration of Corea has been known to geographers since the middle of the
seventeenth century. As may be seen from a glance at the map, it is a peninsula projecting
southwards from Manchuria between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan from the forty second to the thirty-fourth parallels of north latitude. Its length exceeds five hundred miles,
and it has an average breadth of about a hundred and fifty miles ; Corea is therefore nearly
equal in size to the island of Great Britain, that is to say, to England, Scotland and Wales
taken together.
The rivers Yalu and Tumen are regarded as the boundary or frontier line
separating Manchuria from Corea; they both rise in the Paik-tu-San or White Head Mountain
in the extreme north, the first-named flowing in a south-westerly direction into the Yellow
Sea, and the latter in the opposite or north-easterly direction into the Sea of Japan. The

140

COREA.

most important physical feature of the peninsula is the chain of lofty mountains which traverses
its whole length in proximity to the east coast, not in a straight line but in a very sinuous
course, in places rising into lofty peaks constantly covered with snow. Besides this long
mountain chain there is the already mentioned Paik-tu-San or White Head Mountain, which,
if the description given of it by the Chinese is not devoid of truth, must be not only one of
the most singular objects in Corea, but also one of the most remarkable geological phenomena
in the world.
According to the Chinese account " this mountain has two summits, one facing
north, the other east. On the top is a lake thirty ri (about seventy-five miles) round ; in
shape the peak is that of a colossal white vase open to the sky, and fluted or scolloped
round the edge like the vases of Chinese porcelain. Its crater, white on the outside, is red
with whitish veins on the inside. Snow and ice clothe the sides, sometimes as late as June."
The mountain is held in superstitious reverence by the natives.
The country lying between the coast range on the east and the Yellow Sea is much
undulated, and is traversed by numerous streams, some of them of the dimensions of rivers.
As shown on maps their courses are for the most part very
tortuous, but it is evident that the topography of the
country is still but imperfectly known except to the
ipanese.
The configuration of the east and west
coasts offers a striking geographical contrast which
must not be passed over in silence, for while
j im ' ']'f
the east coast presents to the sea an almost
unbroken line of precipitous cliffs and is
destitute of harbours, the west coast, that
facing China, is indented with numerous bays
and inlets strewn with a multitude of islets
rising out of the deep water, some of them
naked granite peaks towering to a height of
two thousand feet above the level of the
surrounding water, while others are covered with a
dense forest growth of Coniferous trees. The climate
of Corea compared with that of Great Britain may be
stated in general terms to be colder in winter and hotter
City Gateway.
in summer ; the winter in the north lasts five months, but
it is of shorter duration in the south ; the summer heat of the southern provinces is tempered
by the ocean breezes. In so sea-girt and mountainous a country there are of course great
climatic variations even within limited areas.
From information obtained in Japan through the medium of the few residents at the
treaty ports, the spring would have been the best time for visiting the country, especially the
southern provinces, as the hills at that season are gay with numerous and varied wild flowers
as Azaleas, Violets, etc., but owing to many circumstances I was precluded from leaving Japan
so early in the year, and it was not till the middle of June that my arrangements for the
trip were completed. So little was known of Corea, even among the best informed residents
in Japan, that the few scraps of intelligence I succeeded in picking up before starting almost
invariably proved to be inaccurate and sometimes mislending.
Even Griffis' book, the most
elaborate work on Corea procurable at the time, although interesting reading, was of little
practical use. Thus imperfectly equipped, the time at length arrived for embarking for Corea,
or Cho-sen as it is called by the nativesmeaning " Morning Calm," and for making my way
as best I could among the Hermit Nation, a name justly earned by the Coreans for thensuccess in closing their country to foreigners, especially Europeans, for centuries.

COREA.

141

On June 21st, 1892, I left Kobe, one of the chief ports of departure in southern Nihon,
in one of the fine line of steamers owned by the Nippon Yusen-Kaisha, a Japanese company
whose fleet is almost as large as that of our Peninsular and Oriental Company, but not to be
compared with it as regards tonnage. Many of the vessels are officered by foreigners of all
nationalities.
I have been on three of this Company's vessels, all of them replete with every
European comfort, and have met amongst the officers, Americans, English, Scotch, Germans,
Danes, and Norwegians, but the stewards are invariably Chinese. The steamers which touch
at Corea are either those plying between Japan and China, or between China and the Russian
port of Vladivostok. Three ports only have been opened by foreign treaties, though it is
possible the day is not far distant when the important city of Ping-yang,
on the west coast, will be allowed to reap the benefits of more direct
contact with the outer world than by an overland journey of a
hundred and fifty miles from Wonsan.
These ports are Fusan on the south
coast, Jensen or Chemulpoo on the
west, the port of Soul (the capital),
and Wonsan, called by the Japanese
Gensan, on the east.
The
foreign settlements are almost
entirely Japanese, who besr an
extremely bad
character
in
European estimation, especially
in Chemulpoo,
many
ants of the old
of them being descend natives of two small
Tshushima
pirates,
They all carry knives,
islamls south of Fusan.
to use too freely, and
which they are apt
element, their Consuls either
are generally a rowdy
or not taking the trouble to
not having the power
treat the Coreans badly, doubtless a survival of
control them. They
subsisted between the two nations, and during
an old enmity that long
regarded Corea as a tributary state, but were
which
the Japanese
claim ; the independence of Corea or Cho-sen
unable to establish their
by treaty in 1876.*
was, however, recognised
Corean port at which our steamer put in, I
At Fusan, the first
harbour, a good one, is nearly land-locked by
stayed some hours ; the
Of vegetation I saw nothing but grass and a
the surrounding hills,
Corcan Hals.
iately behind the town.
During our passage
pine-clad knoll immed
from Fusan to Chemulpoo we were detained by frequent fogs, sometimes so thick as to cut
off any view ; these fogs are much feared by the sea-faring people of the Corean coast, a
highly dangerous one on account of the innumerable rocks, reefs, and small islands with which
it is fringed. Many are the tales of disasters that have befallen vessels passing near that wild
coast, and when fogs occur there is no course but to anchor and await their lifting, and on
this account alone our arrival at Chemulpoo was four days after the steamer was due. The
bay is well sheltered but shallow, and more than half, embracing an area of several hundreds of
acres, is nothing better than a mud flat at low tide, and most vessels have to anchor outside, as
the tide varies in height as much as thirty feet, indicated by a stone pillar at the entrance. A
Japanese gunboat is usually stationed outside and a Chinese one inside the harbour, but
"Written two years before the Chino-Japanese War.

142

COREA..

whilst I was journeying northwards seven or eight gunboats representing several nationalities
were anchored off the port. The cause of this display of naval force was a reported attempt
to blow up the king's father who had been recently dethroned, but the facts of the case were
too difficult to lie ascertained by a European. One
report stated that the queen, a clever woman, virtually
the ruler of the country, instigated the attempted
assassination ; another that the deposed monarch, who
is said to dislike the queen, placed the powder himself
beneath his bedchamber but did not enter it all
night ; whoever did place it omitted to close up the
fire-hole and the explosion was thus rendered harmless.
Such is one phase of Oriental intrigue and state-craft
that came within my cognizance.
1 came ashore in the Customs lwat manned by
sturdy Coreans ; we passed the Customs offices managed
by European employes of the Chinese Customs directed
from Pekin.
This is nominally done by the Chinese
Government out of courtesy, but in reality to get a
hold on Corea, which it jealously watches, even to the
extent of having an overland private telegraph wire
between Pekin and the residence of the Chinese
Native Saddle
Minister in Corea.
The Custom House is a fine
building, and its administration includes men of a superior stamp who are highly salaried ;
a knowledge of Chinese
is
indispensable to those who would gain admission.
At
(Jhemulpoo I spent a night at Steward's Hotel, a few rooms over a general store which
includes a very wide range of articles from champagne to babies' feeding-bottles.
The present
owner of the hotel is known by the natives as Hi, by Europeans as " Steward," as the
original proprietor was once a steward on board a steamer.
The firm is now designated
E. T. Steward and Co., a combination of various names. Hi, the present owner, a Chinaman,
is a smart, obliging fellow.
The Japanese
settlers at the three treaty ports and at
Soul, the capital, where they are also allowed
to live, are almost solely engaged in trade,
the staple article 1 icing rice, which they
export to their own country.
This rice
is of excellent quality, and is esteemed in
Japan in preference to that produced in
China, and even by some Japanese to that
of their own country.
For more than a
month it formed with me the chief item in
every meal, and I consider it the best I ever
used ; there is a firm consistency, roundness
and whiteness about the grains not perceived
elsewhere in the East. Of the three treaty
The only way to get afross.
ports, the prettiest and cleanest is Wonsan or
Gensan.
The settlements stand apart from the Corean villages, and the houses are built in
true Japanese fashion, so much so that one might easily fancy oneself actually in Japan ;
every national institution is found there, even the five feet sabred swaggering policeman.
The day after my arrival at Chemulpoo I started at 5 a.m. on board a small

COKEA.

143

paddle-steamer for Soul This and another, a screw-steamer, make the journey up the river on
alternate days, returning on the following day.
Both are very rickety, wretchedly-managed
craft ; the paddle-boat had to stop three times for repairs during the passage as the wooden
cog-wheel required new cogs ; and the screw-steamer, by which I made the return journey
some weeks later, passing a large flat-fish turned to chase it, thus making it too late to
cross the bar and obliging us to go round a large island when it got firmly fixed on a sand
bank. The boiler of this boat is said to be guaranteed to burst within a few weeks. Europeans
on board go forward from time to time to watch the water-gauge, as it is usually prudent to
suggest to the Japanese engineer the desirability of putting water into the lwiler. I left that
steamer with a whole skin more pleased than surprised. The awnings on both are too low
to admit walking about, and the heat in the summer months is terrific ; there were but two
chairs on board the screw-steamer and one of these hopelessly broken.
The passage takes
nine hours, and the only procurable refreshments during that time are eggs (often rotten) and
tea; in addition the screw-steamer supplies hcated beer. There is always danger of running on
a mud flat ; this happened three times
during my passage, and if the boat cannot
get off, there is no other course but to
waitseveral hours perhapstill the tide
rises sufficiently to set the craft again
afloat.
Fortunately, however, we did get
off, but not before a great sailing-junk
ran us down at the stern, causing general
excitement and a rush to the other end
of
the boat.
The
water-way
from
Chemulpoo to Soul is called the Han
River, a broad shallow stream with many
turnings usually marked by rapids. After
leaving Chemulpoo a due northerly direction
is taken between the mainland and Kang-wa
Island; at about two-thirds the length of
the latter the river takes a sudden turn
eastwards for a short distance and then
pursues its course south-east to Soul, the
Peasants guarding their ero}is from pilferers.
whole distance being about sixty miles
although by land the distance between the two places is not more than twenty-five milesa route
that is often taken, the journey being made on ponies. The country on either side of the
river seemed to offer no attractions to a botanical traveller, although hills were occasionally
seen several hundred feet high. They appeared to he covered with a scanty vegetation, chiefly
grass; here and there a few Lilies (Lilium tujrinum t) were noticed, and near one of
the chief villages a fine clump of Chestnut trees was passed.
Soul lies about three miles from the river bank.
I entered it on June 30th, with
my luggage on the backs of coolies, myself on foot.
I lost but one basket, which I found
again on my return after a month's travelling through the country an illustration of what is
sometimes heard in Corea, that it is impossible for a foreigner to lose anything.
Foreign
articles are of no use to the natives ; the theft is sure to be discovered and the man easily
traced when once the district Prefect is on his track. Every Corean knows better than u, trust his
neighbour, who would immediately report anything unusual in the possession of even his
dearest friend. Silver dollars might be strewn about, or even sovereigns, and it is very doubtful
whether they would be touched.

144

COREA.

Soul, which literally means " the capital," is fortified by thick walls of masonry that are
said to have been built by the first king of the present dynasty upwards of five hundred
years ago ; they are of great extent and of varying height, lieing carried over the adjacent
hills, and across the streams on arches. As a means of defence in modern warfare they are
useless, and are easily scaled at night at places when the gates are shut, a feat successfully
accomplished by an American lady on one occasion when happening to arrive at the city
after sunset.
These walls are pierced by several gates with deep overhanging eaves ; during
the day a continuous stream of pedestrians and beasts of burden is passing in and out, from
the chairs of the officials to the lowest grades of the people, mingled with pack-ponies and oxen
overladen with all kinds of produce.
A few men, presumably soldiers, guard the entrance
armed only with old and rusty halberds. Near at hand may also be seen one or two Chinamen
with a small booth containing articles for sale of a most miscellaneous descriptionanything
that can be imagined, from needles to native medicines.
I found my way with the help of
a boy to the English Mission where I stayed.
Soul is the seat of government, if absolute despotism can be said to be worthy of the name
of government, and it is also the head-quarters of the present dynasty. Its natural position is
certainly good from a strategic point of view, as it is
surrounded by hills on all sides except on the south, the
town reaching to their very base.
It thence covers a
considerable area, but the houses are little better than
plaster-thatched huts ; the population is said to number
W1>
three hundred thousand, but even an approximate estimate is
impossible, nor do the authorities appear to have or to care to
have any idea of the actual number of people they govern, for
on my asking, on a later occasion, the Assistant-Governor of
Ping-yang what he believed to be the population of the town,
he was surprised at the question as if I should expect him
to know. In Soul there are only three streets deserving of
the name, one leading to the King's Palace, one to the
east gate, and the third at right angles to it ; the other
thoroughfares form a narrow, tortuous, uneven, bewildering
Women turning auxty and covering their
maze ; there are open drains on one or both sides, not
hcads on the approach of strangers.
infrequently in the middle ; children, dogs and pigs wallow
together in the mud ; the stench is intolerable and the filth indescribably offensive.
Whilst in the city I stayed at the English Mission, but newly formed under Bishop Corfe.
The kind hospitality and assistance its members extended to me was of the greatest service, and
I cannot too highly express my gratitude.
I am also much indebted to Mr. Greathouse, an
American legal adviser of the Corean Government, through whose kindness I secured the services
of his interpreter named Pak and a servant named Pokka, both much pock-marked ; the former
wore the long sleeves of a Nyang-pan or gentleman, but I have reason to believe that he was
but a Ching-in or middle-class man.
He was a scoundrel and a thief in every sense of the
words, but his rascality proved highly serviceable to me, for through it I obtained much I should
otherwise have missed, and from that cause alone it was not to be altogether despised. Truth
is well-nigh unknown amongst the Coreans, and consequently the biggest liar is frequently the
most successful in gaining his ends. Pokka was a good man, strong, and willing to do anything
from thrashing a coolie to brushing my only pair of pyjamas with the only brush available,
viz. a hair-brush.
Pak was accordingly engaged at an exorbitant fee for a Corean, but the
man knew his value and he knew too that I could obtain no other.
I left all to him with
the exception of buying provisions. He obtained ponies, five in all, including a good mount for

COREA.

145

myself. These ponies he frequently changed along the route, sometimes every day. Nearly all
of them are diminutive stallions and all more or less vicious.
Twice we were chased by
neighing animals that had broken away from their tethers ; the only course when this happens
is to stone them off.
All our party had falls ; Pokka
fared worst from two screaming animals passing over his
body after one of them had thrown him. Fortunately no
bones were broken, and a strong dose of spirits sufficiently
restored him to enable us to proceed on our journey.
Crossing streams on a pack-pony is by no means a
congenial operation for a Corean ; 1 have occasionally seen
nothing between the water and Pak but the horse's neck ;
he actually fell
off several times, a
mishap which
occurred more than once to all the other native members
of the part)'.
Perched on a high pack, Pak would
sometimes fall asleep on the route, when suddenly, for no
ostensible cause the pony would kick, a dull thud would be
heard, and on looking round, Pak would be seen either extended
at full length on the ground, or getting on his feetin any
case in a ridiculous position ; then would follow a kicking and
hammering, sometimes of man, sometimes of beast, after which
he would remoinit his pony, saying he was " sad at heart,"
and again repeat the performance.
With each pony you
must hire a " ma-fu " (driver), otherwise they would be
unmanageable, but I dispensed with one for mine. Starting
on a journey from a great centre with even a small
train is a difficult
matter at all times.
To these
Pak (Interpreter and Couricr).
" ma-fus," as indeed to all Coreans, the value of time
is incomprehensible they will haggle for houi's over their pay and about the most frivolous
items.
When one man gets a job it means idleness for all his most distant relatives or
friends till the "cash" (money in the form of brass coins) is exhausted; no Corean will
work unless forced to it, starvation or beggary being held preferable.
At length my preparations for leaving Soul were completed; our train consisted of five
ponies with three " ma-fus," and Pak, Pokka, and myself. One of these ponies carried a load
of "cash" consisting of seventy thousand brass coins with a hole in the centre through which
a straw is passed ; about three
thousand of these are equivalent
to a Japanese yen or about
2s. lOd. of our money. Corean
money is simply a nuisance ;
the only advantage it possesses
is that it is too heavy to
steal ;
it would require a
powerful man to carry three
Fording a rirer.
shillings'- worth, and one with
such a load, or even half of
it, would scarcely ] 'escape detection. It is possible to get special letters which can be signed
for the outlay incurred in each village and redeemable at Soul ; the American residents do this,
but the English Consul had not the power to oblige me. The second pony carried two
T

146

CORKA.

basketfuls of tinned meats and other eatables, the third bedding and clothes, the fourth a
pack containing miscellaneous articles on the top of which was perched my factotum, the
never-to-be-forgotten Pak ; the fifth was reserved for myself.
Before quitting the town I ascended one of the neighbouring heights with the view of
making a closer inspection of the prevailing vegetation of the district. The side of the hill

somewhat starved appearance. At the foot and for the first two
hundred feet of the ascent, the vegetation is fairly good; there is an undergrowth of
Ferns including Da pallia bullata, a small red Lily is common, Astilbe japonica flowering
freely and Liivlera obtusiloba also abundant.
For the next three hundred feet the soil
is a dry sandy gravel, bare of vegetation except some clumps of starved Pinns densiflora.
Above this to the crest, which is about seven hundred and fifty feet above sea-level, the
soil is much better and the vegetation more diversified ; a pretty blue Iris was observed,
a leguminous plant with racemes of yellow flowers eighteen
inches long, and over the city walls which extend along the
crest straggled Amjwhpsis tricuspidata (Vcitchii) with leaves
much larger than it produces in England even in the most
favoured localities.
The descent was made through thickets of
Rhus (hbrekii, Stephana ndra flexxosa, a small purple-flowered
Desmodium, and a trailing vine with enormous leaves ; among
Maples Aecr japonicum is most abundant, and Chestnut trees
covered with spikes of yellow flowers at the time of my visit
are common around Soul.
Earlier in the year Azaleas, laconies
and Violets are said to be both abundant and beautiful in the
neighbourhood.
I left the city on July 5th about 1 P.m., passing out by the
east gate.
It was somewhat difficult at first to decide upon
which route to take, scarcely anything being known further
A Daneing Girl.
than that a visit to the Diamond Mountains, Keum-Kan-Sang,
would be advisable.
I finally determined, as no one with a
knowledge of plants seems to have been through the country, to make the treaty port
of Wonsan (Gensan) my first destination, taking the Diamond Mountains en route ; and
then either to go north to Ham-Heung or due west to the ancient capital, the important

COREA.

147

city of Ping-yang.
Neither of these routes seemed to offer any particular difficulties.
they lay through the heart of the country, and if, as I rather expected it might so happen,
no plants of sufficient merit were to he found, or those that were, had been already
introduced from other countries, that point at least would he cleared up.
Much of the land round Soul is under cultivation, the principal crops being Mice, Tobacco,
Water-Melons, Maize, Millet, Chinese Cabbage, and other vegetables.
For several miles along
the route taken, the indigenous vegetation is of a very ordinary description ; here and there
are clumps of Pinus Thunberyii and Castanea ; a cut-leaved Pyrus, Willows, and Ampelopsis
are common. We passed the first night in a village known as Now-yan, about ten miles from
Soul, in a miserable place called m\ inn, in which I seeuied a room, or rather a hole about eight
feet square ; the Coram villages are collections of mud-thatched huts in which cleanliness is
unknown, and the close pent-up places used as sleeping apartments are most noisome to a

Hoi-yang. The Prefeet and Dancing Girl in hit " Yamen."


European, rendered the more so in a stifling heat of from 80 to 100 Fahrenheit. This was
the general character of the village dwellings throughout the country through which I passed,
and no better accommodation was obtainable except in the larger towns.
On the following
day we proceeded thirteen miles further ; the roads were of the most wretched description, in
some places under water, in others encumbered with huge stones. On the third day we made
better progress, although the heat was oppressive. Among the arborescent forms noticed were
Abies firma, Acnnthopmwx ririnifolium, Acer eratcrgifolium, a Mulberry, and an Oak of fine
proportions, besides the trees already mentioned.
Further on Pinus kornicmis was seen for
the first time ; it is a handsome species from forty to fifty feet high, with a regular outline
and readily distinguishable even at a distance from P. deimjlora and P. Thunlxrgii with which
it is often associated.
On the fifth day we arrived at Hoi-yang, a town of some importance, situated in the
midst of a highly cultivated plain surrounded by low hills.
My entry into the town and

148

CORKA.

my reception there by the Prefect or chief magistrate were attended with incidents so bizarre
and even ludicrous to European ideas of official etiquette that no apology is needed for
relating them ; they will serve to illustrate some of the phases of Coram official life. At
about three miles from the town we (my party) were met by two guards and two officers
of the Prefect, that high functionary having doubtless been informed of our coming by his
colleague of Keum ; the two guards in black flowing cotton and with red bands around their
broad-brimmed hats went on alxmt a hundred yards in advance of us, unceremoniously ordering
everybody off the road ; the two officers, one in green and the other in blue uniform, sedately
fanning themselves walked behind my pony. On reaching the town the guards blew their
five feet long trumpets.
I was
requested to trot, the guards
and the officials running, and
in that style we entered. We
had but just reached the great
c handier of the Prefect's quarters
when amidst the most discordant
music and surrounded by guards,
attendants
and senin's, the
Prefect came forth; the scribes
were in white with black hats,
the others wore yellow, crimson
or green rohes hanging from
their shoulders with very loose
sleeves and confined at the
waist by a cord-girdle. These
coloured robes are very thin,
and are
thrown over the
invariable white costume. On
entering the courtyard
the
Prefect's chair was put down,
accompanied by singing, and
he advanced up the steps. He
was attired in the usual official
costume, exactly the same as
I had seen in other places
a black
robe with
orange
and crimson sleeves and blue
In the Chansa Monastery (Diamond Mountains).
sash, and a black hat tied
under his chin by strings of yellow beads.
He gravely sat down after leaving his
shoes on the steps.
At first he seemed somewhat cold, but after partaking of my
offerings of ginger-nuts, biscuits, lime-juice, coffee and prunes, he became more cordial,
informed me that I was the first foreigner he had ever spoken to, and hoped 1 would
stay with him from ten to twenty years, according to Pak's interpretation.
1 then brought
out my camera and glasses, with which he was much amused ; afterwards the discharge in
rapid succession of all the chambers of a revolver considerably astonished him. He then
offered to show me everything in his district if I would stay long enough, but I said I could
only stay that afternoon, but would be glad to see all I could. He then rose and left, but
immediately sent his arm-chair to bring me to his residence. Accompanied by shrill pipings
and noisy drummings, and by a crowd of attendants, some in uniform and some not, 1

COUEA.

149

proceeded to the "Yamen" not far distant. On entering the courtyard a matchlock was discharged,
I understood, to announce the arrival of a distinguished guest.
I was received in a small
room furnished with cushions, on one of which, opposite the Prefect, I was placed with Pak on
one side and an attendant on the
r
other. The Prefect first apologized
for the smallness of his retinue,
and then caused it to pass in
review before me, sixty to seventy
scribes leading the way and bowing
as they passed till their foreheads
almost touched the ground ; eight
or ten soldiers followed, wretchedlooking fellows with matchlocks three
hundred years old, and lastly two
female slaves, drudges who did the
dirty work. It was a curious sight
indeed to see this despot for in
exceptional cases he has the power
of life and death sitting on his
haunches with his legs twisted under
him, smoking a pipe a yard long,
and eyeing his dependents as they
passed. Then followed a feast. On
Hoi-yang. The Prefeet pardons his prisoners in honour of my visit
little round tables were several dishes
containing vegetable mixtures more or less unsavoury, the most palatable one being a mixture of
gensan and honey ; cherries were also brought on, small but eatable, and Corean whisky which
is taken neat.
All this put the Prefect in good humour, in evidence of which he sent for the
prisoners of the day in order to pardon them in my honour. They came, a wretched lot,
each with his head thrust through a hole at one end of a board five to six feet long, which
all are thence compelled to carry in front of them. After dispensing justice in this patriarchal
fashion 1 photographed him in his
ordinary official costume, and we then
proceeded to view his summer-house
outside the town a charming spot;
the house is built on a high knoll
surrounded by hills, and with a broad
rapid stream at the base.
He is
justly proud of it.
We left Hoi-yang at seven o'clock
on the following morning in company
with the Prefect cn ronk for the Diamond
Mountains, and on the following day
reached the monastery of Pyo-un-Sa
situated at their base, a Buddhist
A High Official and Buddhist Pricsts, the former wcaring the customary
institution well described by Campbell
strings of bctuls, and the latter the hexagon, hats pcculiar to thcir calling.
in his Consular Report and from
which I make the following extract : " The monastery consists of half-a-dozen detached
buildings scattered about in no particular arrangement, the best of them not more than
forty feet from the ground to the pitch of the roof.
Externally all are of the usual

150

CORKA.

Corean typeoblong with massive tiled roofs and deep overhanging eaves which often shelter
an abundance of wood-carving.
The panels of the doors are cut into a sort of open work,
which allows a modicum of light to penetrate into the interior.
The horizontal beams on
which the roof rests are ornamented with figures of mythical animals in green and gold, the
projecting rafters are gaudily painted, and over the entrance to each structure is an inscription
board bearing its name, usually fanciful and high-sounding, in white or gold letters.
The
interior of the shrines proper are lofty ; huge pillars a yard in diameter, made of single
timbers, support the roof, and the ceilings are panelled, and curiously though pleasingly
embellished with intricate designs in many colours.
The principal shrine is called the
Sa-Siiing-Chon or " Hall of the Four Sages," and contains three Buddhas in different attitudes
of meditation, sixteen Lo-hans with their attendants, and a remarkable picture worked in silk
and gold of Buddha and his disciples, which the
monks declared had come from China at the
foundation of the monastery some fourteen
hundred years ago.
The altar is canopied
with a bewildering reticulation of wood-work
in three tiers, also gorgeously painted and
decorated. This too belonged to the original
building as did the massive pine pillars,
everything else being modern.
The figures of
Buddha are of clay, gilt, and the cast of
countenance is distinctly Corean.
Behind the
Sa-Ssiing-Chon is an annexe containing three
images of Hindoo appearance ; they are of
cast-iron, gilt as usual, and came from So-yo
(India) a long time ago.
A magnificent
Salisburia (Ginkgo bilofot) shades this annexe
in front, and the parterre is brightened by
In duranec iile.
a bed of Asters."
Most of the hills, even in this country of hills, are only chains of gentle slopes and
rounded summits, but nowhere have I seen anything to surpass the Diamond Mountains for
rugged and inaccessible rocks hurled apparently one on the other, presenting to the view
jagged outlines of serrated peaks, magnificent in their unreachable isolation only birds can
hope to set foot on the majority of the summits.
In these isolated mountains, precipitous
rocks, sometimes bare, sometimes rank with vegetation, enclose a narrow valley where, buried
in the utmost calm, Buddhist monasteries have existed for centuries, though those tending them
bear an evil reputation for ignorance and profligacy. Of this 1 did not see much, though on
one occasion, outside the gate of a large city, we rode by two monks in the garb of their
calling lying helplessly intoxicated on the road.
Near Soul in a mountain fastness is a
monastery, the monks of which are said to be trained as soldiers to defend the King's person
in time of danger on bis fleeing to their retreat.
Amongst the luxuriant vegetation Abict firma, Pinns Thnnbeniii and /'. Koraicmist are
predominating constituents on the lower slopes, while higher up the arborescent forms are
nearly all deciduous.
Rhododendron Srhlippenlxtchii is common amidst Oaks, Maples and
Linderas, as is Spirwa sorbifolia or an allied species. The ascent is everywhere difficult, the
track followed being sometimes over slippery rocks, in places rising very abruptly; to get any
foothold at all on these it was necessary to wear straw sandals, and the labour of climbing
the steep ascent was by no means mitigated by the high temperature that prevailed.
Several
shrines were passed, one to a great Buddhist pioneer in Japan, another with a figure of

COREA.

151

Buddha carved in the rock, an altar to Kuan-yin (The Goddess of Mercy) built some hundred
feet up on the face of the rock and partly supported there by a hollow cylindrical pillar of
iron resting on a projection below.
Every projecting rock, every pool, has its story, mythical
or historical, and every accessible foot of stone surface has its quota of Chinese characters,
which were very useful indeed in affording a foothold on the smooth treacherous rocks.
Towards evening a glorious spot was reached, so grand indeed as to baflle description.
Rugged impassable peaks with their sides clothed with vegetation rise on every side; in these
thickets tigers lurk ever on the watch to secure their victims, he they man or beast, and
only in the previous March I was informed that two of the monks fell a prey to them.
Sleeping at the foot of these mountains is aggravated by the swarms of mosqnitos, terribly
trying in the hot weather.
At five o'clock the next morning, after passing the night in the Chansa Monastery, in the
heart of the mountains, we were again on foot, the purpose being to make an ascent
of one of the
peaks to obtain
a view of the
s u r r o u n ding
scenery.
Every
one, even
the
Prefect himself,
had to
wear
straw sandals and
often to use both
hands and knees
as well as feet,
for not infrequ
ently a slip would
have meant an
ugly fall if not
a serious accident.
Occasionally we
got on safer land
when we passed
through the
undergrowth of
vegetation, among
which were no
plants of any special interest observable besides those already mentioned.
It is scarcely
necessary to add that the view obtained from the summit amply repaid the labour of the
ascent.
The next morning we started early on our return to Hoi-yang by the same route as we
came, and which we reached late in the evening. A party of monks accompanied us a good
way before they said good-bye.
The monks of the Diamond Mountains, of whom there
are from three to four hundred quartered in the different monasteries, are, as a class,
remarkably kind, hospitable and open-handed, and generally refuse to accept any payment for
entertainment or for services rendered. They are said to be recruited chiefly from children
whose parents are glad to get rid of them on account of poverty, and from waifs and strays
picked up in the large towns. After a day's rest at Hoi-yang we proceeded on our journey
to the treaty port of Wonsan, where we arrived late in the afternoon of July 17th ; the heat

152

COREA.

during the middle of the day was intense, the thermometer rising to 92 Fahrenheit at 11 a.m.
and up to 95 by 1.30 P.m. Wonsan is certainly the most attractive of the treaty ports ; the
Japanese quarter is clean and has broad streets, and unlike Fusan or Chemulpoo it is
separated by some distance from the native quarter.
By this time I had obtained a very fair idea of the official classes in Corea. During
the whole of my stay in the country I was, with one exception, treated by them with uniform
courtesy.
By the common people they are much feared ; each Governor in his province,
each Prefect in his district is a despot ; for the slightest offence, or even on a false accusation
they can order a coolie to 1ie whipped, or a man of good position to be bastinadoed on the
shins, a punishment sometimes so severely inflicted as to cause death. They have the reputation
of "squeezing" unmercifully, it being next to impossible for a man to save money; should it
become known to the Prefect that some fortunate individual has any savings, he is peremptorily
told to give them up. Should the man demur or invent some excuse, in a few days he is
summoned to the Yamen, a false accusation is preferred against him by an underling, and the
inevitable whipping or bastinadoing follows. The people, if report speaks truly, and the little
a traveller through the country may
observe strongly supports the statement,
are thoroughly ground down by the
despotic sway of both great and petty
officials.
All the Europeans in the
country are agreed that sooner or later
a general upheaval of the masses is
inevitable, as the only means of
(.hecking the cruelty and barbarity with
which they are governed. As I have
saidthe Prefects treated me courte
ously and in their best manner in
their respective districts ; it was not
much, it is true, for they have not
much to offer, but offering what they
did gave me an insight into Corean
manners and customs I should never
Gateway denoting the entranec to a " Yamen" or official residenec.
otherwise have obtained. At their
prefectures 1 was always able to sleep,
a welcome change from the small, filthy, insect-teeming inns in those villages where no
prefectures are found.
On the 19th we set out for Pyang-yang (Ping-yang), the ancient capital, a journey of
from five to seven days according to the weather and state of the roads. The country passed
through is much undulated, the vegetation rich and abundant in places, the arborescent forms
consisting chiefly of Magnolias, Oaks, Cornus, and Limes intermixed with the coniferous trees
already mentioned ; while amongst herbaceous plants the pretty Bell-flower, Platycodon Marusii,
the large-leaved Rodgersia podophylla, a blue Aconite, a purple Aquilegia and a yellow Balsam are
frequent. Most of the level ground is cultivated and also the lower slopes of the hills. We
arrived at Pyang-yang (Ping-yang) at about five in the afternoon of the 24th ; the city is
surrounded with double walls except on the side facing the river ; they are kept in good
repair and are pierced by gateways closed by double gates of one or more stories of very
curious construction and much painted ; passing through one of these we soon arrived at an
open space within the city, and in a short time we found ourelves in the midst of a goodhumoured crowd five or six deep, elbowing and jostling one another to obtain a view, so

COREA.

153

rarely are Europeans seen in these remote places.


Good quarters were given us by the
Governor, Prince Ming, one of the highest in rank among the Corean officials and who received
me kindly on the following day. In true native fashion he entertained my party hospitably,
and among other items of conversation informed me (through Pak) that the hair of foreigners
is red because they drink sheep's milk. The town, although large and formerly of great
political importance, is abnormally dirty, and the fetid effluvia reeking from the gutters running
through the narrow tortuous streets, especially in summer when the day temperature ranges
from 80 to 90 Fahrenheit, is so offensive to the olfactory nerves of a European, that escape
from it is the first wish of those who have experienced it.
At Ping-yang was seen the
best specimen of Corean military equipment met with throughout the journey ; the soldiers are
a rough unkempt set of men in black uniform (if uniform it can be called) and small hats ;
they are armed with rifles, apparently weapons that have been discarded by some European
Power ; the bayonets are very rusty and always fixed, and it is not uncommon to see a pipe
stem, a yard long, carried in the barrel of the rifle. The officers ride on small ponies or
mules, making use of a small ring in front of the high saddle to maintain an upright position,
and having a man on each side to prevent their falling off.
We got away from the place on the 27th to return to Soul by a different route, and
where we arrived on August 1st. After staying
four days there and at Chemulpoo, I left
the latter port on the 5th at midnight
on board the " Satsuma-Maru," a fine
steamer belonging to
the
leading
Japanese company, to return again to
the Japanese port of Kobe.
The
incidents of the journey from Pingyang to Soul were too nearly a
repetition of previous experience to
be worth recording ; the country passed
through presented much the same
general aspects as that travelled over
during the outward journey, so that
there remains to be stated only
some general impressions of the country
and its people that could not without
tedious repetition be introduced into
the itinerary narrative.
Ping-yang.A High Official and Daneing Girls.
The distance travelled over must
have exceeded five hundred miles, the
whole being performed on ponies over good, bad and indifferent roads, the two last named greatly
preponderating. From eight to ten hours a day, sometimes through unavoidable circumstances
more, were spent in the saddle, for a great of the time under a blazing sun, the temperature
ranging between 85 and 100 Fahrenheit in the shade, and what was worse the nights were
nearly as hot as the days.
Tinned meats and rice were the provisions used, the latter of
excellent quality.
I was received by the highest officials up to Prince Ming, the Governor of
Pyang-yang (Ping-yang), next to the metropolitan, the principal province of the kingdom.
Official runners were frequently placed at my disposal, causing all we met to go off the road,
and those mounted to dismount.
I was a curiosity to most of the people, a startling novelty
to some ; in one of the larger towns, when I rode down the main street one morning, men
ran into houses and beckoned others out ; a few moments' halt was sufficient to collect a
u

154

COKEA.

crowd three to five deep which had not washed for months.
Children would frequently stare
in blank amazement and then run yelling away.
Women I rarely saw except the dancing
girls at the official entertainments, the lowest class coolies and the very aged. Only once
were we coldly received, and unpleasant occurrences were few. Once my factotum and
coolie-thrasher, Pak, pulled a man's hair out, and fists and feet were used with great freedom.
I intervened in his squahbles as seldom as possible, and when 1 thought it best to do so I
fact, the people are afraid of one,
was always treated with respect ; in
one's lack of power. The Coreans
not knowing one's power, or rather
people ; the only annoyance
are a peaceable but lazy, dirty
likely to be felt in travelling
among them is their curi
osity, though, contrary to
what is the case in China,
privacy is more or less
respected.
Some of their
customs are most quaint ;
their dress too is curious ;
all wear tall black hats
with broad brims of horse
hair or bamboo ; all are
dressed in white, the outer
robe
loose
flowing
but
confined by a girdle at the
waist; the 1 ietter or official class
metimes wear beautifully coloured
silks over the ordinary clothing. These
clothes are only taken off at the changes
of the season ; the most rudimentary
sanitary requirements are either neglected or
unknown, and their persons by the accumu
Thr ereninj tratl:
lated dirt of weeks or months, perhaps
years, become most repulsive.
In fact, such civilization as exists is
of the most primitive kind and has probably been such for ages
past.
Of the botanical results of the trip there is not much to be
said ; the vegetation of the country is rich, and although a much greater
area is cultivated than might be expected from a people who detest labour or have but the
barest inducement to undertake it, the great part if not all the indigenous plants remain
intact. My journey was made in one of the least favourable seasons for ascertaining the true
character of the flora ; the collection of herbarium specimens was necessarily restricted, and the
difficulty of transport reduced the restriction to a mere selection. Of the specimens sent home
the greater number were already known to science, and consisted of a mixture of Manchurian
and Japanese types such as might be expected from the geographical position of the country.

PART

QUEENSLAND

AND

X.

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

PART X.

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

BRISBANE.
January, 189o.Having at last despatched all my consignments of seeds and plants, I was at
liberty to seek further fields, and lost no time in taking the first mail-boat for Hong-kong nt
route for Brisbane, Queensland. The voyage proved a calm and most enjoyable one as for
some days we wound our way past the Philippine Islands and through the Celebes Sea, till we
lay in the pretty harbour of Thursday Island. Skirting from this point the great continent in a
direction due south, and passing within the treacherous Great Barrier Reef, Moreton Bay was
soon reached, and those passengers (including myself) bound for the Queensland capital embarked
in a small tug and started on the twenty-five mile journey up the river bearing the same
name as the city, originally settled in 1825 by Sir Thomas Brisbane, at that time the Governor
of Australia, from whom its name is derived.
There are in the town two gardens well worthy of a visitone, the Government Botanic
Gardens, under the direction of Mr. MacMahon, formerly of the Forestry Department, Assam ;
the other, Bowen Park, the garden of the Acclimatization Society, managed by Mr. Soutter.
The latter is some little distance out of Brisbane, and was established for the introduction and
distribution of new plants, as well as for the more important work of conducting trials of
economic plants likely to be of value to planters and landowners. About eleven acres are
under cultivation, the ground being distributed in irregular-shaped shrubberies, divided by broad
winding grass paths. Near the centre a somewhat more extensive patch, devoted to carpetbedding, is bounded on one side by huge masses of Bambusa arundinacca, and encloses a pretty
tank partially filled with luxuriant clumps of Papyrus antiquorum eighteen to twenty feet high,
and- a few Water Lilies. Near the entrance is Mr. Soutter's office, a neat little building, the
front entirely hidden by the climbing Thunbergia grandiflora ; it contains much interesting
matter. Ranged on shelves in glass bottles are some two hundred and eighty plant products
used in medicine ; whilst below, in jars of baked clay, are many species of seeds. These jars
Mr. Soutter considers superior to any other means of preserving seeds in this climate ; they
are easily cleaned, moisture is absorbed, and insect attacks prevented.
On the walls hangs a
collection of fibres, close to a frame containing papers manufactured from Queensland kinds
exclusively.
A representative collection of woods is also to be seen.
In the shrubberies, usually edged with one or other of the varieties of Alternanthera,
many annuals, herbaceous plants, etc., are now flowering in front and between the larger and
more robust-growing specimens.
Amongst others, Pancratiums, Crinums, Ixoras, Tea Roses,
Kniphofias, Zinnias, Bouvardias, Clerodendrons, Petunias, Gladioli, Geraniums, Vincas, Hibiscus

158

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

syriacus, Acanthus illicifolius and Pavonia hastata are well represented. Many creepers, left more
or less to follow their own habits, trail over the larger shrubs, Biota oricntalis in
particular being prettily draped with Quinpudis indica and Antigonon Lcptopus, both flowering,
the former most profusely.
I noticed in various parts of the garden on living supports,
Bougainvillca glabra, the brick-red B. lateritia, the rich blue Petrca volubilis, Ipomcca Horsfallice,
Passiflora ineamata, the sweet fruit of Jamaica, Mr. Watson's P. x kewensis, as good as I
have yet met with it, Wistaria sinensis, Tecoma HilHi, and the new T. x Mackenh, pure white
with reddish veins, obtained by a southern gardener from T. rosca, most of them now flowering.
Amongst the shrubs, Solanum maeranthum is one of the most effective at this momenta
profusion of blue blossoms of all shades.
Mangoes do well, and frequently produce fruit
above the average, several now hanging promising well. Acacia podalyricefolia, both in colour
and shape of leaf is uncommonly like our A. cultnformis ; Lagerstramia indica in variety,
L. Flos-r&jhun larger in all its parts a quality possessed to a marked extent in the
seedling Duranta raised from I). Ellisii, and a flowering specimen of Eugenia myrtifolia,
are all showy.
Very handsome is a bush of
Gardenia
Thunbergii sixteen feet in
diameter, bearing many scores of pure white, powerfully fragrant, eight-petalled blooms quite
three inches across, standing out well from the foliage, on tubes of even greater length.
Lasiandra maerantha is now profusely blooming ; the campanulate blooms of Gardenia globosa
Mr. Soutter speaks highly of ; and Bauhinia corymbosa, judging from the number of
seed-pods, must he a fine sight when in flower. Crotons do well, notwithstanding the
2 to 4 of frost occasionally experienced ; though it naturally affects them, it is said never
to kill.
Some of the Palms are good, scattered about effectively in the various borders.
Orcodoxa regia, (Jaryota urens flowering and fruiting, Sagucrus Rumphii bearing a strong
resemblance to Arenga saecharifera, Areca lutescens with stems eighteen to twenty feet high,
Sabal palmetto, Cocos plumosus, C. Jlexuosus, Martinezia caryotwfolia, Diplothemmm maritimum (the
Wine Palm), the beauty of its graceful habit heightened by the grey tinge on the under-surface
of the leaf, are all represented by good specimens.
Of trees, there are many not wanting in interest.
Gleditschia horrida with strong, stiff,
often much-branched spines six to twelve inches long, thickly encircling portions of the trunk,
looks unpleasant to climb. Erythrina americana, considered by Mr. Soutter to be free-flowering,
and generally finer than E. indica, is noticeable by its rapid growth, proof of which may be
seen in the remains of a garden-seat, built around the trunk but a few years ago, now forced
open and well nigh destroyed.
On its branches are some magnificent specimens of Platycerimn
aleicorne. Banksia aetinophylla, one of the commonest trees in and around Brisbane, is represented
by several specimens ; its deeply-lobed leaves are curious and in themselves effective, but the
whole plant is invariably so "sticky" as to be of little value for ornamental purposes.
Ravenala mndagamt ricnsis (Sec plate v.) (the Traveller's Tree) is good, but lacks the luxuriance
and rapid growth which distinguishes it in such islands as Ceylon and Penang. Poineiana regia,
on the contrary, is certainly as fine as when only three degrees north of the equator ; its spread
branches out of proportion to its height, foliage of the softest pale green, surmounted by of
immense branched panicles of rich scarlet flowers, or its two-feet long massive brown pods,
render it beyond question one of the sights of the tropical Old World. Ficus Rozburghii
from the Himalaya does well, that is, till the advent of a hail-storm, which Mr. Soutter
tells me sadly rends and tears its huge leaves, often eighteen inches in diameter. Artocarpus
integrifolius is represented by a moderate-sized specimen, the true Bread-fruit not living at alb
though I note in this morning's paper that one at the Townsville Botanic Garden in the
north is bearing freely this year. Bandia Fitzalanii is very handsome, having a profusion of
dark, large, leathery, glossy foliage.
Some specimens of Araucaria Cunninghamii and A.
Bidwillii are also prominent features of this garden.

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

159

Mr. Soutter is at the present time much interested in two subjects : one, the planting
of Coffee in the Colony, the other the introduction of the Fly River Leaf Tobacco. At a
recent meeting of the Society, Mr. Soutter announced that he had received applications for
six thousand Coffee plants to be delivered between February and April, a sign that the industry
is gaining ground. He believes this may become important in the near future ; and in his remarks
before the meeting laid great stress on the advantages to be derived from the fact that the
most recent advices from European markets stated that the berries received in the silver
parchment or skin were found to be superior to those cleaned.
This obviates the expensive
process of cleaning by the grower which can only be accomplished by machinery, considerably
adding to the cost and often proving a severe handicap. The husk or parchment is found to
protect the seed from atmospheric influence, and preserves the colour.
The varieties it is
proposed to plant are seedlings from the Arabian, several of which I saw in Bowen I'ark.
One received by Mr. Soutter from Brazil, producing a berry of great size, is especially
promising. The Fly liiver Leaf Tobacco was discovered by Sir William Macgregor at a
considerable elevation near the Fly River in New Guinea. Of some leaves Mr. Soutter sent home
he received most favourable reports, and proposes pushing the planting of the variety. Its dried
leaves are highly scented and moderate in size.
Botanic Gardens.-The Government Botanic Gardens, but a few hundred yards from the
head of Queen Street Brisbane's leading thoroughfare, are triangular in shape, and occupy forty
acres.
The confines are marked on one side by the Brisbane River, on another by the
government domain attached to Government Housea noble pile, and on the third by a broad
public road.
In the latter, the broadest end, are the three public entrances, the gardens
gradually narrowing to a point at Mr. MacMahon's house, the extreme limit.
Labour is
naturally, as throughout -the Colony, the greatest difficulty to cope with.
Ordinary wages are
2 per week, carpenters and skilled workers obtaining more. As Mr. MacMahon's vote for
the garden only amounts to 52 per acre, he has not much to spare. The gardens, largely
patronized by the public, contain a fair-sized cricket-field and a lawn-tennis court.
All is
under grass, except the beds and asphalt paths, cheaply kept clean, but scarcely in accordance
with our British ideas of a garden.
Numerous single specimens are planted about, though
few of any size, whilst on either side of many of the paths are large beds of shrubs faced
by dwarfer flowering plants.
The entrance nearest the Government House looks over a pretty undulating lawn, with
various single specimens in view.
Amongst such flowering at the time of my visit were
Lagestrmmia Ffos-regina',
L. indica, Plumbago capensis, Russcllia juneca, Poineiana regia,
Caxalpinia puleherrima with canary-yellow blossoms, and the scarlet Tecoma capensis, all in
perfect condition. Between this entrance and the central one, shaded by a magnificent Poinciana
and approached through thick hedges of various Acalyphas, is a duck-pond containing some
magnificent clumps of Papyrus antiqnorum, and which is surrounded in places so much as to be
entirely hidden by some equally fine Bambusa arundinaeca thirty to forty feet high, growing with
vigour in the present great heat and frequent thunderstorms. Just beyond on a neat terrace
a fountain and circular tank afford a home for the white Nymphiea of Europe. Moderate-sized
Cocos plumosus encircle it, and individual specimens of Areca lutescens, seedling Phcemx
reelinata, Spathodca campanulata, Liquddambar styraciflua, Brassaia aehnophylla, Pandanus
Vcitehii, etc., are scattered about. Between the central entrance and the one on the river bank
is the cricket-field, a considerable stretch of ground ample for the purpose.
From this entrance
running the whole length of the garden is a row of Araucaria Bidwillii from forty to sixty feet
high. As here seen, little can be said in praise of this tree for ornamental purposes ; its
branches, ten to fifteen feet long, are almost invariably leafless except from twelve to twenty-four

1G0

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN*

AUSTRALIA.

inches at the end.


The immense cones, of several pounds' weight, are clustered at the top,
hidden from view and difficult to obtain without the assistance of a storm.
In the various beds fronting the taller shrubs are many Oleanders, Poinsettias, Dahlias,
Sunflowers, Cannas, Verbenas, Vincas, Gardenias, Brugmansias, Abelias, Hibiscus sip-iacus, sweetscented Geraniums, now all flowering, whilst two are entirely devoted to Gladiolus Lemoinci and
Phlox decussata, the former being apparently more at home than the Phlox.
Amongst the
larger specimens in the borders are the Burmese Looking-glass tree, Heriticra maerophylla, with
large glossy foliage, and Grevillca Banksii, now carrying several scarlet heads of bloom.
Araucaria Cunniiujhamii is good, some of the specimens being from sixty to seventy feet high ;
less striking, it is yet less ugly than A. Bidwillii. Ficus maerophylla, also a native tree, is very
handsome.
In the gardens is a broad-spreading specimen with a stem two feet in diameter,
the roots exposed for many square yards around the base ; the fruit, not large, is freely borne,
and the brown under surface of the leaf offers a pleasing contrast to the solid green of the
whole.
Kigelia pinnata is at home, and bears many loose racemes of large deep carmine
blooms, on pendent stalks three to five feet long.
The Rose garden, containing many
beds surrounding the finest Araucaria Bidwillii in the grounds (a specimen about seventy feet
high), is filled with well-grown plants, almost exclusively Teas and Chinas, as one might
expect.
A Boxwood tree, Hannatoxylon campechianum , with a much divided stem, is close to
Qucreus Huber, Q. Toza, and Q. Ccrris, from South Europe ; they are, however, scarcely fine
specimens, though the English Oak, Qncreiis peduneulata, seeds well, and makes a good treeLiquidambar and Liriodendron are also both evidently thoroughly at home.
Near Mr. MacMahon's house is a fine bed of Arabian Coffee loaded with berries and
without a speck of disease said as yet to have been unnoticed in Queensland.
A bed of
Allamanda neriifolia close by is one mass of flower.
Beyond this is a small grove of
Mangoes.
Cedrus Deodara, Magnolia grandiflora and Eriobotrya japonica are not good, the
climate being evidently too dry and hot for them, though a Camellia seems in very fair
condition. Plumeria acuminata is as fine and free -blooming as in India, as is Tmninalia
Arjuna with its peculiar oblong sessile foliage. Near a Poinoiana regia, its stems carrying
many immense Platyecrium aleicorne, is a group of Palms, two of which are probably the best
specimens of the Order in the gardensone a Jubwa speetabil'is, the other a Sabal Palmetto.
Also fine are an Orcodoxa regia thirty feet high, and some broad masses of Rhapis Jhibelliformis.
The most successful examples of growth here, as in Bowen Park, are unquestionably the
Bamboos. Several large clumps of Bambusa arundinacca, with thickly interlaced tough stems, forty
to fifty feet high, cracking and bending in every breeze, shade, near the centre of the grounds,
one of its prettiest spotsa large open-air fernery, containing Alsophilas, Dicksonias, Asplenium
Nidus, Platyceriums, Ravenalas, Cannas with flower-spikes eight feet high, Caryotas, Livistonas,
etc. At the end is a neat avenue of Guavas (Psidium Guava), the smooth Stuartia-like stems
and pale glossy foliage, through which now peep the innumerable fruits just commencing to
swell, being very pretty.
The Moreton Bay Chestnut, Castanospermum australe, of course does
well, as do Butca frondosa (referred to in my letter from Baroda) and Strychnos Nux-vomica.
A curious tree is Davuhonia pruricns ; each leaflet of its large pinnate foliage is nearly of the
substance, size and colour of a good-sized Loquat leaf. Sterculia rupestris, the narrow-leaved
Bottle-tree, is more noticeable still ; of one specimen, the smooth circular stem is four feet in
diameter at the base, but narrows gradually to one foot at eight feet from the ground, whence
for the remainder of its height (another seven feet) only the smallest branches are seen.
The native trees do not, as here represented, strike me as particularly ornamental, though
in the bush, from all accounts, some must be very fine.
In the gardens, however, some trees
are not particularly interesting.
Agathis robusta is an exception.
This can be picked out
everywhere by its tall, slim, clean stem and pear-shaped head of dark foliage.
Two good

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

161

specimens are not less than seventy feet in height. Elceocarpus grandis, Spondia plciogyne (the
Burdekin Plum tree), Aleuriks moluecana (the Candle-nut tree) with long-lobed foliage and
bunches of green fruit each as large as a good-sized Egg Plum, Erythrina Vespertilio (the
Australian Bark tree), and Cassia Brewsterii, its thin, circular, brown pods, twelve to fifteen
inches long, hanging in profusion, are all representatives of the native flora. On leaving I passed
beneath an Indian Cluster Fig, Ficiis glomerata, the fruit on short stalks in thick bunches of
every shade of colour, from green through yellow to bright red, clustered on the old branches
eighteen inches in diameter. The masses of fruit rotting on the ground beneath the tree testify
to its extraordinary productiveness. I also noted on leaving, Conibretum purpurcum and Beaumontia
grdndiflora growing luxuriantly. At the end of the garden Mr. MacMahon has erected a tall
house composed of long twigs so tied on rafters as to give partial shade. Beneath, sheltered
from the sun's fiercest rays, are Philodendrons, Anthurium Scherzerianum, Dracaenas, Marantas,
Gymnostachyum Peareci, Lomana gibba, Selaginellas, Aspleniums, Platyceriums, Dicksonia antaretica,
Alsophila australis, flowering Begonias, and a few Orchids, chiefly the native Deiulrobium
undulatum.
The heat in Brisbane is very great.
The official returns for January 11th showed 94 to
99 Fahrenheit for Brisbane and its suburbs -7 the nights are a few degrees cooler. Fruit is much
grown. At Roma some distance inland are many orchards, Grapes being at this moment in fine
condition. Black Hamburghs, of first-class form and bloom, are priced in shop windows at
6d. and 8d. per pound, of which the grower gets about half. Black Prince and some American
varieties also do well ; the latter, however, are sharp and foxy in flavour, but rather popular.
I am told they are not now fetching in the market more than 2d. per pound. I also noticed
in this morning's papers (January 17th, 1892) the southern towns are so glutted with Grapes,
Peaches, and especially Nectarines, that they will not sell for cost price even in Brisbane,
moderate-sized but highly coloured and well-flavoured fruit of the latter not fetching more
than Ad. pef dozen retail. Pine-apples of fair quality and moderate size are grown in the
suburbs, and retailed at Id. each.

GYM PIE.

A short trip to Gympie, one of the best known of the Queensland gold-fields, proved interesting.
Detached houses, almost all built entirely of wood, with galvanized iron roofs, are spread
over seven low hills, the mining shafts rising at intervals in more or less straight or curved
lines as they follow the reefs. The alluvial gold has naturally long since been worked out,
the now grass-covered mounds on the banks of the creeks indicating where it was shifted
and washed.
At present the gold is found in quartz at any depth to two thousand feet,
and is obtained by crushing the rock in powerful batteries, and extracting the precious metal
by using amalgam.
Below ground in the mines it is deliciously coola welcome change. On the
return journey a very pleasant hour was passed in the scrub, which at Yandina is very rich
and thick-said to be equalled only by that on the banks of the Johnson River. Trees
frequently attain a height of two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet.
Ficus Watkinsiana
is common, its huge roots, standing out like solid slabs at the base, sufficient to hide
half-a-dozen men, gradually curl up the largest trees, till they completely envelop and finally
destroy them. The Eucalyptus botryuides are magnificent, just scaling their bark.
Blood Wood
(E. corymbosa), with heads of white flower, is also common. Often eighty to one hundred feet
x

162

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

above the ground, attached to the main stems or in the forks of branches, are immense
PlatyceriumsP. aleicmite. and P. grandetruly splendid sights. Seeding freely is the long, slenderstemmed Palm, Arehontophamix Ctmninghamii, its narrow, graceful heads soaring up from the
slight, firm, perfectly bare stems, fifty to one hundred feet in height. It is usually met with
in clumps of several dozens, the seed hanging in drooping strings of rich crimson.
Colocasia
macuritis (?) is common, as is Banksia integrifolia and Calamus Mudleri, the only Queensland
representative of the genus. Mr. Bailey, the Government Botanist, tells me that Casuarinas
locally known as " Oaks " and Tristania conferta with large verticils of long glossy acuminate
foliage, as well as a few Araucaria Bidwillii and A. Cunninghamii, are also to be met with.

ALB A N YW E S T E R N

A U S T R ALIA.

February, 1893.From Queensland, owing to the rapid approach of the Australian autumn, I
came by rail and boat almost direct to Western Australia, just touching at Sydney and Melbourne
to seek advice regarding the prospects of collecting seed or getting anything new in the largest
and least known of the Australian Colonies. Within a week after arrival I made some slight
excursions with Mr. Webb, a local botanical collector, but found I was considerably late for
seed, for although I had some, I did not seem to meet with anything of consequence. There
is strong evidence that we have already the best tllings from King George's Sound, but that in
the centre of the Colony and in the north there are still good unknown plants. To get these,
however, at present is impracticable; it would probably mean an expedition with camels, and
taking everything, down to food and water even for the horses. The entire lack of water over
hundreds of miles in the Colony, at present, appears to be an insuperable difficulty, and even
where gold exists in payable quantities, it cannot always lie obtained on this account. To do any
real plant work, a man would have to live here, say, two or three years, and to get
acquainted with bush-work, etc.
I was under the impression in Japan that seed-collecting
was not easy, chiefly on account of the language ; but I find it here much harder.
In that
country, manual assistance is plentiful and cheap, and there is no difficulty in going
anywhere (slowly, it is true) ; but in Western Australia little help can be obtained, and you
have often to take your own water, even for a day's outing.
The male whites of the Colony
only number about twenty thousand, six to seven thousand of whom are in Perth, the capital,
and Albany.
I am not favourably impressed with the latter, the only presentable hotel
being a wretched place. Next week I am going into the bushto the Stirling Rangewith
Mr. Webb and a native.
To-day I have bought provisions, everything down to flour.
1
propose being away about eight days, camping on the side of a creek in a small tent.
King George's Sound is a harbour of considerable extent, surrounded by low hills, chiefly
of sandy formation. Much of the soil is sand, pure and simple, helplessly drifting before every
gale, and gradually silting up the harbour in places. On the site of the town, and on Mounts
Clarence and Melville, two low hills behind it, is a thin layer of earthpoor, hungry stuff.
Both these hills have been ascended.
I have also gone straight inland for five or six miles,
and encircled the major portion of the harbour. Sollya hrtvnvphylla is now flowering wellneat,
dwarf bushes really very pretty.
At home we grow it as a climber, a tendency I have not
observed in the plant here. Boronm elatior I have seen but oncea good patch near a swamp,
some of the plants three feet high.
There is no doubt that it is very local, and a stranger
might wander for days and not meet with it.
B. megastigma I have not yet seen ; it is

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

163

said to be equally local. Though it can be met with near Albany, the townspeople tear it up
in such masses when in flower, that it is in danger of extinction. Two pretty creepers, now
both in flower, are the blue and white Marianthus ; the former is most free, a clear sky-blue,
though the latter bears the larger bloom.
Of Leschenaultia I have met with but very poor
specimens so far.
Eutaxia (presumably our E. floribmula) flowers most freely, judging by the
columns of seed-pods. Beanfortia grandiflora, a good thing with stiff upright shoots, both flowering
and seeding, attains a height of four to five feet.
Horca ilicifolia and other species are
common, as are the various Gompholobiums.
Beaufortia (presumably B. purpurca) is now very
pretty, considerably dwarfer than the former mentioned species, and with flowers of a duller
hue ; it is naturally much less conspicuous. Xanthosia rotundifolia is pretty, it is locally known
as St. John's Cross and bears a broad star-shaped, pinkish white and white head of flower.
Pimeleas are common and good in pure dry sand; one species, P. pygriuva (one I do not remember
seeing at home), seems promising.
Amongst the most remarkable of the dwarfer blooming
plants are various species of the Kangaroo Foot (Anlgozanthus) bearing tall spikes of many dozen
blooms.
For our small houses these are too large to be really effective. Of the three hundred
Acacias known to Baron Mueller in Western Australia, several are represented around Albany ;
their specific names I had no means of ascertaining, having in fact chiefly to rely on my
own memory for my nomenclature.
Agonis is represented by several species, one of drooping
habit is a tall shrub exceedingly graceful and pretty, but like many of the Acacias its dimensions
place it beyond all possibility of small greenhouse cultivation.
Grevfflca elegaus is common,
and a large blue Lobelia, found in pure dry sand, is worthy of introduction for hybridising
purposes.
Inland the vegetation is very different from that in the immediate vicinity of the coast.
Casuarina Frascriana and two Eucalypti, which I was informed are E. marginata and E. botryoides,
are the prevailing trees. In the neighbourhood of the road, and for some miles on either side,
they rarely attain a height exceeding forty feet small in comparison with their size in other
parts, I believe. Banksia grandis is common, and although unfurnished and bare-looking, its tall
solid columns of yellow stamens will ever render it one of the most remarkable of Australian
plants ; a dwarf species, not over a foot high, is also noticeable. Hakeas are most highly spoken
of as ornamental plants tall stately bushes, flowering most freely. A private gentleman here,
Mr. Fenwick, has a charming garden ; the soil is poor, hungry, sandy stuff, yet his Carrots will
compare with anything in England, and he successfully grows Asparagus, Peas, and other
vegetables ; Peaches, Pears, Apples and Plums are produced in good sound fruit of excellent flavour.
Chrysanthemums (sent out by post in a cigar box, as rooted cuttings, without moss, earth or
any covering) form good hedges ; and Bmvjainvillca spectabilis, against his house, is simply
superb.
Kennedyas, so common around Albany, are also naturally improved by cultivation.
Mr. Fenwick grows New Zealand Spinach (Tetragonia) as a hedge plant ; he says the young
shoots are excellent eating.
King George's Sound has a rainfall all the year round, although less during the hot months of
January and February than during the rest of the year. Bush fires on the neighbouring hdls are
numerouscurious to the plantsman from the myriads of seedlings that spring up immediately after.
This fact is utilized by cattle owners to provide fresh fodder. From this I would advise any hard
seed from this region being boiled, in addition to a portion being sown in burnt earth.
Collecting seed is more difficult than in Japan in some ways. There are naturally no trees
to climb for the seed of plants likely to be useful, but on the contrary much of it is so
minute, one does not always know whether one has seed or dust. Stooping to collect it on
the hard-baked earth (for the effects of rain disappear in an incredibly short time) in a
blazing sun is not a pastime to be chosen.
Snakes are numerous and, as a rule, large and
poisonous, and next to those of India, I believe, those of Australia are most to be dreaded.

164

QUEENSLAND

THE

AND

WESTERN

STIRLING

AUSTRALIA.

MOUNTAINS.

Running parallel with the south coast, some miles behind Albany, lies the Stirling Range, in
the passes of which I determined to spend some days, hoping to meet with a somewhat different
vegetation to that near the coast.
Leaving the railway at Mount Barker Station, three of
us a bushman, a native and myselfjourneyed towards the hills in a buggy, passing the first
night in the grounds of a small farm.
This place we left early on the following morning,
and pitched camp fifteen miles distant in Toll's Pass, Stirling Range.
Ltst winter was
dry, and this summer has been severely so ; we were not surprised, therefore, to find the
water-hole low and its contents braikish and salt.
From Toll's Pass we proceeded further
eastward to Chester Pass, where we camped under the shelter of Red Gum, by two waterholes two to three feet square, one for horse and one for man. These water-holes are in or
near now absolutely dry creeks ; they are usually small, a strange superstition prevailing
amongst bushmen not to enlarge them in the hope of obtaining a greater and a continuous
supply, as in some instances when this has been done, the existing water has entirely
disappeared.
The holes are alongside tracks in the shade of Red Gum, the track being
constantly used in winter by teamsters, Sandal-wood carriers, kangaroo hunters, etc. At this
season they are not so much frequented, and, with the exception of a half-caste conducting a
ration pack-horse to some shepherds, we met no human being.
The camping-grounds were
infested with insects, breeding freely in the sand. The heat was great in the thickly-wooded
passes, often increased by puffs of hot air from burning bush miles awayso great that but
for the shelter of a thin tent it would become intolerable. We met two emus, quite close ;
some brush kangaroos, many wallabies, and kangaroo rats.
Of a true kangaroo I caught but a
distant glimpse, as the animal in this district is becoming rapidly exterminated owing to the
high prices and increasing demand from America for the skins. Though sometimes shot, they
are usually hunted by powerful dogs, half-bred greyhounds and mastiffs, which boldly attack and
eventually invariably kill, though sometimes severely mauled themselves. White-tailed cockatoos
in flocks, green parrots, " twenty-eights " (a bird so-named from the supposed resemblance of
its cry to that number in the English tongue), a few hawks, and brown wood pigeons were
seen, usually coming to water in the evening, a sign of the prevailing drought when they fly
to these holes frequented by man.
The range is supposed by some to contain gold, though it has not yet been struck
Pieces of recently broken stones along a short distance of the track told a tale of a man not
many days ahead of us seeking a fortune. Horse fodder there was none, and we had to take
all with us, thinking ourselves lucky that we had not to carry our own water. I obtained
some seed, and subsequently sent home a large number of packets.
The vegetation is very
curious, whether in the open bush with its millions of " Black Boys," Grass trees and clumps
of Marlock, or in the shadeless groves of Red Gum and Yate. In the former the greyish green
peculiar to Australia, stretches on every side a hopeless waste, in which many a man has
found his grave where the native police trackers have been too late, or a shower of rain put
them at fault ; in the latter, short thick trunks, each one like the next, are equally
bewilderingFrom Mount Barker Station to the small farm where we camped the first, night, is a distance
of about fifteen miles. Our road lay chiefly through a thin forest of White Gum (Eucalyptus
redunea) ; the wood is used for fence-rails, and found valueless underground, succumbing in a
few months to white ants.
The hard-baked sandy soil supports a few shreds of burnt grass,
and but little else.
From the farm to Toll's Pass the aspect of the country is entirely

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA

165

different. To the north-east lay the Range, a long, thin, gently undulating line, the highest
point, Ellen's Peak, rising sharp and distinct. The over-grown, deeply-rutted track which would
have smashed anything short of a bush buggy or a teamster's dray in a very few hours, lay
through fairly open ground. Copses of Marlock, a name applied to the various low-growing
species of Eucalypti, are abundant in every direction.
Xanthorrhau> Preissii (" Black Boys "), so
named from the fanciful legend that when the French landed and Hrst entered the bush the
thousands of black stems led them to believe that it swarmed with natives, and Grass trees
(Baxteria australis), the pretty grey head of which offers a charming variety to the prevailing
one shade of green, are amongst the most noticeable.
The " Black Boys " and Grass trees
rarely suffer from the numerous bush fires, though the heads are burnt off and the stems
blackened.
Both grow several feet in height, in addition to which, the spikes of the former
often reach eight to nine feet, springing from an even circular head of thin foliage.
Banksias
occur, usually the very dwarf species, such as B. prostrata, though B. grandts and B. attenuate
are also met with.
Dryandras, Tcmpletonia Drummondi, Gompholobiums, a few Kennedyas,
Burtonias, Chorizemas, a tall straggling Lambertia, Isopogons, Leucopogons, Boissieras, a few
Callistemons, Andersonias and two species of Thomasia were amongst the dried-up flora
waiting for the winter rains.
Both in Toll's Pass and Chester Pass the water-holes are surrounded by more or less
thick groves of Red Gum (Eucalyptus calophylla) ; though rarely more than eighty to one
hundred feet high, I noted many specimens of considerable girth, in extreme instances measuring
seven to eight feet in diameter. As a tree it is ornamental ; interspersed were many Yate
(E. comuta), tall, straight and slight. The seed pods of the former lay in myriads on the
ground, whilst the corymbs of dried, unopened buds of the latter, cut at the base as with
a sharp knife, told a tale against the white-tailed cockatoos. Standing on one foot, they
sever the stalk with their powerful beak, hold it in their other foot, and extract the honey,
subsequently dropping the corymb ; these lay around in countless quantity.
The lied Gum
is a useful wood for any work above ground, but like White Gum, its value ceases there.
Buggy-shafts, boardings, fence-rails, etc., are manufactured from it. This also applies to the
yellow-flowered E. comuta. Jarraha corruption of a native name(E. marginata) is the wood
par excellenee for this portion of Western Australia ; it resists everything, from salt water to
white antsindeed, I am told the Government will use none other in their buildings, etc.
Of a bronzy tinge, and very fine grain, it is particularly handsome.
On leaving the Stirling Range, we proceeded in one day to the railway, a distance of
thirty-eight miles ; and next ascended a low hill known as Mount Barker, where I got next
to nothing in the way of seeds. Several low-growing Heath-like plants promised well, and we
met with a few Boronia megastigma.
Of this genus I saw B. Drummondi, B. elatior and
B. scmdata.
All seem very local, and a stranger unaided would have difficulty in finding
the two latter.
B. megastigma I met with in a now dried up swamp. Like all Australian
plants, it does better after a bush fire, and flowers best in swampy ground ; in fact, in a
well-drained spot, it cannot have too much moisture during the flowering period.
The difficulty and expense of travelling off tlns line, of which there are but a few hundred
miles in this vast Colony, with a coast-line alone close upon three thousand miles, is much greater
than I anticipated. To enter the bush without experienced assistance means never leaving a
well-beaten track, or else almost inevitably being lost.
To-morrow, for instance, I go to
Wilson's Inlet, thirty miles across the coast ; two trains a week run to some saw-mills only
twelve miles from the spot, but there being no connection between the two, it is necessary to
drive the whole way. Labour, though the Colony is at a low ebb, is very scarce. I find it
impossible to get a boy to assist in drying my specimens, and yesterday had to devote
several hours to it myself ; when you can get one, they expect 15s. to 20s. per week. Gold

166

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

is attracting diggers. In the centre at Baillie's Find good work is being done, but it is three
weeks to a month from the nearest railway station, and water is said to be 2s. per gallon.
In the heat and dust a man requires three gallons per day, so that at present the outlook is
not one of the best.

WILSON'S

INLET.

My last will have informed you I was about to start westward to Wilson's Inlet, some thirty
miles along the coast. Striking inland along the old Perth road for a short distance, we
entered the bush on a well-marked track, which wound in an irregular manner through groves
of Black Butt, Paper Bark, Red Gum, and Jarrah ; low scrub, broken by " Black Boys," trees,
grass, and occasional open patches.
The soil seems of the poorest quality thin, sandy
black dust ; it has been found by practice to be worthless for cultivation, and sheep do but
poorly on what it produces, despite the numerous bush fires started by settlers to obtain the
fresh green of young growth.
I must admit that at present I fail to understand why the
seed of Western Australian plants is so hard as to require the action of a slow fire to yield the
greatest percentage in germination.
Before the whites settled (who are said to have been
responsible for starting the fires in this district), it is fair to suppose they must have been
less numerous ; the natives were also, and of course in the unsettled and major portion of
the Colony still are, responsible for some ; but Nature would hardly have taken this into
account, for the area the aborigines camped on or travelled through must have been, and is
still, infinitesimally small compared with the whole.
Bush fires are supposed to originate in
Nature by the friction of branches caused by wind, and in some instances this undoubtedly occurs,
but it is not sufficient to account for the number which must have swept over the country from
year to year from time immemorial so long, in fact, as to render the seeds of a large
portion of its flora not only impervious to harm from the effects, but distinctly benefited
thereby.
That other unknown causes must originate fires seems certain.
We saw several
en route for the Inlet, broad belts of smoke slowly mounting and curling round the low hills
of the coast line, in the already dry heated atmosphere.
Up to the first water, known as the twelve-mile creek, things were quite dried up, and
little was to be seen but a low rankish scrub with a few grasses poor and almost valueless
for feeding purposes. Eucalyptus botryoidts, locally known as Black Butt, described as a wood
of no possible utility, is common though hard, it will not split or burn, and when dry is
extremely light ; also Paper Bark (Melalcuca ? lcucodendiwt), so named from the strips of paper
like bark peeling off its branches and trunk ; Banksia grandis, Casuarina Frascriana, both
represented by large specimens thirty-five to forty feet high, finer than I had hitherto seen ; and
Nutysia Jloribunda, when in flower is a very handsome tree. This I have met with in several
districts, its pyramidal heads of orange flowers being brilliantly attractive, but seed seems difficult to
be got. From the twelve-mile creek to the Inlet the aspect of the country is somewhat different ;
there are occasional open grassy plains and thick low belts of Red Gum (Eucalyptus calophylla)
and Jarrah (E. marginata). The corrugated reddish bark of the latter, constantly exuding the
gum kino used in pharmacy, and in this Colony for tanning, is very handsome ; the bark of
the latter, of whitish tinge, is more fibrous in texture.
In places the "Black Boys" (Xanthorrhcca Prcissii) were fine, denoting the commencement of
the " Black Boy " country stretching beyond to the westward. Good heads sometimes attain six
feet in diameter, in exceptional instances two and three on a single stem.
In the distance,
to the south, lay the coast range oll which we espied some Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor),

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

167

peculiar to this corner of Western Australia, and now largely exported to England for wood
pavement.
It covers but two hundred to three hundred miles, and is magnificent, the trunks
rising a hundred feet and even a hundred and fifty feet without a branch. At the Inlet we
found good quarters in a cottage on the station of an old settler, the same as that in which
the young Princes resided during their stay here.
Good fish is found in the Inlet. Wild
ducks and swans are common, as well as other beautiful birds, of which I shot several
specimens.
Around the Inlet Hibbertia Readii is very fine and tall, even bushes that have
flowered profusely, stiff slight branches of shapely form a grand shrubbery plant. I was two
months too late for seed-collectiug.

PERTH.
March, 1893.One of the principal sources of revenue of this Colony is derived from the
export of Sandal- wood (Fusanus spicatus) to China.
All has been cleared within the vicinity
of settlements for some years past, and it is now fetched by " teamsters " from a distance in
the virgin forests.
Here, by some water-hole, often weeks from home, the lonely wood-cutter
camps, cutting and accumulating the wood for the team's return from the nearest depot or
railway station. Teamstering is a calling followed by a great number of settlers and colonists,
and consists in taking a heavy wagon drawn by ten to twelve oxen or four powerful horses,
from the town to the gold-fields or distent farm stations, or still more frequently for
Sandal-wood collecting. These teams keep to no particular track, but travel anywhere short of a
sheer precipice, avoiding nothing but large trees, bearing down the smaller, and tearing up
the " Black Boys " and Grass trees. They travel from two and a-quarter to two and a-half
miles an hour, an average day's journey being eighteen to nineteen miles.
The Sandal-wood
question is of some interest at the moment on account of a " corner " having been recently
attempted in the Colony.
Prices having fallen considerably, severalfour is the number
usually givenof the principal merchants are attempting to buy all they can, and are
exporting none.
Hence, along the line, at all the leading stations, may he seen hundreds
of tons of Sandal-wood stacked and standing idle, watched night and day by the insurance
companies, to prevent its being set on fire. One leading Perth gentleman is said to have one
hundred thousand tons on his hands. This ring was formed last year, but prices still keep
down, and the quantity of wood daily accumulates.
Small men not in the ring ship as
often as possible, and the stock still in China is said to be considerable. So far the ring
has not proved a success, and there is every probability of it being a failure. The agent of
a leading Albany firm informed me that they could get the wood delivered there (the sea-port)
at 6 per ton, and that the freight to China for the same quantity was 2 JOs. At these
figures it is said to pay well. For many years the forests have been denuded ,if the valuable
timber, but no replanting has been done, as unfortunately young trees require shade, and
cannot exist in cleared spaces. Though on two occasions I have struck out east over forty
miles from the line, I have as yet seen no Sandal-wood growing.
On the last occasion,
however, it was being obtained only thirty miles distant from where I stayed.
When at York 1 heard there was a possibility of obtaining some seed on a sand plain lying
east.
I accordingly got a buggy and pair, a letter to a farmer living near, and a half-caste
boy, aged fourteen, to find me the track, and set out.
We got to the farm in one day,
over a wretched road.
The next day I went a few miles further on to a low undulating
sand plain dried and parched, and began hunting for seed, of which I obtained some of a
few species.
Our road to the farm lay through thin Gum forests consisting of York,

168

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

Salmon, Flooded, and White Gums the whole way. The names of these I have no means
of ascertaining, as Western Australia possesses no botanist. A speciesin fact there is only
oneof Macrozamia (M. spiralis) is common in the bush, and for several reasons is interesting.
At the head of the stem, in and around the base of the leaves is a large quantity of fluffy
wool, something analogous to the fibre of Palms and the stipules of some Phanerogams; this is
used for stuffing bedding, and is found most satisfactory for the purpose. Aborigines eat
the kernel of the large fleshy seed, but its chief interest lies in the theory recently
promulgated both here and in South Australia that the consumption of the young heads is
the cause of that fatal disease in cattle, known as " ricketts " ; this disease is characterized by
the loss of use of the hind iharters, and a total paralysis of the lower portion of the spinal
cord.
By careful experiments what was once a theory has become an almost accepted
fact. The fleshy coating of the seed is also known to be poisonous.
Another cause of grave anxiety to settlers are the various poison plants, the most common
being a species of Gastrolobium and one of Oxylobium. The former, known generally as " York
Road," I have seen in considerable quantity in this district. Fortunately it occurs in patches,
usually of ten to twenty acres, and can be avoided. To horses it is certain death ; the wild
onesthat is, the progeny of those escaped into the bush, and who have been bred wild are
known to avoid it, but domesticated ones hobbled at night or turned loose for a short time to
grass are not so wise. Settlers, if possible, naturally avoid taking up land on which it occurs.
Government Gardens.As might well be expected, the youngest of the Australian Colonies
does not possess a botanic garden. Nevertheless, there is offered to the townspeople of Perth
a Government garden about two acres in extent, on a gentle slope on the banks of the
Swan River, unfortunately containing only salt water to twenty-five miles from its
mouth.
This is presided over by Mr. Freakes, who passed much of his earlier life in
well-known English gardens and nurseries.
Winding paths, lawns of Couch Grass, isolated
specimens of various Conifers, and beds of flowering plants combine to render the garden a
pleasant change for all. I noticed many dozens of men lounging about, able-bodied, powerful
and young. These, Mr. Freakes told me, were gold diggers down from the various fields and
mines, waiting for rain to fill up the water-holes and creeks in their various working districts.
In many places in the garden the grass is excellent, but during the dry season it is only kept so
by constant irrigation, by water drawn through the waterworks from the Darling Range. Frost
is rare, slight and local, Mr. Freakes' average being 3 Fahrenheit of frost. A neat avenue of the
pretty flowering shrub, Lagunaria Patersoni, six to eight feet high, lines a walk leading to the
river's edge from the entrance, itself shaded by a symmetrical specimen of Araucaria exnelsa
over eighty feet in height. The finest trees in the garden are several specimens of the Stone
Pine (Pinus pinca) with stems two to two and a-half feet in diameter, yielding a grateful and
thorough shade.
Many plants grow with rapidity.
Near a Pittosporum iwilgherensc, which
grew fifteen feet in four years from a small cutting, is a Laurus Camphora with
shoots eight feet long made in one season, whilst Sparmannia africana yields the palm to
neither of these in this respect. The Moreton Bay Fig (Fwus maerophylla) is well represented
by a good specimen with a stem two and a-half feet in diameter ; and the only specimens of
F. elastica in the Colony are said to be in this garden. The mixed beds are handsome.
Pyrethrum, some green now, should be good in winter, and Mr. Freakes finds Zinnias,
Gaillardias, Petunias, Pansies, etc., leave little to be desired in early summer. At the present
seasonearly autumnthey are naturally a little past their best.
Chrysanthemums, planted
out, promise to make a good show in April especially a bed of Mrs. Alphcus Hardy. Last year,
Mr. Freakes tells me he had in the open ground, with no special cultivation, blooms seven and
a-half inches across.
One good bed contained a somewhat curious mixture ; in the centre,

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

109

flanked by two strong bushes of Hahrothamnus elegans, stood a single specimen of Strelitzia
augusta ; low shrubby plants of Coprosma Baucriana, Euonymus japonicus and Dahlias surrounded
these ; the whole was edged with Cineraria maritima. The beds of Amaranthus in variety were
exceptionally fine.
Among the individual specimens I noted Nerium, thick bushes, evidently recent masses of
bloom, ten to fifteen feet high ; Callitris AucklunMi, a most graceful specimen upwards of forty
feet high; a pyramidal C. odorata (?) but a few feet less; Gleditschia mimosa'folia ; a huge clump
(hollow in the centre) of Bambusa majestica twenty-five feet in diameter ; a very good Cork
Oak thirty years old ; Callitris adpressa with a fine pyramidal head, not far short of fifty
feet in height ; Jacaranda mimosa'folia, Juniperus chinensis, etc. The leaves of the Oriental
Plane get scorched, but not much more so than with us ; and a good specimen, twenty feet
high, of the common English Oak, shows that it will at least do more than exist. Lining
one fence is a row of Pinus insifptis thirty to forty feet in height; these trees have evidently
grown with great rapidity, in fact, to such an extent does Mr. Freakes consider them to exhaust
the soil, that he will remove them. Bougainvilleas, Tecomas (of which there are no less than
eight species represented) and Buddleias thrive and flower with freedom. Jmticia sprciosa and
Duranta Ellisii form fine shrubbery bushes five to six feet in diameter, whilst the common
Broom Mr. Freakes tells me in its season is as refreshing a sight as in cooler
England.
In the one glass-house, to which but on the rarest occasions heat is applied, is a small
collection of Caladiums, Ferns, Palms,' Crotons, Dieffenbachias, foliage Begonias, etc. The Nim
tree (an old Indian friend) is planted to a limited extent in the streets of Perth and York.
It is now seeding freely, and is said to be very fine when in flower, though Robinia
Pseud-acacia is usually preferred for this purpose.
The fruit and Vine question is one of the highest importance to the Colony, and is attracting
at this moment as much attention as almost any other.
As yet it is completely in its
infancy, the various vineyards not being in a position to supply even the local demand. I have
visited several vineyards and orchards, notably those of Mr. Ferguson near Guildford, the Hon.
J. Amherst at Darlington, Messrs. Woodward at Coarinja, and others.
Pyramids of Nectarines,
Peaches, Apples, Pears, Lemons and Oranges and a few Cherries are usually planted.
The
first two kinds obtain the readiest local market, it being even difficult to part with Apples
when Peaches are plentiful in early summer.
At that season they are said to be almost
eipial to our glass-grown fruit. The wholesale price is about 9d. to Is. per dozen.
Cherries
are very scarce, as there are scarcely any trees in the Colony, 1s. 6d. per dozen retail being
the ordinary price. The exportation of fruit receives little consideration, the Colony itself being
as yet able to consume all that is produied in it. The Apples are of good colour and size, but
lack the flavour of English-grown fruit. The Vine is, however, receiving at the moment the most
attention. The sorts have been imported from Madeira, Spain, and France. The Muscatelle is
considerably used for Raisins, the bunches being laid on trays and dried in the sun.
It is found
that a vineyard rarely yields a paying crop before the fifth year, though sometimes the third
crop is worth gathering for wine. The Vines are inserted as cuttings or young rooted plants
(preferably the latter) eight to nine feet apart each way, to allow of horse-ploughing, and they
are usually cut back to two or three eyes and cultivated as bushes or on wire trellises.
At present the gathering, pressing and fermentation are going on all of which I have
had the privilege of witnessing on several occasions. The plants bear with great freedom, a
vineyard of considerable size being now a very handsome sight.
I recently visited one ten
years old, eight and a-half acres in extent, which annually yields from three thousand five
hundred to five thousand gallons, a gallon being worth to the bottlers four to five shillings.
Mr. Ferguson tells me he supplied last year three thousand gallons, but that six thousand
Y

170

QUEENSLAND

AND

WESTERN

AUSTRALIA.

would scarcely have met the demand.


The difficulties are great, though to a limited extent
there is the experience of the sister Colony, South Australia, to work upon. Grubs destroy
the first year cuttings wholesale, and it is heart-rending to look on a plantation of which
often twenty-five per cent, of the plants have not survived, and necessitating so much replanting.
Fortunately when once established the Vines do not suffer so severely. The grub secreted in
the ground during the day, eats the buds at night.
Another pest are the silver-eyes, birds
with white circles around the eye, myriads of which abound in the surrounding forests. These
pinch the berries, spoiling incalculable quantities, and to attempt to diminish their numbers
by the ordinary methods of destruction seems hopeless. Labour is likewise a serious question.
Not less so is the question of casks, there being no cooper in the Colony. The wine, when
kept from one to four years, whether white or red, is good, though inclined to be sweet,
and that it will transform the population into a wine-consuming one, as the more sanguine
hope and which is said to be the case in South Australia, seems very probable.
Many now
making money out of wine deserve the greatest credit.
Commencing with little or no
knowledge of the subject they have ploughed their way through experience to success. A
man coming here now with a capital of 5,000 could in wine and one or two other
things certainly do extremely well, as far as is possible for a visitor to judge.
The soil of these vineyards is generally light, and said to be good for wine producing,
though in one, fifty acres in extent, I saw some patches of very good red and black loam,
about the best I have yet seen in the Colony.
Bone-dust is used by some as manure. The
process of manufacturing wine is similar to that adopted on the Continent, most makers having
presses, though some beginners have still to use manual or rather pedal labour. The general
idea seems to be to produce a light table wine to be drunk in quantity, and that the public
get the pure juice of the Grape there seems little doubt.
Owing to the elaborate work
required for the production of champagne, this has not and probably never will be attempted.
Spirit of excellent quality could well be manufactured from the husks were it not for an Act
dating from the Colony's birth, rendering its distillation too costly; doubtless this will soon be
altered.

PART

SOUTH

XI.

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

PART

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

XI.

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

ADELAIDE.
April, 1893.It was with feelings of some satisfaction, despite the great kindness I had received
on all sides, that I stepped on hoard one of the magnificent steamers of the French Mail
Line, and once more had the opportunity of appreciating the art of a French cook, after the
somewhat bare fare it had been necessary to subsist on during the last two months. The
voyage back to Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, lasted but three days. The city is a
fine one, and having Iieen surveyed and laid out at one time, all the streets are at right
angles one to another a regularity which, if not altogether pleasing to the eye, is certainly
in every other way to be preferred.
The Botanic Gardens at Adelaide, some forty acres in extent, were laid out by Francis
thirty-five years ago, in half French, half English style. The present Director, Mr. Holtze (for
eighteen years in charge of the gardens at Port Darwin) has occupied the position but two
years, succeeding Dr. Schomburgk, an old correspondent of English horticultural journals.
During this period, important alterations have taken place, and that which bore the reputation
of being an overgrown wilderness is once more assuming the proportions and aspect of an
interesting and tasteful garden.
Mr. Holtze considers that he has already had to remove
upwards of two hundred big trees, and even now in some spots those that remain are
undoubtedly too thick ; 0,150 is the vote covering the entire outlay, 3,900 being directly
spent on the garden alone. The eight-hours system is in vogue, the labourers and assistants
receiving 1 19s. to 2 2s. per week
The cost of water, at Is. per thousand gallons, reaches
on occasions 1,200 per annum.
The main entrance is but a few minutes' walk from the centre of the city ; the lower
end adjoins the Botanic Garden Park (a planted area, eighty acres in extent, for the recreation
of the people), whilst on either side the confines of the garden are determined by the domains
of the Hospital, Lunatic Asylum, and Old Exhibition Grounds. From the heavy iron gates,
shaded by a fine fruiting specimen of Schinus Molle, a neat bye-path leads to the Director's
house, prettily covered with Bougainvilleas, Bignonias, and Ivy-leaved Pelargoniums. Along the
path, behind a blazing clump of scarlet Nerine Fotltergilli, flowering Abutilons, Gaillardias,
Asters, Lonicera Caprifolium, Hibiscus sinuatus, etc., are various shrubs, including Viburnum
ruyomm nearly fifteen feet high and almost as much through ; Pnmus Pissardi, a good
colour ; and the purple tubular-flowered Jacaranda mimoswfolia, common in other parts of the
garden. Near the entrance is a Ficus rubiginosa, for fifty feet from the ground upwards a mound
of solid sombre green, its somewhat small branches radiating from eight main stems, several of

174

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

which reach the utmost height of the tree. It is an impressive object ; whilst immediately
on either side are bushes of Nerium Olcander, the flowers, past their best, attaining a height
of twelve to fifteen feet, with a luxuriance difficult to surpass.
A centre walk runs in a
straight line through the entire garden, in and near which plaster-of-Paris goddesses are
dotted about. Paths cross it at right angles, these subsequently merging into winding walks
through the shrubberies, lawns, and beds.
Passing to the right of the main walk, beneath a Pinus halepensis over eighty feet high,
if thin in foliage certainly thick in cones, are many irregularly-shaped beds planted with
shrubs and margined with dwarf-flowering annuals, perennials, etc. ; Neriums are frequent and
good, and Tecoma Smithii, with its bronzy orange blooms, is very handsome.
Many of the
Australian Myrtacese are represented by neat, dwarf specimens ; a pair of Juniperu-i chinensis about
thirty-five feet in height ; Polygala graiuliflora freely blooming ; Eugenia mgrfifolia, and the South
African Calodendron capensc, are all noticeable. One of the finest of the numerous specimens of
Araucaria Cunninghami in the garden stands in this direction, in the centre of a circular lawn,
edged by a broad bed of the dwarf-blooming Chrysanthemums, their buds now rapidly advancing.
I noted in the shrubberies around, Duranla Plumieri and D. Ellisii, freely blooming and seeding ;
and some Cereis Siliquastrum (attaining occasionally a height of twenty-five feet) in perfect condition.
Behind the Araucaria is a lake, recently cleared out, lined with Weeping Willow, and with an
island near the centre, chiefly remarkable for its magnificent Pampas Grass and Aeundo Donas-.
On a hillock behind it, a North Australian Ficus plaf,ijxxla can claim to be one of the largest and
finest trees in the garden, and a row of Gleditsehias edges one end of the lake, all the fine species
of which, viz., G. iiwrmis, G. triacanthos, G. horrida, G. caspica, G. sinensis, do well.
Those in
question are good trees thirty to fifty feet high, and bear numerous seed-pods.
Proceeding
towards the centre of the garden from this point, many shrubs of distinctly decorative character
are passedHymenosporum flavum from Queensland ; Calodendron cape usc from Natal, thoroughly
at home, a noble block of massive leathery foliage, twenty-five feet high ; Sophora japonica
in good condition, in this respect an exception to most Japanese plants, to which the hot
dry winds prove fatal ; also Ihx cornuta, and various others.
The tallest Agathis robusta,
forty-five feet high, occupies the centre of a grass-plot near a Greeillea robusta forty feet high,
a perfect picture of a lawn tree.
Casnarina strieta, upwards of sixty feet high, next arrests
attention, shading an Araucaria Bidwilli, rare in its peculiarity of being clothed with
leaves only at the extreme ends of the branches; then Brexia madagascaricnsis, scarcely
recovered from recent transplantation ; Pittospoi'um erassifoliu m, Olca obtusifolia, Clerodendron
glabrum and C. tomentosum, a fine massive specimen of Pinus Sabiniana and a neat, square bed
of Proteaceous plants are all within a few yards, and lay on the way to the next lake.
The plots of lawn referred to are, with two exceptions, of Buffalo Grass, soft, verdant and
thick. The two exceptions are Couch, which is apt to prove a failure.
For Rye Grass the
climate is naturally too hot and dry.
The lake, one of four, connected by a winding creek, full in winter but requiring to be
fed from the water-works during the remaining months, gives the impression of having been
formed to obtain soil for filling up or levelling purposes elsewhere in the garden. Ilobinia
imrmis, with thick close-set heads on dwarf six feet stems, encircle one end, proving neat
and effective.
The main walk is here again reached, and near it is a good specimen of that
graceful Conifer, Cupressus funebris, and a Dombeya mollis, noticed by Mr. Holtze for its fine
coppery-coloured foliage in winter.
To the wanderer through the garden the section to the
left of the trunk walk would probably prove the most attractive.
Near a good bed of
Yuccas, Agaves, Aloes, Cotyledons, Draeaiui Draco, etc., the most noticeable feature of which at
the moment being the numerous weeping racemes of a Yucea Jilifera on a fifteen -feet stem, is
a triangular corner containing a perfect specimen of Jubwa speetabilis with a stem quite six

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

175

feet in diameter. Surrounding it are flowering shrubs, etc.Salvias, Plumbago, Antirrhinums,


Veronicas, Aquilegias, Hibiscus, etc. ; facing it are the now empty bulb beds, a class of plants
in which the collection is rich.
In this quarter the lawns are more open, bedding-out is
resorted to, familiar objects being those plants used with us for the same purpose. Especially,
however, would I mention Zinnia lincaris, neat, dwarf, very free, its blooms of a soft orange
i'olour. A bed devoted to Sedums, and another to Echeverias, are features; and the bushes of
Banksian Roses, solid square yards in extent, are very fine.
The show houses, a range consisting of two stoves, two greenhouses, and two Ferneries, face
this portion of the garden. In addition to the ordinary Caladiums, Coleus, Eucharis, and the various
flowering plants employed to keep them bright
and gay, are some good plants. Of Asplenium
Nidus there are two specimens with leaves
three and a-half feet long; Platyecrium grandc in
large plants and P. alricorne are very good, the
Ferneries generally being pretty and tasteful.
Amongst the Orchids at this moment in
flower are Zygopetalum erinitum, Maxillaria
Dauthieri, Oneidium raricosum, O. ineurvum,
Cypripedium calurum, Eptdendrum prismatocarpum, Cymbidium gigantcum, Lycaste aromatiat,
Cypripedium Crossianum, Cattleya Bownngiana,
C. bimhr, etc.
Amongst the Palms in the
stoves are fair-sized specimens of Acanthorhiza
aeulcata, Stevensonia grandifalia, Arenga saecharifera, Kentia Lindeni, Thrinax barbadensis,
Kentia
Luciani,
Hyophorbe
Verschaffeltii,
Caryota sobolifera, etc.
In the stove some
of the Aroids are of equal quality, and the
collection of Anthuriums is good, including
A. hybridum, A. Moorcanam, A. Waroequcanum,
A. erystallinum, A. lcuconcurum, A. Ferricrensc,
and A. cordifolium. The old Palm house contains two gigantic Pandanus utilis, a few Cocos
and Livistona. Connected by the wall, literally bidden by the small close-growing Bignonia
gracilis, a small museum of woods is reached, testifying to the acknowledged ability of
Dr. Schomburgk as a collector.
Leaving the houses, we pass a circle of seven Lombardy Poplars, a relic of the days
when the Botanic Garden served for zoological purposes also. The trees were planted to shelter
bird-cages, etc, and descend a low grassy slope, relieved by a gorgeous bed of Pelargoniums,
at the foot of which the Lily pond is reached. The inevitable Venus is rising from the waters
in orthodox form.
Guarded on either side by strong clumps of Papyrus antujuornm, Cyperus
aUernifolius, etc., she is apparently interested in the growth of Nympluva alba, N. blaiula, and
Nuphar lutcum ; Aponogeton distachyon, Villarsia reniformis, Pontederia erassipes, and some others,
are all in splendid condition.
Here, as on the island in the adjacent larger hike, the Pampas
are exceedingly fine.
Amongst the chief features of the garden are the Willows on the
extreme edge of these lakes. Rising forty to forty-five feet, and planted about thirty-five years
ago, several dozens of fine trees (unfortunately getting hollow, and occasionally losing branches
in storms) form curtains of pale green, even to the water's surface.
It needed no further
inspection to assure one of the great care bestowed upon these gardens, a fact that speaks
volumes both for the Superintendent and for the people of Adelaide, the more so when the
natural dryness of the climate is considered.

170

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AXD

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

Museum.The Museum of Economic Botany next claims attention.


It has the reputation
of being one of the best in Australasia.
Oblong in shape, it is constructed of freestone, at a
cost of 3,000. The approach is by open lawns, on which are isolated specimens of the various
Agaves, Phoenix, Chaimerops, the handsomest of Pines, Pinus hngifolia, Juniperus Bermudiana and
a gigantic South Australian native tree, Eucalyptus rostrata with a trunk seven feet in diameter.
To the right is an avenue of Araucarict Cunninghami and A. i.recha, alternately planted
good regular specimens twenty-five to thirty feet high. At one end is the largest specimen
of Pinus hahpensis in the garden, a noble tree upwards of ninety feet high (unfortunately with
a divided trunk) ; behind it, a row of P. insignis forms a fine solid belt.
The centre of the Museum is occupied by long glass cases ; jutting out from the walls are
high narrow ones, others filling the recesses thus formed.
A collection of fruits, made from a
composition of papicr machi and plaster-of-Paris, by a German firm, in many instances most
life-like, is comprehensive, whilst one made in the Colony shows the extraordinary size and
colour obtainable from South Australian soil.
Mr. Holtze assures me they are not at all
exaggerated, and from what I have seen I do not doubt it.
Grapes, represented by bunches
of nine to ten and occasionally thirteen pounds, Zante Currant bunches one to one and a-half
pounds, Apples as large as any we obtain in England, and Pomegranates, again as large as
these, are included in this fine collection.
Cherries, Plums, Figs, etc., are good, the weakest
point being Tomatoes.
That the specimens copied were selected for their size is probable,
nevertheless it is a sure testimony to the capabilities of the Colony in this direction.
Mr.
Holtze finds, as I have generally done, that the flavour of colonial-grown fruit is wanting when
compared with European produce, probably due to the quickness of growth.
One of the best items in the Museum is a collection sent by the Japanese Government
in the Jubilee Year, of seeds, oils, starches, dyes, vegetables and animal manures, fodder and
agricultural produce generally, etc.
A case of fifty varieties of Maize, including two husk
varieties, a red and white, each seed being completely developed in a dry coriaceous husk ; a
case of coins, one of pitchers, a series of thirty-seven trays, illustrating the various stages in
tln! manufacture of Wheat-flour; six cases of fibres obtained from all parts of the globe;
a carpological collection, consisting of thousands of specimens ; various cases of Rice and other
cerds, food spices, gums, oils, barks, poison-plants, the products of the Olive, Barley and
Wheat ; models of fungi, tiax, tobaccos, cottons, and cocoa and chocolate; in the various stages
of manufacture, are among the most notable items. Amongst the exhibits are also a piece of
Oak-wood "which formed part of a bridge erected by Julius Ca\sar fifty-six years before
Christ, across the Rhine, between Weissenthurm and Neuwied"; and paper made from
Pine-wood, which when reduced to pulp, known as paper pulp, replaces rags in the
manufacture of this important article.
At one end of the Museum a compartment has been especially arranged for the Herbarium
containing upwards of eighteen thousand specimens. Mr. Holtze hopes, however, shortly to transfer
these elsewhere. But a few yards from the Museum is the Vietoria regia house. The plant in the
central tank occupying the greater portion of the low house is in good condition ; its largest leaf
this season was six feet six inches in diameter, and it has so far borne thirty flowers. Within
the same tank is a smaller one, twelve by eight feet and five feet deep, half filled with stones,
and partly with soil, containing the plant, the water being kept between 80 to 87 Fahrenheit,
and the necessary movement obtained by a slight stream from an overhead jet. Specimens of
Aerostichum aureum, Colocasia Devansayana (?), Aloca.iia Van Houttei and A. Porteri stand round
the edge of the tank with the base of their pots in the water. The side stages are occupied by
Anthuriums, Caladiums, Philodendrons, Aspidistras and Palms; the iron pillars, covered with Tree
Fern roots, support Pathos aurea, the more common species of Ferns, and a few Orchids, whilst
such creepers as Vanilla have roots ten feet long dangling in the water. Cmm discolor, Combretum

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALKS.

177

grandiflorum, Clerodendrons, ffoga canwsa and //. Cumingiana, Allamanda Hendersonii and
A. Chelsonii, Aristoloehia ridioula and Ipomoca sanguinca are trained on the roof.
In the
tank containing six feet of water, Nymphcva capensis, N. scutifolia, N. ampla and the very
beautiful N. zanzibarensis are thoroughly at home.
Beyond a belt of deciduous trees including a fine variegated Elm, and but a short distance
from the Museum and Vietoria regia house, is the Rose garden, extremely neat and pretty.
At either end tower two Pinus insignis, conical and compact, relies of an avenue planted some
thirty years since.
One side is sheltered from the destructive hot winds by a belt of the
same Pine, the others being equally fortunate as far as shelter goes.
Noticeable at this time
is the magnificent Stenocarpus sinuatus (Cunninghami), a native of East Australia. Its heads of
scarlet flowers, not unlike and certainly as large as an Ixora, render it most conspicuous ; a
good tree of it faces the
Rose garden.
Two large
beds of China Roses, masses
of flower, occupy
the
centre.
On either side
are six narrow beds, each
containing a
row
of
standards or half-standards,
as occasion may require,
the six rows on both
sides sloping towards the
centre. Festoons of Cle
matis,
Solanums, Antigouon, etc., connect the
outer row, the beds being
filled with Balsams, Ver
benas, Pansies, Pelargon
iums, Phlox, Zinnias, etc.,
flowering well and freely.
Adelaide. In the Botanic Gardens.
Tea Roses are naturally
in the best condition, though H. P.'s are largely represented.
At the extreme limit of the garden in this direction lies the experimental ground, now
chiefly used as a nursery, in which I noted very fine Tuberoses. The main walk here is lined
by a fine avenue of Ficus maerophylla, its chief fault as a garden plant being its enormous
spread of root. Recently Mr. Holtze found several, two inches in diameter, in the Vietoria regia
tank, which is sixty feet from the tree.
Doubtless they had been attracted by the heat and
moisture.
On either side, and parallel with the avenue, are rows of Ailantus glandulosa,
Robinia, Elm, Acer, and other deciduous trees.
Avenues of American Ash and Sterculia
diversifolia shade other paths beyond, both of which it is necessary to cross to reach that
section of the garden set apart for the natural Orders. This portion consists of a series of
broad circles, the beds divided by narrow strips of grass, each bed thus formed being devoted
to one Order.
Unquestionably this is the weak point of the garden. Adjoining this is an
Arboretum of limited extent. Pines, including Pimis poiulerosa, P. Sabiniaim, P. tenuifolia from
Guatemala, P. mitis and P. muricata, Callitris Maelcayana, many Oaks, including Qiureus ambigua
Ashes, Elms, Maples, etc., are represented by moderate-sized specimens.
A fine avenue of the Queensland Tristania con/erta leads from the old exhibition ground,
past the Palm house, a domed structure on a broad embankment raised seven feet above the
surrounding levels. Handsome stone steps form the ascent, from the summit of which a pretty

178

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

view of the grounds is obtainable. The Willows before referred to lay to the left, facing a
Ccdrus Dcodara, Araucaria Bidwilli, and Yueca Ghicsbreghtii (Gimlemalensis) in flower, all good
specimens. Diamond and other shaped beds form a continuous line around the top of the
embankment, gay with bedding plants, amongst which the decorative effect of the yellow, red
and orange varieties of Capsicum racemigerum (?) is particularly striking; the countless quantity
of narrow, long, stiff fruits keeping in condition for months, and not attaining a greater height
than eight to twelve inches, makes this Capsicum a favourite in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens.
The Palm house, constructed by a Bremen firm at a cost of 4,000, is an oblong building
with high straight sides and a low dome, which, by-the-bye, it is intended to raise.
The
centre is occupied by a Liinstona chincnms with a stem forty-two feet high, six of which are
sunk in the border. Many other fine specimens of the same Palm may also be seen in the house.
Alsophila excelsa, Cyathca medullaris, Hemitelia Smithii, Alsophila Coopcri, Scaforthia robusta
(touching the roof), an unusually fine Pritehardia pacifica, a Kentia Forsteriana with sixteen
leaves, in addition to one unfurled, certainly not less than twenty-five feet to the apex of the
highest leaf, and a few Chamanloreas and Phoenix form the chief contents of this house. The
specimens are good, but the variety is not great.
A pretty waterfall, decorated with Ferns
and Asparagus, occupies one end.
Directing one's steps towards the houses in the private enclosure, a good Eucalyptus
maculata, with a stem six feet in diameter, is passed.
Unfortunately, the head is but small
and irregular.
In the enclosure are ten glass-houses and three shade-houses.
This is
naturally to a large extent the nursery for the remaining portion of the garden.
Mr. Holtze
considers strips of " hessian," nailed somewhat loosely to the rafters, to be the best method
of shading, the movement caused by the wind resulting in a current of air beneath.
Chrysanthemums from cuttings, struck the latter end of October, look well ; as do seedling
Cyclamen in one of the shade-houses, and Pelargoniums, Cinerarias, Primulas, Camellias and a
large batch of Poinsettias in the others.
Cool Orchids, particularly those from the Andes,
Mexico, etc., are grown in a glass case, itself in one of the shade-houses. One side consists of
a piece of canvas kept saturated by water from a perforated pipe running along the top ; it is
found that the reduction in temperature thus obtained varies from 15 to 20 Fahrenheit.
Odontoglossums, Maxillarias, Zygopctalums, Masdevallias, Lycastes and Oncidium maeranthum (the
latter in particularly good condition) are thus treated.
The collection of Cacti is very complete, and contains about five hundred specimens ; they
are grown under glass, as the cold rains have been found to harm them. The Fernery contains
chiefly small specimens in good condition, but the palm of excellence must certainly be given
to the Orchids, a hobby of the foreman, Mr. Macdonald, on whom they reflect the greatest credit.
Lielias and Cattleyas are, in general, in splendid condition, Lalia superbicns, L. elegans, Cattleya
guttata, Lalia erispa and the commoner species being all represented by good moderate-sized
specimens. The collection of Dendrobiums is equally varied and equally well grown ; whilst
amongst the Cypripediums are several large specimens of C. purpuratum, C. ^oZt<i<m,
C. Swanianum, C. Lecanum superbum, C. Druryi, etc.
Angrcecum sesquipedale has sixteen pairs
of leaves, the lowest resting on the pot. A. eburucum has eleven pairs, Arachnantlw Lowii,
eight ; Anscllia africana and Grammatophyllum speciomm are all that can be desired.
The
Phahenopses are above the average for size, and certainly so in quality. P. Luddemanniana,
P. rosca, P. Stuartiana, P. Schilleriana and P. amabilis (grandiflora) are in perfect condition.
The labels most preferred are fiat, galvanised iron, painted black with the name in white; they
will last three or four years when varnished.
Wood labels from " Jamah " (Eucalyptus
marginata) are also in use, but difficult to get of sufficient width, this wood being very prone
to warp.
Deal is preferred, as it takes both the paint and the written name easier, though
the labels only last two years, whereas those from " Jarrah " are practically indestructible.

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

179

Fruit Culture.A question of great importance to the Colony is the cultivation of fruit ;
to its exceptional size and appearance I have already referred. The quantity planted appears, at
present, too great for the markets so far opened, it being a general belief that gathering does
not always result in profit. Mr. Holtze, of the Botanic Garden, has bought a sixty pound
case of Tomatoes for '2s.; Muscat of Alexandria Grape (frequently picked, as is much of the
fruit, rather too early) will fall to Id. or \h(l. per pound, though the first in the season's
market realise Is. to Is. 3d. per pound. Mr. Ind, one of the oldest residents in the Colony,
who remembers when the site of Adelaide was under survey, grows one of the chief collections
of fruit, and his Orange plantations are exceedingly fine and very extensive. In many of his
quarters the plants are twenty years old, round even bushes fifteen to eighteen feet high, in
perfect condition. Planted twenty-four feet apart, they are extensively irrigated, a requirement
offering no great difficulty to this gentleman, the Torrens River running by his grounds.
Vines, for wine, he has naturally planted largely.
They are placed seven feet apart each
way eight hundred and forty to the acre. His large experience has led him to believe
Doradilo to be the best Grape for the puqwse, and he has therefore planted but few others.
Almeria, a Californian variety, is also used ; it has a loose bunch, a tough skin, and is insipid
in flavour, but it is a good white, and a fair dessert variety for four months out of the twelve.
Under favourable conditions paying results should he obtained three or four years after planting.
Pruning begins after April, and the plants are stopped three times before Christmas. Such
Vines should yield half a hundredweight each.
Black Grapes he does not cultivate,
finding them more difficult, and frequently very unsatisfactory to pack for market.
Black
Prince has been tried, but will not bear after ten or fifteen years old, and the berry
craiks after one night's rain. Of this variety alone he informed me that he had twenty acres,
as it promised well as a packer. Frontignac fetches the highest price of any wine Grape in the
Colony, viz., 7 per ton. What a difference from Western Australia, where 10 per ton is not
an unusual price !
Black-spot and sparrows are two dangerous pests ; the latter peck holes in the berries,
ruining a very considerable per-centage of the fruit ; the danger of affecting the flavour of the
wine when such berries pass into the press is very great. On black-spot, lime and sulphur have
no effect, but a solution of sulphate of copper has been found, if not to destroy the fungus,
at least to retard its growth and minimise the evil.
To the other Colonies Mr. Ind ships largely, but owing to the difficulty of getting the
shipping companies to store fruit on deck, he has ceased sending to Europe. Some, including
Mr. Ind, do not believe in cool chambers, experience having proved deck storage to be more
efficient. The best Pear in -the orchards here is naturally Williams' Bon Chretien, locally
known as The Duchess.
Bishop's Thumb and Vicar of Winkfield are, however, carrying enormous
crops this season. A plantation of half-standard Apricots, forty-five years old (dating almost
from the birth of the Colony), is now suffering much from fungus ; on one occasion Mr. Ind
has seen his trees and fruit in perfect condition devastated in sixty hours, the leaves bared
in innumerable places, and the fruit spotted.
I also visited the vineyard and extensive cellars of Sir Samuel Davonport. Here Doradilo
is much grown ; Mataro, on the contrary, does not yield equally good results, though it bears
well, and when blended, gives colour ; Aromar, a brandy Grape from the Montpelier plains,
is much employed ; Serret Bourret is found good, and the soil is considered particularly suitable
for Grenache.
Muscat of Alexandria and Wortley Hall Seedling, of which I tasted some
very fine fruit, as well as Sultana, for drying purposes are all grown.
The branches of the
plants are kept very short, with the exception of such as Cabinet the Bordeaux Claret
Grapewhich yields the best results when long pruned.
In this respect the system is
different from that followed in Western Australia, and I am almost inclined to think it better.

180

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA.

AND

NKW

SOUTH

WALKS.

Grubs (such as those infesting the vineyards of Western Australia) here also fesd on
the young buds of the Vines.
Sir Samuel has tried many expedients, and finds a small
regiment of fowls the best antidote and the least costly. The grubs bury themselves in the
day, and are duly scratched up by the poultry.
The free distribution of Vine cuttings by the Forestry Department of the Government is in
vogue.
Last year the quantity distributed amongst small planters (in addition to the twenty-acre
plots of land they obtain free) is estimated at seven hundred thousand, and the year previously
at one million.
Local nurserymen scarcely view this arrangement with pleasure.
Sir Samuel
Davonport's Olive trees are very fine, and he manufactures a considerable quantity of oil, the
granite-crushers, lever-presses and receptacles for which are of the highest order.
1 may here
mention, so numerous are the Olives around Adelaide, that this industry would probably assume
great proportions but for the labour of gathering. To any obcerver a little beneath the
surface, there seems to be
no question that what the
Australian Colonies require is
men more than money.
As
it is, 30s. to 40s. per week
wages to Olive gatherers will
not permit of competition with
the cheap labour of Italy. The
Colony suffers as much from
acclimatised weeds as it does
from such acclimatised animal
pests as rabbits and sparrows.
Gorse, Briar, Artichoke, Prickly
Pear and Bramble grow and
multiply to an alarming extent.
Stone Thistle (a species of
Centaurea), and Bathurst Burr
(Xanthium spinosum), fatal to
AdelaideIn the Botanic Gardens.
the fleece of sheep, are much
dreaded, and the
law has
rendered it criminal for land-owners to permit its existence on or near their estates. I have
seen Stink-weed, despite the lack of rain for five months till a few days since, render whole
fields, now lying fallow, green and verdant.
This, however, can be ploughed in, and to a
certain extent grappled with, if done before seeding.
Nurseries.The nurseries of Messrs. E. and W. Hackett, C. Newman, and Sewell, are
worth a visit. The first-named are the local seed merchants. Their nursery lies but a short
distance in the suburbs. En route I was much struck with the large number of Schinus
Molle in every direction.
In addition to its showy coral-like fruit, its long pendulous
slender branches waving with every breath of air, do not retain the dusta strong
recommendation.
Nerines, also common, and other stiff-growing plants are sad sinners in this
respect.
The trim Melia Azadirachta is also a favourite tree for the small front gardens of
suburban cottages.
The nurseries of Messrs. E. and W. Hackett are under the direction of Mr. Kemp, but three
years out from home. They are yet young, and largely devoted to the production of market
plants, Oranges, Loquats, etc.
Their shade-house, one hundred and eight feet long, sixty
feet wide, and thirty feet high, is a fine large structure, the supports being of Jarrah and the

SOUTH

AUSTRAMA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NKW

SOUTH

WALES.

181

rafters of Oregon Pine, preferred on account of its lightness. The sides of the house and of
the lantern have the rafters placed diagonally, those on the roof heing straight. Here are various
young plants such as Cyathca excdsa, Dicksonias, and the best Palms for outside planting, as
well as Chaimerops, Arecas and other Palms, Norfolk Island Pine, Cryptomerias and Camellias,
liable to burn outside until fully established ; the bust named are chiefly propagated from
layers, sufficient for cutting purposes, but do not make neat saleable plants ; also Ericas and
other hard-wooded species, Ferns, etc.
English Hollies, owing to climatic causes, do not thrive.
The most useful hedge plants of Adelaide are Pittosporum cugenioides and Rhamnus altemifolius;
these are clipped twice a year, and the many excellent close hedges around the town testify to their
suitability for the purpose. The smaller-foliaged Pittosporum nigrescens is also used as a hedge plant.
Messrs. Hackett grow Oranges extensively, the seed being sown in boxes whence they may
be planted out in twelve months' time.
They consider Loquats scarcely a paying crop ; the
demand is but slight, the fruit on occasions realizing but \\d. per pound. A bed of Dahlias,
three to five feet high, looked well, and was flowering freely ; the tubers were received from
England at Christmas, and planted out immediately on arrival. Roses receive especial attention.
Banksians and Teas do well, and Cloth of Gold bears a good reputation ; it is of vigorous growth,
and stands drought and heat. Safrano also can be recommended, but Marechal Niel is apt to
burn. Good soil is obtained from the Loftz Hills, a low range running south of Adelaide,
and the peat and loam in use are good, though for Orchids the peat obtained from home
is preferred.
I may mention that Romneya Coulteri, the monotypic Poppy-like plant from
California, is growing well in Messrs. Hackett's nursery.
The nursery of Mr. C. Newman is eleven miles out of the town ; its situation is peculiar.
In the narrow and steep ravines of the Loftz range, along the sides of a narrow creek,
sheltered from the dry, warm winds from which the neighbourhood of Adelaide suffers so severely,
he successfully cultivates fruit trees, Rhubarb, Veronicas, Daphne indica, Hydrangca hortensis,
Koses, etc.
At the time of my visit budding Oranges was in operation, the Seville being a
favourite stock.
The houses are well filled with Ferns, Palms, Crotons, Ixoras, a few Orchids,
some in very good condition, one Phakenopsis Schilleriana bearing a leaf seventeen inches in
length, and many Begonias, Caladiums, etc., in fact, a comprehensive general nurseryman's stock.
The shade-house for Tree Ferns is also a distinct feature.
In the fruit plantations, Cherries
are very good, and Apples, budded on the 1 (light-resisting Northern Spy, bear fruit freely.
When the blight does appear Mr. Newman finds the hot dry wind shrivels it up, with the
exception of that in the deeper cracks.
Mr. Sewell is also an important grower: a Bignonia Chererc with its soft rose-purple
flowers fully three inches long covering one of the stone chimneys is very noticeable ; this is
a very handsome creeper for a sub-tropical climate. Mr. Sewell obtained a large collection of
plants of Davallia bullata from Japan, trained in various forms, but finds they do not last.
Grafted Diospyros are also imported, but require eighteen months' acclimatisation to accustom
them to the change of seasons. Plants two and a-half to three feet in height, packed in moss,
travel well. Mr. Sewell's collection of water plants is particularly good ; small square slate
tanks are apportioned to each of the more important genera. Recently an expensive importation
of Olive cuttings was received from Italy, but scarcely ten per cent, show any signs of
growing; nevertheless, the extraordinary tenacity of life the Olive always exhibits in this Colony
may seem novel.
Stems two to three inches in diameter, simply inserted in the ground,
rarely fail to root and grow. The various florist, greenhouse and stove depots are well filled
with a general collection.
On the Loftz Range, the favourite residential suburb of Adelaide, are many nice homes .
the climate is much cooler, and many plants liable to burn on the plains succeed in the
various gardens attached to the private residences.

182

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

BROKEN

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

HILL.

April, I89:5. Before leaving South Australia I spent a few interesting days at the Broken
Hill Mines. The spot was first discovered to he mineralized almut nine years ago hy George
Rasp, a German shepherd, who had
acquired
some
knowledge
of
minerals at
home.
Under the.
impression that he had met with
tin, he and the other hands on the
station staked out claims and
obtained possession, subsequent inves
tigation bringing to light an almost
incredible quantity of silver and
lead ore, which brought a fortune to
the finders. The principal mine
the Proprietaryis said to be the
largest in the world and is one
of the most impressive sights.
For
two hours 1 wandered, under guid
ance, in its galleries which spread
for miles ; the supports, ceilings,
etc., are all of Oregon Pine sawn
by machinery into logs ten inches
square.
Night and day the ore is dug, and smelting never ceases, nor will it cease until
the lodesaid to vary from ten to one hundred feet throughis exhausted.

BALLARAT,

VICTORIA.

Within the Colony of Victoria the first halting place of importance is Ballarat, a town which
entirely owes its position to the discovery of gold, and to its being the centre of possibly the
richest gold-yielding district known.
But seventy-four miles from Melbourne, it claims fifty
miles of streets, and in the two municipalities over forty-three thousand inhabitants.
The
elevation is one thousand four hundred and fifteen feet above the sea. It possesses gardens of
unusual interest, but though called Botanic, they can in reality scarcely claim to be such. The
Conifers are exceptionally fine, and the collection of statuary, purchased at great cost in Italy by
men who made fortunes in the mines, is naturally ahead of anything in any public garden I
had previously visited. The collection of Tree Ferns is large and in good condition, occupying the
main portion of a house four hundred and fifty feet long and sixty feet wide ; the paths, nearly all
at right angles, as are the streets in Australian towns, are twelve feet wide, covered with a fine
iron-stone gravel, weedless and perfectly smooth. Within a few yards of the entrance is a lake
five hundred and seventy-five acres in extent, but probably that which most attracts attention is
the absence of overcrowding in the shrubberies.
Mr. Longley, the Director, has held that
position for thirty-four years, and many of his reminiscences of earlier days are interesting.
When he took over the garden, at that time a police paddock, Melbourne was being built ;

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

183

Ballarat was regarded as an Eldorado, and quarrymen were receiving 18s. per day. Eighty-three
acres is the extent covered by the entire reserve, thirty-three only being under cultivation ; the
remainder down to the shores of Lake Wanderer is planted with Elm, Oak, Willow, Pinus
insignis, P. halepensis, etc., many of them now fine specimens. The climate is good, though for
three months in summer no rain falls.
The temperature rarely exceeds 98 Fahrenheit, and
Mr. Longley cannot recall having experienced more than 5 of frost. Snow occasionally falls.
Near the great shade-house, a handsome turreted erection four hundred and fifty feet long and
sixty feet wide, is a low, circular glass pavilion containing the five finest pieces of statuary, a more
than life-size group, representing " The Flight from Pompeii," occupying the foremost position. Beds
gay with bedding-out plants, annuals, etc., are scattered about the lawn lying immediately in
front of the shade-house, though it is chiefly devoted to Tree Ferns, amongst which are many fine
specimens of Cyathca medullaris, C. prineeps, C. Cunninghamii, C. dealbata, Dicksonm australis,
D. squarrosa, D. antaretica, etc. Two long side beds are devoted to Camellias and Fuchsias,
both in good condition, many of them carefully trained pyramids and half-standards gay with
flowers. The Camellias, as at Adelaide, are apt to burn if exposed to the full effects of a
summer's sun. Creepers hide the numerous pillars, and penetrating between the rafters, trail
over the roof. Abutilons, Taesonias,
Passifloras, Bignonia Mackenii, and
B. La Trobci (named after the
first Victorian Governor), Ampelopsis japonica and A. tricuspidata,
Lapageria, Arauja albeus, Manderilla suavcolens, Trachelospermum
jasminoides, Aphanopetalum resinosum, etc., for the most part
in the open black loam of the
prepared
borders, grow
with
luxuriance.
The species more
Mining Camp_
ordinarily met with of Cyrtomium,
Pteris, Davallia, Lomaria, Asplenium, Platycerium, etc., occupy the open borders between Tree
Fern stems, and adorn a neat rockery and waterfall at one end. Tanks of fishgold and
silver, roach, cat-fish, tench, Russian carp, etc. are en evidenee for those piscatorially inclined.
The end of the house facing the lake is at present a glorious picturea tangled mass of
Taesania x exonicnsis and Bignonia Mackenii in full bloom.
In the border opposite is a
specimen of Abics Webbiana fifteen feet high, a species not often met with in Australia.
Behind the shade-house is the nursery, etc., a Platanus oecidentals shading the entrance,
considered by Mr. Longley superior to P. orientalis as a tree for planting in Ballarat; it is
generally hardier, and does not burn. Facing one of the only two glass-houses the garden
possesses is a neat clipped hedge of Cupressus maerocarpa, and several pillars of variegated
Symphoricarpus trained on sticks eight to ten feet high.
In the houses the Begonias are
quite a feature ; not so dwarf as we grow them, but the size of individual blooms is equal to
that of any seen in England as is the variety of coloursmany fine flowers were five and even
six inches across. Over a hundred varieties of Fuchsias are grown ; the double Petunias are
very good, and Streptocarpus also look well.
A collection of woods, in a low building devoted to the Ballarat Fish Acclimatisation
Society, over whose welfare Mr. Longley also presides, illustrates the rapidity of growth of
forest trees in the neighbourhood. One specimen of Pinus insvjnis Mr. Longley mentions as
having attained in nineteen years a height of sixty-six feet, and a circumference of stem of nine
and a-half feet. Within a few feet of the Acclimatisation Society's building is another striking

184

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

instancean English Oak, with a stem fifteen inches in diameter, but twenty-five years old.
The nursery ground is naturally devoted to the propagation of those plants required for
planting in the reserves and gardens. A batch of about five hundred Eucalyptus Globulus look
well, as do large pyramid Azaleas, three to four feet high, and Rhododendrons of the same size in
pots. Seed of Cedrus Dcodara grown in the garden germinates freely. Giant Elm, grafted in July
last, has foliage in magnificent health, and in one instance has produced a shoot eleven feet long.
Neat bushes of Baronia megastigma, two and a-half to three feet high, occupy the centre row of
one bed, and it seems scarcely credible that they are but two years old from cuttings. There is
no difficulty in growing them five feet high and three to four feet through, and in this condition
flowering them freely. Euonymus and Holly do well ; and beyond a handsome, close-cut hedge
of English Privet is a row of standard, mop-headed, scarlet double-flowered Thorns.
Double
blue and double white Violets border neat beds of Narcissi, seedling Carnations, Hollyhocks, etc. ;
and beds of annuals, sown but two months ago, for flowering next October in the garden, are
for the most part up and thriving. Beyond the fence boundary of the nursery, Mr. Longley
pointed out a row of grafted Canadian Elms, planted by himself a little over eight years since,
and now fine trees averaging thirty feet high. Elder (Sambucus nigra) thrives and fruits freely;
a fine feast for the sparrowsas great a pest here as elsewhere. Mr. Longley has observed them
to breed three times in the season, commencing to rebuild a nest the same day one is destroyed.
In the large shade-house no fewer than three hundred eggs and young have been destroyed
in a week. From the nursery it is but a few paces to the one-mile walk, running the
whole length of the garden.
The borders contain some fine Eucalyptus Globulus, Acacia
lophantha, and various shrubs, but not in great variety.
Facing the walk is a maze of English
Trivet and Whitethorn, one hundred yards long by seventy-five wide, on precisely the same
plan as that at Hampton Court.
As I mentioned in the earlier part of these notes, the Conifers in Ballarat Gardens are
considerably above the average, and to view them only I consider a stay in this town would
well repay a lover of such trees.
Pines hold the foremost place.
Pinus Brewsteri (?) has
attained a height of forty feet ; P. canaricnsis, an even, regular specimen, sixty feet ; P. insignis
still more, two perfect plants facing each other on either side of the walk ; it is apparently the
most common species, one of the oldest being between eighty and ninety feet high ; P. Coulteri
is but little less, and is a noble plant at present bearing a few cones ; P. Jeffrcji has reached a
height of a little over forty feet ; P. Laricio, sixty feet ; a prospective specimen of P. excelsa, forty-five
feet ; whilst P. halepensis and P. Pinaster are also represented. The heights given of these Pines
but poorly illustrate the noble effect produced by these fine trees, for the most part in grand
condition.
Not suffering from overcrowding, in good soil, in a climate not offering great
extremes, and when necessary, with water artificially supplied, they have acquired a luxuriance
rarely met with under cultivation. The collection of Abies is also interesting. A. Douglasii
is, at this moment, coning freely in several of the borders ; a specimen between fifty and sixty
feet high is among the most noticeable of this species.
Spruce Firs thrive and cone freely,
Picca Smithiana, thirty feet ; P. alba, twenty-seven feet ; a pair of Abics Nordmanniana, thirty
feet, all bearing cones at the present time. Several specimens of A. Webbiana also testify to its
thorough acclimatisation. In respect to the genus Cupressus, Mr. Longley prefers C. Thompsonii (?)
for this localitythoroughly hardy, he finds it thrives best of all, and of its beauty there can be
no doubt. A pair of pyramidal graceful specimens forty feet high are amongst the best of the
species in the garden C. maerocarpa and C. Lambertianathe latter covering the width of an
entire walk with its strong spreading branches. C. funebris flourishes, and numerous fine trees of
all the species mentioned are met with in various parts of the garden, clumps of Pinus insignis
and Cupressus maerocarpa in two instances occupying entire quarters.
Araucarias have as yet
attained no great size. A. Cookci is now coning, whilst A. Bidwilli, A. Cunninghami, A. excelsa

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTOHIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

185

and even A. imbricata are all represented by good though small specimens. Amongst other
Conifers, Juniperus proutrata is thoroughly at home, and in several instances covers many square
yards.
Callitris Gunni a Tasmanian species, Juniperus rigida and Podocarpus spinulosus are all
thriving. Wellingtoniasan avenue of many dozens of well-shaped specimens from thirty to fifty
feet highand various Cedrus Libani and C. Dcodara are noteworthy.
Mr. Longley considers
the last named the Conifer of Ballarat. When the Pines and Firs have ceased to exist, he
believes it will stand and thrive, as neither drought, hot winds nor sun affect it seriously. I
must, however, say that the specimens are not of so good a colour, nor the foliage in such
condition as in colder spots and moister atmospheres.
In the borders edged with neatly clipped dwarf Box are many good specimens of shrubs.
Berberis Darwinii, clumps of Pampas Grass, Portugal Laurel, several clumps eighteen to twenty
feet high, in perfect condition ; Pittosporum erassifolium, much used as a hedge plant in
damp soft ground ; flowering bushes of Lagunaria Patersonii; Ccanothus divaricatus with stems
six to nine inches in diameter ; Laurus Camphora, bushes from fifteen to eighteen feet high ;
Pittosporum nigrescens, clipped columns, nearly twenty-five feet ; Colletia eruciata, twelve feet ;
Magnolia grandiflora, fifteen feet high ; Arbutus Unedo, flowering and berrying freely; Cantuu
dependens, four to five feet high and of still greater diameter, said to flower with luxuriance ;
Veronicas and Laurestinus ten to twelve feet in diameter ; Euonymus, green and silver, massive
columns eighteen feet by ten feet ; Habrothamnus, Loquats, Nandina dotncstica, several specimens,
five to seven feet high, the foliage being employed for bouquets and table decoration by reason
of its persisting longer than Maidenhair Fern ; Aloysia citrwdora, ten feet high, quite a weed
in Gippsland, covering many acres, and refusing to be exterminated, even by fire ; Ilex cormUa,
freely berrying; Golden Holly, nine to ten feet, and Photinia scerulata, twenty feet high, are
amongst the subjects I noted in the shrubberies of this pretty little garden.
A distinct feature is an avenue of Cordyline nutans, interspersed with clipped Pittosporum
eugenioides varicgatum, lining one of the trunk walks for several hundred yards. The Cordylines
vary from twenty to twenty-five feet, whilst the Pittosporums rarely attain more than ten feet in
height; solid clipped columns, four to five feet in diameter, with milky-white foliage, rendering
the effect very striking. Forest trees such as Horse Chestnut, Elm, Wych Elm, Willow, Occidental
Plane and Ash are numerously represented, the last named now seeding freely.
The Rosary
is large and well filled, pegging down the shoots being found most productive of blooms
Respecting the lawns, the amount of shade many are subjected to may partly account for
thinness. Mr. Longley finds English and Italian Rye Grass last well for two years, but
white Clover is preferable to both ; Couch-grass is also employed. The beds of Dahlias are
exceptionally fine, and those of Chrysanthemums and Marguerites good.

G BELONG.
The port of Geelong possesses a public park of one hundred and eighty acres, a small portion
of which is reserved for a garden, the whole being under the direction of Mr. Raddenburg.
Within its limits is one of the largest, if not the largest, shade-house in the Colony of
Victoriaa long structure, sixty feet wide, with a central dome of the same height. Climbers
grow with great luxuriance, one side of the dome affording a support for a trailing curtain of
Trmma Maekeaii, Taesonia Van Volxemii and others, to within five feet of the summit a
remarkable sight. Within are many Tree Ferns, Palms, etc. Alsophila Cooperi from New South
Wales, A. robusta, Cibotium magnificum, Musa Cavendishii, Jubaa speetabilis eighteen feet high,
Chamwrops specics, and Areca sapida with leaves nine to ten feet long. An irregular mass of
AA

1Kb'

SOlTH

Al'STltAI.IA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOlTH

WALKS.

fantastic rockery occupies the centre of a circular tank lying immediately beneath the dome, and
is entirely devoted to Water Lilies. In the adjacent borders, Phyllostaehys nigra fifteen feet high,
Kentia Forsteriana equally tall, Todea barbara, Ptyelumperma Alexandrw noted as being so fine in
the Queensland bush, Akophila rxeclsa and many others are thriving. For all of these
such Ferns as Woodwardia radicans, Asplenium bulbiferum, Pteris trnnula, Ncphrolepis exaltata,
Asplenium obtusilobum, Blechnum brasilicwv, Adiantum glaucophyllum and other well known
species afford a suitable undergrowth. Ivies cling to the supporting pillars, Hedera madeirensis
and H. Bayjiuriana being particularly fine. At the end of the house is a rockery of so
curious a formation as to merit detailed description.
Along the shore at Geelong may be
found in great quantities, and of unknown age, hollow root-like conglomerates of sand, lime,
etc. In the district, various Melaleucas are common, more especially M. acuminata, and around
the roots of such the sand, lime, salt, etc., have gradually accumulated, until, assisted by the
action of the water, the root has become entirely encrusted to the thickness of an inch. The
root decays, the result being a hollow tube of some thickness and great solidity, the exterior
form being faithfully true to the shape of a Ti-tree (Melaleuca) root. Such concretions are
freely employed in front of the rockery in question, and in some instances they are surrounded
by crystals dug from clay. At one time the latter were employed in the manufacture of plasterof-Paris, but I am led to understand that they proved unremunerative. Viewing the rockery for
the first time, and previous to any explanation, I was inclined to think the intricate open
network on its face consisted of petrified rootsa belief easily tenable until the hollowness of
the conglomerates is shown, and the foregoing explanation offered.
In its fissures, crevices and
recesses, Ferns have been liberally distributed, needing but time to greatly improve the effect
of the whole.
In the general borders of the garden Cautua dtjxiulrus may be noted as thriving well,
Siraiusonia galegafolia in flower, Pomiuya Coulteri, a tall straggling hush, seeding ; Arbutus
ranaricnsis fruiting, Doryanthes Palmeri with foliage eight feet long, Grerillra Hdliana, and
Casta nmpcrmum auMralr from Queensland, often met with in Australian gardens.
Roses and
Chrysanthemums, the latter occupying a fine border over one hundred yards in length, do
exceedingly well, the edging of double white Violets growing with unwonted luxuriance.
Cltoisya termita, Syringas and Tree Pa-onies, Bouvardias, Cannas, Salvias, etc., all help to
make the place gay with flower.
Pomegranates form perfect trees, and within a few feet of
the shade-house is as laige a Jacaranda mimosa-folia as I have met with in the Colony. In
the glass-houses the collection of Orchids and Pitcher Plants is in excellent condition.
Geelong is on sea-level, yet the success attending the cultivation of some plants might
lead one to suppose its site lay at an elevation ; in all probability, however, the sea breezes
and the openness of its situation account for the mildness of the climate compared with that
of other parts of Victoria

MELBOURNE.
APRIL, 1K9:!.During Mr. Guilfoyle's twenty years' tenure of office in Melbourne, he has rendered
the Botanic Garden one of great interest to a landscape gardener. Covering upwards of ninety-seven
acres of ground, including a lake of eight acres, there is doubtless ample opportunity, more
especially as the nature of the site considerably aids this end.
Rich grassy undulating slopes,
interminable winding walks and bold sweeping tads in pure English style complete as fine a
general landscape effect as is to be met with anywhere. Beds devoted to natural Orders, others
reserved for the flora of various countries or continents, others again arranged from a gardener's

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA.

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

187

point of view, offer interesting studies to all lovers of plants.


The lawns, of Buffalo and
English Rye Grass, are perfect and kept in excellent condition ; the paths, ten to twenty feet in
width, no less so, although from motives of economy, and on account of the general retrenchment
the Victoria Government is now enforcing, these are being rapidly asphalteda most unfortunate
necessity.
In glass, the gardens are comparatively weak, but the hypercritical would find it
difficult to take exception to much else. It is unquestionably the best labelled garden I ever
entered, florists' varieties of Verbena, Phlox or Pentstemon receiving the same attention as the
rare species of a little-known genus from a distant land.
In addition to the botanical name,
the name of its author, the popular name, the habitat, Order, and in some instances the
economic or medicinal value of the plant are legibly inscribed.
From the above it is easy to gather that the vote for the garden must have been large,
but, as in every other department, it has been and is still being reduced. Eleven entrances
admit from the reserves, which, with the domain of Government House, enclose the garden ;
from these, on the highest level, a series of broad, sweeping, undulating slopes fall to the
lake -an artificially improved lagoon of the Yarra on the lowest.
Opposite the various
entrances large beds are apportioned to the various natural Orders, whilst for nearly two-thirds
of the garden circumference a broad border is devoted to the flora of the Australian
continenta singularly complete and useful collection. Approaching by the office entrance, with
two tall Araucaria cvcelsa on either side of the gate, the magnificent stretch of verdant green
known as the "Oak Lawn," is relieved at the bend by a bed devoted to Magnoliacea-.
Ulirium religiosum is represented by a good bush twelve feet high. Magnolia oboruta, M. couspicim,
M. tripetala, M. fuscata and M. CampMli are amongst others; and Ewpomatia laurina, a
glossy-foliaged shrub, the young leaves of a pale brown, and bearing small greenish white
sweet-scented blossoms, is an interesting native shrub.
As a single lawn specimen in the rear
of the bed is a seedling Magnolia gramliflora.
On the other portions of the "Oak Lawn"
so named from its single specimens, for the most part belonging to that genusare heds
devoted to Berberidea\ Ranunculacete, Ternstrocmiacea', Saxifrages, etc.
Of Oaks, Mr. Guilfoyle considers he has some seventy species and varieties.
Amongst the
most noticeable on the lawn in question are Querens alba thirty feet, Q. heterophyUa, (J. fiobur,
Q. incann, Q. lu.tUanica, Q. Mirbeekii very fine, and two exceptionally even specimens of Q. virens
and Q. Ilex ; Herberis stnwphylla, a flowering mass ten feet in diameter ; Nandina domestica,
five feet high, and as much through ; and amongst those of less dimensions, Berberis cratagina,
B. orwntalis (?), B. Guimpeli, B. japonica, the strong-growing and distinct B. laxijhra, B. iberica,
B. pallida bearing numerous drooping heads of the palest sulphur-coloured flowers, and B. vulgaris
seeding freely, represent the Berberidea^.
Camellias, Chinese and Assam Teaa fine bush
of the latter now in full bloomoccupy the major portion of the Ternstrcemiaceous bed.
In a mixed border but a few yards distant are good bushes of Podocarpus data, P. Totara
twenty-five to twenty-seven feet high, foliaged to the ground ; flowering Tecomas and Daturas
relieve the sombre effect of the heavier evergreens.
In the bed devoted to the Urticaceas
is a large Oriental Plane, the foliage burnt considerably, whilst beneath the shade of some
of the finest Araucarm execlsa in the garden lay the Cistineae, most of the various species of
Cistus at this time in bloom. The Solanaceaj are close by. The fine purple-flowering lochroma
grandijhrum, the equally decorative purple /. laneealatum, both bearing innumerable long tubular
blossoms, and Habrothamnus fascicularis and Cestrum faitidissimum, equally well flowered, make
this bed a gay one.
Amongst the most interesting beds is that devoted to the Proteacea?, in which I had the
satisfaction of noting some old friends from Western Australia ; good trees of Banksia integrifolia
and B. marginata were both in flower. Lcucadeiulron glabrum and several Hakeas flourish, but
certainly the most curious is Protea cynaroidM with numerous pointed whitish buds and last

188

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

year's (hied flower heads.


Amongst the Polygalese many were in flower, a striking similarity
in the colour of all being noticeable. As might be expected the Pittosporea? ate exceptionally
fine, P. rigidum, P. ewienwides, P. tenuifolium and the more ordinarily met with species being
represented by massive bushes. Mr. Guilfoyle has a good eye for colour, many of the beds being
decorated with yellow-foliaged Nerium, purple Castor-oil, yellow and silver variegated Euonymus,
Silver Box, the great unwieldy greenish grey Fatxia jajmnica (Acalia SicMdi), purple Iresine,
Coprosma Bauerinna raricguta and yellow Elder ; whilst for flowering plants, Artichokes, single
and Cactus Dahlias, red Salvia, Ind'ijofera dirora. Iris stylosa, Tecomn Smifhii, T. capensis, Plumbago,
tall bushes of Lasiandra, Ericas, Erythrinas, the very handsome purple-flowering Snhia africana,
Convolvulus and Gladiolus are but a few amongst many.
Near by are several beds devoted
to a large collection of medicinal plants, every label stating in red the various properties of
the plant, in addition to the ordinary information in black.
Opposite is one of the many
Rose beds, of considerable area, and containing several hundred plants.
In this immediate vicinity are the sheds for the painters, carpenters, and other workmen.
Here I learned that the wood at this moment chiefly employed for labelling is that of Podocarpus
dm-rydioides and of Sequoia semperrirens, small slabs of which are screwed to stout iron pins.
Labels entirely of metal are used in some instances. Occupying Mr. Guilfoyle's attention at the
present moment is a large shade-house in which he intends representing by pot plants all known
botanical Orders. It is at present but partially completed. The roof consists of three spans, each
at an angle of alxmt fif,, and fifty-one feet in width ; from the nature of the ground the house is
built on terraces, the length of each being thirty-eight feet, and the floors are all to be asphalted.
Stringy bark (Euodyptus obli/jtm), Victorian Red Gum (. rostrata), Oregon, Baltic, and hardwood
Pines are the woods employed, the rafters of the sides being fixed diagonally to break the direct
rays of the sun.
Three Pinus insignis eighty to a hundred feet high (of the many specimens of this Pine in the
garden none are finer) stand at the head of the Fern gully, a most distinct feature. Here
Mr. Guilfoyle leaves everything to ramble at willeverything to be as though it Jiad "happened."
A walk nearly a thousand feet in length winds through the gully, lined on either side by
Tree Ferns, Acalia papyrifera, Hetenrphragma emiiuns, Alsophilas, Dicksonias, Cyathca dcalbata and
C. medullaris, Strelitzia augusta, Paimx elegans, tall Grevillca Hilliana and G. robusta with stems
eight to twelve inches in diameter, and a host of Platyceriums, Aspleniums, and other Ferns,
also Dracamas, Hedychiums, Alpinias, Livistonas, Chaimerops, etc. ; all are left to Nature.
One
opening reveals a perfect carpet of Alsophila excdsa, fronds on low stemsa delightful picture.
A stream runs through, trickling over moss-covered boulders and fallen Fern stemsand a
barbed wire restrains the youth of Melbourne.
At the exit, facing the lake, opposite
magnificent trailing masses of Tecoma and Plumbago in full glory, is a Gleditschia triacanthos,
freely bearing its red and black pods.
Araucaria Cunninghami towers aloft near a Taxodium
distichum, one side of which is lost in the tangled vegetation of the gully.
From the level
of the lake, and looking over the rustic bridge at the slopes beyond, single specimens of
Jubtva speetabilis and other Palms, Eucalyptus rostrata and various Araucarias may be seen ;
whilst golden Euonymus, variegated Phormium, variegated Arundo Donax, purple Iresines
and flowering Pampas embellish the surrounding borders.
Near the Fern gully are three
beds devoted to Monocotyledons, Dicotyledons, and Acotyledons, neatly painted boards clearly
explaining the various differences.
In the first-named, Aloc latifoiia with numerous heads of
red tubular flowers, and in the second a good specimen of Abics Nordnmnniana, most attracted
my attention.
Passing by a fine group of flowering Cannas representing the Scitamineap, the Palmetum is
reached. The specimens are still young, Jubwa speetabilis, Scaforthia elegans, several Sabals,
Diplothemium maritimum, as handsome here as in other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere, and

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

1SO

Washingtonia Jilifera being amongst the more ordinarily represented.


Ascending the slope, past
the borders devoted to New Zealand vegetation, and passing beneath several fine Eucalypti
such as E. oecidentalis, E. megacarpa, E. maculata, etc., the Orders Liliacex, Amaryllidese and
Iridese are reached near a clump of Pinus insignis. From this point the finest view in the
garden is obtained. Stretching away for about a mile and a-half to the right, over the low valley
of the Yarra, rise the spires and domes of Melbourne, the huge business blocks lining Collins
Street and the factory chimneys of the largest city of Australia.
Immediately opposite, on a
high slope commanding the surrounding country, stands the Government House in its domain of
sixty acres, a handsome solid block in the Italian style. Dark Tines, tall Araucarias, and
winding shrubberies abound in the grassy slopes extending to the edge of the lake.
Behind this
point is the largest lawn in the garden, close upon fourteen acres in extent, and a large bed devoted
to American vegetation, is somewhat small compared with the area it represents; Maurandya
Barelayana, Ilca virginica, Agave americana,
Thuia
oecidentalis,
Hex
Cassine, Prunus
scrohna, Fuchsia conica, Cratwgus mexicana,
fruiting freely, carry one's thoughts over a
large stretch of country. The mixed beds on
this lawn are good. Eucalyptus ficifolia, of which
Mr. Guilfoyle has nine varieties, is frequently
represented ; several, ranging in colour from
crimson to the palest pink, were in full
glory at the date of my visit in January ;
indeed, at that season, there was more flower
generally. Jacaranda mimosafolia and Stereulia
acerifoliathe New South Wales Flame Tree
1 particularly miss amongst others. Doryanthes
Palmeri and D. exeelsa are now fruiting, as
is, perhaps, the most interesting plant in the
garden, Doryanthes Guilfoylci from Queensland,
with a flower-spike over seven feet long.
A collection of Cactacea1 faces the
entrance of the Palm house on the summit of
the slope in which the specimens are well grown
and in good condition, but not of great size.
Areca .ntfulagascaricnsis, Baimonorops melanochaks,
Areca Verschaffeltii, Caryota Menado (?), Areca
Catcrhu, Pritehardia grandis, some exceptionally
New South Wales.In the Blue Mountains.
well-developed Stevensonia grand ifolia ; and in
addition to a collection of Dracamas, Caladiums, Dieffenbaehias, etc., on the side stages I noticed
Ravenala madagascaricnsis, twenty-five feet high; Aralia Guilfoylece, Heliconia metallica, a handsome
plant; Dioscorea discolor, D. itlustrata (?) and Petrca volubilis on a trellis; Medinilla magnifica, the
narrow purple Javanese Musa Rumphiana, etc.
Pinus Pinaster grows well in this part of the
garden, and Acacia Baileyana, pale grey in foliage and free-tiowering, is very handsome. A
rockery lies beyond the borders, devoted to herbaceous plants and annuals, in which the Cactus
Dahlias just now make a fine show. Growing freely are various kinds of Arundos, Papyrus,
Kleinias, Cistus, Hemerocallis, Acanthus, Ficus repens, variegated Agave, etc. Again reaching the
level of the lake, an island but a few feet from the shore is passed; it is almost entirely
occupied by Tea scrub.
In the shrubberies near, Sparmannia africana, several fine bushes
twelve to fifteen feet high, are now flowering freely, Lavender and China Roses likewise,

190

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AM>

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

whilst a circular bed, entirely devoted to Cuphca ignca, is exceedingly pretty. Pinus longifolia
(forty feet), P. pinea (thirty feet) and a magnificent lied Gum (Eucalyptus rostrata) are passed on
the way back. Beyond the lake lining the walk are single specimens of Diospyros virginiana,
Royena lucida, a good Weeping Willow, Veronica pauciflma ten feet in diameter, flowering
Laurestinus and Callistemon sjxciosus and Lantana in one shrubbery.
A handsome Fruxinns
Oruus, Grenna hirsnta with pinkish star-shaped blossoms ; PxuHum Cattleyanum . Lauras nobilis,
Fraxinus excelsior (fifty feet), Excacaria scbifera, the handsome Queensland Flindersia Oxleyana,
with long, glossy, pinnate foliage, etc.
Cordyline Doucetti, a handsome plant four feet high,
clothed to the ground, is very striking. Erythrinas are good and well represented, E. Humcana
and E. Blakci being now in flower. Musa Enscte bears fruit, and Lagunaria Patersonii attains a
height of thirty feet.
The Director's house, over the walls of which creep Ampelopsis tricuspulata, is prettily
situated.
From the study window one looks down on several Alsophila a nutcalis, their fronds
spreading from twenty to thirty feet ; to the right stands a Pinus in.signis, eighty feet high ; a
Scaforthia robusta, twenty feet, and a Cocos phi moms close on forty feet ; a fruiting
PUtosporum undulatum, eighteen feet in diameter, occupies a prominent position on the lawn
within a few feet of an old Rolrinia l"scud-acaeia. The walk leading to the gate is arched
in by two Agonis Jlexiwsa from Western Australia, a particularly graceful tree, whilst the
gate itself is shaded by a perfect specimen of Qnereus lusUanica. The nursery is of no great
extent ; in one of the two glass-houses Orchids are largely and well represented, and in flower at
that time I noted Cologyne speciosa, Lalia pumila Dayana, Angraeum scsquipedal", Cnlanthr veratrifolia,
Cypripedium Dominianum, Pholidola imbricata and Drndrobium mnerophyllum Vcitchianum.
The Museum of Economic Botany, founded by Baron von Mueller, is of exceptional
interest ; the Carpological Collection consists of over two thousand specimens, and in the
various cases are collections of gums, Eucalyptus oils, dyes, tobaccos, fibres, perfumes, medicinal
products, cocoa, coffee, teas, sago, etc., accompanied by dried spccimens of the plants from which
they are obtained, and labels explaining their uses, etc. Woods are well and largely represented,
in many instances by fine broad slabs. The section of a stem of Acaucaria Bidunlli is four
feet seven inches in diameter, the bark alone being five inches deep all round. On the walls
are massive planks of " Blackwood," Acaem melanoxylon, Podocarpus d.terydiohles, P. spicata and
Dacrydium cupressinum, the more general collection lieing arranged in groups around the sides.
As usual, the Japanese Government have sent a collection.
Papers and veneers occupy
several cases.
The annual three days' Chrysanthemum show of the Victorian Horticultural Improvement
Society was opened on April 26th. Some of the Japanese blooms were equal in quality and
general substance to those grown in England.
Incurved varieties and specimens admit of
room for improvement, and in several instances a good effect was spoiled by indifferent
staging.

SYDNEY.
May, 189:!.The Bulli Pass, one of the prettiest spots near Sydney, lies due south, and but a
few hundred yards from the open ocean on the Kiama line.
En route, eighteen miles from
Sydney, the National 'Park, an immense area of forty thousand acres, is traversed. To a great
extent it is in a state of Nature, but the vegetation apparently is not luxuriant, doubtless owing
to the poorness of the soil. Near Bulli, in sandy soil interspersed freely with irregularly shaped
boulders, often of great size, Doryanthes excelsa is thoroughly at home and multiplies freely.

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

191

The foliage is of the palest shade, a tint spreading to the flower-stalk, which is slight, straight,
and from eight to ten feet in height.
At this season no flowers are to be seen, though
undeveloped heads are frequent, oval, pointed in shape, and of a brilliant blood-crimson
colour, the more advanced spikes glistening with gummy exudation,
Epacris flower on the
sides of the cuttings, and carpets of Bracken cover every available spot.
In the district is
good coal, glimpses of the collieries being frequently obtained on the slopes clad with tall
Eucalypti.
A good road leads up the pass, at the foot of which masses of gaily flowering
Lantanas have become a weed, not however to such an extent as the Bramble, veritable
tangled copses of which line at intervals both sides of the road the whole of the ascent,
which is only about a thousand feet.
A panoramic view of the country beneath, lying beyond the forest at the foot of the
hill, with the open ocean beyond, is afforded during the ascent, and above all from " Webber's
Look-out " on the extreme summit. Corypha australis is very fine, with tall straight stems, fifty
to sixty feet in height ; Scaforthia elegans no less
so, with many heads of flowers. Alsophila australis,
A. Mdcarthuri and A. Cooperi are frequently met
with, though much of the latter has been removed
by enterprising collectors.
Fixed to the smooth
white stems of the Eucalypti, or clamped firmly
in the forks of the main branches, are specimens
of Asplenium Nidus, in some instances of considerable
size ; whilst in the general shrubbery are such wellknown plants as Doryphora Sassafras and Pittosporum
umhdatum.
In the village gardens on the plains
beneath, a favourite tree is Erythrina speciosa, now
rapidly losing all its leaves and opening its superb
scarlet blooms ; large specimens of this plant are a
magnificent spectacle.
In addition to the National Park, Sydney is well
provided with open spaces, both in and on the
outskirts of the town. Chief amongst these is the
new Centennial Park of seven hundred acres but
Sydney. In the Botanic Gardens.
recently opened.
Avenue planting hits been done,
roads and rides laid out, due provision made for the
protection of the numerous wild duck on its lakes, and the whole fenced in, in a massive
and efficient manner ; as it is, however, in the dawn of its existence, the trees have
attained no size, and there is little to remark beyond suitability of site and the wisdom of
apportioning such an area for public purposes near the heart of a large city. With the
two domains, Moore Park, Hyde Park, the Centennial Park, etc., Sydney has no lack of
open spaces. The chief tree planted is Fiius maerophylla, as it grows with freedom and yields
unrivalled shade both in Hyde Park and in the domains.
Botantc Gardens.The exceeding beauty of the natural situation of the Sydney Botanic
Gardens is proverbial. Covering forty-four acres of ground, they are surrounded on three sides by
the imperial domain of one hundred and fifty acres ; whilst the fourth, the southern end, skirts
Farm Cove, and affords a fine view of the low hills and wooded bays of Port Jackson.
The
whole extent is divisible into three main portions, the original garden, the grounds devoted to
the exhibition of 1879, since added, and a large moon-shaped curve reclaimed from the bay,
opposite the anchorage of the British fleet. Most of it, especially the last two named portions, is

192

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

under Buffalo Grass or Buffalo Couch mixed ; though highly ornamental, it cannot be recommended
for tennis or cricket purposes.
The main entrance faces due north ; it is but a few yards from the private gate to the house
of the Director, Mr. Moore, the office with Bougainvillea-clad walls, and the museum. The walks
are either tarred, asphalted or gravelled, the two former being employed to a very large extent, as
much from motives of economy as to prevent the destructive effects of the wash of sudden and
heavy rains.
Tarring is the simplest process, hut it is apt to wear away, and frequently cracks ;
whereas asphalt, carefully applied in three layers, will stand for many years, and bear the weight
of heavy carts. The gardens and glass are clean and neat, and the luxuriant vegetation in
the borders kept within bounds ; to attain this end, Mr. Moore finds it necessary to remove
hundreds of cartloads of thinnings annually.
Within a few yards of the main entrance are
two long beds of shrubhy Euphorbias, Phyllocactus, Cereus, and Opuntias, divided by a smaller
one devoted to Strelitzias. Statuettes line the path, and a handsome fountain, a private gift,
reaches to one edge.
On either side are long beds of flowering perennials, etc.Phloxes,
Antirrhinums, Vincas, Bouvardias, Poinsettias, Tea Poses, ('annas, Statice, Iris ftorentina, and
various Sunflowers. On and scattered about the lawns behind are various single specimens
Robinia Pscud-acacia, Grevillea mbusta forty feet high, Pinns jnnea of still greater dimensions,
a good English Oak, and the well-known
Metrosideivs tomentosiis. Mr. Harwood, the
Superintendent, considers it when in
flower one of the handsomest shrubs
in the garden.
Near a Ficus
rubiginosa, retaining its foliage
longer and hence more suitable
for gardening purposes than
F. maerophylla and other species,
is
a
handsome
well - formed
specimen
of
the
Queensland
Tristania confata. A good Madagascarian shrub, largely represented in the
garden, is Ik<mhya Wallieltii, bearing long,
Thc Bluc Mountains, N.S. W. Thc Threc Sisters.
flexible, pendent stalks, with heads of rosecoloured flowers which emerge from the stem
amid the handsome cordate foliage which is often of great size.
An isolated specimen of
Taxodium mexicam>m retains its foliage throughout the winter, Ixjing superior to T. dirtichum
in this respect.
At the lower end of the old garden are two rows of broad oblong beds containing many
hundreds of interesting trees and shrubs.
Meryta is naturally one of the most striking genera
in the borders.
.1/. undula and M. maerophylla from the South Sea Islands, M. Sinelairii from
New Zealand and M. latifolia from Norfolk Island are amongst the best representatives of the
genusthe latter with huge obovate leaves one and a-half to two feet in length, aggregated
in masses at the end of the branches, is very noticeable.
Tlunph rasta imptrialis, a specimen
about twenty-five feet in height, has even foliage of greater size, thick, coriaceous, and closely
set an imposing plant.
To.cicopldaa sptrtabilix is often met with at this season, crowned with
innumerable fruits of the size of a pigeon's egg, and flushed with red. Jaearanda mimosafolia
is at home, a broad spreading tree, the ground around its base in the flowering season being
described as blue with fallen blossoms. Brunfelsias (Francisceas) are numerous and good. Near a
B. e.cimia is a noble Camellia facing Magnolia grandiflora, an even well-formed specimen thirty-five
feet high ; in the same border M. acumiiuUa is full of bud, also Rogieras and Roudeletias, the

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

193

various species represented by tall bushes, flower freely.


Hippomane spinosa, from tropical
America, is noteworthy on account of its long, sinuate, deeply serrated foliage ; in its vicinity
Brexia spinosa from Madagascar, and Viburnum Tinus from the south of Europe are in
full vigour.
Such a vivid contrast is not the only one.
In an adjacent border within
fifty yards, is an Elm close on eighty feet high, Arabian Coffee loaded with berries, a Lime,
Mango, Chestnut and common Laurel.
The individual waxy white blossoms of Brun/elsia
americana are good, but the invariably sickly appearance of its foliage is against it.
Tabenuemontana dichotoma is a fine thing ; several bushes in various parts of the garden are from
eight to twelve feet in diameter, and thousands of buds nestle amongst the large decussate foliage
of the richest hue, but few had as yet developed their large white fragrant flowers. Gardenia
Thunbergia, not unlike it in general aspect, though its individual blooms are far larger and
finer, is also to be seen. Mr. Harwood finds it a most useful stock for the other species. A
good flowering shrub is Chamesthes (lochroma) gesnerioides ; although in its second growth, it is
bearing many hundred bunches of brick-red tubular blooms.
Vangucria velutina, from
Madagascar, has fruit about the size of, and not unlike a Date. A small-foliaged, thick-set
shrub from the Mauritius, Eugenia buxifolia, is neat and effective, though its individual foliage
is dwarfed by the large Randia maerophylla, and the Queensland species, R. Fitzalanii, both
magnificent shrubs. A curious tree is a species of Schizolobium from Brazil, with bare stem
and branches tipped by a few bipinnate leaves, each four to five feet in length. Erythrinas
are various, numerous and good ; a plant of E. indica, its stem's diameter two feet, would be
magnificent in a few months' time.
The graceful drooping foliage of Panax elegans makes it
as effective as in the Hong-kong Gardens, where it may be seen in similar perfection.
All
species of Arbutus grow with great rapidity ; one, A. canaricnsis, freely fruiting, is now over
thirty feet higha noble bush. Alcurites triloba, another great tree of the Hong-kong Gardens,
will ever be difficult to surpass for landscape effect. Monodora Myristica and Eugenia Moorci
are both handsome shrubs, whilst the Indian evergreen, Quercus ineana with long oval foliage,
Xylophylla angustifolia a mass of bloom, Coprosma Baueriana from New Zealand, and Nephelium
Lit-chi, grow but do not fruit well ; the Queensland Brassaia actinophylla and Tripidanthus (!)
calyptratus, from Bengal, are equally interesting. Stenocarpus sinuatus grows to eighty feet ; apart
from the large circular heads of brilliant scarlet flowers, the deeply lobed foliage is in itself
ornamental.
Populus alba attains one hundred feet, a truly fine tree ; P. nigra, still higher ;
both P. >nonilifera and P. betulifolia are also represented. The Bombax is at home.
Kentia
Canterburyana is found in the shade on Lord Howe's Island, resisting the sun but poorly, but
during the winter months picks up considerably.
Aralia Vcitehii, thirty feet in height, is a
good tree with a round even head of rich, glossy, lobed foliage.
Amongst New South Wales trees, very many of which are naturally represented, I noted
Achras australisits fruit like a large Plum in all but its fitness for human food ; it has
handsome oval foliage six to eight inches long.
Tarrietia is also a fine native genus the
species Argyrodendron and Achinodendron in particular.
The long pinnate foliage of Dysoxylon
Muclleri (the Pencil Cedar), the creamy white long-stamened blossoms of Capparis nobilis,
Stereulia lurida (good, though not equal to the Flame tree), Stereulia acerifolia which when
entirely deciduous bears at the end of the shoots racemes of brilliant scarlet tubular flowers,
are all noteworthy.
Liquidambar stiiraciflua thrives well, and Streptosolen Jamesonii in a
neighbouring border exhausts itself in a few years by the rapidity of its growth.
A rare
tree is Sciadophyllum aetinophyllum from New Caledonia.
Qucreus Suber is represented by
several good-sized specimens, though Q. virens is found to be the most rapid grower of the
genus ; a Q. Ilex near the Lily bank is, however, very fine and of exceptional size.
As
trees planted for general purposes in this Colony, Mr. Moore considers the two last-named
valuable. The large white flowers, three to four inches in diameter, of Pterospermum acerifolium,
ins

194

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

SEW

SOUTH

WALKS.

surmounting broad handsome foliage on young stems clothed with down, are striking objects. The
giant Nettle tree from East Australia, Laportea Gigas, with foliage over ten inches across, is
showy. Catalpa specUm grows welltoo well, in factand it is accordingly clipped within bounds
annually; Escallonia mimtemdensis is in the same condition, and it is difficult to estimate its
probable dimensions as it is relentlessly cut every winterjust now its tall bushes are a
mass of white bloom.
Turning from the older portion towards the steps leading to the Palace Garden, the
Palmetum, the Dammaras (Agathis) and Araucarias (described later) are passed.
Amongst the
Conifers planted in this direction are Abics finrm, A. Nordmanniana A. jezoensis, A. Smithiana,
Toereya grandis, Sciadopitys rerticfflata, a fine specimen twenty feet high ; Podocarpus braetcolata
from the South Sea Islands, Callitris Minicayana, a beautiful mass of pale slender foliage ;
Podocarpus daerydioides from New Zealand, and P. mpressiim from Java, their foliage more
resembling Taxixlium than Podocarpns; and many others.
The Palace Garden, the old exhibition grounds of 1879, are prettily laid out ; there are
numerous beds and shrubberies, some statuary, and many single specimens dotted about on the
rich Buffalo lawn.
Seats are placed
in all available spots, and the many
visitors testify to the appreciation in
which the gardens are held.
The
plants are chiefly those found in the
older portions ; being much younger,
they are naturally of less size.
Near the Palmetum is a specimen .
of the New South Wales Birch (?),
a pretty compact tree.
Sydney is
somewhat too warm for it, as it is only
seen at its best at higher elevations.
Palms are largely represented.
In
addition to the Palmetum, many
specimens are scattered about on the
wide lawns, where, in addition Ui
every advantage for complete develop
ment, they can be better studied.
In
Sydney.-In the Botanic Gardens.
t1R. palmetum proper a Jubaa qmiabilis
is
one
of the most noticeable,
though in point of size another specimen elsewhere eclipses it ; it is twenty-five feet high and its
funnel-like stem is three and a-half feet in diameter at four feet from the ground, the
small head of foliage affording a vivid contrast to the gigantic leaves of Arenga saccharifera
close by. Snbal umbraculifeca is very fine, six feet being the usual breadth of its magnificent
leaves, but its stem apparently decreases in diameter with advancing age.
Near a much-ramified
twenty-four headed Draeama Drum is a good l'hoenix reeliiwta, its thin stems and long foliage
rising to about twenty feet, the nakedness at the base being well filled in with oncoming shoots.
An eighty-feet seeding Corns plimwsus needs but mentioning.
Mr. Harwood thinks highly of
Kentia Lindeni ; its claret-red young leaves are in themselves of value for horticultural
purposes, to say nothing of the older foliage, often eight to ten feet in length, springing at
almost right angles from the strong ligneous stem ; they are clothed with pinme along their whole
length. Sabal pnnaps (?) is good, presenting a series of sharp diagonal lines from the split bases
of the dead leaves adhering to the trunk ; it was flowering freely, producing creamy yellow
panicles three to four feet long. Scaforthia elegans, thirty-five feet in height, has a round

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

195

even head ; Clmmwrops excelsa and C. Fohunri are both good. Pmtelmrdia Martii, from the
Hawaiian group, is pretty; its young leaves are clothed with the softest down; whilst
amongst other noticeable Palms are Areca madagascaricnsis, thirty-five feet in height, with a
bunch of light graceful stems and neat short pendulous leaves ; Pluenix pi/i/osa, a rugged,
unkempt mass of short eighteen-inch long foliage ; and Copernicia cerifera, the Cornauba Palm
of Brazil, remarkable for its tall slender fibre-hidden stems, broad stiff' fan-like foliage and its
productiveness of off-shoots.
The Palace grounds are not without their quota of the Palm family. Kentia insignis is
here well represented ; its .stiff, distinct leaves, silvery beneath, and often twelve feet in
length, crown a fibre-covered stem. Close by a small stem of Livistona Hoogendorpii, from
Java, promises well, and a fruiting Kentia Forsteriana is interesting. In another portion of
the garden, on either side of a creek, and but a few yards apart, are two good fruiting
examples of the two leading Kentias (from si nurserymen's view) of Lord Howe's Island.
I
naturally refer to K. Forsterianu. and K. Belmorcana, two species widely distinct in habit and
mode of fruiting. The foliage of the former rises straight and stiff, and is unbending to
lighter breezes, with the lower pinna; fiat ; whilst those of the latter are recumbent and
graceful, the lower pinna5 of each leaf being erect.
In K. Forsterianu the spikes in the axils
of the leaves vary from three to nine united at the base ; in K. Belmorcana they are
invariably separate.
In both, the male flowers crown the end of the spike, the females
producing fruit on the lower portion. The spikes of K. Belmorcana are by far the longer,
often reaching three to four feet. The seeds are very similar, probably accounting for the
harvesting of the two species as one.
Into the details of this most interesting comparison
Mr. Moore was good enough to fully enter and clearly explain, with the aid of several
available living examples. Phoeniv farinifera is represented by a gaunt specimen with three
slim, absolutely bare stems thirty feet high, and narrow-foliaged graceful heads.
In the lower garden are also some good single specimens worthy of note.
Sabal
Blackhmiiana, a perfect specimen of Liristona chinensis, a tangled impregnable mass of Phcenix
rupicola about twelve feet high and fifteen feet in diameter, not a vestige of a stem to be seen ;
P. lconensi.% probably the strongest grower of the genus ; P. daetylifera, the spread of branches
considerably greater than the height a perfeet specimen, doubtless owing partially to its
isolation ; and P. reclinata covering a diameter of over thirty feet, are amongst the most
striking. In the Palmetum may also be seen the only Australian Calamus, C. Muclleri, and Cycas
cireinalis doing better than C. revoluta, to which a moist season is essential. Strelitzia augusta
one stem rising to nearly forty feet, the whole at first sight greatly resembling a
Ravenala, etc.
One of the most interesting genera in the garden is Agathis (Dammara). One species, by
many considered the handsomest, bears Mr. Moore's name, owing its introduction to the Sydney
garden to his explorations in New Caledonia. A. robusta, found as far north as Cairns in
Queensland, is probably the liest known, and certainly the one most frequently met with under
cultivation. One specimen is one hundred feet high ; its tall straight stem and tapering head
render it easily distinguishable from the remainder of the species in the garden, which are, in
general appearance, somewhat similar.
A. ovata and A. obtusa are both decorative, the latter
producing the largest foliage of the genus. A. viticnsis, from the Fiji Islands, and A. oricntalis
are not dissimilar in general aspect. A. spimdosa and A. pumila are, however, distinct from all,
the former by its slender irregular habit, the latter by its obovate foliage and diminutive
size, owing to exceedingly slow growth ; both inhabit the neighbouring French Colony. The
only other species deserving mention is the New Zealand A. australis. The higher temperature
of New South Wales is unfavourable to its growth, the one in the garden now being but
two and a-half feet high, although specimens have attained fourteen feet.

196

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALKS.

Araucarias are numerously represented, the Norfolk Island species being amongst the finest
trees in the garden, and certainly the finest I have seen anywhere, a grand specimen one
hundred and eighteen feet in height leading the way, the stems averaging four to five feet in
diameter. This Conifer is handsome at this height when clothed with branches to within a few
feet of the ground, and not denuded, as is A. Bidurilli, so frequently seen under cultivation ;
that species though represented in the garden is scarcely at home. A. Cooke i reaches forty-five
feet high, although its varieties and forms as here represented are preferable for ornamental
purposes ; A. C. paidula (named by Mr. Moore), of similar aspect, has a larger leaf than the
type ; a small two-feet specimen of A. C. Rulci produces shorter, more acuminate foliage of a
paler tint ; and A. C. rigida denotes by its name its distinctive features.
A. Rulci, in like
manner, in addition to the normal form, here very fine though not large, has many varieties.
A. Rulci Balaiwv, from New Caledonia, has longer, slenderer branches more thickly clothed
with shorter, sharper leaves of a richer green a certain horticultural improvement on the
type.
A. Cu(minghamii and A. elegans, the latter rather disappointing, are also to be
seen.
The trees of Japan do well in some instances, though Mr. Moore tells me the Fir family
and many deciduous trees, including the Maples, fail.
I also note an absence of those from
the higher elevations and the north. Aralia spinosa thrives well. Chimonanthus fragrans is
represented by a bush eight feet high, and grows with great rapidity.
Torreya nucifera, Olca
ilieifolia, Illicium religiosum, Qucreus glauca, Clerodendron trichotomum, Eriobotrya thirty feet
high and twenty feet througha magnificent bush, Rex latifolia, and Hovenia dulcis thirty-five
feet in height, are amongst the most noticeable.
A bush-house, eight glass-houses and various pits are situated in the old garden. The first,
with ends and sides of open trestle work, has a broad arched roof of dried twigs of
Leptospermum scoparium. Tree Ferns and Palms occupy the main portion.
Alsophila Cooperi
of which there are several good specimens with stems twenty to twenty-five feet in height, is
exceedingly pretty ; Cyathca Cunninghami, C. Brownii, Dicksonia squamosa, Coeos, Kentias,
Latanias, etc., are all in good condition.
Of the eight houses, five are to a great extent
devoted to propagating puqwses, and three reserved as show-houses.
The latter are as smart
and neat as one can well wish to see.
Two are devoted to a general stove collection, and
one to Orchids in very good condition.
Calantlw Vcitehii and C. vestita, Dendrobium
Phalamopsis, Cattleya Borvringiaim, Zygopetalum Mackayi, Cattleya Eldorado, Cypripcdium Sedeni,
C. Harrismnum, C. longifolium, Pholidota imbricata, were all in flower ; of Codwjyne speciosa, one
plant had eight open blooms. Dendrobium undulatum was showing three spikes, and Angrwcum
eburneum a good strong one.
The collection of Stanhopeas is good ; Rhynehostylis return, large
plants of R. codestis, Brassia maculata, several Oncidiums, and Platyclinis are all doing well.
The contents of the Orchid house of the Sydney Botanic Gardens are in good condition and
the collections one of the best in Australia. The two stoves are in no way behind. In one
the stages are low, scarcely thirty inches alwve the ground ; placed in this manner the plants
are seen to greater advantage.
The walks are channelled for the purpose of evaporation.
Amongst the best specimens of Palms are Hyophorbe, Versehnffeltii, Areca rubra, Dwnwnorops
peruwanthus, D. fixsus, a most graceful thing ; Carludovica palmata, small palmate leaves on erect
six to seven-feet stalks ; Verschaffeltia splendida, very fine, its leaves ten to eleven feet in
length, certainly one of the handsomest Palms grown ; Caryota sobolifera, Chamerdorca Ernesti
Aru/usti, etc.
In one house, from the roof, hung a JVepentlws Rafflesiana with pitchers of
maximum size, and N. Vcillardii, a curious species from New Caledonia.
The stove plants
are in excellent condition and perfect health.
The Lower Garden, the greater part of which was reclaimed from Farm Cove, an inlet of
Port Jackson, would probably appeal to the general public as the prettiest portion of the

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

197

whole. Divided from the old garden by a wall (shortly to be removed) a broad border runs
along its length at the highest limit. Here Ficus Pareclli, fifteen feet high, is as striking a
variegated bush as could well be imagined, the numerous fruit flushed with red in no little
degree contributing to the effect. Daphniphyllum glaucescens, in perfect condition, assumes even
greater dimensions. The large metallic leaves of Ficus Bennetti from the South Sea Islands,
produced in profusion on a tree thirty feet high, and covering a space, the diameter of which
is as great, form an imposing mass.
Behind it is a noble New South Wales Flame tree
(Sterculia acerifolm), the largest I have met with; it must offer a gorgeous spectacle when in
flower ! Thcophrasta imperialis, Boeconia frutescens, Alstonia constrwta (the Bitter Bark), the
fine-foliaged Macadamia temifolia, and Musa sapicnt um fruiting freely, do well in this border ;
but possibly the most interesting is a huge Platycerium aleicorne on an old tree stem.
Being
ten feet in diameter, this mass of fronds is a remarkable sight.
Immediately in front of the refreshment kiosk is one of the ponds, dependent for its
water on the creek running through the garden, the banks of which in parts are lined with
Tree Ferns.
Weeping Willows and dwarf stumps of Todca barbara line the slopes of the
pond, one side being a perfectly solid bank of Canna
indica. On the island in the centre are various plants of
Scaforthia elegans, Livistona australis with stems thirty-five
to forty feet in height, and several fine trees of
Alsophila Cooperi and A. australis with an undergrowth
of Cannas, Caladium esculentum, etc. Buried in the end
of a clump of Cyperus antiqaorum is a plain stone
obelisk " to the memory of Allan Cunningham." To the
left of this pond is a section devoted to Monocotyledonous
plants, each of the variously shaped beds containing a
natural Order represented by the most diverse genera
available.
In the borders close by, Solandra lams was in
flower with its long cup-shaped yellowish
blossoms.
Michelia Champaca has grown forty feet in height,
and Panax inewum with immense rich glossy pinnate leaves,
Simaruba grandis from tropical America, Erythroxylon
maerophyllum, Plumeria acutifolia, Eugenia grandis, a fine
shrub twenty-five feet in height, and the Queensland
Tristania conferta over sixty feet, are all worthy of
mention.
On a lawn behind the tongue leading to
Kentia Forsteriana sceding in the
the west gate are many Conifers, some thoroughly at
Sydney Botanic Gardens.
home. The tall symmetrical Cupressus Benthamiana from
Guatemala, Pinius longifolia, P. canai-iensis over fifty feet, P. Pinea over sixty feet, P. Laricio,
P. Massoniana, Cupressas thyoides varicgata twenty-five feet, C. lusitanica, etc., are all in fine
condition. The finest Fig in the garden, a Ficus rubiginosa, a truly magnificent specimen, is
but a few yards from that portion devoted to Dicotyledonous plants, and there is also a small
collection of those medicinally valuable. Several Jubax> speetabilis, Thuia oricntalis, Ficus Harlandii
from Hong-kong, its old and young wood studded with myriads of fruit, Magnolia grandiflora
twenty-five feet high, a seeding Kentia Forsteriana but little less, situated near a clump of
Bambusa plumosa, Juniperus chinensis and Ptychosperma Alexandra?, slight and graceful as in its
Queensland home, are amongst the specimens and in the borders of the western side.
The largest lake is near the centre, and is well stocked with swan and duck. Willows,
shortly to assume their winter garb, do well on its banks and islands, the latter having some
good Livistonas, Musas and Chamscrops, etc.
Following the eastern tongue of the cove,

198

SOUTH

AUSTRALIA,

VICTORIA,

AND

NEW

SOUTH

WALES.

various mixed shrubberies have been planted, whilst amongst the single specimens are Ficus
Bellengerii with peculiar oblong fruit, Eugenia achirnenoides with pretty young growths, Ficus
nmerophylla with a low flat head, probably owing to the silt it is planted in, and
Ciiharexylum subscrratum with numerous narrow long spikes of white flowers.
Mexican plants
are well represented ; the foliage of Foureroya Lindeni is particularly massive, and that of Agave
Milleri from twelve to fourteen inches across. Near a good Quercus virens on the slope are Hex
latifolia, Arbutus canaricnsis, Photinia scrrulata, Bauhinia purpurca, Ficus Benjamina, a weeping
species, and Heptaplcurum stellatum from Ceylon.
Stereulia rupestris, the Queensland Bottle
tree, has a diameter at its broadest part of three feet, and Qucreus Ccrris is fifty feet high.
One bed is devoted entirely to Agaves, and another to Macrozamias, M. AIoorci being at the
moment the most striking of all.
From Adelaide to Sydney many old residents agree that the climate of the last few
years is markedly different to that experienced previously. The terrible hot north winds are
less fierce and less common ; one explanation offered being that they blow over cultivated
land instead of sandy waste or scrub.
In New South Wales and Victoria droughts have
been less severe, and this season in particular a specially heavy rainfall is recorded.
An
increasing mildness of climate has undoubtedly prevailed for several years; the natural question
is,Will it be permanent ?

PART

NEW

XII.

ZEALAND.

PART

NEW

WELLINGTON

TO

XII.

ZEALAND.

NAPIER

AND

TAUPO.

In mid-winter I arrived in New Zealand, only regretting I had not more time at my disposal
to spend in Australia, and found the season for botanising or plant -collecting certainly the
worst, mountain climbing being out of the question. The flora, from a horticulturist's point of
view, is not rich, though many of the alpine plants, unfortunately under snow at the
time of my visit, are very beautiful.
June, 189.'5. I landed at Wellington, the seat of Government, although not the chief
commercial centre. Its excellent, almost circular harbour is surrounded by low hills, forming a
basin within which high winds circulate in a most unpleasantly continuous fashion.
Sweeping
in through the narrow strait connecting it with the open ocean, the strong breezes from the
Pacific revolve and revolve apparently in endless gusts. Up the sides of the hills and gullies
spreads the town, most of the houses being of wood, from Government House and the public
offices downwards.
English Gorse is now flowering freely, and has evidently escaped from
cultivation, judging from the large patches beyond the confines of the settlement. The most
commonly planted tree is Cupressus maerocarpa, plants of which, I noticed, are offered in
a grocer's window at 5s. per hundred.
.
On leaving Wellington for the North I directed my course to Napier, a small town on
Hawke's Bay, connected by rail, and distant about two hundred miles. Hearing, however, that
by taking another route and traversing the bush for twenty-six miles by coach, some good
scenery would be met with, I determined on that course.
As far as Eketahuna the train,
at the rate of from fifteen to twenty miles per hour, traverses hilly country and through
some fine forests of Heech.
According to Mr. Kirk, the species commonly represented
are Fagus Solandri, F. fusca, and F. Menzicsii.
Apneas of the genus, the same gentleman
writes in the Forest Flora :" The Beech forests of New Zealand may be renewed at
a minimum cost whenever it is desirable.
Whenever trees are felled, or a track is cut
through the forest, myriads of seedlings spring up, the majority of which are gradually killed
off in the struggle for existence, leaving the strongest to form trees. No other forests in
the Colony could be made to afford a regular crop of timber at fixed periods at so small
a cost."
That the preservation of timber may be found necessary at no very distant date
seems probable and is the opinion of many. The number of fine trees felled, left to rot on the
ground, and subsequently burnt, is indeed startling to a stranger. The scenery is very fine, though
the rainy mist obscured much of it, and snow lay about, the remains of a four-inch fall some
hours previously. Beyond one long narrow gorge, following the turns of the line is a long
cc

202

NEW

ZEALAND.

break-wind, to prevent the hurricane blasts sweeping a train off the rails, an incident said once
to have occurredquite possible with the small narrow-gauge cars in use. Arundo conspicua and
Cordylinc australis were common.
In its young state the latter is bold and handsome, but
when it attains the proportions of a tree, the size of the leaf crown diminishes, and so much
cannot be said for it.
From Eketahuna to Woodville, via Pahiatua, the mail coach is the best means of transit.
In summer it must be most enjoyable, in winter the traveller becomes doubtful as to the
possession of his extremities.
Some of the bush, what little is left, is certainly fine, consisting
of tall white Pine (Podocarpus daerydioides), graceful Uimu (Daerydium cupressinum), hundreds
of Cyatheas, the most common being C. dcalbata, and Lomar ia procera with fronds four to five
feet long, trailing over banks several yards high. The White Pine (Podocarpus daerydioides) is a
striking tree, attaining a height in this district of one hundred and thirty feet, with a straight
often unbranched trunk for seventy to eighty feet.
Its timber, though valuable, is not
considered so durable, and for that reason is not so highly appreciated as that of some
others.
Rimu (Daerydium cupressinum) " occupies a larger area of the New Zealand forests
than any other timber tree
it is the chief timber employed for building purposes
over fully two-thirds of the colony."* Its pale green foliage and weeping habit render it very
handsome, though in size it by no means approaches the White Pine, with which it so freely
grows. Various species of the parasitic genus Astelia are common in the branches of both,
and many bearing thick clumps may be easily discerned. Clearings are common along the road,
the following method being practised :The trees are felled, allowed to rot, then collected
together and burnt.
In the meantime, grass (English l!ye and Cocksfoot to a large extent)
has been sown, sheep and cattle being turned in amongst the decaying logs. The waste of
timber is startling ; suggest this, and the inevitable reply is, " What are we to do with it ? "
Thousands of magnificent logs, rotting, lay along the sides of the road we traversed ; the why
and wherefore naturally being sheep pay, and timber of the two trees named does notat
least, in such overwhelming quantities.
The soil is good, and a plot thus cleared, after the
logs have rotted and have been burnt, yields a pasture as fine as can be desired. Ring-barking,
universal in Australia, is unknown in this district, and, I am given to understand, throughout
the Colony.
From Woodville by train to Napier, open country, fine pasture and sheep endless sheep
meet the eye everywhere. Clumps of seeding Phormium tenax, acres of impenetrable sword-like
foliage, and many fine clumps of Arundo conspicua inhabit the swampy ground along the line.
Tall bush forest is almost entirely absent.
Broad shallow streamsso indicative of low hilly
countriesare occasionally traversed, the stream occupying but a small portion of the whole
bed.
Napier is a small town on a high peninsula, a square mile in extent.
The town lies
on a series of rounded slopes in the intervening plain.
Though a commercial centre, it has
few factories of any consequence within its immediate limits.
The weather during the whole
season, as in New South Wales, has been, and is abnormally wet.
It rains daily, and
frosts, hitherto almost unknown, have several times occurred.
Add to these a biting wind,
and the charms of coach travelling in winter in New Zealand need no advertising in such a
season.
From Napier to Taupo, situated on a lake of the same name, the largest in New
Zealand (twenty-five by fifteen miles), is a two-days coach journey, the night being passed
at Tarawera, forty-four miles from the journey's end.
The way four strong horses swing
the featherweight carriage round the sharpest curves on the hill-sides, often overhanging
precipices of several hundred, and even a thousand feet, on a ten-feet road, without any railing
or protection of any kind, is apt to be trying. So sharp are the curves, that often the leaders are
* T. Kirk, Forest Flora of New Zealand, pp. 29, 30.

NEW

ZEALAND.

203

nearly parallel with the coach. The roads are in bad condition, and frequently very heavy, owing to
much rain. At first a few stations are passed, and innumerable sheep grazing quietly. Along
the side of the road the European Bramble and Briar have attained the dignity of weeds,
though they are scarcely so much feared as Gorse, which all are bound by law to prevent
spreading into the public road, or, indeed, off their own property under the penalty of a fine.
Cordyline australlis is not uncommon, its light, graceful foliage giving a distinct aspect to the
landscape.
I have not noted it more than twenty-five to thirty feet high, though Mr. Kirk
has met with it in King County sixty feet, and Mr. Colenso mentions one twenty feet
two inches in girth at the base.
The simple straight stems of the young unflowered plants,
crowned with one head of foliage one and a-half to two feet long, look at first very different
from the many-branched, round-headed tree with the smaller crowns characteristic of older
specimens.
Phormium tenax is most common, dwarfing to more than half its normal size as
the higher elevations are reached.
Veronica salicifolia, seeding freely, assumes the dimensions
of a large bush ; it is found more or less in all parts, and although most common in the
lowlands, it is found on many of the hill-sides.
During the journey many ranges were crossed, from the summits of which fine views were
obtained, many valleys traversed and mountain streams forded, where it has not been found
necessary to make a bridge.
Two or three Maori pahs or villages can scarcely be called
interesting. The men wear corduroys, and the women, in European costume, invariably ride horses
astride.
The land generally, for the eighty-nine miles passed through, is poor in fact,
much of it quite valueless ; but between Tarawera and Ranunga there is some very fine
bush.
The prevailing trees are those mentioned above, namelyPodocarpus daerydioides and
Daerydium cupressinum. One fine belt I noted, running at a distance of some miles from the
road, and parallel with it along the summit of a low undulating rangea line of sombre,
heavy hue. Totara (Podocarpus Totara) is the next most valuable wood in New Zealand to the
Kauri Pine (Agathis australis [Dammara australis] ), and of which I shall have something to
say when I meet with it in greater quantity further north. Here it is but sparsely represented,
nearly all of it having been cut out. Lomarias, Polystichums and Gleichenias are common and
in wonderful luxuriance, whilst up the long narrow gullies all the well-known Filmy Ferns are
to be met with.
I saw but three Cordyline indivisaa very handsome plant as seen here
growing in its native home, but I hope to meet with more and better specimens. The
shrubbery over the stretch of road indicated is rich and varied. Makomako or Wine-berry
(Aristotelia racemosa), a tall spreading shrub, has almost a monopoly in one place. Pittosporums
are not uncommon, and what I took to be Grisclinia lucida is occasionally met with. Most
curious-looking, however, of all is the Horoeka (Pscudopanax erassifolium), also known as Aralia
heterophylla and Xylophylla longifolia. In its progress to maturity the foliage passes through a
series of remarkable changes.
The narrow derlexed leaves of the young seedlings are but two
to three inches in length, and scarcely exceed half an inch in width ; on a stem often several feet
in height these give place to compound leaves with three to five leaflets with the margins
sharply toothed, and the colour and general aspect so distinct that Mr. Kirk rightly observes,
" It is one of the first trees to attract the attention of the traveller in forest districts " ; the
adult leaves sometimes attain a length of from thirty to forty inches.
Bracken Fern, a form
of Pteris aquilina, one of the commonest of the world's plants, covers many acres on hill-sides,
growing with great vigour, to the exclusion of all else. Beyond Ranunga the pumice and lava
country is reachedpoor land, apparently supporting nought but wild horses. For many miles
we drove through a dense growth of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), described as "the
most common plant in the Colony."
It covers hundreds of acres, ranging from half a foot to
thirty feet in height, and is said to be very effective from November till January, when it flowers
in great profusion ; at other times the acres of peculiar grey-green is apt to weary the eye.

NEW

204

THE

ZEALAND.

GEYSER

COUNTRY.

At Taupo is a good hotel, provided for the tourist season, when it is full to overflowing, this place
being the first spot usually reached in the great thermal spring country. The thermal spring district
of the north island covers some thousands of square miles. Respecting the advisability of residing
within its limits, it is considered comparatively safe now, owing to the immense relief afforded by
the eruption of 1886. During our time another such convulsion can scarcely be expected. The
scene of the eruption, Mount Tarawera, was but a few miles from where I am now writing
(Rotorua). Here a lake disappeared, and the whole face of the country was altered, much of it
being now under thirty to forty feet of mud. New Zealand's most famous sights, the pink and
white terraces, were destroyed. One may still remain, being only covered up, but so altered is the
aspect of the land, that it is impossible to fix its site with the view of undertaking clearing
operations. The silica incrustations surrounding the boiling pools are often very lovelyquite hard,
and of course of great age. Of such were the famous terraces now destroyed. In these hot pools (all
are not up to boiling point) the natives, especially the children, bathe all day. As a rule, they are
a fine race, but western civilisation is having the usual effect, as its worst aspects only are copied.
They are decreasing in numbers, and ultimate extermination seems to be only a matter of time.
I have visited many of the natural ventsthose at Wairaki, Wai-a-taupo Taupo, and
Whakarewarewa. These consist of mud volcanoes, alum cliffs, boiling mud pools, boding springs,
sulphur fumaroles, all active, and betokening a subterranean movement and condensed force almost
incredible. Many of the geysers are very fine, and spout at regular intervals, all emitting dense
volumes of steam visible for miles distant. The best I have seen reach from thirty to forty feet.
Near the various hotels are baths, alum, sulphur, etc., cold water being laid on to cool that
flowing in from the natural pools. On myself and on many others, these have a weakening
effect, though their curative properties are undoubted.
It is, however, necessary to have a
complaint, and I had, happily, not one on hand at the moment.
The country in this district over which I have travelled in coaches several hundred miles
is very poor, the cause being that the volcanoes have not and do not eject lava as in Java,
Japan, etc., but pumiceroughly described as a mixture of earth and stone. Forests are almost
unknown, all the hills being chiefly covered with Bracken growing in profusion. From twenty
to thirty miles one goes without seeing a habitation, only meeting a man repairing the road,
or a few wild horses. Large as is the tourist traffic in summer, it is probable railways will
never come through the heart of the north island, as they alone could not provide a
reasonable return. The roads are bad, and one gets well shaken up in the so-called coaches,
in reality little better than buggies. It is difficult to enjoy this district at this season and
during the almost continuous rain we are having. Of vegetation there is nothing to see, so
poor is the land that it will support nothing but Fern and some Flax in the swamps. Native
brown grass grows in strong tufts, but is poor fodder for any but wild horses, or those
doing no work.
The tourist accommodation is by no means equal to that in Japan. As there, in the
season, two and three sleep in a roomor, indeed, anywhere where they can get a roof ;
whilst the steamers to and fro to Australia have their decks covered.
All that inconvenience
is escaped at this season. On two occasions I have had the whole hotel to myself, and at
present there are but three others here. One is rather too lonely, in fact, and the weather
is too bad for anything.
Common plants in the scrub, and especially noticeable in the
vicinity of Rotorua, are the Mingi (Cyathodes acerosa) and the Tuta (Coriaria ruscifolia). In this
district the former is a dwarf, neat shrub, bearing at this season numerous spherical pink or

NEW ZEALAND.

205

white fruit, attractive in appearance ; the latter attains considerably larger dimensions, and is
common on the outskirts of the bush.
Its long pendulous racemes of fruit, and deeply
venated, almost sessile, opposite leaves on young shoots many feet in lengtb, are very
handsome.
Its chief interest, however, centres in its poisonous properties, respecting which
Mr. Kirk gives much information in his Forest Flora.
From Rotorua to Okoroire, from whence the train may be taken to Auckland, the largest
city in the Colony, is a distance of thirty miles, crossing a range of mountains attaining at
the highest point two thousand and twenty feet. The roads, if such they may be called, for
in reality they are little more than a clearing, are badfor miles hidden by a slough of
six to twelve inches of semi-liquid mud.
For the first ten miles the country is open, and the
poor and almost valueless soil is covered with Bracken and Manuka [Leptospermum scoparium).
For the second stage of ten miles the bush is very rich, fine, and varied. Ferns are in glorious
profusionLomarias, Nephrolepis, Hymenophyllums, etc.
Tree Ferns are very numerous, often
rising fifteen to twenty and not infrequently to thirty feet.
Cyathca medullaris is magnificent
but not common, its immense fronds covering an area of many yards.
Large forest trees are
represented by the Rimu (Daerydium cupressimum), White Pine (Pilocarpus daerydioides), and an
occasional Matai (P. spicata). The first two I have mentioned supra, the last named is equal to
them in appearance and almost in utility. Good specimens attain a height of sixty to eighty feet;
they are round headed, and of that dusky green peculiar to New Zealand forests when viewed
from a distance. As fine a sight as one can well wish to see are the thickly wooded gullies
and hill slopes passed on this route.
Dark massive White Pine and Matai relieved by the
weeping yellowish green Rimu, spreading in one broad band, sometimes for miles along steep
slopes, is a sight obtained to perfection from the winding road skirting the hill on the opposite
side of the deep broad gullies.
The wood of Matai is said to be of considerable economic
value, and easily worked.
Its durability, especially from hilly districts, is remarkable. The
Kohutuhutu (Fuchsia exeorticata) is freely met with at an elevation of two thousand feet, and
Tawa (Bcilschmiedia Tawa) is common.
This is a handsome evergreen with narrow oblong
thickly-set, glossy rich green foliage.
Mr. Kirk gives its extreme height at ten feet, and
states that it constitutes the greater portion of the forests in many northern districts.
In the
bush in question this, however, is not the case, and I met with no specimens approaching
the height named.
In places, the undergrowth consisted almost entirely of the Mako-Mako or Wineberry,
Aristotelia racemosa, a fine shrub, but now nearly bereft of leaves ; added to this, the
branches are distant, spreading and slender, appearing somewhat bare at this season ; the large
acuminate foliage is of an exceptionally deep glossy tinge. As handsome a tree as I have
yet met with is freely represented on the confines of the bush ; the native name is the
Rewarewa, often termed Honeysuckle by settlers ; to science it is known as Knightia execlsa.
It is tall, erect, and rigid, with broad, blunt, stiff leaves six to eight inches long, and its foliage
and fastigiate habit attract immediate notice when first seen ; its racemes consist of from
fifty to eighty tubular flowers, each about one and a-half inches long ; these unfortunately are
not to be seen at this season, but their size and beauty, added to a tree of such unique
appearance in New Zealand forests, it need scarcely be said, renders this, when it attains its
extreme height of eighty to a hundred feet, an exceptional object altogether.
For the first time I have met with good specimens of that, extraordinary plant, the Rata
(Metrosideros robusta), one of the largest trees of the New Zealand flora of which I have seen
specimens at least a hundred feet high. The prevalent notion amongst bushmen and settlers is
that the Rata climbs trees, encircles them, and in course of time squeezes them to deatha most
probable conclusion for a casual observer to draw ; needless to say it is entirely erroneous.
The seeds germinate in the forks of lofty treesRimu, White Pine, etc., especially in the

206

NEW ZEALAND.

decaying leaves of the epiphyte Astelia so frequently seen on their branches. When quite young
it sends forth aerial roots, slight and feeble; these gradually reach the soil below, and in course
of time the once thread-like aerial root assumes the appearance and the properties of a stem.
From this, usually lying flat against the supporting trunk of the tree in which the individual
has made its home, horizontal, lateral roots are given off, entirely encircling the trunk. As this
process is repeated to an indefinite extent, in addition to the main roots being frequently connected
by oblique laterals, it is easy to conceive that the death of the enclosed trunk is but a matter
of time. Inosculation, resulting in an uneven, rugged cylinder many feet in diameter, ensues.
Mr. Kirk states that a solid stem is never formed as commonly supposed, and adds that on
one tree only, viz., Vitex littoralis, it can make no impression, the iron-grain of this tree
forcing the root-stems of the epiphyte apart, and sometimes dislodging it.
In addition to its
magnificent flowers, described as most glittering in effect, and its peculiarity of growth, the
wood has proved to be of extraordinary durability and toughness, and is suitable for bridges and
other works requiring those properties.
It forms large round-headed trees ; occasionally
in the centre, the top of the skeleton of the unfortunate individual to which it owes its
existence may be espied, rising gaunt and naked, the huge cylinder of inosculated roots
enclosing entirely the lower portion for a height of sixty to eighty feet.
From numerous
specimens it is easy to trace this curious phenomenon through its various stagesa sight of
exceeding interest.

AUCKLAND.
July, 1893.Agathis (Dammara) australis, the Kauri of commerce, yields one of the most
famous of the world's woods, affording employment to thousands of men, and its conversion a
remunerative return for many hundred thousand pounds of invested capital.
Its habitat is
confined to the most northern portion of the North Island, the area occupied calculated as
likely to pay for working having been estimated in 1885 by the Surveyor-General at one
hundred and thirty-eight thousand four hundred and seventy acres.
Though found in small
quantities between Whangarei and Auckland, the largest forests lie north of the former, and
in order to see such a one being worked, I recently left Auckland for the north.
A two hundred and thirty-ton steamer performs the journey in ten hours twice a
week.
The nearest forest to Whangarei lies
thirteen miles eastward, and as the
roads to others are in parts at this season impassable, I had no choice. The forest in
question belongs to a private firm, Messrs. Foote Bros., whose arrangements for the conversion
of the timber are most economical and complete. Agathis (Dammara) australis, where found,
is usually the prevailing tree, and though the undergrowth is thick, large specimens of other
trees are rarely met with. It grows in poor soil, valueless for agricultural purposes after a forest
has been cleared. The prevailing undergrowth is usually Astelia trinervis, a Liliaceous plant
with long narrow leaves.
The tree form of Dicksonia lanata is also often met with, and
Adiantum reniforme occurs in profusion on every side. Young trees, when planted in a bush,
are distinctly handsome, though they are usually not met with in Nature. Planted in the
open, like some other New Zealand plants, they fail to grow. Matured trees attain an average
height of eighty to one hundred ieet, with a trunk four to twelve feet in diameter, though
individual specimens are known to exceed these dimensions.
Mr. Kirk mentions one as
being one hundred feet high to the first branch, with a circumference of sixty-six feet ; whilst
one at Mercury Bay is stated to measure eighty feet to the first branch, and to be seventy-two
feet in circumference.
The largest I have met with growing was between nine to ten feet in

NEW ZEALAND.

207

diameter, as straight as a gun-barrel, and for two-thirds of its height without a branch.
In
the summer months it is, however, only a matter of time to see far larger ones, though in
the forest I visited the prevailing diameter was six feet, and under; nevertheless, so thickly do
the trees grow, that many of larger dimensions are met with in a comparatively small area.
Respecting the age this exceptional tree attains, Mr. Kirk estimates a tree of seven feet in
diameter to be one thousand two hundred and sixty years; the specimen I mentioned as
growing at Mercury Bay may be considerably over two thousand years, and one, sixty-six feet
in circumference, not less than one thousand five hundred years.
The proportion of sap-wood
is remarkably small, and hollow and defective trees are rare ; its durability, as shown by wood
obtained from buried trees, is thoroughly proved, and its strength is excelled but by two or
three other trees.
In Mr. Kirk's excellent Forest Flora, reviewed in the Gardeners' Chroniele, December 14th,
1889, specialists will find many pages giving full details respecting this tree.
The branches
are never used, though they often attain a diameter of two feet.
In passing through
that portion of a forest already felled, one often clambers over many such buried beneath
many feet of the handsome, broad, glaucous foliage.
The bark is thick and very resinous,
the resin exuding freely, and forming solid masses in the forks of the branches, though the
quantity thus found is trivial compared with that dug up annually from the swamps now
covered, or formerly covered, with Kauri forest.
The solidified resin forms the Kauri gum of
commerce, of which between 1883 and 1887 as much as thirty thousand four hundred and ninetyeight tons were exported, its gross value being 1,598,606. It affords employment to thousands,
and is a standing resource for the unemployed, though I fancy few undertake the work if
they can obtain any other.
It is remunerative, but exceptionally rough work. The gum is
largely employed in the manufacture of varnish, and forms an admirable substitute for amber
in the manufacture of the mouthpieces of pipes. The timber of the New Zealand Kauri
Pine, Agathis (Dammara) australis, is considered by some experts the most valuable in the
world for general purposes.
In 1888 a syndicate of Melbourne and New Zealand capitalists purchased the mills, the
vast Kauri reserves, and rights of the various companies and private owners in the Province
of Auckland, and the Kauri Timber Company, Limited, was subsequently formed with a capital
of 1,200,000. The Company acquired twenty-eight mills, one hundred and sixty-three thousand
acres of freehold, and two hundred and sixty-five thousand acres of leasehold (since added),
estimated to contain seventeen hundred millions of feet of standing Kauri timber. One of
the leading mills is at Auckland, over which Mr. Brood, the manager, was good enough to
show me.
Here, in the busy season, about four hundred hands are employed in every variety
of work on the conversion of large stems, eight to nine feet in diameter, to almost every
conceivable purpose to which wood can be applied.
In the yard of the mill lay several
eighteen inch square long piles, ordered by the Admiralty ; and in the upper floor, six
thousand doors of one pattern, made from wood seasoned for two years prior to use, and
subsequently left for nine months before export, formed a respectable heap. Such a door costs
the builder nine shillings. From the huge size of the branchless trunks, the wood is
absolutely without knot or flaw. All is done by steam, even to dove-tailing, an operation
performed by a small but intricate machine.
By this means, so accurate is the work, that
errors are literally impossible, and putty unknown throughout the whole mill. Hundreds of
saws are constantly at work, from the tall vertical blade with teeth inches long to the minute
fret-saw worked by boys. Wheelbarrows, windows, mantelpieces, doors, etc., are turned out
wholesale, Mr. Brood claiming the joinery to be second to none. Especially fine planks, six to
seven feet in diameter, are kept in limited quantity for tabling, etc, and all " mottled. "
Kauri, which is much valued, is put aside.
It seems scarcely clear what causes the peculiar wavy

208

NEW ZEALAND.

bands occasionally met with in the wood. Mr. Brood ascribes it to disease ; Mr. Kirk to the
growth of the bark not keeping pace with the development of the wood tissue, so that flakes
or small portions of bark are enclosed by the sap-wood, become indurated under excessive
pressure, ultimately forming dark patches on a light ground. Most of the saw-mills are being
worked naturally in or near the Kauri forest ; even then the handling of such large stems
offers difficulty from the nature of the rough and broken ground it usually affects.
Various
are the devices by which the huge trunks are brought beneath the " breaking-down " saw.
Where possible, a stream is made use of, often rolling roads have to be formed, and on steep
slopes " skids " are the means of transport.
Most useful, however, is " the jack," in the use
of which the bushmen are well versed.
Necessarily laborious as the moving of such large
masses of timber must be, it is yet considerably lightened by the dexterity with which this
invaluable aid is handled. Kauri forests have been purchased at from 2s. 6d. to 5s. per acre,
but the present price is much higherin fact, good forests are almost all taken up now.
Owing to the depression in Australiaone of the chief if not the chief marketthe timber
now being cut is in excess of the demand, and many mills are closed ; but such is the
superiority of the timber for nearly all purposes, that this depression can but be temporary.
Oranges thrive in the neighbourhood of Whangarei.
I saw one orchard in fine condition.
Even as far south as Napier the climate is too cold, though Lemons bear well and are
hardier. As a rule, however, the large Oranges from Fiji are greater favourites in the market.
Near Whangarei the bush in parts is very rich.
I visited a hillthe property of the stationmasterand have rarely seen a more luxuriant vegetation. Liboecdrus Donianarestricted to
the northern portion of the North Islandis a Conifer of great beauty in a young state,
though I have not met with it in the adult form.
It is unfortunate we cannot grow it freely,
as for horticultural purposes it would prove above the average decorative Conifer. Areca sapida
is common, and forms fine trees twenty to thirty feet in height. The pith is said to have
formed the staple food of the natives, and the stems have been used in house building. Planted
in open spaces it will not grow, and when left after a bush clearing, the foliage diminishes to a
quarter of its normal size, a sufficient evidence that shade and moisture are among its chief
requirements. Cyatlwa medullaris grows freely, often attaining a height of thirty feet, though one
in particular I have seen was measured and found to be over fifty feet.
I think, however,
smaller specimens with their gigantic fronds are more impressive.
C. dealbata is also at home,
though it does not attain a greater height than twelve to fifteen feet. Phylloeladus trichomanoides
(the Tanekaha) is very handsome, and its Fern-like foliage most curious ; its wood, too, is
valuable and durable, and Mr. Kirk states that in places it is extensively used. As common
as any tree in the district are Corynocaipus lwvigata (the Karaka) and Vitex littoralis (the
Puriri). The former forms evergreen bushes and trees twenty to fifty feet high, with foliage of
the glossiest green often six to nine inches in length, surmounted by panicles of orange-coloured
fruit; the latter, a round-headed tree, the foliage reaching in an unbroken curve to within a
few feet of the ground, bears broad shiny foliage with three to five leaflets, and an abundance
of dull crimson tubular flowers ; a few of these may be seen even at this season, though the
seed, now rapidly changing from green to red, has, as a rule, replaced them. The wood is
hard to work, and though excessively durable, is therefore expensive. For ornamental purposes
it will ever hold a front rank amongst New Zealand trees.
Another very handsome tree is Bcilschmicdia TaraiH (the Taraire), restricted to the Auckland
district.
The foliage is massive, four to six inches long, broadly obovate, and dull green,
densely clothing the tree in its young state.
It attains the proportions of a good-sized tree,
and I have met with some seventy to eighty feet high, though as a shrub it is almost more
ornamental.
Its rich purple plum-like fruits, one and a-quarter to one and a-half inches in
length, are numerously borne at this season, and are of considerable beauty.
Drimys axillaris,

NEW

ZKAI.ANK.

the Horopito or Pepper tree of the settlers, a tall ornamental shrub, is common ; Alectryon
excelsum (the Titoki) is remarkable for its singular fruit, many of which may now be seen.
Mr. Kirk describes it as follows : " When ripe it is a third of an inch in length, and almost
woody, with a flattened crest on the upper portion, terminating in a spur-like prominence on
one side ; when the seed is ripe the fruit-vessel becomes ruptured transversely, but not along
any definite line." The single black seed is encased in a fleshy aril of the richest scarleta
pretty contrast. 'The foliage of Olcaria Cunninghami (the Heketara) is always well displayed;
the leaves are two to five inches long, with broadly distinct acute teeth, and entirely white
beneath. Either as a shrub or small tree it is very distinct in general appearance.
Coriaria
ruseifolia (the Tripakihi), Pseudopanax erassifolium (the Horoeka), and Knujhtia excelsa (the
Eewarewa), all previously mentioned, are also met with in the bush around Whangarei.
Probably the best known of New Zealand timbers after the Kauri is the Totara
(Podocarpus Totara). For certain special purposes it is even superior to its great rival, more
especially for marine piles, as it resists insect attacks to which the Kauri succumbs.
In this
respect the Totara bears to the Kauri the same relation as the famous Western Australian
Jarrah bears to the Karri.
Jarrah, I am told, has been tried in New Zealand for marine
pile work, but is not found equal to the Totara, a result I can scarcely credit.
1 recently
met with a few trees of the Totara ; it is rarely found in large quantities, and in most
districts it is all but extinct, so wholesale has been its destruction. The bark is deeply grooved
or furrowed, the stem is from two to six feet in diameter, and the tree from eighty to one
hundred feet in height.
Its chief defect is said to he its extreme brittleness ; it is easily
split, and no other wood is used for telegraph posts in the North Island.
I returned from Auckland by boat to New Plymouth, and thence overland to Wellington.
Landslips, owing to the excessive and continuous rain, are common, and twice the journey was
thus interrupted, and trains changed.
But a few days since a train was caught between two,
and the occupants confined part of a day and all one night without food.

WELLINGTON.
July, 18915.For twenty-five years Mr. T. Mason, at Taita, Wellington, has been forming a
garden of more than ordinary interest, because what is there growing shows how many fine
plants an English climate just loses.
A bed of light sandy loam, of a depth varying from
eight to eleven feet, rests on gravel, affording drainage to the ample rainfall.
It may be safely
observed that almost every plant known to English gardeners will succeed, and succeed well, in
such a spot, and under such conditions ;. in addition to which, the mildness of the winter permits
many known to us as too tender for the open ground, to flourish and make fine specimens.
The Tasmanian Blue Gum (Eucalyptus Globulus) assumes the proportions of a forest tree, as
does the Western Australian Jarrah (E. margiimta). To native trees and shrubs Mr. Mason
has not devoted so much attention, possibly because the horticultural value of the major
part of the New Zealand flora is surpassed by that of other countries. The collection of
Abies is large, and the specimens, almost without exception, are literally perfect.
Few are more
than twenty-five feet high, but all are clothed to the ground, massive pyramidsmassive, as the
rate of growth has evidently been rather slow than otherwise. Picea orientalis, Abics Pindrow,
A. nobilis, A. pectinata, A. Nordm'mniana, thirty-five feet, not a branch visible, so dense is
the foliage ; A. balsamea, Tmya Merteusiaua, twenty-eight feet, a most elegant species ; Picca
Morinda, a conical mass of drooping lateral branchlets and stiff upright young shoots ; Abics Piusapo,
A. Webbiaua, A. amabilis, Picca polita, fifteen feet ; Abics Douylasii, A. cimcolor three feet ;
DD

210

NEW

ZEALAND.

A. Vcitehii, two feet (the two last named lmt just planted) ; and A. bcactcata, particularly fine,
are amongst those which, having in the earliest planting days been allotted ample room with the
sole aim of making good single specimens, have repaid the planter in a manner 1 may
certainly venture to call unusual.
Other Conifers, unknown in anything like good condition in less favoured spots, here assume
considerable proportions. Callitris and Athrotaxis form handsome trees. Saxegotha'a conspiciw
is a failurewhy, Mr. Mason is unable to say ; but Fitzroya patagoniea , represented by a
strong young bush about fourteen feet in height, spreads its graceful shoots in profusion.
Various species of Cupressus are met with, and a specimen of C. torulosa, twenty-five feet in
height, sweeps the ground with its foliage, whilst a stem of Lilxwdrux decurreiis exceeds a
diameter of eighteen inches ; and Ginkgo biioba, now only naked twigs, bids fair to attain the
limit of its greatest known size. Acanearia Cookri, A. brazilunsii and A. imbricMa are yet
young, being little more than fifteen to twenty feet high ; but they are in excellent condition.
Rctinoxpora mcoides assumes extraordinary proportions, one specimen being nearly ten feet in
height, and R. squaerosa is in no way behind it. R. phunosa a urca and Cupressus Lavsoniana
lutca, the latter fourteen feet in height, are highly colouredfor the middle of winter
surprisingly so.
Many hundreds of Camellias, certainly preferable to Laurels for ordinary planting, make
good bushes ; and the collection of Rhododendrons has received especial attention.
With the
exception of ihe Javanese, most known kinds can be grown.
R. Dalhousiw, R. Faleoneri,
R. Thompsoni, R. arborcum, R. Jenkinsoni, R. cinnabarinum and R. argmteum thrive and
flower well, with the exception of the last named, which is somewhat shy. Tall Cyathea
medullaris and C. dcalbata, planted for the most part in the rear of the borders, spread their
immense fronds over wide circuits occupied beneath by Violets, Narcissi, etc.
Asimina triloba
dowel's.
Carpenteria californica is a new shrub, and Magnolia stdlata was a mass of buds.
M. acuminata is shy here as elsewherein fact, it has never yet flowered ; it is represented
by two perfect specimens twenty to twenty-five feet in height, affording a contrast to
M. tripetala, freer in this respect.
Liriodeiulron tulipiferum has attained a height of thirty-five
feet ; and every shoot of a Pauiawnia impemalis standing near it supports a tall panicle of
buds.
Acaeia alata, thirty-five feet high, is, in Mr. Mason's opinion, the best of the genus.
Sterculia aecrifolia, the famous New South Wales Flame Tree, and Cedrela australis are amongst
the acclimatised trees. The wide range and varied conditions under which the above-named
plants are found in Nature, clearly point to there being many less favoured spots for the
formation of a general garden than Wellington, New Zealand.
Likewise, it is not a question
of the mere existence of so many species, for almost without exception all are in excellent
condition, since Mr. Mason does away with those that do not please the eye by any
defect in vigour and health, claiming to be purely and simply a gardener, and seeking no
gratification from the mere possession of a species. Mr. Macuab owns the late Mr. Ludlam's
famous garden, now somewhat neglected.
In addition to this Sir James Hector has six
gullies on his private estate, clothed with hundreds of Tree Ferns and native vegetation
generally, in which pheasants and quail make their home ; and mention should be made of
the public garden, although it is of little interest.

THE

END.

INDEX.

A
Alties amahilis, 209
,, balsamea, 209
,, braehyphylla, 124
,, braeteate, 209
,, concolor, 209
,, Douglasii, 184, 209
,, firm*, 101, 116, 147, 150, 194
,, homolepis, 133
,, Mariesii, 129, 130
,, nobilis, 209
,, Norilmanniana, 184, 188, 194, 209
., pectinate, 209
,, Pindrow, 209
,. sachalinensis, 130
,, Veitchii, 123, 210
,, Webbiana, 183, 181, 209
Abutilon coccineum, 2,5, 30
,,
Thorapsoni variegatum. 19
Acacia arabica, 30, 40
Baileyana, 189
,, cultriformis, 158
,, dealbata, 14
elate, 210
,, lophantha, 181
,, melanoxylon, 190
,, mollissima, 14
,, podalyria'folia, 158
,, stipulate, 39
Acalypha Macfarlanei, 45

musaica, 19, 21, 51

torte, 17, 19, 67


Acanthopanax ricinifolinm, 129, 131,
132, 147
,,
sciadophylloides, 129
Acanthorhiza aculeate, 175
Acanthus ilicifolius, 158
Acer capillipes, 129
,, cissifolium, 128
crafcegifolium, 147
,, japonicum, 129, 130, 146
,, Miyabei, 130
,, palmatum. 106, 111, 126, 128, 129
,, pictuiu, 128, 129
,, rufinerve, 121
Acbras australis, 193
Acorns graminens, 102, 115
Acrostichum aureum, 176
Aorotrema costetum, 66
Adansonia digitate, 54
Adiautum Bausei, 68
,,
Capillus-Veneris, 33
,,
Collisii, 60
Farleyense, 60, 68

Adiantum Fergusonii, 68
,,
glaucophyllum, 186
,.
peruvianum, 59, 65
Begins, 46
,,
reniforme, 206
,,
Seemanni, 68
tenerum, 16, 47, 51, 60, 68
,,
trapeziforme, 68
Aerides multiflorum, 37, 46
,, odoratum, 37
Aerva sanguinolente, 17
/Esculus turbinate, 126, 128, 129, 130
Agatbis (Dammara) alba, 82
australis, 195, 203, 206, 207
,, Moorei, 195
,, obtusa, 195
,, orieutalis, 195
,, ovate, 195
,, pumila 195
,, robuste, 160, 174, 195
,, spiuulosa, 195
,, vitiensis, 195
Agati grandiflora, 26, 30
Agave americana, 13, 28, 35, 189
,, Milleri, 198
,, recurva, 27
,, rigida, 28
,, serrulate, 50
Agonis flexuosa, 190
Ailantus excelsa, 26
,,
glandulosa, 177
Akebia lobata, 129
Albizria procera, 52, 55
Alectryon excelsum, 209
Alcurites moluccana, 39, 161
,,
triloba, 93, 193
Allamanda Chelsonii, 177
,,
Hendersonii, 177
,,
neriifolia, 160
Alnus firma nmltinervis, 129
Alocasia gigantea, 59
,, Jenningsii, 51
,, Johnstonei, 65
,,
macrorhiza, 29
Porteri, 176
, , singaporensis, 75
,, Thibautiana, 60

Van Houttei, 176


Aloe lati folia, 188
,, verrucosa, 27
Aloysia citriodora, 185
Alpinia nutans, 92
Alsophila australis, 161, 190, 191, 197
Cooperi, 178, 185, 191, 196,
197

Alsophila excelsa, 178, 186, 188


,,
Macarthuri, 191
,,
robuste, 185
,,
tomentosa, 94
Alstonia constricte, 197
,, scholaris, 49, 66
Amelancbier canadensis, 106
Amherstia nobilis, 9, 55
Ampelopsis tricuspidate, 121, 146, 183,
190
,,
japonica (Rbus Toxicoden
dron), 183
Ancmopa'gma racemosa, 28, 65
Angelonia salicariiefolia, 22
Angioptoris evecte, 65, 73, 75, 92
Angnecum cbnrneum, 178, 196
,,
ses(mipedale, 10, 68 178,
190
Anoectoebilus (Hasmaria) Dawsonianus, 58
,,
Roxburgbi, 92
Ansellia africana, 178
Antburiura cordifolium, 175

crjstellinum, 58, 59, 65, 175


,,
Ferrierense, 65, 175
,,
hybridum, 175
,,
leuconeurum, 175
,,
Mooreanum, 175
,,
regale, 65
,,
Scborzeriannm, 161
,,
Veitchii, 65
,,
Warocqueanum, 175
Antigonon Leptopus, 20, 32, 158
Aphananthe aspera, 112
Aphanopetelum resinosum, 183
Aponogeton distechyon, 175
Aracbnanthe Lowii, 71, 178
Aralia (Fatsia) papyrifera, 188
Guilfoylei, 189
,, japonica, 121
,, spinosa, 129, 196
Veitehii, 193
,,
,, gracillima, 59
Araucaria Bidwilli, 14, 55, 69, 82, 158,
159, 160, 162, 174, 178,
184, 196
,,
brasiliensis, 210
Cookei, 10, 14, 55, 67, 184,
196, 210
,,
Cunningln.mii, 34, 52, 55, 57,
69, 94, 158, 160, 162, 174,
176, 184, 188, 196
,,
elegans, 196
excelsa, 82, 91, 92, 93, 168, 176,
184, 187
imbricate, 185, 210

214

INHEX.

Arauearia Rulci, 82, 94, 196


Arauja albens, 1,83
Arbutus eanariensis, 186, 193, 198
,, Unedo, 185
Archontophoenix Alexandrie, 66, 94
,,
Cimninghamii, 162
Ardisia orenulata, 93
,, erispa, 115
Areca Catechu, 64, 66, 68, 70, 189
lutescens, 46, 58, 60, 68, 73, 82,
94, 158, 159
,, madagascariensis, 56, 189, 195
,, rubra, 190
,, sapida, 46, 185, 208
,, Verschafteltii, 189
Arenga sacc-harifera, 19, 50, 52, 56, 71,
94, 158, 175, 194
Aristoloehia ridicula, 177
Aristotelia racemosa, 203, 205
Artocarpus im isa, 9, 19, 36
,,
integrifolia, 36, 51, 158
,,
nobilis, 9
Aruudina bamhusrefolia, 68
,,
chineu sis, 72
,,
densa, 72
Arundinaria falcate, 46
Arundo conspicua, 202
Donax, 26, 174, 188
Asimina triloba, 210
Aspidistra clatior, 66
Asplonium bulbifenim, 186
,,
Nidus, 60, 70, 81, 86, 160, 175,
191
,,
obtusilobum, 186
Astelia trinervis, 206
Aster incisus, 109
Astilbe japonica, 121, 146
Astragalus lotoides, 1 10
Asystasia In tea, 69
Attalea Cohune, 56
,, macrocarpa, 82
Ancuba japonica, 108
Azalea mollis, 110

I!
Ba'ckia frutescens, 61
Bambusa aiundinaeea, 157, 159, 160
,,
majestica, 169
,,
nana, 53, 64, 69
,,
nutans, 53
plumosa, 197
,,
senamensis, 108
,,
siamensis, 54
Tulda, 22, 27
,,
vulgaris, 53
Banksia actinophylla, 158
,, attenuate, 165
,, grandis, 163, 165, 166
integrifolia, 162, 187
,, marginata; 187
,, prostrata, 165
Baubinia corymbosa, 158
,,
diphylla, 55
,,
purpurea, 67, 198
Vahlii, 35
,,
variegata, 34
Baxteria australis, 165
Beaufortia grandiflora, 163

Beaufortia purpurea, 163


Beaumontia grandiflora, 45, 51, 161
Begonia Rex, 46
Beilschmiedia Tarairi, 20S
Tawa, 205
Berberis crafcegina, 187
,, Darwinii, 185
,, Guimpeli, 187
,, ibiriea, 187
,, ja1K>mca, 187
,, lax i flora, 187
,, orientalis, 187
,, pallida, 187
,. stenophylla, 187
,, vulgaris, 187
Berchemia racemosa, 126, 129, 132
Bctula Rrmanni, 129
,, Maximowicrii, 131
Bignonia Cherere, 181
,,
gracilis, 175
La Trobei, 183
Mackenii, 183
,,
magnifies, 55
,,
regal is, 19
,,
venusta, 91
Biota orientalis, 50, 51, 52, 57, 158
Blcehmun brasiliense, 86, 186
Bletia hyacinthina, 96, 115
Blighia sapida, 54
Boccouia cordata, 10, 121, 132
,,
frateseens, 10, 197
Borassus fiabelliformis, 19, 24, 55
Boronia Drummondi, 165
clatior, 162, 165
,, megastigma, 162, 165, 184
,, serrulata, 165
Bougainvillea glabra, 18, 34, 36, 39,
48, 49, 50, 55, 158
lateritia, 18, 22, 39, 158
,,
slieciosa, 36, 39
,,
speetabilis, 22, 36, 163
,,
splendens, 18, 22
Brassaia actiu.tphora, 67
,, actinophylla, 159, 193
Brassia maculata, 196
Brexia madagascariensis, 174
,, spinosa, 193
Bronssonetia papyrifera, 126
Brownea coccinea, 57, 70
,,
grsndicens, 52, 57, 70, 71
Brunfelsia americana, 60, 193
,,
cximia, 192
,,
Holx'ana, 93
Budleia diversifolia, 32
Btitea frondosa, 30, 160

('
Ctesalpinia pulchenima, 159
,,
vernalis, 94
Caladium argyrites, 60
,, eseuleutum, 197
,, tuberosum, 17
Calamus Muclleri, 162, 195
Rotang, 34, 39
tenuis, 34, 39
t'alanthc Kcgnicri, 68
,,
Veitehii, 196
vcratrifolia, 68, 72, 190

Calanthe vestita, 68, 92, 196


Calliandra h.-ematomina, 39
Callistemon speciosus, 39, 190
Callitris adpressa, 169
Aucklandii, 169
,, Gunnii, 185
,,
Macleayana, 177, 194
.,
rhomboidea, 94
Calodendron capense, 174
Calophyllum inophyllum, 67, 71
Calotropis Acia, 52
Camellia japoniea, 112
Thea, 115
Campanula punctata, 123
Cauanga odorata, 94
Canarium commune, 81
('anna indica, 32, 197
Cantua dependens, 185, 186
Capjiaris nobilis, 193
Capsicum racemigerum, 178
Caragtma arboresoens, 112
Carica liapaya, 20
Carludoviea palmata, 196
Carpentcria ealifornica, 210
Carpinus cordata, 131
( 'aryot* Cumingi, 72
,, Mcuado, 189
,, mitis, 46
sobolifcra, 19, 175, 196
urens, 9, 19, 29, 46, 55, 56, 67,
15S
Cassia alata, 19
,, aurieulata, 30
,, Brcwsterii, 161
,, fistulusa, 67, 85
,, speciosa, 32
,, sumatrana, 22, 24, 28
Castanospennum australe, 160, 186
Casuarina etpiisetifolia, 50, 55
,,
Fraseriana, 163, 166
,,
glauca, 22, 27, 28
,,
motttaita, 33, 39
,,
stricta, 174
Catalpa speciosa, 194
Cattlcya bicolor, 175
,,
Bowriugiaua, 175, 196
,,
Eldorado, 196
,,
Gaskelliana, 68
,,
guttata, 178
Ccanothus divaricatus, 185
f 'edrela australis, 210
Cedrus Deodara, 160, 178, 184, 185
,, I,ibani, 185
Cephalotttxus drupaeea, 129
Cerasus Pscudo-cerasus, 104
('creidiphyllum japonicum, 130, 131
Cercis chinensis, 1 12
,, Siliquastrum, 174
Cereus triangularis, 93
Cestrum fictidissimnm, 187
('luenesthes gesnerioides, 193
Chamtedorva Ernesti-Augusti, 196
Chama'peucc Casabonn- 50
ChamieropM excelsa, 113, 195
,,
Fortunei, 195
Chaviea Betle, 20
('hiiuonanthus fragraus, 196
Choisya ternata, 186
Cbysis bractescens 10
Cibotium glaueum, 92
,,
inagnificum, 185

IN1IKX.
Cineraria maritima, 169
Cissus discolor, 176
Citrus japonica, 104
,, trifoliata, 100
Clematis Meyeniana, 92
,, tubulosa, 132
ClerodemlroD aculeatum, 23
glabrum, 174
,,
tomcntosum, 174
.,
trichotomum, 123, 196
Clethia canescens, 132
Cobsea seandens, 92
Cocos flexuosa, 56, 158
nucifera, 13, 21
,, oleracea, 81, 82
plumosa, 19, 66, 158, 159, 190,
194
Cudogyne asperata, 68
,,
Dayana, 68
,,
flaceida, 92

speciosa, 190, 196


Colletia cruciata, 185
Colocasia anUquorum, 125, 131
,,
Devansayana, 176
Colvillea racemosa, 47
Coiubretum decandrum, 35
,,
graudiflorum, 178

purpuroum, 28, 30, 161


Copenmia cerit'era, 195
Coprosina Baucriana, 189, 188, 193
Cordyline anstralis, 202, 203
,.
Doucetti, 190
,,
indivisa, 203
,,
nutans, 185
Coriaria ruscifolia, 204, 209
Cornus brachypoda, 115, 132
Kousa, 132
Corylolisis spicata, 104
Corynocarpus lievigata, 208
Corypha australis, 82, 191
,,
elata, 54, 56
,,
Gebanga, 56, 72
,,
umbraculifera, 9, 19
Conroupita guianensis. 57
Cratsegus mcxicana, 189
Crawfurdia japonica, 129
Crinum asiaticum, 27, 32, 67
Crossandra undubefolia, 66
Croton bicolor, 52
elegantissimus, 17
,, Kingianus, 60
Crypteronia pubescens, 66
Cryptomeria elegans, 104

japonica, 10, 14, 100, 101,


103, 106, 108, 121, 124,
133
Cryptostegia grandiflora, 25
Cupbea ignea, 190
Cupressus Benthamiana, 197
funebris, 14, 35, 52, 70, 82,
174, 184
,,
Qoveniana, 82
,,
Knightii, 82
,,
Lamlwrtiana, 184
,,
Lawsoniana, 14, 27. 210
,,
lusitanica, 197
,,
maerocarpa, 1S3, 184, 201
,,
sempervirens, 34, 35, 10, 57
,,
thyoides, 197
,,
torulosa, 14, 32, 55, 57, 210
Cunucria picturata, 66

Cyatbea Biownii, 196


Cunninghamii, 183 196
dealbata, 183, 188, 202, 208,
210
,,
excclsa, 181
t lullaris, 178, 183, 188, 205,
208, 210
,,
Iirinoe)*i, 183
Cyathodea acerosa, 201
Cycas circinalis, 36, 59, 65, 195
,, media, 93
,, revoluta, 30, 36, 50, 195
,, Kumphii, 59
Cymbidium giganteum, 175
Cynotlon Dactylon, 22
Cyperus alternifolius, 50, 175
Cypripedium barbatum, 72
,,
calurum, 175
,,
concolor, 68
,,
Crossianum, 175
,,
Dominiauum, 190
Drurii, 178
,,
Godefroyte, 68
,,
Harrisiannm, 196
,,
Haynaldiauum, 10
,,
insiguc, 68
,,
Lawrencuanum, 68
,,
Loeanum supermim, 178
,,
longifoliiun, 196
,,
Lowii, 68
,,
niveum, 68
,, '
politam, 178
,,
purpuratum, 178
,,
Rotbschildianum, 68, 72

Sedenii, 10, 196


,,
Spicerianum, 58
,,
Stonei, 72
,,
Swaniauum, 178
Cyrtodeira chontilensis, 66
fulgida, 60, 66
Cyrtostachys Renda, 68, 73, 81, 82
Cytharoxylon subserratum, 198

215
Dendrobium densifloruiu, 58, 92
,,
Karmeri, 60
fimbriatum, 60, 92
,,
macrophyllum Veitehianum,
10, 190
,,
mosehatum, 37, 58, 68
,,
nobile, 60
,,
Phahenopsis, 196
,,
l'ierardi. 46
,,
superbiens, 59, 60
undulatum, 59, 161, 196
Dendroealamus giganteus, 53, 56
,,
Hamiltunianus, 5 1
,,
olmvatus, 53
Deudropanax japonicum, 106
Dicksouia anlarctica, 161, 183
,,
australis, 183
,,
lauata, 206
.,
stp.iaiTosa, 183, 196
Dieifeubat hia magnifica, 59
Dierrilla japonica, 129
Diltt uia imlica, 34
Dinocbloa Maclanardii, 53
Dioscorea discolor, 189
,,
illustrata, 189
Diospyrus Kaki. 112
,,
virginiana, 190
Diplotbemium mtritimum, 158, 188
Dipteris Horsfieldii, 64
Dombuya mollis, 174
Wallichii, 192
Doryantbes excelsa, 189, 190
,,
Guilfoylei, 189
Palmeri, 186, 189
Doryphora .Sassafras, 191
Dracaena Draco, 174, 194
,,
(loldieana. 66
,,
umbrauulifera, 59
Drimys axillaris, 208
Duranta Kllisii, 158, 169, 174
Plumieri, 23, 27, 32, 44, 81,
174
Durio zibcthinus, 67
Dysoxylon Muellori, 193

D
Dai rydium uupressinum, 190, 202, 203,
205
datum, 63, 69, 82
DaMuonorops tissus, 196
,,
melanocluetes, 189
,,
periacanthus, 196
Dalbergia robusta, 45
,,
Sissoo, 32, 39. 45, 54
Daphne Genkwa, 106
,, indita, 181
,, odora, 101
Dapkniphyllum glaucescens, 197
,,
humile, 129
Datura suaveolens, 19
Davallia bullata, 102, 146, 181
Dulfii, 66
,, elegans, 92
Davidsonia pruriens, 160
Dendrobium aduneum, 92
,,
aggregatum, 60. 92
,,
albo-sanguincum, 58
,,
chrysotoxum, 60
,,
Dalhousieanum, 58, 68
,,
Dearei, 68

E
Edgcwortbia papyrifera, 125
Elai'is guincensis, 56, 70, 73, 84
Ebeocarpus grandis, 161
Elteodendron Chabrieri, 59
Empetrum nigrum, 129
Enccphalartos caffra, 93, 115
Enkiautlms japonicus, 106, 116
Epidendrum prisma tocarpum, 175
Epigtea asiatica, 129
Epimedium macranthum, 111
Eranthemum pulchellum, 19
Eriobotrya japonica, 35, 116, 160
Ery thrina americana, 158

Blakei, 190
,,
Crista-galli, 68
,,
Humeaua, 190
indica, 11, 158, 193
,,
speciosa, 191
,,
Vesliertilio, 161
Erytbroxylon macrophyllum, 197
Escallonia montevidensis, 194
Eucalyptus alba, 84

2 Hi

INDKX.

Eucalyptus botryoides, 161, 163, 166


,,
caktlihylla, 165, 166
,,
cilriodora. 18, 51
,,
cornuta, 165
,,
corymbosa, 161
,,
diversicolor, 166

fici folia, 189


Globulus, 14, 18, 39,- 184,
209
maculate, 178, 189
,,
marginate, 163, 165, 166,
178, 209
,,
mcgacarpa, 189

obliqua, 188
,,
occidcn talis, 189
,,
redunca, 164
,,
resinifera, 55
,,
rohuste, 15
,,
rostrate, 18, 51, 176, 188,
190
ICut haris grandi flora. 92
Eugeissonia tristis, 64
Eugenia achimeuoides, 193
,, buxifolia, 193
,, densi flora, 71, 75
,, grandis, 197
,, Moorei, 193
,, myrtifolia, 158, 174
Kttl. tlia nelmlensis, 36
Euouymus Hamiltoniaims, 129, 132
,,
japonicus, 1C9
,,
nipponicus, 130
Euphorbia heterophylla, 57
,,
quadrangularis, 26
,,
sanguiuea, 96Eupomatia lamina, 187
Kutaxia floribunda, 163
Exeiecaria sebifera, 190

F
Fagraea zeylauica, 72
Fagus fusca, 201
,, Menziesii, 201
Solauderi, 201
Faradaya papuana, 57
Fatsia japonica, 188
Ficus Bcllengeri, 198
,, bengalensis, 13
,, Benjamina, 70, 198
,, Bennettii, 197
,, cordifolia, 35
clastica, 10, 18, 40, 51, 67, 84,
168
,, glomerate, 161
,, Harlaudii, 197
,, indica, 13, 18
,, macrophylla, 18, 160, 168, 177,
191, 192, 198
,, Parcelli, 197
,, platypoda, 174
,, pumila, 34
,, roligiosa, 24, 26, 35, 45, 47, 49, 55
., repens, 51, 55, 60, 66, 189
,, rctusa, 34, 93
,, Roxburghii, 54, 66, 158
,, rubiginosa, 173, 192, 197
,, Trimenii, 30
,, villosa, 66

Ficus Watkinsiana, 161


Fitzroya patagoniea, 210
Flindersia Oxleyana, 190
Fourcroya la?vis, 28
,,
Lindenii, 198
Fraxinus excelsior, 190
,,
longicuspis, 129
Ornus, 190
Fuchsia conica, 189
,, corymbosa, 10
,, excorticate, 205
Fusanus spicatus, 167

Gardenia globosa, 93, 158


Thunhergii, 158, 193
Gaulthcria longiflora, 23
Gigantoehloa inacrostacbya, 53
Ginkgo biloba, 112, 113, 150, 210
Gladiolus Lcmoinei, 160
Gleditsehia caspica, 174
,,
horrida, 158, 174
,,
inermis, 174
,,
japonica, 115
,,
mimostufolia, 169
,,
sinensis, 174
,,
triacanthos, 174, 188
Glcichenia dichotoma, 64, 72, 85 91
flagcllaris, 64, 72. 85
,,
longissima, 64, 94
i ilyciuc chinensis, 132
Goldfussia (Strobilauthes) isophylla, 21,
85
Gomphrena globos.t, 22
Gossypium hcrbaccum, 27
Gratumatophyllum speciosum, 67, 71,
81, 178
Gruptophyllum hortettse, 30
Grcvillea Banksii, 160
,,
clegans, 163
Hilliana, 186, 188
robuste, 10, 18, 23, 32 10, 50,
52, 55, 57, 63, 67, 93, 174,
188, 192
Grewia hirsute, 190
Griselinia lucida, 203
Gymuogramma [tcruviauutn, 47
Gymnostechyum Pcarcei, 161

II
Habrothamnus (Oestrum) elcgans, 169
,,
fascicularis, 187
Htcmaloxylon campechiauum, 67, 160
Halesia corymbosa, 115
Hamamclis atborea, 132
Hamelia patens, 33
Hedera madeireusis, 186
,, Rtcgneriana, 186
Ilelianthus dchilis, 27
Heliconia aurea, 9, 59, 66, 67
metallic*, 189

rosco-striata, 59, 66
Hcmerocallis fulva, 10
Hcmigraphis colorate, 17
Hemitelia Smithii, 178

Heptepleurum stcllatum, 198


Heritiera macrophylla, 160
Heteropanax fragrans, 93
Heterophragma atlenophyllum, 49, 50 51
,,
eminens, 188
Hevea hrasiliensis, 81
Hibbertia Rcadii, 167
Hibiscus mntabilis, 27
.,
Rosa-sinensis, 27, 33
,,
sinuatus, 173
,,
syriacus, 157, 160
Ilippomanc spinosa, 193
Holmskioldia sanguiuea, 35
Hovea ilicifolia, 163
Hovenia dulcis, 196
Hoya camosa, 177
,, Cumingiana, 177
Hyduophy turn andainanense, 58
Hydrangea hortensis, 181
,,
involucrata, 121, 132
,,
paniculata, 129, 132
,,
punctata, 121
Hyinemca verrncosa, 70
Hymenosporum flavum, 174
Hyophorbe Verschalleltii, 73. 175, 196
Hypha-nu thebaica, 23, 30, 55

Jacaranda mimosa'folia, 92, 109, 173,


186, 189, 192
Jasminum pubeseens, 45, 17
,,
racemosum, 91

Sambac, 24, 45
Ilex Cassino, 189
,, cornuta, 174, 185
,, crenate, 129
,, ilitegra, 106, 112, 129
,, latifolia, 104, 112 116, 196, 198
Sugcroki. 129
Illicium religiosum, 101, 187, 196
verum. 92
Indigofera decora, 188
Iochroma graudiflonun, 187
lancoolatuiu, 187
Ipomuea carnea, 21, 27
Horsl'allite, 19, 158
Leari, 19, 23, 26
., palmate, 52
rubro-cierulea, 30
,. sanguiuea, 177
sempervireus, 22, 26, 27, 32
sinuate, 19
vitifolia, 26, 27, 56
Iris florentina, 192
,, japonica, 106, 108, 125
,, Ksmpferi (levigate), 135
,, stylosa, 188
Isotoma longifolia, 69
Itea virginica, 189
JuUca spectebilis, 160, 174. 185, 188,
194, 197
Juuiperus Bermuditna, 176
.,
chinensis, 50, 92, 169, 174,
197
littoralis, 128
.,
prostrate, 185
,,
rigida, 185
,,
virginiana, 55, 63

INDEX.
Justicia speciosa, 169
Ixora coccinea, 24
,, macrothyrsa, 57

K
Keutia Belmoreana, 195
Forsteriana, 178, 186, 195, 197
,, (Hedyscepo) Canterburyana, 193
,, insiguis, 195
Liudenii, 175, 194
,, Luciani, 175
,, Macarthuri, 72, 73
Kerria japouica, 106
Kigelia pinuata, 24, 34, 160
Kuightia excelsa, 205, 209

L
Lrclia autumualis, 72
,, crispa, 178
elegans, 178
,, pumila Dayana, 190
superbiens, 178
Lagerstrcemia Flos-rcgina;, 34, 158, 159

indica, 158, 159


,,
tomentosa, 57
Lagunaria Patersonii, 168, 185, 190
Landolphia Kirkii, 67
Laportca Gigas, 194
Larix lcptolepis, 121
Lasiandra maerantha, 158
Lastrea lepida, 46
Latania borbonica (Livistona cbinensis),
29, 35
,, glaucophylla, 56
,, rubra, 29
Lauras Camphora, 168, 185
,, nobilis, 190
Lawsonia alba, 44
Leptospermum scopariura, 196, 203, 205
Lespedeza Sieboldii, 123, 128
Leucodendron glabrum, 187
Liboeedrus decurrens, 210

Donniana, 208
Licuala paludosa, 73
Ligustrum sinense, 96
Lilium tigrinum, 131, 143
Lindera obtusiloba, 121, 132, 146
Liquidambar styraciflua, 159, 193
Liriodendron tulipiferam, 210
Livistona Adansonii, 66
,,
australis, 94, 197
,,
cbinensis, 29, 35, 37, 55, 66,
178, 195
,,
Hoogendorpii, 195
,,
Jenkinsii, 46

Martiana, 58
,,
ovalifolia, 81
,,
rotundifolia, 81
Lodoicea seychellarum, 9, 82
Lomaria gibba, 161
,, procora, 202
Lonicera Caprifolium, 173
japouica, 68, 96
Lycaste aromatica, 1 75
., Skinncri, 68
EE

Lychnis grandiflora, 123


Lycoris radiata, 123

M
Macadamia ternifolia, 197
Macrozamia Moorei, 198
,,
spiralis, 168
Magnolia acuminata, 192, 210
,, Campbelli, 187
,, conspicua, 187
fuscata, 94, 187
grandiflora, 34, 58, 160, 185,
187, 192, 197
,, hypolcuca, 126, 128, 129, 131
Kobns, 101, 131
,, obovata, 187
,, Soulangeaua nigra, 96, 103
,, stellata, 210
,, tripetala, 187
Malaohra capitata, 20
Mandevilla suaveolens, 183
Maranta Simonsii, 59
Martinezia caryofeefolia, 19, 73, 158
Maurandya Barclayana, 189
Maxillaria Dauthieri, 175
Hedinilla maguilica, 189
Melanochyla auriculata, 72
Melaleuca acuminata. 186
,,
Leucodendron, 166
Melia Azadirachta, 24, 30, 39, 47, 49, 180
Melocanna bambusoides, 53
Menziesia pentandra, 115, 129
Meryta latifolia, 192
,, maorophylla, 192
,, Sinclairii, 192
,, uudula, 192
Metrosideros robustus, 205
,,
semperflorens, 18
,,
tomentosus, 192
Metroxylon elatum, 82

laeve, 69
Michelia Champaca, 71, 197
Millingtonia hortensis, 23, 50
Mimosa pudica, 10, 64
Mimusops Elengi, 47, 67, 70
Monodora myristiea, 193
Monstera deliciosa, 47
Moringa pterygosperma, 26
Murraya exotica, 46
Musa Cavendishii, 185
Enseto, 190
,, Rumphiana, 189
,, sapieutum, 197
Musstenda erytbrophylla, 71
Myristica fragrans, 68

N
Nandina domestics, 100, 101, 185, 187
Nelumbium speciosum, 25
Nepenthes ampullaria, 65
,,
phyllamphora, 65
Rattlesiana, 65, 74, 196
,,
Vieillardii, 196
Nephclium Lit-chi, 51, 193

217
Nephrolepis davallioides furcans, 65
,,
exaltata, 186

philippinensis, 51
,,
rufesoens tripinnatifida, 10

tuberosa, 17, 18, 27


Nerine Fothergilli, 173
Nerium Oleander, 174
Nipa fruticans, 56, 64
Nuphar luteum, 175
Nutysia floribunila, 166
Nymphtca alba, 175
,,
ampla, 177
,,
blanda, 175
,,
capensis, 177
,,
scutifolia, 177
,,
zanzibarensis, 177

0
CEnothera Drummondi, 22, 32
Olea ilicifolia, 196
,, obtusifolia, 174
Olearia Cunninghamii, 209
Oncidium ampliatum. 60
,,
incurvum, 175

Kramerianum, 59
,,
Lanceanum, 10
,,
macranthum, 178

varicosum, 175
Oucosperma filamentosum, 66
,,
horridum, 73
Ophiopogon japonicus, 91
Opuntia Dillenii, 93
Orcodoxa oleracca, 81
,,
regia, 9, 19, 29, 50, 52, 53,
69, 71, 81, 94, 158, 160
Oryza sativa, 79
Osmunda regalis, 115
Ouvirandra fenestralis, 73
Oxalis alba, 40
. ,, asiniua, 37
,, rosea, 37, 40
,, variabilis rubra, 40

I'
Panax elegans, 188, 193
,, incisum, 197
,, multifidum, 17, 59
,, Victorite, 59
Pandanus odoratissimus, 17
,,
utilis, 175
,,
Vcitchii, 159
Papyrus (Cyperus) alternifolius, 17
,,
,,
autiquorum, 35, 92,
157, 159, 175, 197
Parkia biglaudulosa, 57
Paspalum conjugatum, 69
Passiflora incarnata, 158
,, Kewensis, 158
,, raccmosa, 92
Paulownia imperialis, 110
Pavetta borbonica, 59
Pavonia hastata, 158
Pedilanthus tithymaloides, 24
Persea Nam-mu, 93
Petnea volubilis, 30, 32, 158, 189

218
Phaius grandifolius, 59, 63
,. Wallichii, 58
Phalteuopsis amabilis, 59, 68, 178
,,
Luddemanniana, 178

rosea, 178

Schilleriana, 10, 59, 60


178, 181
,,
Stuartiana, 178
Phased us radiatus, 131
Philodendron gloriosum, 65, 66
Phlox decussate, 160
,, Drummondi, 50
,, subulata, 73, 91
Phoenix dactylifera, 195
,, farinifera, 195
,, leonensis, 195
,, paludosa, 195
reclinate, 159, 194, 195
,, rupicola, 56, 195
,, sylvestris, 35, 49, 82
Pholidota imbricata, 190, 196
Phomtium tenax, 202, 203
Photinia glabra, 112
serrulate, 112, 185, 198
Phyllanthus indicus, 35
Phyllocladus trichomauoides, 208
Phyllostechys nigra, 186
Picea (Abies) jezoensis, 194
,, ajanensis, 133
,, alba, 184
Alcoquiana, 123, 132, 133
,, orientelis, 209
polita, 132, 209
,, Smithiana (Morinda), 184, 194, 209
Pierardia dulcis, 70
Pieris japoniea, 108, 109, 115, 121
Pilea muscosa, 18, 52
Pilumna fragrans, 68
Pimelea pygmiea, 163
Pinus Brewsteri, 184
,, canadensis, 184, 197
Coulteri, 184
,, densiflora, 100, 146, 147
,, excelsa, 184
,, Ucrardiana, 35
,, halepensis, 174, 176, 183, 184
,, insignis, 14, 169, 176, 177, 183,
184, 188, 189, 190
,, Jeffreyi, 184
,, koraiensis, 115. 132, 147. 150
,, Laricio, 184, 197
,, longifolia, 35, 39, 51, 53, 57,
176, 190, 197
macrophylla, 82
,, Massoniana, 197
,, mitis, 177
,, muricata, 177
,, pentaphylla, 130
,, Pinaster, 184, 189
,, pinea, 168, 190, 192, 197
,, ponderosa, 177
,, pumila, 130
,, Sabiniana, 174, 177
,, tenuifolia, 177
,, Thunbergii, 121, 123, 147, 150
Piper ornatum, 59
Pisonia alba, 20
Pistacia integerrima, 40
Pithecolobium duke, 64

Saman, 18, 53
Pittosporum crassifolium, 174, 185

INDEX.
Pittos1wrura eugenioides, 181, 185, 188

neilgherense, 168
,,
nigrescens, 181, 185
,,
rigidum, 188
,,
tenuifolium, 188

Tobira, 91, 116


undulatum, 190, 191
Platanus occidentelis, 183
,,
orientelis, 183
Platyeerium alcicorne, 158, 160, 162,
175, 197

biforme, 63, 72

grande, 162, 175


Platycodon Mariesii 123, 152
Pleetocomia elongata, 73
Plumbago calieusis, 32, 1 59
Plumoria acuminata, 67, 82, 160
,,
acutifolia, 25, 197
Ptxlocarpus bracteolatus, 194
,,
chinensis, 57, 63, 92, 91
,,
cupressinus, 194
dacrydioides, 188, 190, 194,
202, 203, 205
elatus, 187

latifolius, 94
,,
nuicrophyllns, 51, 82, 100
,,
l*ilystachyus, 82
,,
spicatus, 190, 205

spinulosus, 185

ToUra, 187, 203, 209


Poinciana pulcherrima, 24, 33
regi*, 32, 39, 49, 50, 54, 67,
69, 75, 158, 159, 160
Pollinia eriopoda, 36
Polyaltbia longifolia, 51, 56, 57
Polygala grandiflora, 174
Polygonum saehalinense, 129
Pontedcria crassipes, 175
Populus all<a, 193
betulifolia, 193
,, euphratiea, 38
,, inouilifera, 193
nigra, 38, 193
Porana paniculate, 55
Potentilla fruticosa, 115
Pothos aurea, 19, 29, 66, 81, 93, 176
Pritehardia grandis, 59, 189
Martii, 195
,,
pacifica, 58, 178
Protea oynaroides, 187
Prnnus Mume, 105, 112
,, Pissardi, 173
,, serotina, 189
Pseudopanax crassifolium, 203, 209
Psidium Cattleyaimm, 28, 190
., Guava, 160
Psychotria ipecacuanha, 81
Pteris aquilina, 203
,, Bausei, 47
tremula, 186
Pterocarpus indicus, 71, 92
Pterocarya rhoifolia, 129
Ptcrospermum accrifolium, 193

brachypterum, 24
Ptychostierma Alexandrie, 186, 197
,.
Macarthuri, 65, 66, 72
Pueraria Tlmnbergiana, 121, 128, 132
Pyrus japonica, 102, 108, 109
,, sinensis, 131
,, spectebilis, 102
,, Toringo, 128, 132

Q
Quassia amara, 55
Quercus alba, 187
,,
ambigua, 177
,,
Cerris, 160, 198
,,
erispula, 130
,,
cuspidate, 116
,,
dentate, 124, 127, 130

Gilva, 118
,,
glandulifera, 130
,,
glauca, 196
,,
grosseserrate, 130
,,
heterophylla, 187

Ilex, 187, 193


,,
incana, 187, 193
,.
lusitanica, 187, 190
,,
Mirbeekii, 187
,,
pedunculate, 160
,
Robur, 187
,,
serrate, 126, 132
,,
Suber, 160, 193
,,
Toza, 160
virens, 187, 193, 198
Quisqualis floribunda, 18
,,
indies, 158

II
Ramlia Fitzalanii, 158, 193
,, macrophylla, 193
Raphiolepis indica, 92
Ravenala madagascarieHsis, 18, 56, 69
158, 189
Kchmannitt glutiuosa, 110
Renanthera arachnites, 71
,,
coccinea, 60
Retinos[wra ericoides, 210

filifera, 103

obtusa, 103, 121, 124, 132,


133
,,
pisifera, 103, 109, 133
,,
plumosa aurea, 210
,,
squarrosa, 210
Rhamnus altemifolius (Alaternus ?) 181
Rhapis elegans, 46
,, flabelliformis, 27, 29, 46, 72,
94 160
,, humilis, 46, 56
Rhododendron Albrechtii, 129
,,
arboreum, 34, 210
,,
argenteum, 210
,,
brachycarpum, 129
,,
cinnabarinum, 210
,,
Dalhousite, 210
,,
Falconeri, 210
,,
Jenkinsonii, 210
,,
ledifolium, 93
,,
Schlippenbachii, 150
,,
Thompson!!, 210
Rhodoleia Championi, 93
Rhopaloblaste hexandra, 71
Rhus Osbeckii, 129, 146
,, Toxicodendron, 129, 132
,, tnchocarpa, 130
vernicifera, 110
Rhynchostylis coclestis, 196

retusa, 46, 196


Ricinus communis, 26

INDEX.
Robinia incrmis, 174
Pseud-acacia, 115, 169, 190,
192
Rodgersia podophylla, 123, 152
Rohdea japonica, 104
Romneya Coulteri, 181, 186
Rosa citriodora, 47
,, gigantea, 45, 46
,, multi flora, 129
,, rugosa, 128
Royena lucida, 190
Russellia floribunda, 67
grandiflora, 21
,,
juncea, 22, 32, 159

S
Sabal Blackburniana, 195
columnaris, 40
,, Palmetto, 71, 158, 160
,, princeps, 194
,, umbraculifera, 194
Saocharum Sara, 26
Saguerus Rnmphii, 158
Salvia africana, 188
,, coccinea, 24, 32
,, farinaeea, 21
Sarabucus nigra, 184
Sanchezia nobilis, 9, 51
Sandoricum indioum, 70
Sanseviera Zeylanica 27, 28
Saraca indica, 18, 54. 68. 70
Saxegothiea conspicua, 209
Saxifraga sarmentosn, 33
Schinus Molle, 173, 180
Schleichera trijuga, 34
ScUdophyllam aotinophyllum, 193
Sciadopitys verticillata, 102, 191
Seaforthia elegans, 188, 191, 194, 197
,,
robiuta, 178, 190
Selaginella Martensii, 58
.Sequoia sempervirens, 188
Serioographis Ghiesbreghtiana, 67
Sesbania (Agati) grandiflora, 30
Simaruba grandis, 197
Skimmia japonica, 129
Solandra laevis, 197
Solanum macranthum, 158
,,
maroniense, 18
Sollya heterophylla, 162
Sophora japonica, 174
Sparmannia africana, 168, 189
Spathodea campanulata, 19, 63, 67, 69,
70. 71, 159
Spinea betulifolia, 115
,, cantonensis, 10, 115
,, prnnifolia, 115
,, sorbifolia, 150
,, Thunbergii, 115
Spondia pleigyne, 161
Stanhopea eburnea, 58
Stauntonia hexaphylla, 104, 132
Stauropsis lissochiloid es, 71
Stenocarpus sinuatus, 177, 193
Stephanandra flexuosa, 132, 146
Stephanotis floribunda, 92
Stercalia acerifolia, 189, 193, 197, 210
alata, 32, 56

Sterculia diversifolia, 177

lurida, 193
,,
ornata, 57
,,
populnea, 40

rupestris, 160, 198


Stevensonia grandifolia, 59, 71, 175,
189
Strclitzia augusta, 169, 188, 195
Streptosolen .Tamesonii, 193
Strobilanthes colorata, 32
Strophanthus dichotonms, 55
Stryehuos Nux-vomica, 160
Stuartia Pseudo-camellia, 132
Styrax japonica, 115, 126, 132
Obassia, 115, 132
Swainsonia galegiefolia, 186
Swietenia Mahagoni, 34, 53, 56
Symplocos decora, 94
Synechantlms fibrosus, 73

T
Taberniemontana coronaria, 22
,,
dichotoma, 193
Taesouia exoniensis, 183
,,
Van Volxemii, 185
Tagetes signata, 21
Tamarindus indica, 22
Tamarix indica, 27
Tarrietia Achinodendron, 193
,, Argyrodendron, 193
Taxodium disticlmm, 188, 192
,,
mexicanum, 192
Tecoma capensis, 159, 188
Hillii, 158
,, Mackeuii, 158, 185
Smithii, 174, 188
stans, 23, 26, 29, 33, 51
Tectona grandis 35, 49, 55
Templetonia Drummondi, 165
Terminalia Arjuna, 160
Bellerica, 39
Catappa, 23, 52, 53, 56
Theophrasta imperialis, 192, 197
Thermopsis fabacea, 112
Theepesia populnea, 20
Thcvetia neriifolia, 32
Thrinax barbadensis, 175
Tbuia dolobrata, 109, 133
occidentalis, 189
,, orientalis, 22, 197
Thunbergia grandiflora, 157
,,
laurifoli*, 31, 40
Tithonia tagetitlora, 32
Todea barbara, 186, 197
Torenia asiatica, 73
,, Fournicri, 17
Torreya grandis, 1 94
,, nucifcra, 196
Toxicopbltea (Acokanthera) spectabilis,
192
Trachelospermum jasminoides, 183
Tradescantia discolor, 10, 33, 66
Tripidanthus calyptratus, 193
Tristania conferta, 162, 177, 192, 197
Tsuga Mertensiana, 209
Sieboldii, 121, 123, 132, 133
Turpinia argnta, 92

V
Ulmus montana, 131

V
Vallesia dichotoma, 32
Vanda eairulea, 59
,, concolor, 92
,, Hookeri. 71
,, insignis, 68
,, Roxburghii, 58
,, teres, 58, 60
tricolor, 59
V'angueria velutina, 193
Veronica pauciflora, 190
,, salicifolia, 203
Verschaifeltia splendida, 70, 72, 196
Viburnum fnrcatum, 129, 130
,,
plicatum, 112
,,
rugosum, 173
Tinus, 193
,,
tomentosum, 132
Wrightii, 129
Victoria regia, 52, 53,68, 80, 176, 1
Villarsia reniformis, 175
Vitex littoralis, 206, 208
Vitis Coignetiie, 130
,, heterophylla, 129

w
Washingtonia filifera, 29, 189
Wistaria chinensis, 114, 158
,,
macrobotrys, 114
Woodwardia radicans, 186
Wormia Burbidgei, 67
,, suffruticosa, 73

X
Xanthium spinosum, 180
Xanthovrhtea Preissii, 165, 166
Xanthosia rotundifolia, 163
Xylophylla angusti folia, 193
,,
longifolia, 203

Y
Yucca filifera, 174
,, Ghiesbrcgbtii, 178
,, serrulata, 52

z
Zingiber D'Arceyi, 59
Zinnia linearis, 175
Zizyphus Jujuba, 28
Zygopetalum crinitum, 175
Mackayi, 68, 196

H. M. POLLETT & Co.


horticultural printers,
Fann Street, Aldersoatk Street,
London, E.C.