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994D

TIRE

SELECTION GUIDE

TIRE USE AND SELECTION CRITERIA


DETERMINING PROPER INFLATION PRESSURES
CALCULATING TON-MILE PER HOUR (TMPH)

994D TIRE SELECTION


This guide is designed to help you evaluate
your choices and decide which tires will best
meet your production needs. Used in conjunction

GENERAL TIRE
CHARACTERISTICS

with the advice and know-how of your Caterpillar


dealer and your local tire supplier, it can be a
powerful management tool in getting the most
from your wheel loader operations.

TIRE FACTORS
Three major factors need to be considered
when making tire selections: tire characteristics,
the machine, and the jobsite.
When selecting tires for the 994D, factors
other than tire characteristics must be considered.

SIZE - These factors should


be considered when
choosing the correct tire size
for the 994D:
whether overall width from
outside to outside of tires is
less than the bucket width
(tire protection)
the 994Ds operating loads
whether taller tires are
needed for extended dump
clearance, 195/240 ton (177/218
metric ton) size trucks
existing loader tire inventory

The machine and job site characteristics are also


important because the wrong situations can lead
to excessive wear and decreased productivity. By
following the standards and guidelines set forth in
this manual, you will be better equipped to make
the appropriate tire selection for your application
and job site.

STRENGTH - strength index


indicates the tires ability, or
inability, to carry a given load
at a given speed. The
earthmover tire industry uses
three different strength index
systems: ply ratings for bias
tires, star ratings for radial
tires, or ISO load index and
speed symbols.
SPEED CAPABILITY - tire
type, tread pattern and tread
depth have direct influence
on the tires speed capability.
Not fully understanding and
respecting speed limitations
will cause heat-related
separations, and ultimately,
premature tire failures.

TIRE TYPE - the 994D tire


typically features a cut
resistant/ultra abrasion/rock
service tread type. These
compounds are generally
suited for work machine
applications and slower
moving transport machines
where there is a risk of
cutting, hacking and
penetrations. For transport
machines, compounds are
changed to increase speed
capabilities, but tread
abrasion and cut resistance
is reduced.
TREAD PATTERN - the more
open tread design permits
greater average speed
capability. The larger tread
lug volume on wheel loader
tires holds more heat. The
greater amount of tread lug
volume reduces speed
capabilities, but improves
tread life.
TREAD DEPTH - wheel
loader tires typically are
rated as L4 (Rock Deep
Tread) or L5 (Rock Extra
Deep Tread). The deeper
tread reinforces and protects
the tire, but reduces the
speed capability.

USING INFLATION TABLES


The following information (shown in Table 1) demonstrates use of the tire manufacturers inflation tables. Pressures
for each application may need to be varied from those shown and should always be obtained from the tire suppliers.

Tire Load Capacities (Per Tire)


Manufacturer/Model

Cold Inflation Pressures

Load Kg

450

480

510

550

580

620

650

MPH KPH

Load Lb

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Bridgestone/Firestone
50/80-57 SRG DT LD

Static
5 8

*
*

257,500/117,000
161,000/73,000

268,500/121,750
167,800/78,000

279,500/126,500
174,600/79,000

291,000/132,000
182,500/82,500

304,500/138,000
190,250/86,250

315,500/143,000
197,000/89,400

326,000/148,000
204,000/92,500

Bridgestone/Firestone
49.5/85-57 SDT LD

Static
5 8

*
*

295,000/134,000
187,000/85,000

308,000/140,000
195,000/88,500

321,000/146,000
203,000/92,500

333,000/151,500
211,000/96,000

345,000/157,000
218,500/99,500

357,000/162,000
226,000/103,000

368,500/167,500
233,500/108,000

Bridgestone/Firestone
53.5/85-57 SDT LD

Static
5 8

*
*

305,500/134,500
193,500/88,000

319,000/145,000
202,000/92,000

332,000/151,000
210,500/95,500

345,000/157,000
218,500/99,000

357,500/162,500
226,500/103,000

369,500/168,000
234,000/108,000

381,500/173,500
241,500/109,500

Goodyear
52/80-57 HRL D/L-4G

Static
5 8

*
*

267,000/121,000
171,000/77,500

277,500/125,500
182,000/82,500

288,500/130,500
185,500/84,000

300,000/138,000
193,000/87,500

314,000/142,500
201,250/91,250

326,500/148,000
204,000/92,500

333,000/151,000
210,500/95,500

Michelin
55/80R57 XMINED2

Static(front)
10 16(rear)
5 8

264,600/120,000
146,630/66,500
176,400/80,000

274,680/124,595
152,300/69,083
182,700/82,873

284,760/129,167
157,973/71,657
189,000/85,730

299,880/136,026
186,478/75,514
198,450/90,017

312,500/141,750
173,600/78,745
207,000/93,895

325,000/147,420
180,600/81,920
215,285/97,653

337,680/153,150
187,600/85,100
308,000/139,700

LB/KG

Table 1

For further explanation, see Importance Of Proper Inflation Pressure.

Bridgestone/Firestone
50/80-57L4

Bridgestone/Firestone
49.5/85-57 SDT LD L5

Bridgestone/Firestone
53.5/85-57 SDT LDL5

Goodyear
52/80-57 HRL D/L-4

Michelin
55/80R57 XMINED2

THE MACHINE

CAT CENTER-MOUNTED DESIGN RIM


The 994D comes with standard 36 or 44 inch (92 or 113 centimeter) centermounted rims. The center-mounted base design reduces deflection and stress levels
in critical areas such as the flange and base back sections. The Caterpillar rim is
more durable and weighs less than competitive rims. Finite element analysis shows
stress levels are 15 to 20
Flange
percent less in critical
Mounting Ring
Rim Base
areas than in other rim
Bead Seat Band
designs. Cat rims are
Lock Ring
machined and shotpeened in critical flange
and seat areas to further
reduce stress.

THE MACHINE WEIGHT


The importance of accurate vehicle weight cannot be
overemphasized. Without it, precise tire loads cannot be known and
without precise tire loads, overload or underload conditions can occur,
possibly causing problems. The Front Axle Weight table shows typical
empty machine weight and distribution. Actual machine weights may
vary depending on optional equipment, including tires and chains.

Operating Weight (lbs./kg)


Axle Split (% F/R)
Front Axle Weight (lbs./kg)

EMPTY
MACHINE

STD. MACHINE
W/RATED PAYLOAD

421,600/191,200

497,600/225,700

55/45

75/25

231,880/105,160

373,200/169,275

Std. Lift, 23 yd. 222 in. Bucket, 53.5/85-57 tires

GROUND PRESSURE
The following shows a ground pressure comparison of the various
tires available for the 994D wheel loader. The 994D has lower ground
pressure than competitive wheel loaders using the same tires. The lower
pressures of the 994D equal longer tire life and better flotation in soft,
underfoot conditions.

Front Axle

994D RIMPULL
CONTROL
The 994D features a
rimpull control and left pedal
operation that allows
operators to match rimpull to
working conditions, which
greatly improves tire life. Four
different settings allow your
operators to match rimpull
levels to job conditions with a
simple turn of the dial.

Contact
Area
in.2/cm2

Contact Pressure
(empty)
(loaded)
psi /kg/cm2

Goodyear 52/80-57

1,958/12,625

59/4.1

95/6.7

Bridgestone/Firestone 49.5/85-57

2,480/16,000

47/3.3

75/5.3

Bridgestone/Firestone 53.5/85-57

2,862/18,460

41/2.9

65/4.6

Michelin 55/80R57

3,162/20,400

37/2.6

59/4.1

Bridgestone/Firestone 50/80-57

1,869/12,060

62/4.4

100/7.0

TIRE PROTECTION
Another important aspect is protecting tires with the proper size
bucket and/or wings. The Tire Protection table below shows the amount
of tire protection available depending on tire and bucket sizes.
Tire

49.5/85-57

53.5/85-57

Bucket Width (in./mm)

222/5650 245/6220

222/5650 245/6220

Width Over Tire (in./mm)

207/5265 207/5265

215/5449 215/5449

Bucket Protection Per Side (in./mm)

7.5/192

19/478

3.5/101

Also available are low- and high-profile bucket wings that add 24 in. to overall bucket width.

15/386

THE JOBSITE
The loading areas surface and condition are important factors on tire life. Imbedded or loose rocks
increase cutting or impact breaks. Poor drainage leads to mud and chuck holes. These result in tire
spinning, fast wear, cuts and increased fuel usage. Environmental problems such as heavy rain, heavy
snow and a wide range in ambient temperatures can also affect tire life.

TYPICAL TIRE LIFE


Tire cost for the 994D varies widely because of tire life ranges. Typical Tire Life table summarizes
ranges currently achieved with the 994 wheel loader. These hours are derived from numerous customer
surveys and represent typical tire life estimates in different applications. Tire life varies from site to site
based on tire selection, vehicle and jobsite management.
Application

Location

Tire Life

Coal Mining

North America, Australia, South Africa

5,000-10,000 hours

Metal Mining

North America, Brazil, Australia

3,500-8,000 hours

Botswana

6,000 hours

Diamonds

TIRE CONSTRUCTION: BIAS PLY VS. RADIAL


BIAS PLY TIRES
Manufactured with multiple nylon plies
1-4 bead bundles are used on each side
Plies run at an acute angle to the centerline
Fabric or steel breakers are added under the tread for
reinforcement and bruise resistance
RADIAL TIRES
Single ply of high-strength steel cords run at a 90-degree angle
to the tread centerline
High ply turn-up around the bead strengthens the sidewall and
improves response to steering commands
2-6 steel belts are placed under the tread
Radials deflect more than bias models, providing better traction,
flotation and mobility

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
This example provides an economic analysis of a
standard 994D with tires only, versus the addition of
chains. If current tire life without chains is 2,500
hours and considering the listed assumptions, front
axle cost would equal $20/hour. To achieve the
equivalent breakdown point by adding chains, tire life
must equal 3,751 hours. Front axle tire cost would
decrease with tire life in excess of 3,751 hours.

Equivalent Front Axle =

Tire Life w/Chains

Fr

($20-$6.67)

= 3,751 hours

COST PER HOUR EXAMPLE:


Suppose the current tire life average on a 994D in a coal mine application is 6,000 hours. The price of Brand X is $35,000
per tire or $140,000 total. This equates to an hourly tire cost of $23.00.
Now suppose a local Brand Y dealer contacts the customer about replacement tires for the 994D. The price of these
tires, though, is about 40 percent higher than Brand Xs, but they come with a guarantee of 10,000 hours. Is this a good
investment for the customer?
The total price for Brand Ys tires is $200,000 (40 percent higher), but expected tire life is 10,000 hours. The hourly tire
cost is $20.00: a savings of $3.00 per hour. So it is a better investment. In fact, in this example, a Brand Y tire life in excess of
at least 8,700 hours would result in savings when compared to the Brand X tire.

CHAINSCOST

994D TIRE CHAIN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


Front Tires Only
$40.50
$39.00
$37.50

Tires with Chains

$36.00
$34.50
$33.00

Tire Cost
$25,000 ea.
Chain Cost
$30,000 ea.
Fixed Chain Life 9,000 hr.

$31.50
$30.00
$28.50

Cost Per Hour

$27.00

Tires w/o Chains

$25.50
$24.00
$22.50
$21.00
$19.50
$18.00

$16.50
$15.00
$13.50
$12.00
$10.50
$9.00

$7.50
$6.00
$4.50
$3.00
$1.50
$0.00
1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 3500 3750 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000 5250 5500 5750 6000 6250 6500 6750 7000 7250 7500 7750 8000 8250 8500 8750 9000 10000

ASSUMPTIONS:

STEPS:

Tire Cost = $25,000 each or $50,000/axle


1. Tire life without chains is 2,500 hours
Chain Cost = $30,000 each or $60,000/axle
2. Tire cost is $50,000/2,500 = $20/hour
Fixed Chain Life = 9,000 hours
3. Tire life break-even point:
Front axle chain cost = $60,000/9,000 = $6.67/hr
tires versus tires with chains

The use of chains is


difficult to justify except
under a few conditions.
When tire life is
extremely poor for
various reasons, chains
can reduce total tire
and front axle costs.
Care should be taken to
assure rolling diameters
still conform to SAE
standards. The
additional weight of
chains may:
increase fuel
consumption
slow the machine,
reducing productivity
increase wear on
power train
components, raising
operating costs.
In high operating
cost applications, the
savings with using
chains may offset the
cost and effects of their
additional weight. For
some tires and chain
selections vehicle
modifications are
required.
Care should be
taken not to exceed the
Gross Vehicle weight
rating of the machine
when adding chains and
other attachments.

OTHER TIRE SPEED INFORMATION


The 994D tire suppliers provide specific maximum
speed limit recommendations for empty tramming
applications (i.e. face to face, face to shop, shop to
face). As with TMPH, these speed limits help prevent
tire overheating while the 994D is in motion. The
following summarize these recommendations.

GOODYEAR - 52/80-57 HRL D/L 4-G


For a maximum tram distance of 7.5 miles
(12.1 kilometers), limit the empty loader speed
to 4.25 mph (6.85 kph) (1st gear) if the loader has
been operating. If the loader has been down for
two or more shifts it can be driven at 8 mph
(12.9 kph) (2nd gear) for up to one hour.

Firestone - 49.5/85-57 and 53.5/85-57 SDT


Allowable Working Speeds
for Empty Machine Tramming Only
Construction

Standard Conditions: Ambient Temp = 100 F (38 C)


<1 mile

1-3 miles

>3 miles

(< 1.61 km)

(1.61-4.83 km)

(>4.83 km)

Nylon/Steel

15+(24+)

8(13)

5(8)

Nylon/Nylon

15+(24+)

10(16)

5(8)

Case 1: Ambient Temp = 80 F (27 C)


Nylon/Steel

15+(24+)

10(16)

5.5(9)

Nylon/Nylon

15+(24+)

15(24)

6(10)

Case 2: Ambient Temp = 40 F (4 C)


Nylon/Steel

15+(24+)

15+(24+)

7(11)

Nylon/Nylon

15+(24+)

15+(24+)

7.5(12)

Note: These speeds are with OTD = 153/32nds. Maximum working speeds
change for different ambient temperatures and tread depths.

Michelin - 55/80 R 57 XMINED2


Unrestricted Allowable Average Speed >5.0 mph (8km/h)
For each hour time period, the 994D/XMINED2 may travel
a total distance of five miles, with no maximum speed limit.
All average speed limits are based on one hour of travel.

Maximum
Speed
(mph/kph)

Time Allowed
At Maximum Speed
(minutes)

Total Distance Covered


In One Hour
(miles/kilometers)

5/8

indefinite

5/8

6/10

50

5/8

7/11

43

5/8

8/13

37

5/8

9/14

33

5/8

10/16

30

5/8

11/18

27

5/8

12/19

25

5/8

13/21

23

5/8

14/23

21

5/8

15/24

20

5/8

Note: On reaching the allowed time, the 994D must be parked for the rest of the hour.

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
RETREAD
Tires for possible retreading must have more tread
left than on completely worn tires to protect the casing.
Tires damaged by heat and bursting, as well as damaged
on the bead, can neither be repaired nor retreaded. Only
cutting and cracking of tires are repairable. Retreading
should not be considered for high speed, overloaded or
under inflated tires. The best recapping candidates are
tires which had fast tread wear. Reports state retread
prices are 60 percent of new and carry the same warranties.
Life of retread tires is about 90 percent of new.

TIRE MATCH - (PER SAE J2204)


Tires on the same axle must have a circumference/diameter
within three percent of each other. Circumference/diameter
between front and rear axle tires must be within six
percent of each other.

IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INFLATION PRESSURE


WHY SUCH LOW INFLATION PRESSURES
IN THE REAR TIRES?
Low inflation pressures make the front tires not work as
hard; the rear tires greater traction and enlarged footprint
will contribute to the total work done by the loader. In
addition, spinning will be reduced, decreasing treadwear
and the tires susceptibility to related cuts and damages.
These factors will extend front tire life.
The rear tires will operate with reduced casing tension.
If a tire is overinflated (or underloaded), its casing
experiences higher levels of tension, making it more
susceptible to related damages such as shock or impact
ruptures. A softer tire can more readily envelop the
objects, such as rocks, that might otherwise damage or
weaken the tires casing.

IN SUMMARY, LOWER INFLATION


PRESSURES OFFER
MANY ADVANTAGES:
increased traction through a smaller rolling radius and
larger footprint
prolonged life of all tires through increased tread wear
and reduced cut and impact damages
improved repairability and treadability
reduced rim and wheel breakage
reduced machine and repair cost
reduced loading area maintenance

UNDERINFLATION.
An underinflated tire will deflect too much. A tire that is
too underinflated can cause:
excessive sidewall flexing
spotty or uneven tread wear
sidewall radial cracks
ply separation
loose or broken cords inside tire
fabric carcass fatigue

OVERLOADING
Overloading tires will lead to premature tire failure. If
inflation psi is not adjusted for heavier loads, failures will
occur: tread and ply separation, disintegration of the
carcass and inner liner, radial sidewall cracking and
excessive chafing.
Adjusting tire pressures to compensate for overloads
will exceed the carcass strength, causing impact breaks,
cuts, rapid wear and fabric fatigue.
When encountering excess loads, cold inflation
pressures must be increased to compensate for higher
loads. For each one percent increase in load, the inflation
pressure must be increased by two percent. Tire
manufacturers should be consulted for proper tire
inflation pressures.

LOADER FRONT AXLE LOADS


The first step to assure proper tire inflation is to calculate
the maximum weight the loaders front axle can experience. If
inflated for this condition, the front tires will not be overloaded,
maximizing the life. The maximum front axle load occurs when
the loader tips and the rear axle loses contact with the ground.
The front axle bears all the loaders weight and the load which
caused the tip. This tip occurs in the static condition. Load is
expressed as:
Maximum Front Axle Load =
Static Tipping Load + Loader Operating Weight.
Referring to the inflation pressure tables, under static
conditions (or static front for Firestone), find the load and the
corresponding cold inflation pressure at which the front tires
should operate.

EXAMPLE
One 994D equipped with 53.5/85-57
(L-5) tires and a 23 yd3 (21 m3) bucket
Operating weight = 421,600 lbs.
(191,200 kg)
Straight static tipping load =
275,100 lbs. (124,760 kg)
Maximum Front Axle Load = 275,100 lbs. + 421,600 lbs.
= 696,700 lbs. = 348,350 lbs./tire
124,760 kg + 191,200 kg =
315,960 kg = 157,980 kg/tire

LOADER REAR AXLE LOADS


Calculate the maximum rear axle load the loader will
normally experience. Anytime material is in the bucket, weight
will be transferred forward; the maximum rear axle load occurs
when the bucket is empty. For the 994D, the empty axle weight
distribution is approximately 55 (front) and 45 (rear).
Refer to the inflation tables to determine rear tire inflation
pressures. The maximum rear axle loads will occur when the
loader is moving, 5 mph (8 kph) or slower is typical for the 994D.
Most tables do not include the lower loads experienced on the
994Ds rear axle. Therefore, consult with tire manufacturers.

EXAMPLE (CONTINUING
PREVIOUS EXAMPLE)
Operating weight = 421,600 lbs. (191,200 kg)
Maximum Rear Axle Load = 45 percent of 421,600 lbs. =
189,720 lbs. = 94,860 lbs./tire
45 percent of 191,200 kg =
86,040 kg = 43,020 kg/tire

TON-MILE PER HOUR (TMPH)*


A tire generates internal heat as it rolls and flexes. Over time, the
tire can develop enough heat to exceed the rubber vulcanizing
temperature (as low as 93 C or 200 F) and reverse the vulcanizing
process. The tire can then lose strength and fail. The heat generated
within a tire at the rated pressure depends on:
ambient temperature
weight the tire carries
tire construction
speed the tire travels

For wheel loaders, the front tires are always more heavily loaded than
the rear tires. For TMPH calculations, use the heaviest load conditions. In
this case, it is 75.7 tons (68.5 metric tons).
As an example, assume a 994D is being considered in a hopper loading
application. Distance between the stockpile and the hopper is 150 feet.
Potential cycle time for the 994D is one minute. The total shift time is eight
hours and assume a job efficiency of 83 percent (the 994D works 50 minutes
per hour).
Number of trips per shift = 8 hrs x 50 min per hr/1 min per trip = 398 trips

The Ton-Mile per Hour (TMPH) formula predicts the tire temperature
buildup. The TMPH system rates tires according to the amount of work
possible from a temperature standpoint. It utilizes the product of load x
speed to derive a temperature buildup index.
Available tires for the 994D have a Tire TMPH rating from 125 to 280,
depending on the tire construction and type. The Tire TMPH can be
matched to the Site TMPH using these relationships:

150 ft. x 2 = 0.057 miles


5,280 ft./mile

Round Trip Distance =

45.7 m x 2 = .0914 km
1000 m/km
Avg. Shift Speed = Round Trip Distance (miles) x Num. of Trips per shift
Total Hours per Shift

Site TMPH = Average Tire Load x Average Shift Speed


Average Tire Load = Empty Tire Load + Loaded Tire Load
2
Average Shift Speed = Round Trip Distance (miles/kilometers)
x Number of Trips per Shift
Total Hours per Shift

Avg. Shift Speed = .057 miles x 398 trips = 2.84 mph


8 hours
.0914 km x 398 trips
8 hours

= 4.55 kilometers

If the Site TMPH exceeds the Tire TMPH, tire failure can occur.

Site TMPH = Avg. Tire Load x Avg. Shift Speed = 75.7 tons (68.5 metric
tons) x 2.84 mph (4.55 kph) = 215 TMPH for the Site (311.7 TKPH)

LOAD AND CARRY TMPH EXAMPLE

Tire TMPH for the 994D ranges from 125 to 280. A tire should be selected
with a Tire TMPH rating greater than 215.

Standard lift rated bucket payload = 38 tons (34.5 metric tons)


Operating weight = 211 tons (191 metric tons)
Empty weight distribution (front/rear) = 55/45%
Loaded weight distribution (front/rear) = 75/25%
Empty (211 tons/191 metric tons)
Front (55%) = 116 tons/axle (105 metric tons/axle) = 58
tons/tire (52.5 metric tons/tire)

TRUCK LOADING TMPH EXAMPLE


As in the previous example, the average front tire load is 74.1 tons.
Distance between the muckpile and the truck is 2.2 tire revolutions or 88
feet (26.8 meters). Potential cycle time for the 994D is 0.67 minutes (40
seconds). The total shift time is eight hours and assume a job efficiency
of 83 percent (the 994D works 50 minutes per hour). Assume there are
always plenty of trucks available to load.
Number of trips per shift = 8 hrs x 50 min per hr/0.67 min per trip = 597 trips

Rear (45%) = 95 tons/axle (86 metric tons/axle) = 47.5


tons/tire (43 metric tons/tire)
Loaded (249 tons/225.5 metric tons)
Front (75%) = 187 tons/axle (169 metric tons/axle) = 93.4
tons/tire (84.5 metric tons/tire)
Rear (25%) = 62 tons/axle (56 metric tons) = 31.2 tons/tire
(28.2 metric tons/tire)
Average Tire Load
Front (58 + 93.4/52.5 + 84.5) = 75.7 tons/tire (68.5 metric tons/tire)
Rear (47.5 + 31.2/43 + 28.2) = 39.4 tons/tire (35.6 metric tons/tire)

*Tire manufacturers may use different terminology for TMPH

Round Trip Distance

88 ft. x 2

PRODUCTIVITY YOU CAN FEEL.

Choosing the correct tires is vital to achieving top productivity for

your jobsite conditions. This guide is an important resource in getting the most from your wheel loader tire investment. You
and your operators will feel the productivity as you get more done, faster throughout every shift. And youll feel it on your
bottom line, with lower replacement costs and less downtime. See your Caterpillar dealer today to put this productivity to
work in your operation.

AEDK0267

www.CAT.com

Printed in U.S.A.
1998 Caterpillar