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COMUNICAR EM

LNGUA INGLESA

INDEX

INDEX ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2
TENSES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Present Simple --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11
Past Simple ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12
Present Continuous --------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
Past Continuous ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
Present Perfect --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
Past Perfect ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16
Extra - Exercises ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------17
REPORTED SPEECH ----------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Rephrasing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
Passive voice ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
IF CLAUSES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27
FORMATION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES ---------------------------30
ADJECTIVES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30
ADVERBS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
Making comparisons -------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
Vocabulary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
WORD FORMATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------35
BIBLIOGRAPHY----------------------------------------------------------------------------------36

TENSES
SIMPLE I study1
Aco habitual ou repetida.
Ver QUADRO

Ex.: I go to school on foot.

Situaes imutveis ou permanents.


Ex.: The sun moves round the earth.

Planos futuros relativos a viagens, espectculos e horrios.


Ex.: When does the show begin? / The train starts at 12.30.

Em ligao com certas expresses de tempo:


Frequently
Generally
Usually
Rarely

Always
Often
Sometimes

Everyday
Once a week
Several times

CONTINUOUS I am studying

PRESENT

Aces que acontecem no momento em que se fala.


Ver QUADRO

Ex.: The telephone is ringing.

Situaes temporrias de mudana.


Ex.: I am working in a factory for the time being. / It is getting colder.

Projectos pessoais num futuro prximo.


Ex.: She is arriving in Lisbon next Saturday.

Em ligao com certas expresses de tempo:


Now
At present
At this moment

PERFECT I have studied


Aco que decorre num tempo indefinido.
COMPARAR COM PAST SIMPLE

Ex.: Ive seen her.

Aco que comea no passado e continua at ao presente.


Ex.: Ive worked in England for three years.

Aco que acontece num passado muito recente.


Ex.: Ive seen her this morning.

Usa-se com JUST.


Ex.: Ive just written the letter.

Usa-se com os seguintes advrbios e expresses adverbiais:


Recently
Lately
Up to now
Its the first time
This morning

Ever
Never
Already
Yet (interrogative and negative)

Com AS SOON AS, UNTIL, WHEN, quando equivalents a after.


Ex.: Come and see me when (=after) you have had your dinner

PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been studying

Usa-se o PRESENT SIMPLE e no o Present Continuous, com os verbos:


Verbs of thinking

Verbs of feeling Verbs of perception

Think Understand Want


Believe Know
Wish
Agree Remember Like
Forget

Love
Hate

See
Hear
Notice

Verbs of possession
Have
Own
Belong

Reporting verbs
Say
Ask
Tell
Answer

Other verbs
Cost
Appear
Weigh Need
Seem

(cont. Present Perfect Continuous)


PERFECT CONTINUOUS I have been studying
Equivale ao Present Perfect; usa-se no mesmo sentido e nas
mesmas condies.
Exprime, alm disso, reforo de continuidade e durao.
Usa-se com advrbios precedidos de ALL.
Ex.: All morning, all day.

Usa-se (de preferncia ao Present Perfect) com verbos que


exprimem uma aco que dura e se prolonga no tempo:
Expect
Live
Stand
Rest

Learn
Sit
Stay

Lie
Sleep
Study
Work

Em vez de dizeres I have learned podes dizer I have been learning.

TENSES

PAST

COMPARAR COM PRESENT PERFECT

SIMPLE I studied
Aco que decorre num momento bem definido do passado
Ex.: I saw her yesterday

Aco completamente passada sem nenhuma relao com o


presente.
Ex.: I worked in England four years ago.

Usa-se com as seguintes expresses adverbiais:


Yesterday
The day before yesterday
Last saturday
Last week
A few minutes ago
Long ago

CONTINUOUS I was studying


Equivalente ao Present Continuous.
Usa-se para exprimir aces simultneas no passado.
Ex.: I was having dinner when the telephone rang.

No se usa com verbos como know, want, etc.

PERFECT I had studied


Aco anterior ao passado.
Ex.: When I arrived, the train had started.

PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been studying


Equivale ao Past Perfect; usa-se no mesmo sentido.
Exprime reforo de durao e continuidade.
Usa-se com certos verbos que exprimem uma aco que
dura e se prolonga no tempo:
Ex: expect, learn, lie, etc. (ver Present Perfect Continuous)

Present Simple
1) Affirmative:
3 pessoa do singular acrescenta um s
Ex: He runs (Ele corre) ; She sees (Ela v) ; It (the dog) eats (Ele, o co, come)
Paul runs (o Paulo corre) ; Alice sees (a Alice v) ; the pen writes (a caneta escreve)
Verbos terminados em: sh ch x ss o ; acrescentam es na 3 pessoa do singular
Ex: He watches (Ele olha) ; She misses (Ela sente falta de) ; It (the dog) goes (Ele, o co, vai)
Verbos terminados em: -y precedido de consoante, o y passa a -i e acrescentam es na 3
pessoa do singular
Ex: to worry (preocupar, preocupar-se) He worries (Ele preocupa-se)
Mas: to play (jogar, brincar, tocar) He plays (Ele joga)
2) Negative:
Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: do excepo do verbo to be
Na 3 pessoa do singular, como se acrescenta s, usa-se does e o verbo principal NO leva s,
ou seja, fica no bare infinitive
Ex: Affirmative: She likes the book. Negative: She doesnt like the book.
Sujeito +
aux
+
not
+
verbo
I
He

do

not

work =

I dont work

does

not

work =

He doesnt work

to work (trabalhar)

to be (ser, estar)

I do not work = I dont work


You do not work = you dont work
He does not work = he doesnt work
She does not work = she doesnt work
It does not work = it doesnt work
We do not work = we dont work
You do not work = you dont work
They do not work = they dont work

I am not
You are not = you arent
He is not = he isnt
She is not = she isnt
It is not = it isnt
We are not = we arent
You are not = you arent
They are not = they arent

3) Interrogative:
Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: do excepo do verbo to be
Na 3 pessoa do singular, como se acrescenta s, usa-se does e o verbo principal NO leva s, ou
seja, fica no bare infinitive
H inverso de sujeito
Aux
do
does

sujeito
I
he

to work (trabalhar)
verbo
work ?
work ?

do I work ?
do you work ?
does he work ?
does she work ?
does it work ?
do we work ?
do you work ?
do they work ?

to be (ser, estar)
am I ?
are you ?
is he ?
is she ?
is it ?
are we ?
are you ?
are they ?

Past Simple
1) Affirmative:
Os verbos regulares formam-se acrescentando ed ; os que j terminam em e, apenas
acrescentam -d
Ex: to work he worked (trabalhar ele trabalhou) ; to like - he liked (gostar ele gostou)
3 pessoa do singular NO acrescenta um s
Ex: He ran (Ele correu) ; She saw (Ela viu) ; It (the dog) ate (Ele, o co, comeu)
Verbos terminados em consoante, precedidos de vogal nica, dobram a consoante ao juntar ed
Ex: to stop (parar) he stopped (ele parou) ; to travel (viajar) he travelled (ele viajou)
Verbos terminados em: -y precedido de consoante, o y passa a -i e acrescentam ed em todas
as pessoas
Ex: to worry (preocupar, preocupar-se) He worried (Ele preocupou-se)
Mas: to play (jogar, brincar, tocar) He played (Ele jogou)
2) Negative:
Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: did excepo do verbo to be
Como o auxiliar j est no passado, o verbo principal fica no infinitivo sem to
Ex: to go, went, gone Affirmative: He went home. Negative: He didnt go home.
Sujeito +
aux
+
not
+
verbo
I

did

not

work =

I didnt work

He

did

not

work =

He didnt work

to work (trabalhar)

to be (ser, estar)

I did not work = I didnt work


You did not work = you didnt work
He did not work = he didnt work
She did not work = she didnt work
It did not work = it didnt work
We did not work = we didnt work
You did not work = you didnt work
They did not work = they didnt work

I was not
You were not = you werent
He was not = he wasnt
She was not = she wasnt
It was not = it wasnt
We were not = we werent
You were not = you werent
They were not = they werent

3) Interrogative:
Usa-se sempre um auxiliar: did excepo do verbo to be
H inverso de sujeito
Aux
did
did

sujeito
I
he

to work (trabalhar)
verbo
work ?
work ?

did I work ?
did you work ?
did he work ?
did she work ?
did it work ?
did we work ?
did you work ?
did they work ?

to be (ser, estar)
was I ?
were you ?
was he ?
was she ?
was it ?
were we ?
were you ?
were they ?
7

Present Continuous
1) Affirmative:
Sujeito + to be (Present Simple) + verbo principal + -ing
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

am
are
is
is
is
are
are
are

work
work
work
work
work
work
work
work

ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing

= I am working
= you are working
= he is working
= she is working
= it is working
= we are working
= you are working
= they are working

Verbos terminados em consoante precedida de vogal nica, dobram a consoante


Ex: to run: I am running (eu estou correndo); to swim: I am swimming (eu estou nadando)
Verbos terminados em e, perdem o e e acrescentam ing
Ex: to make (fazer) I am making (eu estou fazendo)
2) Negative:
Como o Present Continuous se forma usando o verbo to be, no se usa outro auxiliar
Sujeito +
I

to be +

not + verbo -ing

am

not

working

to work (trabalhar)
I am not
You are not = you arent
He is not = he isnt
She is not = she isnt
It is not = it isnt
We are not = we arent
You are not = you arent
They are not = they arent

working

3) Interrogative:
Como o Present Continuous se forma usando o verbo to be, no se usa outro auxiliar
H inverso de sujeito
(o sujeito fica entre to be e o verbo principal)
to be +

sujeito

verbo -ing

am

working ?

is

he

working ?

to work (trabalhar)
am I working ?
are you working ?
is he working ?
is she working ?
is it working ?
are we working ?
are you working ?
are they working?
8

Past Continuous
1) Affirmative:
Sujeito + to be (Past Simple) + verbo principal + -ing
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

was
were
was
was
was
were
were
were

work
work
work
work
work
work
work
work

ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing

= I was working
= you were working
= he was working
= she was working
= it was working
= we were working
= you were working
= they were working

Verbos terminados em consoante precedida de vogal nica, dobram a consoante


Ex: to run: I was running (eu estava correndo); to swim: I was swimming (eu estava nadando)
Verbos terminados em e, perdem o e e acrescentam ing
Ex: to make (fazer) I was making (eu estava fazendo)
2) Negative:
Como o Past Continuous se forma usando o verbo to be, no se usa outro auxiliar
Sujeito +
I

to be +

not + verbo -ing

was

not

working

to work (trabalhar)
I was not = I wasnt
You were not = you werent
He was not = he wasnt
She was not = she wasnt
It was not = it wasnt
We were not = we werent
You were not = you werent
They were not = they werent

working

3) Interrogative:
Como o Past Continuous se forma usando o verbo to be, no se usa outro auxiliar
H inverso de sujeito
(o sujeito fica entre to be e o verbo principal)
to be +

sujeito

verbo -ing

was

working ?

were

you

working ?

Present Perfect

to work (trabalhar)
was I working ?
were you working ?
was he working ?
was she working ?
was it working ?
were we working ?
were you working ?
were they working?
9

1) Affirmative:
Sujeito + to have (Present Simple) + verbo principal(Past Participle)
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

have
have
has
has
has
have
have
have

work
work
work
work
work
work
work
work

ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed

= I have worked
= you have worked
= he has worked
= she has worked
= it has worked
= we have worked
= you have worked
= they have worked

2) Negative:
Como o Present Perfect se forma usando o verbo to have got, no se usa outro auxiliar
Sujeito +

to be +

not + verbo -ing

have

not

worked

= I havent worked

He

has

not

worked

= He hasnt worked

3) Interrogative:
Como o Present Perfect se forma usando o verbo to have got, no se usa outro auxiliar
H inverso de sujeito
(o sujeito fica entre to have e o verbo principal)
to have

sujeito

to work (trabalhar)
have I worked ?
have you worked ?
has he worked ?
has she worked ?
has it worked ?
have we worked ?
have you worked ?
have they worked?

verbo

have

worked ?

has

he

worked ?

Past Perfect

1) Affirmative:
Sujeito + to have (Past Simple) + verbo principal(Past Participle)
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

had
had
had
had
had
had
had
had

work
work
work
work
work
work
work
work

ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed
ed

= I had worked
= you had worked
= he had worked
= she had worked
= it had worked
= we had worked
= you had worked
= they had worked

2) Negative:
O Past Perfect funciona da mesma forma que o Present Perfect, mas com o auxiliar (to have got) no Past Simple: - had

3) Interrogative:
O Past Perfect funciona da mesma forma que o Present Perfect, mas com o auxiliar (to have got) no Past Simple: - had

10

Present Simple
1) Cross out the wrong word.
a)
b)
c)
d)

The film start / starts at 14. 30.


In Portugal museums usually close / closes at 17. 00.
My morning classes start / starts at 8. 30.
That supermarket close / closes at 9. 00.

2) Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple:


a) Harry _____________ (run) to the shops.
b) He _______________ (send) lots of letters.
c) She ________________ (make) sandwiches for lunch.
d) Jean __________________ (begin) work at 6 oclock.
e) They ________________ (go) swimming.
f) David ________________ (bring) his pet mouse to school.
g) Paula ________________ (give) sweets to her friends.
h) We ________________ (take) our dog for a walk.
i) You ________________ (meet) your friends after school.
j) Paul and Ellen ________________ (come) here by bus.
k) This camera ___________________ (work) very well.
3) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) I live in London.
b) We go to school every day.
c) Helen wants to make a phone call.
d) They have got two sisters.
e) John and Mark come back next week.
f) You drink too much water.
g) Sam is at home.
h) Ellen comes here by bus.
4) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I live in London.
b) We go to school every day.
c) Helen wants to make a phone call.
d) They have got two sisters.
e) John and Mark come back next week.
f) You drink too much water.
g) Sam is at home.
h) Ellen comes here by bus.
11

Past Simple
1) Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple:
a) Harry _____________ (to run) to the shops.
b) Juan _______________ (to send) lots of letters.
c) Helen ________________ (to make) sandwiches for lunch.
d) Jean __________________ (to begin) work at 6 oclock.
e) Katia ________________ (to go) swimming.
f) David ________________ (to bring) his pet mouse to school.
g) Paula ________________ (to give) sweets to her friends.
h) Sam ________________ (to take) his dog for a walk.
i) Jim ________________ (to meet) his friends after school.
j) Paul and Ellen ________________ (to come) here by bus.
k) This camera ___________________ (to work) very well.
l) She ___________________ (to sell) everything.
m) They _________________ (to pay) sixty pence.
n) They _________________ (to know) the way home.
o) Last year, Bill __________________ (to study) very hard.
2) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) I lived in London.
b) We went to school every day.
c) Helen wanted to make a phone call.
d) They had two sisters.
e) John and Mark came back last week.
f) You drank too much water.
g) Sam was at home.
h) Ellen came here by bus.
3) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I lived in London.
b) We went to school every day.
c) Helen wanted to make a phone call.
d) They had two sisters.
e) John and Mark came back last week.
f) You drank too much water.
g) Sam was at home.
h) Ellen came here by bus.
12

Present Continuous
1) Cross out the wrong word.
a)
b)
c)
d)

Paul is swimming / swiming in the pool at the moment.


The girls are putting / puting on their coats.
Look outside! Its / Its snowing!
I cant come now. Im writting / writing a letter

2) Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous:


a) Harry ______________________ (to run) to the shops at the moment.
b) He _______________________ (to send) lots of letters right now.
c) She _____________________ (to make) sandwiches for lunch.
d) Jean _______________________ (to work) in the factory.
e) They ________________________ (to swim).
f) David _______________________ (to bring) his pet mouse to school.
g) Paula ______________________ (to give) sweets to her friends.
h) We _______________________ (to take) out dog for a walk.
i) You ________________________ (to leave) the country.
j) Paul and Ellen _________________________ (to come) tomorrow.
k) This camera __________________________ (to work) very well.
3) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) Im living in London.
b) We are going to school at the moment.
c) Helen is making a phone call.
d) They are having breakfast.
e) John and Mark are coming back next week.
f) You are drinking too much water.
g) Sam is taking his dog for a walk.
h) Ellen is coming tomorrow.
4) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I am living in London.
b) We are going to school every day.
c) Helen is making a phone call.
d) They are having breakfast.
e) John and Mark are coming back next week.
f) You are drinking too much water.
g) Sam is taking his dog for a walk.
h) Ellen is coming tomorrow.
13

Past Continuous
1) Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous:
a) Harry ______________________ (to run) to the shops.
b) He _______________________ (to send) lots of letters those days.
c) She _____________________ (to make) sandwiches for lunch.
d) Jean _______________________ (to work) in the factory.
e) They ________________________ (to swim).
f) David _______________________ (to bring) his pet mouse to school.
g) Paula ______________________ (to give) sweets to her friends.
h) We _______________________ (to take) out dog for a walk.
i) You ________________________ (to leave) the country.
j) Paul and Ellen _________________________ (to come) home.
k) This camera __________________________ (to work) very well.
2) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) I was living in London.
b) We were going to school that day.
c) Helen was making a phone call.
d) They were having breakfast.
e) John and Mark were coming back.
f) You were drinking too much water.
g) Sam was taking his dog for a walk.
h) Ellen was coming home.
3) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I was living in London.
b) We were going to school that day.
c) Helen was making a phone call.
d) They were having breakfast.
e) John and Mark were coming back.
f) You were drinking too much water.
g) Sam was taking his dog for a walk.
h) Ellen was coming home.

14

Present Perfect
1) Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect:
a) Harry ______________________ (to do) the housework.
b) Kate and Bill _______________________ (to find) a new flat.
c) Nick _____________________ (to write) book.
d) We _______________________ (to decide) to start jogging.
e) Sam and Dave ________________________ (to eat) all the sandwiches.
f) Carlos _______________________ (to buy) a dog.
g) Maria and Helen ______________________ (to start) at a new school.
h) Frances _______________________ (to break) her cup.
i) I ________________________ (to loose) my umbrella.
j) Max _________________________ (to take) the dog for a walk.
k) That man __________________________ (to be) here all morning.
2) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) I have bought the book.
b) We have finished our work here.
c) Helen has made a phone call.
d) They have left the building.
e) John and Mark have found your pen.
f) You have taken my dictionary.
g) Sam has lost his calculator.
h) Ellen has decided to study.
3) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I have bought the book.
b) We have finished our work here.
c) Helen has made a phone call.
d) They have left the building.
e) John and Mark have found your pen.
f) You have taken my dictionary.
g) Sam has lost his calculator.
h) Ellen has decided to study.

15

Past Perfect
1) Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect:
a) Harry ______________________ (to do) the housework.
b) Kate and Bill _______________________ (to find) a new flat.
c) Nick _____________________ (to write) book.
d) We _______________________ (to decide) to start jogging.
e) Sam and Dave ________________________ (to eat) all the sandwiches.
f) Carlos _______________________ (to buy) a dog.
g) Maria and Helen ______________________ (to start) at a new school.
h) Frances _______________________ (to break) her cup.
i) I ________________________ (to loose) my umbrella.
j) Max _________________________ (to take) the dog for a walk.
k) That man __________________________ (to be) here all morning.
2) Change the following sentences into the negative:
a) I had bought the book.
b) We had finished our work there.
c) Helen had made a phone call.
d) They had left the building.
e) John and Mark had found your pen.
f) You had taken my dictionary.
g) Sam had lost his calculator.
h) Ellen had decided to study.
3) Change the following sentences into the interrogative:
a) I had bought the book.
b) We had finished our work there.
c) Helen had made a phone call.
d) They had left the building.
e) John and Mark had found your pen.
f) You had taken my dictionary.
g) Sam had lost his calculator.
h) Ellen had decided to study.

16

Extra - Exercises
1. Write was or were in the spaces:
Last weekend at half past eight in the morning, there ________ six children in the hotel.
Three of the children _________ boys and three _________ girls. Two children _______ in bed, one
child _______ in the disco, and one boy ________ in the restaurant. One of the boys _______ in the
swimming pool and one of the girls _______ in the hotel shop. Tom ______ not in bed and he
________ not in the restaurant. Susanna _______ not in bed. Maria ______ not in the restaurant and
Lisa _______ not in the hotel shop. Juan and Philip _______ not in bed and Philip ________ not in
the swimming pool or the disco.

2. Complete using the Simple Past tense:


Yesterday, John _________________ (to come) to school, but he _______________ (to
forget) to bring his English book. He ________________ (to leave) it at home, on his desk. When he
________________ (to be) riding back to school, he _______________ (to fall) from his bicycle and
________________ (to get) hurt. Someone _________________ (to give) him a glass of water and he
__________________ (to drink) it, but he still _______________ (not to be)) very well, so he
_________________ (to go) to the local hospital and they ______________ (to take) care of him. The
nurses in the hospital _________________ (to phone) his mother and _______________ (to tell) her
everything. She immediately _________________ (to cry) a lot, but then they _______________ (to
say) that it _________________ (to be) not serious and she ________________ (to stop) crying. After
the hospital, John _______________ (to go) to school, where he _________________ (to meet) his
friends. They _________________ (to be) worried because they __________________ (to know) he
had had an accident. When they ___________________ (to see) that he ________________ (to be)
fine, they ______________ (to cheer) him, _________________ (to sing) and ______________ (to
cry).

17

3. Change into the Past tense.


3.1. He gets up late.
3.2. I do not know the way.
3.3. She puts a hat on.
3.4. I give lessons.
3.5. They pay sixty pence.
3.6. He chooses a hot drink.
3.7. They feel sad, dont they?
3.8. Do they know what happens?
3.9. Doesnt he get all he wants?
3.10.

They know how old they are.

3.11.

You dont like him, do you?

3.12.

Im sure you dont.

3.13.

They spend a long time there.

3.14.

She sells everything, doesnt she?

4. Complete with the Simple Past or the Present Simple.


4.1. He __________________ (to work) hard yesterday.
4.2. He __________________ (not to work) on Saturdays.
4.3. Jane ______________________ (to talk) to a friend at the moment.
4.4. Elvis Presley ____________________ (to love) music and dancing.
4.5. He ______________________ (not to like) his job.
4.6. His sister usually _____________________ (to stand) behind him.
4.7. I ____________________ (to type) the letter an hour ago.
4.8. The postman ___________(to come) every day.
4.9. Last year, Bill __________________ (to study) very hard.
4.10.

It __________________ (to rain) last night

4.11.

I __________________ (to go) home at five oclock.

4.12.

I ____________________ (to visit) John every Saturday

4.13.

We ______________________ (not make) any noise last night.

4.14.

We ____________________ (to leave) right now.

4.15.

They ____________________ (to have) dinner in the dinning-room.

4.16.

You _________________ (to wait) for the bus for ten minutes.

18

REPORTED SPEECH

19

REPORTED SPEECH

20

REPORTED SPEECH

21

Rephrasing
1. Im thinking of going to live in Canada- says John on the phone.
John said
2. My father is in Hospital- he said.
He said
3. I didnt turn left at the station, and I lost my way. Paul said.
Paul said
4. I dont know the answer, so I cant help you.- Susan said.
Susan said
5. Nora and Jim are getting married next month. he said.
He said
6. Yesterday, Paul went to the police station- Mark said.
Mark said
7. Helen is really good at swimming.- he said.
He said
8. I havent seen Bill for a while!- he said.
He said
9. Ive been playing Tennis a lot recently! said Paul.
Paul said
10. I dont have the money. I wont buy a new car.- John said.
John said
11. That has been the most important decision of our lives. they said.
They all said
12. Margaret has had a baby! Sue said to John
Sue
13. I dont know what Fred is doing! Frank said
Frank said
14. Ill tell Jim I saw you! Jane said to me.
Jane said

22

1.

To arise, arose, arisen

38. To eat, ate, eaten

2.

To awake, awoke, awoken

39. To fall, fell, fallen

3.

To be, was, been

40. To feed, fed, fed

4.

To bear, bore, borne

41. To feel, felt, felt

5.

To beat, beat, beaten

42. To fight, fought, fought

6.

To become, became, become

43. To find, found, found

7.

To befall, befell, befallen

44. To fly, flew, flown

8.

To begin, began, begun

45. To forbid, forbade, forbidden

9.

To bend, bent, bent

46. To forget, forgot, forgotten

10. To bet, bet, bet

47. To forgive, forgave, forgiven

11. To bid, bade, bidden

48. To freeze, froze, frozen

12. To bind, bound, bound

49. To get, got, got (gotten US)

13. To bite, bit, bitten

50. To give, gave, given

14. To bleed, bled, bled

51. To go, went, gone

15. To bless, blessed, blessed

52. To grow, grew, grown

16. To blow, blew, blown

53. To hang, hung(-ed), hung(-ed)

17. To break, broke, broken

54. To have, had, had

18. To bring, brought, brought

55. To hear, heard, heard

19. To build, built, built

56. To hide, hid, hidden

20. To burn, burnt(-ed), burnt(-ed)

57. To hit, hit, hit

21. To buy, bought, bought

58. To hold, held, held

22. Can, could

59. To hurt, hurt, hurt

23. To cast, cast, cast

60. To keep, kept, kept

24. To catch, caught, caught

61. To kneel, knelt(-ed), knelt(-ed)

25. To choose, chose, chosen

62. To know, knew, known

26. To cling, clung, clung

63. To lay, laid, laid

27. To come, came, come

64. To lead, led, led

28. To cost, cost, cost

65. To lean, leant(-ed), leant(-ed)

29. To creep, crept, crept

66. To learn, learnt(-ed), learnt(-ed)

30. To cut, cut, cut

67. To leave, left, left

31. To deal, dealt, dealt

68. To lend, lent, lent

32. To do, did, done

69. To let, let, let

33. To draw, drew, drawn

70. To lie, lay, lain

34. To dream, dreamt(-ed), dreamt(ed)

71. To light, lit, lit

35. To drink, drank, drunk

72. To lose, lost, lost

36. To drive, drove, driven

73. To make, made, made

37. To dwell, dwelt, dwelt

74. To mean, meant, meant


23

75. To meet, met, met

113.To smell, smelt(-ed), smelt(-ed)

76. To mistake, mistook, mistaken

114.To speak, spoke, spoken

77. To outrun, outran, outrun

115.To spell, spelt(-ed), spelt(-ed)

78. To overcome, overcame, overcome

116.To spend, spent, spent

79. To oversleep, overslept, overslept

117.To split, split, split

80. To pay, paid, paid

118.To spoil, spoilt(-ed), spoilt(-ed)

81. To put, put, put

119.To spread, spread, spread

82. To quit, quit(-ed), quit(-ed)

120.To spring, sprang, sprung

83. To read, read, read

121.To stand, stood, stood

84. To rebuild, rebuilt, rebuilt

122.To steal, stole, stolen

85. To reset, reset, reset

123.To sting, stung, stung

86. To rid, rid, rid

124.To strike, struck, struck

87. To ride, rode, ridden

125.To swear, swore, sworn

88. To ring, rang, rung

126.To swim, swam, swum

89. To rise, rose, risen

127.To swing, swung, swung

90. To run, ran, run

128.To take, took, taken

91. To saw, sawed, sawn(-ed US)

129.To teach, taught, taught

92. To say, said, said

130.To tear, tore, torn

93. To see, saw, seen

131.To tell, told, told

94. To seek, sought, sought

132.To think, thought, thought

95. To sell, sold, sold

133.To throw, threw, thrown

96. To send, sent, sent

134.To thrust, thrust, thrust

97. To set, set, set

135. To undergo, underwent, undergone

98. To sew, sewed, sewn(-ed)

136. To understand, understood, understood

99. To shake, shook, shaken

137. To undertake, undertook, undertaken

100.Shall, should

138.To undo, undid, undone

101.To shed, shed, shed

139.To uphold, upheld, upheld

102. To shine, shone(-ed), shone(-ed)

140.To upset, upset, upset

103.To shit, shat(-ed), shat(-ed)

141.To wake, woke(-ed), woken(-ed)

104.To shoot, shot, shot

142.To wear, wore, worn

105.To show, showed, shown(-ed)

143.To weave, wove(-ed), woven(-ed)

106. To shrink, shrank(shrunk), shrunk

144.To weep, wept, wept

107.To shut, shut, shut

145.To wet, wet(-ed), wet(-ed)

108.To sing, sang, sung

146.Will, would

109.To sink, sank, sunk

147. To win, won, won

110.To sit, sat, sat

148.To write, wrote, written

111.To slay, slew, slain


112.To sleep, slept, slept
24

Passive voice
Analisa o que se segue:

ACTIVA

O Ricardo

PASSIVA

O carro

vendeu
(sold)

sem o pai saber.

o carro

pelo Ricardo

foi vendido

sem o pai saber.

(was sold)
Verbo

To be + particpio passado.

Complemento da activa

Sujeito da passiva.

Sujeito da activa

Agente da passiva.

NOES A FIXAR:
A Voz Passiva no virar a frase do fim para o princpio.
S o sujeito e o complemento da ACTIVA mudam de posio na frase.
A Voz Passiva pretende dar nfase ao complemento, transformando-o em sujeito.
O tempo verbal tem de ser RIGOROSAMENTE mantido.
O agente da passiva s aparece expresso quando isso se reveste de especial importncia ou interesse.
Normalmente, apenas se subentende, sendo simplesmente omitido.
PRESENT SIMPLE

PAST SIMPLE

write

a long letter

wrote

a long letter

object

Subject

Past Simple

object

Subject Present Simple

A long letter
New subject

is written

by me

new verb form agent

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

I
Subject

am hearing

A long letter

was written

by me

New subject

new verb form

agent

PAST CONTINUOUS

a strange sound

The children

were reading

comics

object

Subject

Past Continuous

object

Present Continuous

A strange sound

is being heard

by me

Comics

were being read

by the children

New subject

new verb form

agent

New subject

new verb form

agent

PAST PERFECT

PRESENT PERFECT

I
Subject

have caught

your viewpoint

Present Perfect

I
Subject

object

had caught

your viewpoint

Present Perfect

object

Your viewpoint

has been caught

by me

Your viewpoint

had been caught

by me

New subject

new verb form

agent

New subject

new verb form

agent

25

PRESENT SIMPLE
a) I receive an intimation.
b) I dont receive an intimation.
c) Do I receive an intimation?
PAST SIMPLE
a) I learned the school rules.
b) I didnt learn the school rules.
c) Did I learn the school rules?
PRESENT PERFECT
a) I have followed his example.
b) I havent followed his example.
c) Have I followed his example?
PAST PERFECT
a) I had obeyed the instructions.
b) I hadnt obeyed the instructions.
c) Had I obeyed the instructions?
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
a) Mrs. Fletcher is repairing the machine.
b) Mrs. Fletcher isnt repairing the machine.
c) Clive is composing a new song.
PAST CONTINUOUS
a) I was carrying out that survey.
b) I wasnt carrying out that survey.
c) The workers were receiving extra-money.

26

IF CLAUSES
As oraes condicionais so normalmente classificadas em trs grupos.
Em cada um deles, as formas seguidamente apresentadas so as mais importantes e as mais comuns.

Tipo 1 Exprime uma condio provvel


IF

Present

Future or Imperative

IF

you go to the exhibition,

you will enjoy it.

IF

you go to the exhibition,

advise me.

Tipo 2 Exprime uma condio improvvel


IF

Past

Conditional

IF

you went to the exhibition,

you would enjoy it.

Tipo 3 Exprime uma condio impossvel


IF

Past Perfect

Perfect Conditional

IF

you had gone to the exhibition,

You would have enjoyed it.

Change the following sentences accordingly:


1) Type 1 If you work hard, you will pass the test.
a) Type 2 If you
b) Type 3 If you
2) Type 1 If you open the door, you will get a surprise.
a) Type 2 If you
b) Type 3 If you
3) Type 1 If you tell me the answer, I will give you a prize.
a) Type 2 If you
b) Type 3 If you
4) Type 1 If he goes to the meeting, I will see him.
a) Type 2 If he
b) Type 3 If he
5) Type 1 If you see her, you will recognize her.
a) Type 2 If you
b) Type 3 If you
6) Type 1 If you dont put on your coat, you will catch a cold.
a) Type 2 If you
b) Type 3 If you
27

IF CLAUSES
TYPE 1
If + Present + Future
Supply the correct tense of the verb in brackets:
(not explain), I wont understand.

1) If you

(pass) his exam, hell go on to the university.

2) If he
3) If I am fired, I

(not protest).

4) Drive carefully if you

(take) the new car.

5) If people dont invest, the unemployment rate


6) Please dont disturb him if he

(increase).
(be) busy.

TYPE 2
If + Past Simple + Conditional
NOTA: A forma do conjuntivo do verbo ser (fosse) WERE em todas as pessoas: If I were, if you
were, if he were, etc.
Esta forma usada em Ingls nas frases condicionais.
Na linguagem falada, porm, pode usar-se a forma do conjuntivo were ou a forma do indicativo was.
Contudo, a expresso IF I WERE YOU mantm-se mesmo na linguagem falada.
EX:

If my father were (was) alive, he would react violently.


If I were you, I would act differently.

Supply the correct tense of the verb in brackets:


1) If he listened more carefully, he

(not make) so many mistakes.

2) Do you think we would speak better if we


3) If you explained your problem to the manager, he
4) Perhaps he

(go) to England?
(be able) to help you.

(take) a different view, if you spoke to him yourself.


(not change) your job, you wouldnt get such a good situation.

5) If you

6) Im sure he would take the job on if they

(agree) to pay him a bit more.

TYPE 3
If + Past Perfect + Perfect Conditional
Supply the correct tense of the verb in brackets:
1. If I had been in your position, I

(act) differently.

2. If you had changed your mind, you


3. If you had told me about it earlier, I
4. If you
5. You
6. It would have been better if they

(save) a lot of trouble.


(be able) to help you.

(come) with us, we would have been more careful.


(not make) such a mistake if you had been pleased.
(not come).

28

IF CLAUSES
MISCELLANEOUS
Insert the adequate tense of the verb (the passive form is sometimes needed).

1. If all the executives resigned, the management

(not receive) any benefits, the exhibition wont reopen.

2. If they
3. If she is innocent, she
4. If

(absolve).
(there to be) no losses, the 1990 grain harvest would reach a record.

5. If they dont work hard, they


6. They

(face) an insoluble problem.

(not gather) the crops before they rot.


(be able) to treat almost all the diseases, if they managed to

alter the instructions hidden in our cells.


7. If the summer is too hot and too long, the water supplies
8. If they had been taught on questions of ecology, they

(get) unsuficient.
(not make) such

big mistakes.
9. If they

(make) real improvements in aerodynamics and motor

technology, a nonsolar electric car will soon be readied for mass production.

29

FORMATION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES


ADJECTIVES
- Comparative adjectives with one syllable are normally formed by adding er to the
adjective.
- In one syllable words ending with one consonant, the final consonant is doubled.
- Words ending in consonant + -y change y to i.
- Superlative adjectives are normally formed by adding est to the adjective:
Long longer big bigger dry drier
Long longest big biggest dry driest
Comparative adjectives with two or more syllables are normally formed with more.
Superlative adjectives with two or more syllables are normally formed with most. There are
some exceptions.
modern more modern interesting more interesting
modern most modern interesting most interesting
Some adjectives with two syllables can form in either way.
Common commoner/commonest more/most common
Others include: quiet, tired and words ending with ow, -le and er.
ADVERBS
- Comparative adverbs are normally formed with more.
- Superlative adverbs are normally formed with most.
Can you work more quickly?
The film ended most happily.

IRREGULAR FORMS
ADJECTIVES
Irregular comparatives and superlatives:
good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

far

farther/further

farthest/furthest

little

less

least

much/many

more

most

When we describe family members we can use:


old
elder
eldest
This is my elder brother. Jane is their eldest daughter.

30

ADVERBS
many commonly used adverbs have comparative and superlative forms in er and est. These
include: early, far, fast, hard, late. In informal speech loud, quick, slow are also formed in this way.
Could you drive more slowly, please?
Could you drive slower, please?

MEANING OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES


Comparatives are used to compare two separate things.
Superlatives compare one thing in a group with all the other things in that group.
Comparative Mary is a better player than Monica.
Superlative Sarah is the best player in the team.
Note that the comes before a superlative if a noun follows.
Superlatives can be used without nouns. The is still used.
Sarah is the greatest!

Making comparisons
Than is used with comparatives.
Mary is better than Monica.
Mary is a better player than Monica.
Note that when we compare actions, we use an auxiliary instead of repeating the verb.
Mary plays better than Monica does.
Youve done more work than I have.
We can also say:
Mary plays better than Monica.
Youve done more work than me.
Just as as is used when the things compared are equal.
Mary is just as good as Cathy.
Mary is just as good a player as Cathy.
Not as as is used when we compare things negatively.
Cathy is not as good as Mary.
Cathy is not as good a player as Mary.
More and less than is used for longer adjectives.
This game is more interesting than the last one.
I think this game is less interesting than that one.
INTENSIFIERS
When we make comparisons the adjective is often strengthened with an intensifier.
This house is much/a lot/far bigger than that one.
We can also use intensifiers with more/less.
The Italian Film was much more interesting than this one.
That film was far less frightening than this one.
31

1. Write sentences describing the American and the English people. Use as many adjectives as
you can. If you want, you can compare them with people from other nationalities.
a) ____________________________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________________________
f) ____________________________________________________________________________
g) ____________________________________________________________________________
h) ____________________________________________________________________________
i) ____________________________________________________________________________
j) ____________________________________________________________________________
k) ____________________________________________________________________________
l) ____________________________________________________________________________
m) ____________________________________________________________________________
n) ____________________________________________________________________________
32

Vocabulary

33

Expressing opinions, feelings and desires / Arguing / agreeing and disagreeing

34

WORD FORMATION

35

BIBLIOGRAPHY

MURPHY, Raymond (1997), Essential Grammar In Use, 2nd Edition, Cambridge


University Press.

CAMBRIDGE, INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH (1996), Cambridge


University Press.
OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNERS DICTIONARY (1990), Oxford University
Press.

VINCE, Michael (2002), Elementary Language Practice for Portuguese Students,


Macmillan Heinemann English Language Teaching
VINCE, Michael (1998), Intermediate Language Practice, Macmillan Heinemann
English Language Teaching
SOTTOMAYOR, M. Manuela, Brush up your Grammar Remedial Work 3 Ed.,
Porto Editora, 2000
BARROS, Virgnia et ali, Students Booklet - Teen Time 2, Porto Editora, 1999
BARROS, Virgnia et ali, Students Booklet - Teen Time 3, Porto Editora, 2000

ALEXANDER, L. G., Longman English Grammar, Longman, 1996

THOMSON, A. J. & MARTINET, A. V., A Practical English Grammar, Fourth


Edition, Oxford, 1986

36