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Kolbs Learning Styles

Kolb's learning theory sets out four distinct learning styles (or preferences), which are based on a four-stage learning cycle. (which
might also be interpreted as a 'training cycle'). In this respect Kolb's model is particularly elegant, since it offers both a way to
understand individual people's different learning styles, and also an explanation of a cycle of experiential learning that applies to us
Kolb includes this 'cycle of learning' as a central principle his experiential learning theory, typically expressed as four-stage cycle of
learning, in which 'immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for 'observations and reflections'. These 'observations and
reflections' are assimilated and distilled into 'abstract concepts' producing new implications for action which can be 'actively tested' in
turn creating new experiences.
Kolb says that ideally (and by inference not always) this process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner 'touches all the
bases', ie., a cycle of experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting. Immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections.
These reflections are then assimilated (absorbed and translated) into abstract concepts with implications for action, which the person can
actively test and experiment with, which in turn enable the creation of new experiences.
Kolb's model therefore works on two levels - a four-stage cycle:
1. Concrete Experience - (CE)
2. Reflective Observation - (RO)
3. Abstract Conceptualization - (AC)
4. Active Experimentation - (AE)
and a four-type definition of learning styles, (each representing the combination of two preferred styles, rather like a two-by-two matrix of
the four-stage cycle styles, as illustrated below), for which Kolb used the terms:
1. Diverging (CE/RO)
2. Assimilating (AC/RO)

3. Converging (AC/AE)
4. Accommodating (CE/AE)

See also the personality styles and models section for help with understanding how Kolb's theory correlates with other personality models
and psychometrics (personality testing).

learning styles
(This interpretation was amended and revised March 2006)
Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred
style: notably in his experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages of a person's development, and suggests that our
propensity to reconcile and successfully integrate the four different learning styles improves as we mature through our development stages.
The development stages that Kolb identified are:
1. Acquisition - birth to adolescence - development of basic abilities and 'cognitive structures'
2. Specialization - schooling, early work and personal experiences of adulthood - the development of a particular 'specialized learning
style' shaped by 'social, educational, and organizational socialization'
3. Integration - mid-career through to later life - expression of non-dominant learning style in work and personal life.
Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate
'choices' that we make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with 'conflicting' modes at either end:
Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization - AC (thinking)
Active Experimentation - AE (doing)-----V----- Reflective Observation - RO (watching)
A typical presentation of Kolb's two continuums is that the east-west axis is called the Processing Continuum (how we approach a task),
and the north-south axis is called the Perception Continuum (our emotional response, or how we think or feel about it).
These learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related
modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience' (feeling or thinking):

The word 'dialectically' is not widely understood, and yet carries an essential meaning, namely 'conflicting' (its ancient Greek root means
'debate' - and I thank P Stern for helping clarify this precise meaning). Kolb meant by this that we cannot do both at the same time, and to
an extent our urge to want to do both creates conflict, which we resolve through choice when confronted with a new learning situation. We
internally decide whether we wish to do or watch, and at the same time we decide whether to think or feel.
The result of these two decisions produces (and helps to form throughout our lives) the preferred learning style, hence the two-by-two
matrix below. We choose a way of 'grasping the experience', which defines our approach to it, and we choose a way to 'transform the

experience' into something meaningful and usable, which defines our emotional response to the experience. Our learning style is a product
of these two choice decisions:
1. how to approach a task - ie., 'grasping experience' - preferring to (a) watch or (b) do , and
2. our emotional response to the experience - ie., 'transforming experience' - preferring to (a) think or (b) feel.

In other words we choose our approach to the task or experience ('grasping the experience') by opting for 1(a) or 1(b):

1(a) - though watching others involved in the experience and reflecting on what happens ('reflective observation' - 'watching') or

1(b) - through 'jumping straight in' and just doing it ('active experimentation' - 'doing')

And at the same time we choose how to emotionally transform the experience into something meaningful and useful by opting for 2(a)
or 2(b):

2(a) - through gaining new information by thinking, analyzing, or planning ('abstract conceptualization' - 'thinking') or

2(b) - through experiencing the 'concrete, tangible, felt qualities of the world' ('concrete experience' - 'feeling')

The combination of these two choices produces a preferred learning style. See the matrix below.

kolb's learning styles - matrix view

It's often easier to see the construction of Kolb's learning styles in terms of a two-by-two matrix. The diagram also highlights Kolb's
terminology for the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, and converging, accommodating:

doing (Active
Experimentation - AE)

watching (Reflective Observation - RO)

feeling (Concrete
Experience - CE)


diverging (CE/RO)

thinking (Abstract
Conceptualization - AC)

converging (AC/AE)

assimilating (AC/RO)

Thus, for example, a person with a dominant learning style of 'doing' rather than 'watching' the task, and 'feeling' rather than 'thinking'
about the experience, will have a learning style which combines and represents those processes, namely an'Accommodating' learning
style, in Kolb's terminology.

kolb learning styles definitions and descriptions

Knowing a person's (and your own) learning style enables learning to be orientated according to the preferred method. That said, everyone
responds to and needs the stimulus of all types of learning styles to one extent or another - it's a matter of using emphasis that fits best with
the given situation and a person's learning style preferences.
Here are brief descriptions of the four Kolb learning styles:

Diverging (feeling and watching - CE/RO) - These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are
sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at
viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style 'Diverging' because these people perform better in
situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming. People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural

interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in
the arts. People with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback.

Assimilating (watching and thinking - AC/RO) - The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas
and concepts are more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity. They
excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organising it a clear logical format. People with an Assimilating learning style
are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logically
sound theories than approaches based on practical value. These learning style people is important for effectiveness in information
and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and
having time to think things through.

Converging (doing and thinking - AC/AE) - People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning
to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects.
People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make
decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems. People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical
tasks and problems than social or interpersonal issues. A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities.
People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications.

Accommodating (doing and feeling - CE/AE) - The Accommodating learning style is 'hands-on', and relies on intuition rather than
logic. These people use other people's analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach. They are attracted to new
challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans. They commonly act on 'gut' instinct rather than logical analysis. People with
an Accommodating learning style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style is
prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and initiative. People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to
complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective.

As with any behavioural model, this is a guide not a strict set of rules.
Nevertheless most people clearly exhibit clear strong preferences for a given learning style. The ability to use or 'switch between' different
styles is not one that we should assume comes easily or naturally to many people.

Simply, people who have a clear learning style preference, for whatever reason, will tend to learn more effectively if learning is orientated
according to their preference.
For instance - people who prefer the 'Assimilating' learning style will not be comfortable being thrown in at the deep end without notes and
People who like prefer to use an 'Accommodating' learning style are likely to become frustrated if they are forced to read lots of instructions
and rules, and are unable to get hands on experience as soon as possible.

honey and mumford's variation on the kolb system

Various resources (including this one in the past) refer to the terms 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' (respectively representing
the four key stages or learning steps) in seeking to explain Kolb's model. In fact, 'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' are from a
learning styles model developed by Honey and Mumford, which although based on Kolb's work, is different. Arguably therefore the terms
'activist', 'reflector', 'theorist', and 'pragmatist' effectively 'belong' to the Honey and Mumford theory.
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford developed their learning styles system as a variation on the Kolb model while working on a project for the
Chloride corporation in the 1970's. Honey and Mumford say of their system:
"Our description of the stages in the learning cycle originated from the work of David Kolb. Kolb uses different words to describe the stages
of the learning cycle and four learning styles..."
And, "...The similarities between his model and ours are greater than the differences.." (Honey & Mumford)
In summary here are brief descriptions of the four H&M key stages/styles, which incidentally are directly mutually corresponding and
overlaid, as distinct from the Kolb model in which the learning styles are a product of combinations of the learning cycle stages. The typical
presentation of these H&M styles and stages would be respectively at north, east, south and west on a circle or four-stage cyclical flow
1. 'Having an Experience' (stage 1), and Activists (style 1): 'here and now', gregarious, seek challenge and immediate experience,
open-minded, bored with implementation.
2. 'Reviewing the Experience' (stage 2) and Reflectors (style 2): 'stand back', gather data, ponder and analyse, delay reaching
conclusions, listen before speaking, thoughtful.

3. 'Concluding from the Experience' (stage 3) and Theorists (style 3): think things through in logical steps, assimilate disparate
facts into coherent theories, rationally objective, reject subjectivity and flippancy.
4. 'Planning the next steps' (stage 4) and Pragmatists (style 4): seek and try out new ideas, practical, down-to-earth, enjoy problem
solving and decision-making quickly, bored with long discussions.
There is arguably a strong similarity between the Honey and Mumford styles/stages and the corresponding Kolb learning styles:

Activist = Accommodating

Reflector = Diverging

Theorist = Assimilating

Pragmatist = Converging

Kolb's learning styles have been adapted by two management development specialists, Peter Honey and Alan
Mumford. They use a four-way classification that closely resembles that of Kolb but is simplified for use in a practical
training situation. You can find out your own learning style by completing and scoring the following questionnaire. A
description of the Honey and Mumford classification follows for use after the questionnaire has been scored.
This questionnaire is designed to find out your preferred learning style(s). Over the years you have probably
developed learning 'habits' that help you benefit more from some experiences than from others. Since you are
probably unaware of this, this questionnaire will help you pinpoint your learning preferences so that you are in a
better position to select learning experiences that suit your style.

There is no time limit for completing this questionnaire. It will probably take you 10-15 minutes. The accuracy of the
results depends on how honest you can be. There are no rights or wrong answers. If you agree more than you
disagree with a statement put a tick by it. If you disagree more than you agree put a cross by it. Be sure to mark
each item with either a tick or cross.

Honey and Mumford

Taken from How to be an e-tutor by Dr Richard Mobbs. Used with permission.

Learning styles were developed by Peter Honey and Alan Mumford, based upon the work of Kolb, and they identified four distinct learning styles or
preferences: Activist, Theorist;Pragmatist and Reflector. These are the learning approaches that individuals naturally prefer and they recommend that
in order to maximise one's own personal learning each learner ought to:

understand their learning style

seek out opportunities to learn using that style

To understand your particular learning style Honey and Mumford have developed a Learning Style Questionnaire [see further reading] and with this
information you will be in a far better position to do three really useful things [quoting P. Honey]:


"Become smarter at getting a better fit between learning opportunities and the way you learn best. This makes your learning easier, more effective
and more enjoyable. It saves you tackling your learning on a hit-and-miss basis. Equipped with information about your learning preferences, you'll have
many more hits and fewer misses."


"Expand the 'band width' of experiences from which you derive benefit. Becoming an all-round learner, increases your versatility and helps you
learn from a wide variety of different experiences - some formal, some informal, some planned and some spontaneous."


"Improve your learning skills and processes. Increased awareness of how you learn, opens up the whole process to self-scrutiny and
improvement. Learning to learn is your most important capability since it provides the gateway to everything else you want to develop."
Note: However, to be an effective learner you should also develop the ability to learn in other styles too.


The characteristics of the four learning styles are summarised in the following table.



Activists are those people who learn by doing. Activists



need to get their hands dirty, to dive in with both feet

first. Have an open-minded approach to learning,
involving themselves fully and without bias in new




These learners like to understand the theory behind the


actions. They need models, concepts and facts in order


to engage in the learning process. Prefer to analyse and


synthesise, drawing new information into a systematic


and logical 'theory'.







time to think

These people need to be able to see how to put the

about how to apply

learning into practice in the real world. Abstract

learning in reality

concepts and games are of limited use unless they can

case studies

see a way to put the ideas into action in their lives.

Experimenters, trying out new ideas, theories and
techniques to see if they work.


These people learn by observing and thinking about



what happened. They may avoid leaping in and prefer to

watch from the sidelines. Prefer to stand back and view

self analysis

experiences from a number of different perspectives,

collecting data and taking the time to work towards an
appropriate conclusion.

time out




feedback from

Original definitions
Honey and Mumford's original definitions are as follows.

Honey and Mumford definition


Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They enjoy
the here and now, and are happy to be dominated by immediate experiences. They
are open-minded, not sceptical, and this tends to make them enthusiastic about
anything new. Their philosophy is: "I'll try anything once". They tend to act first
and consider the consequences afterwards. Their days are filled with activity. They
tackle problems by brainstorming. As soon as the excitement from one activity has
died down they are busy looking for the next. They tend to thrive on the challenge


Honey and Mumford definition

of new experiences but are bored with implementation and longer term
consolidation. They are gregarious people constantly involving themselves with
others but, in doing so, they seek to centre all activities around themselves.

Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound
theories. They think problems through in a vertical, step-by-step logical way. They
assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories. They tend to be perfectionists who
won't rest easy until things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme. They like to
analyse and synthesize. They are keen on basic assumptions, principles, theories
models and systems thinking. Their philosophy prizes rationality and logic. "If its
logical its good." Questions they frequently ask are: "Does it make sense?" "How
does this fit with that?" "What are the basic assumptions?" They tend to be
detached, analytical and dedicated to rational objectivity rather than anything
subjective or ambiguous. Their approach to problems is consistently logical. This is
their 'mental set' and they rigidly reject anything that doesn't fit with it. They prefer
to maximise certainty and feel uncomfortable with subjective judgements, lateral
thinking and anything flippant.


Honey and Mumford definition


Pragmatists are keen on trying out ideas, theories and techniques to see if they
work in practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first
opportunity to experiment with applications. They are the sort of people who return
from courses brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in practice. They
like to get on with things and act quickly and confidently on ideas that attract them.
They tend to be impatient with ruminating and open-ended discussions. They are
essentially practical, down to earth people who like making practical decisions and
solving problems. They respond to problems and opportunities 'as a challenge'.
Their philosophy is "There is always a better way" and "If it works it's good".


Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from many
different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from others, and prefer
to think about it thoroughly before coming to a conclusion. The thorough collection
and analysis of data about experiences and events is what counts so they tend to
postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as long as possible. Their philosophy
is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all possible
angles and implications before making a move. They prefer to take a back seat in


Honey and Mumford definition

meetings and discussions. They enjoy observing other people in action. They listen
to others and get the drift of the discussion before making their own points. They
tend to adopt a low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant unruffled air about
them. When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well as
the present and others' observations as well as their own.

What is Neuro-Linguistic Programming?

Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP, provides practical ways in which you can change
the way that you think, view past events, and approach your life.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming shows you how to take control of your mind, and therefore
your life. Unlike psychoanalysis, which focuses on the why, NLP is very practical and
focuses on the how.

Find more at: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/nlp.html#ixzz45M9MkZ47

Your thoughts, feelings and emotions are not things that are, or that you have, but things that you do. Their causes can often be very
complicated, involving, for instance, comments or beliefs from your parents or teachers, or events that you have experienced.

NLP shows you how you can take control of these beliefs and influences. Using mind techniques such as visualisation, you can change the
way that you think and feel about past events, fears and even phobias.

Find more at: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/nlp.html#ixzz45M9UwDgT

isual learners prefer to take in information by seeing and often process it in pictorial form. This means that they
will often think or remember things in pictures and like to read, see graphs, and use symbols.
Auditory learners prefer to listen and take information in by what they hear. They favour lectures and discussions
over reading.
Kinaesthetic learners learn by experience and particularly by tactile exploration of the world. They prefer to learn
by experimentation. As most parents will testify, its not unreasonable to describe very young children as natural
kinaesthetics, always wanting to feel something or put it in their mouths!

Find more at: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/learn/learning-styles.html#ixzz45M9jNLh5

multiple intelligences theory

Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory was first published in Howard Gardner's book, Frames Of Mind (1983), and quickly became
established as a classical model by which to understand and teach many aspects of human intelligence, learning style, personality and
behaviour - in education and industry. Howard Gardner initially developed his ideas and theory on multiple intelligences as a contribution to

psychology, however Gardner's theory was soon embraced by education, teaching and training communities, for whom the appeal was
immediate and irresistible - a sure sign that Gardner had created a classic reference work and learning model.
Howard Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania USA in 1943 to German Jewish immigrant parents, and entered Harvard in 1961,
where, after Gardner's shift from history into social relations (which included psychology, sociology, and anthropology) he met his early
mentor Erik Erikson. Later Gardner was also influenced by psychologists Jeane Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and philosopher Nelson Goodman,
with whom Gardner co-founded 'Project Zero' in 1967 (focusing on studies of artistic thought and creativity). Project Zero's 1970's 'Project
on Human Potential', whose heady aim was to address 'the state of scientific knowledge concerning human potential and its realization',
seems to have been the platform from which Gardner's multiple intelligences ideas grew, and were subsequently published in Gardner's
Frames Of Mind 1983 book. A wonderful example of 'thinking big' if ever there was one.
At the time I write/revise this summary (2005-2012) Howard Gardner is the (John H and Elisabeth A) Hobbs Professor of Cognition and
Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education; he serves as adjunct Professor at Harvard University, Boston University School of
Medicine, and remains senior director of Harvard Project Zero. Gardner has received honorary degrees from at least twenty foreign
institutions, and has written over twenty highly regarded books on the human mind, learning and behaviour. How ironic then that Gardner,
who has contributed so much to the understanding of people and behaviour, was born (according to his brief auto-biographical paper 'One
Way To Make Social Scientist', 2003), cross-eyed, myopic, colour-blind and unable to recognise faces. There's hope for us all.
Since establishing his original multiple intelligences model, Howard Gardner has continued to develop his thinking and theory, so you will
see references to more than the seven intelligences nowadays. Gardner most recently refers to their being eight or nine intelligences.
This article chiefly focuses on the original seven intelligences model.

howard gardner's multiple intelligences theory

This simple grid diagram illustrates Howard Gardner's model of the seven Multiple Intelligences at a glance.
intelligence type

capability and perception


words and language


logic and numbers


music, sound, rhythm


body movement control


images and space


other people's feelings



Free multiple intelligences tests based on Howard Gardner's seven-intelligences model are available below in MSExcel self-calculating
format, manual versions in MSExcel and pdf, and manual test versions for young people.

Gardner said that multiple intelligences were not limited to the original seven, and he has since considered the existence and definitions of
other possible intelligences in his later work. Despite this, Gardner seems to have stopped short of adding to the seven (some might argue,
with the exception of Naturalist Intelligence) with any clearly and fully detailed additional intelligence definitions. This is not because there
are no more intelligences - it is because of the difficulty of adequately and satisfactorily defining them, since the additional intelligences are
rather more complex than those already evidenced and defined.

Not surprisingly, commentators and theorists continually debate and interpret potential additions to the model, and this is why you might see
more than seven intelligences listed in recent interpretations of Gardner's model. As mentioned above, Naturalist Intelligence seems most
popularly considered worthy of inclusion of the potential additional 'Gardner' intelligences.

gardner's suggested possible additional intelligences

intelligence type

capability and perception


natural environment


religion and 'ultimate issues'


ethics, humanity, value of life

If you think about the items above it's easy to see why Gardner and his followers have found it quite difficult to augment the original seven
intelligences. The original seven are relatively cut and dried; the seven intelligences are measurable, we know what they are, what they
mean, and we can evidence or illustrate them. However the potential additional human capabilities, perceptions and attunements, are highly
subjective and complex, and arguably contain many overlapping aspects. Also, the fact that these additional intelligences could be deemed
a measure of good or bad poses extra questions as to their inclusion in what is otherwise a model which has hitherto made no such
judgement (good or bad, that is - it's a long sentence...).

gardner's multiple intelligences - detail

The more detailed diagram below expands the detail for the original seven intelligences shown above, and also suggests ideas for applying
the model and underpinning theories, so as to optimise learning and training, design accelerated learning methods, and to assess training
and learning suitability and effectiveness.



typical roles

related tasks, activities or


preferred learnin
style clues

1 Linguistic

words and language, written

and spoken; retention,
interpretation and explanation
of ideas and information via
language, understands
relationship between
communication and meaning

writers, lawyers, journalists, speakers,

trainers, copy-writers, english teachers,
poets, editors, linguists, translators, PR
consultants, media consultants, TV and
radio presenters, voice-over artistes

write a set of instructions;

speak on a subject; edit a
written piece or work; write a
speech; commentate on an
event; apply positive or
negative 'spin' to a story

words and

2 LogicalMathematical

logical thinking, detecting

patterns, scientific reasoning
and deduction; analyse
problems, perform
mathematical calculations,
understands relationship
between cause and effect
towards a tangible outcome or

scientists, engineers, computer experts,

accountants, statisticians, researchers,
analysts, traders, bankers bookmakers,
insurance brokers, negotiators, dealmakers, trouble-shooters, directors

perform a mental arithmetic

calculation; create a process to
measure something difficult;
analyse how a machine works;
create a process; devise a
strategy to achieve an aim;
assess the value of a business
or a proposition

numbers and logic

3 Musical

musical ability, awareness,

appreciation and use of
sound; recognition of tonal
and rhythmic patterns,
understands relationship

musicians, singers, composers, DJ's,

music producers, piano tuners, acoustic
engineers, entertainers, party-planners,
environment and noise advisors, voice

perform a musical piece; sing a

song; review a musical work;
coach someone to play a
musical instrument; specify
mood music for telephone

music, sounds,

between sound and feeling

systems and receptions

4 BodilyKinesthetic

body movement control,

manual dexterity, physical
agility and balance; eye and
body coordination

dancers, demonstrators, actors,

athletes, divers, sports-people, soldiers,
fire-fighters, PTI's, performance
artistes; ergonomists, osteopaths,
fishermen, drivers, crafts-people;
gardeners, chefs, acupuncturists,
healers, adventurers

juggle; demonstrate a sports

technique; flip a beer-mat;
create a mime to explain
something; toss a pancake; fly
a kite; coach workplace
posture, assess work-station

physical experienc
and movement,
touch and feel

5 Spatial-Visual

visual and spatial

perception; interpretation and
creation of visual images;
pictorial imagination and
expression; understands
relationship between images
and meanings, and between
space and effect

artists, designers, cartoonists, storyboarders, architects, photographers,

sculptors, town-planners, visionaries,
inventors, engineers, cosmetics and
beauty consultants

design a costume; interpret a

painting; create a room layout;
create a corporate logo; design
a building; pack a suitcase or
the boot of a car

pictures, shapes,
images, 3D space

6 Interpersonal

perception of other people's

feelings; ability to relate to
others; interpretation of
behaviour and
communications; understands
the relationships between
people and their situations,
including other people

therapists, HR professionals,
mediators, leaders, counsellors,
politicians, eductors, sales-people,
clergy, psychologists, teachers, doctors,
healers, organisers, carers, advertising
professionals, coaches and mentors;
(there is clear association between this
type of intelligence and what is now
termed'Emotional Intelligence' or EQ)

interpret moods from facial

expressions; demonstrate
feelings through body
language; affect the feelings of
others in a planned way; coach
or counsel another person

human contact,

7 Intrapersonal

self-awareness, personal
cognisance, personal
objectivity, the capability to
understand oneself, one's
relationship to others and the
world, and one's own need
for, and reaction to change

arguably anyone (see note below) who

is self-aware and involved in the
process of changing personal thoughts,
beliefs and behaviour in relation to
their situation, other people, their
purpose and aims - in this respect there
is a similarity toMaslow's SelfActualisationlevel, and again there is
clear association between this type of
intelligence and what is now
termed 'Emotional Intelligence' or EQ

consider and decide one's own

aims and personal changes
required to achieve them (not
necessarily reveal this to
others); consider one's
own'Johari Window', and
decide options for
development; consider and
decide one's own position in
relation to theEmotional
Intelligence model

self-reflection, sel

Roles and intrapersonal intelligence: Given that a 'role' tends to imply external style/skills, engagement, etc., the intrapersonal ability is
less liable to define or suggest a certain role or range of roles than any of the other characteristics. That said, there is a clear correlation
between intrapersonal ability/potential and introverted non-judgemental roles/working styles. Intrapersonal capability might also be seen as
the opposite of ego and self-projection. Self-awareness is a prerequisite for self-discipline and self-improvement. Intrapersonal capacity
enables an emotionally mature ('grown-up') response to external and internal stimuli. The intrapersonal characteristic might therefore be
found among (but most definitely not extending to all) counsellors, helpers, translators, teachers, actors, poets, writers, musicians,
artists, and also any other role to which people can bring emotional maturity, which commonly manifests as adaptability, flexibility,
facilitation, reflection, and other 'grown-up' behaviours. There are also associations between intrapersonal capacity
and Erikson's 'generative' perspective, and to an extent Maslow's self-actualization, that is to say: both of these 'life-stages' surely
demand a reasonably strong level of self-awareness, without which adapting one's personal life, outlook and responses to one's
environment is not easy at all
Learning style
Together, perceiving and processing describes the whole range of the learning and communication experience. All learners engage in all types of learning,
but most seem to favor one particular type.
Type 1 - wants to know WHY
The imaginative type likes being absorbed into feelings and spending time reflecting, seeking personal meaning and involvement. Type 1 is focused on personal
values for them selves and others and making connections. Favourite question: Why?
Type 2 - wants to know WHAT
The analytic type likes listening to and thinking about information, seeking facts, thinking through ideas, formulating ideas - and learning what the experts
think. Favourite question: What?

Type 3 - wants to know HOW

The common sense type likes thinking and doing. Type 3 are most happy experimenting, building and creating usability. They like tinkering and applying useful
ideas. Favourite question: How?
Type 4 - wants to find out WHAT IF
The dynamic type likes doing and feeling. They are constantly seeking hidden possibilities and exploring ideas to create original adaptations, they learn by trial
and error and self-discovery. Favourite question: What if?

4MAT framework based on the work of Bernice McCarthy which suggests 4 learning modes.
The four learning styles identified by McCarthy are:
Type 1: Innovative Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning. They need to have reasons for
learningideally, reasons that connect new information with personal experience and establish that
informations usefulness in daily life. Some of the many instructional modes effective with this learner type
are cooperative learning, brainstorming, and integration of content areas (e.g., science with social studies,
writing with the arts, etc.).
Type 2: Analytic Learners are primarily interested in acquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding
of concepts and processes. They are capable of learning effectively from lectures, and enjoy independent
research, analysis of data, and hearing what the experts have to say.
Type 3: Common Sense Learners are primarily interested in how things work; they want to get in and try
it. Concrete, experiential learning activities work best for themusing manipulatives, hands-on tasks,
kinesthetic experience, etc.
Type 4: Dynamic Learners are primarily interested in self-directed discovery. They rely heavily on their own
intuition, and seek to teach both themselves and others. Any type of independent study is effective for these

learners. They also enjoy simulations, role play, and games.


4 A list of rather cognitive style models

4.1 Pasks Information Processing Styles and Strategies
In a series of experiments in the 70's, Pask observed the way students worked complex acedemic subject matter. He observered that
learners tended to use one of two approaches to greater or lesser extents. Pask (in from Ford, 2000) categorized learners as
local, procedure building
concentrates on simple chains of logical argument
improvidence pathology fragmented
operation learners

global, description building
seeks patterns of interrelationships including
Globetrotting pathology overgeneralization
comprehension learners