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ARYABHATTA

ABOUT

Aryabhata or Aryabhata I (476550 CE) was the first of the major

mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and

Indian astronomy. His works include the ryabhaya

(499 CE, when he was 23

Biography

Name

While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with

other names having the "bhatta" suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata:

every astronomical text spells his name thus, including Brahmagupta's references

to him "in more than a hundred places by name". Furthermore, in most instances

"Aryabhatta" would not fit the metre either.

Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3,600 years into the

Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that

he was born in 476.

Aryabhata provides no information about his place of birth. The only information

comes from Bhskara I, who describes Aryabhata as makya, "one belonging to

the amaka country." During the Buddha's time, a branch of the Amaka people

settled in the region between the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India;

Aryabhata is believed to have been born there.

Education

It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced

studies and lived there for some time. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well

as Bhskara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as Paliputra,

modern Patna. A verse

and, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an

astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the

head of the Nalanda university as well. Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up

an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar.

Mathematics

Place value system and zero

The place-value system, first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali Manuscript, was

clearly in place in his work. While he did not use a symbol for zero, the French

mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in

Aryabhata's place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null

coefficients.

However, Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic

tradition from Vedic times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers,

expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form.

Approximation of

Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi ( ), and may have come to the

conclusion that

is irrational. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam (ga itapda

10), he writes:

caturadhikam atama agu

sahasr m

am dva

istath

ha .

"Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the

circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached."

This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is

((4 + 100) 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is accurate to

five significant figures.

It is speculated that Aryabhata used the word sanna (approaching), to mean that

not only is this an approximation but that the value is incommensurable (or

irrational). If this is correct, it is quite a sophisticated insight, because the

irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert.

After Aryabhatiya was translated into Arabic (c. 820 CE) this approximation was

mentioned in Al-Khwarizmi's book on algebra.

Trigonometry

In Ganitapada 6, Aryabhata gives the area of a triangle as

tribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah

that translates to: "for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is

the area."

Aryabhata discussed the concept of sine in his work by the name of ardha-jya,

which literally means "half-chord". For simplicity, people started calling it jya.

When Arabic writers translated his works from Sanskrit into Arabic, they referred it

as jiba. However, in Arabic writings, vowels are omitted, and it was abbreviated as

jb. Later writers substituted it with jaib, meaning "pocket" or "fold (in a garment)".

(In Arabic, jiba is a meaningless word.) Later in the 12th century, when Gherardo

of Cremona translated these writings from Arabic into Latin, he replaced the

Arabic jaib with its Latin counterpart, sinus, which means "cove" or "bay"; thence

comes the English word sine.

Indeterminate equations

A problem of great interest to Indian mathematicians since ancient times has been

to find integer solutions to Diophantine equations that have the form ax + by = c.

(This problem was also studied in ancient Chinese mathematics, and its solution is

usually referred to as the Chinese remainder theorem.) This is an example from

Bhskara's commentary on Aryabhatiya:

Find the number which gives 5 as the remainder when divided by 8, 4 as the

remainder when divided by 9, and 1 as the remainder when divided by 7

That is, find N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1. It turns out that the smallest value for N is

85. In general, diophantine equations, such as this, can be notoriously difficult.

They were discussed extensively in ancient Vedic text Sulba Sutras, whose more

ancient parts might date to 800 BCE. Aryabhata's method of solving such

problems, elaborated by Bhaskara in 621 CE, is called the kuaka

( ) method.

Kuttaka means "pulverizing" or "breaking into small pieces", and the method

involves a recursive algorithm for writing the original factors in smaller numbers.

This algorithm became the standard method for solving first-order diophantine

equations in Indian mathematics, and initially the whole subject of algebra was

called kuaka-ga

Algebra

squares and cubes:

and

Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily, and that

the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of

the earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. This is

indicated in the first chapter of the Aryabhatiya, where he gives the number of

rotations of the earth in a yuga, and made more explicit in his gola chapter:

In the same way that someone in a boat going forward sees an unmoving [object]

going backward, so [someone] on the equator sees the unmoving stars going

uniformly westward. The cause of rising and setting [is that] the sphere of the

stars together with the planets [apparently?] turns due west at the equator,

constantly pushed by the cosmic wind.

Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and

Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this

model, which is also found in the Paitmahasiddhnta (c. CE 425), the motions of

the planets are each governed by two epicycles, a smaller manda (slow) and a

larger ghra (fast). [26] The order of the planets in terms of distance from earth is

taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the

asterisms."

The positions and periods of the planets was calculated relative to uniformly

moving points. In the case of Mercury and Venus, they move around the Earth at

the same mean speed as the Sun. In the case of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, they

move around the Earth at specific speeds, representing each planet's motion

through the zodiac. Most historians of astronomy consider that this two-epicycle

model reflects elements of pre-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy.[27] Another element in

Aryabhata's model, the ghrocca, the basic planetary period in relation to the Sun,

is seen by some historians as a sign of an underlying heliocentric model.

Eclipses

Aryabhata scientifically explained solar and lunar eclipses. He states that the

Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony

in which eclipses were caused by Rahu and Ketu (identified as the pseudoplanetary lunar nodes), he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and

falling on Earth. Thus, the lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the

Earth's shadow (verse gola.37). He discusses at length the size and extent of the

Earth's shadow (verses gola.3848) and then provides the computation and the

size of the eclipsed part during an eclipse. Later Indian astronomers improved on

the calculations, but Aryabhata's methods provided the core. His computational

paradigm was so accurate that 18th-century scientist Guillaume Le Gentil, during

a visit to Pondicherry, India, found the Indian computations of the duration of the

lunar eclipse of 30 August 1765 to be short by 41 seconds, whereas his charts (by

Tobias Mayer, 1752) were long by 68 seconds.

NUMBER NOTATION

Numerical values: he made a notation system in which digits are denoted with the

help of alphabet numerals e.g., 1 = ka, 2 = Kha, etc.

Aryabhatta assigned numerical values to the 33 consonants of the Indian alphabet to

represent 1,2,325,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,100.

Notation system: He invented a notation system consisting of alphabet numerals

Digits were denoted by alphabet numerals. In this system devanagiri script contain

varga letters (consonants) and avarga letters (vowels).1-25 are denoted by 1 st 25 varga

letters.

Place-value: Aryabhatta was familiar with the place-value system.

He knew numeral symbols and the sign for zero

Square root & cube root: His calculations on square root and cube root would not have

been possible without the knowledge of place values system and zero. He has given

methods of extracting square root cube root along with their explanation.

Interest: He formulated for the first time in India the formula for interest, time and

other related ones, in the problems of interest.

ALGEBRA

Integer solutions: Aryabhatta was the first one to explore integer solutions to the

equations of the form by =ax+c and by =ax-c, where a,b,c are integers. He used kuttuka

method to solve problems.

Indeterminate equations: He gave general solutions to linear indeterminate equations

ax+by+c= 0 by the method of continued fraction.

Identities: He had dealt with identities like (a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2and ab={(a+b)2-(a2b2)}/2

He has given the following formula in aryabhatia

12+22+32+---------+n2=n(n+1)(2n+1)/6

13+23+33+---------+n3 = (1+2+3+------------+)2= {n2(n+1)2}/4

Algebraic quantities: He has given the method of addition, subtraction, multiplication

of simple and compound algebraic quantities

Arithmetic series: He was given a formula for summing up of the arithmetic series

after the Pth term The rule is S= n[a+{(n-1)/2+p} d]

S=(a+1) n/2

GEOMETRY

Discover the P Value : The credit for discovering the exact values P may be ascribed

to the celebrated mathematician Aryabhatta.

Rule: Add 4 to 100, multiply by 8, add 62000. The result is approximately the

circumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand. By this rule the relation of the

circumference to diameter is given.

This gives P =62832/20000=3.1416. Which is an accurate value of P. Aryabhatta

discovered this value independently and also realized that P is an irrational number

Pythagorean Theorem: The Pythagorean theorem is stated as follows in his work the

square of the Bhuja (base) plus the square of the koti (perpendicular) is the square of the

Karna

(Buja and koti are the sides of a right-angled triangle. The Karna is the hypotenuse)

Circle Theorem: He has postulated a theorem relating to circle as follows In a circle

the product of two Saras is the square of the half chord of the two arcs i.e. a*b=c 2 where

c is half the chord and the saras or arrows are the segments of a diameter which bisect

any chord.

Formula: Aryabhatta gives formulae for the areas of a triangle, square, rectangle,

rhombus, circle etc.

TRIGONOMETRY

Sine Table: Aryabhatta gave a table of sines for calculating the approximate values at

intervals of 90/24 = 3 45. This was done using the formula for

sin (n+1)x - sin nx in terms of sin nx and sin (n-1) x.

Versine: He introduced the versine (versin = 1-cosine) into trigonometry.

ASTRONOMY

Earth: Aryabhatta gave the circumference of the earth as 4 967 yojanas and its

diameter as 1 5811/24 yojanas. Since1 yojana =5miles this gives the circumference as

24,835 miles, which is an excellent approximation to the currently accepted value of

24,902 miles.

He believes that the orbits of the planets are ellipses. He correctly explains the caused

of eclipses of the Sun and the Moon.

Length of year: His value for the length of the year at 365 days 6 hours 12 minutes 30

seconds is an overestimate since the true value is less than 365 days and 6 hours.

Aryabhatta was one of those ancient scholars of India who is hardly surpassed by any

one else of his time in his treatise on mathematics and astronomy. In appreciation of his

great contributions to mathematics and astronomy, the government of India named the

first satellite sent into space on 19-4-1975 as aryabhatta, after him.

MATHEMATICS

PROJECT

PREPARED BY: SIDDHARTH PANCHAL

CLASS: XI-A

ROLL NO.: 35

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