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ABSTRACT

An Autonomic Robot [I]


YILDIZ Muhammed, DALGAC Sekip, AGLAR Nurullah
Graduation Project in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Supervisor : Assist. Prof. Dr. Tolgay KARA
January-2016
In this project,an object is searched and found by sensors in 9m 2square area.The object is lift
up and transported to choosen 1m2 red area in the corner of the room by robotic arm.While this
process is performed,Robot avoids black lines and whole of process is proceed autonomically.

ZET
Otonomik Robot
YILDIZ Muhammed, DALGA ekip, ALAR Nurullah
Elektrik Elektronik Mhendislii Blm Mezuniyet Projesi
Ocak-2016

Bu projede, cisim 9m2 bir alanda sensrler yardmyla aranr ve bulunur.Nesne robotik kollarla
kaldrlp odann kesinde belirlenen 1m2lik krmz alana tanr.Robot bu ilemleri
gerekletirirken siyah izgilerden kanr.Tm bu ilemler robot tarafndan otonomik olarak
gerekletirilir.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all,We are grateful to our supervisor Assist. Prof. Dr. Tolgay Kara because of
whole helps during the project session.And also We would like to thanks Gneri Gngr
because of supports of the making robotic arm.

INTRODUCTION
Robots are devices that we can see everywhere in daily life.We use robots in our
kitchen,sitting room etc. Autonomic robot is special kind of a robot that popular in nowadays.
Aim of these kind of robots to make people life easier.Difference than remote-control robot is

performed whole of the process without human.Robot uses sensors and robotic arm during the
all tasks is performed.
The number of autonomic robot is increasing with the developing technology and each
robot is better than previous one and the number of failure is decreasing.Further more,these
robot is taking place easily in daily life.With robotic arms,sensors they can do anything that
people can do.
In this project,we design an special autonomic robot that can find and transport an object
from anywhere to anywhere we want.This robot look like a people with sensors,wheels and its
robotic arm.Object is found with using two Ultrasonic distance sensors,and robot moves
toward to object for catching the object.Robot lifts it up by robotic arms and transports to red
area with following black lines.Robot senses red area using color sensor.Finally,Robot leave
object to red area.

Arduino Uno
The arduino uno was invented by Massimo Banzi in Italia.It has a open source library at
internet that's why easy programmably . It is microcontroller system based on C++.It has 14

digital input/output pins of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs,6 analog inputs,a USB
connection,a power jack.It includes everything needed to support the microcontroller.To get
start,you can connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power with a AC to DC adapter.

Arduino Uno

Technical Features
Microcontroller
Operating Voltage

Atmega328
5V

Input Voltage

7-12V

DC Current per I/O Pin

20 mA

DC Current for 3.3V Pin

50 mA

Robotic Arm
The robotic arm very popular in the world.We use robotic arm to lift up and put down to
object.According to in our research,we couldn't find available arm for us.Then we made

robotic arm from 3D printer.The maximum wide of the robotic arm is 12 cm.We used two
servo motors to move rght-left direction and up-down direction.

Ultrasonic Sensor
Ultrasonic sensor can measure the distance from 2 cm to 400 cm.We can use it in radar and
robot application.The basic principle of this sensor this sensor we send a pulse about 10us

through trig pin and then the sensor produces a signal at a frequency of 40kHz in itself and
sends this puls to its transdusere .The sound wave in the air, at sea level and 15 C , takes 340
m / s speeds.Strikes an object and is reflected back to the sensor.Echo is directly proportional
to the object distance from the sensor pin is at logical 1 for a while and then again becomes
logic 0.To measure this distance we need to find out logic 1 time of echo pin .Then the
distance is calculated using the amount of that time.

Ultrasonic sensor

Technical Features
Pover Supply

+5V DC

Working Current

15 mA

Ranging Distance

2 cm - 400 cm

Arduino Connection

Colour Sensor

TC3200 Colour sensor is complete color detector that include sensor chip and 4 white
leds.It perceive three different colour.They are green blue and red.It has 10 pins.The taken data
from the RGB filter was convert to square wawe with proportional of the frequency.

TCS3200 Colour Sensor

Technical Features
Supply Voltage

2.7 - 5 V

Interface

Dijital

Color Sensors Channels

RGB

Arduino Connection

Reflactance Sensor

QTR-1A is line sensor that using in the various robot project. The aim of to use this
sensor that avoid the black line and stay in the robot project area.Reflactance sensor includes a
couple of infrared led and phototransistor pair.This sensor gives us some specific range
depends on the colour type.The outputs of the QTR-1A sensor goes to Arduino.So the robot
avoid the black line or following black line.

QTR-1A Reflactance Sensor

Technical Features
Operating voltage
Supply current

5V
17 mA

Output Format

Analog Voltage

Range Sensing Distance

3 mm - 6 mm

Robot Body

Robot body is existed two parallel plate three wheels and some screw.We bought it as a
uncombined.We combined all of the component each other via hole on the plate.

DC MOTOR
In robotic dc motors are use with reductor or without reducer. Reducers consist of shafts
and sprockets fitted into the body.The purpose of the reducers is trasmitte power and creats
moment.The features of dc motors shown below;
Arduino connection

Tecnical Features
nput voltage

3-12

Speed

250 Rpm

Current

90 mA

SERVO MOTOR
Servo motor is a type of motors whose output shaft can be moved to a specific angular
position by sending it a coded signal. The servo motor will maintain the position of the shaft as
long as you keep applying the coded signal. When you change the coded signal, the angular
position of the shaft will change. the using areas of the motors are some robot project, robotic
arm and industrial application.

SM-4303R Servo Motor

Technical Features
Speed(6V )

0.14 sec/60

Stall torque(6V)

4.8kg.cm

Speed(4.8)
Stall tarque

0.16 sec/60
3.3kg.cm

Arduino Connection

APPENDIX

Gripper Arm Instructions

Parts list to build the arm:

Arm 1
Guide 2
Left Drive 1
Right Drive 1
Jaw 2
Servo 2
Gripper Base 1
Long Screw 11
Lock Nut 15
Short Screw 4
Gripper Top 1

Step 1:

Insert the elbow servo into the slot in the arm.

Step 2:

Fasten the screws with four nuts

Step 3:
Stretch the gripper base around the front
and push it onto the servo.

Step 4:

Place the gripper servo under the gripper base.

Step 5:

Fasten the servo in place with four nuts.

Step 6:

Push the right driver onto the servo.

Step 7:
Place the left drive in so that it meshes with
the right drive. It should mirror the angle of
the right drive. It will be held in place with
the top plate in the next step.

Step 8:

Place the top lid over the drivers. The peg on


the bottom should fit into the hole in the left
drive.

Step 9:
Hold the top in place by fastening the screw
with a nut.

Step 10:
Align the guides with the holes in the gripper
base and top plate.

Step 11

Fix the guides in place with two nuts.

Step 12:
Align the holes of one jaw with the hole in
the end of the right drive and the corresponding guide. Use two screws to hold it in place.
Align the holes of the other jaw with the left
drive and the corresponding guide. Use two
more screws to hold it in place

Step 13:
Fix the jaws in place with four nuts.

Step 14:
You have now assembled the arm.

Ultrasonic Ranging Module HC - SR04

Product features:

Ultrasonic ranging module HC - SR04 provides 2cm - 400cm non-contact measurement


function, the ranging accuracy can reach to 3mm. The modules includes ultrasonic
transmitters, receiver and control circuit. The basic principle of work:
Using IO trigger for at least 10us high level signal,
The Module automatically sends eight 40 kHz and detect whether there is a pulse signal back.
IF the signal back, through high level , time of high output IO duration is the time from
sending ultrasonic to returning.
Test distance = (high level timevelocity of sound (340M/S) / 2,

Wire connecting direct as following:

5V Supply

Trigger Pulse Input


Echo Pulse Output
0V Ground
Electric Parameter

Working Voltage
Working Current
Working Frequency
Max Range
Min Range
MeasuringAngle
Trigger Input Signal
Echo Output Signal

DC 5 V
15mA
40Hz
4m
2cm
15 degree
10uS TTL pulse
Input TTL lever signal and the range in
proportion

Dimension

45*20*15mm
TC3200

DESCRPTON
The TCS3200 and TCS3210 programmable color light-to-frequency converters that combine
confi- gurable silicon photodiodes and a current-to-fre- quency converter on a single
monolithic CMOS integrated circuit. The output is a square wave (50% duty cycle) with
frequency directly propor- tional to light intensity (irradiance). The full-scale output
frequency can be scaled by one of three preset values via two control input pins. Digital
inputs and digital output allow direct interface to a microcontroller or other logic circuitry.
Output enable (OE) places the output in the high-impedance state for multiple-unit sharing of
a microcontroller input line.In the TCS3200, the light-to-frequency converter reads an 8 x 8
array of photodiodes. Sixteen photodiodes have blue filters, 16 photodiodes have green filters,
16 photodiodes have red filters, and 16 photodiodes are clear with no filters.In the TCS3210,
the light-to-frequency converter reads a 4 x 6 array of photodiodes. Six photodiodes have blue
filters, 6 photodiodes have green filters, 6 photodiodes have red filters, and 6 photodiodes are
clear with no filters.The four types (colors) of photodiodes are interdigitated to minimize the
effect of non-uniformity of incident irradiance. All photodiodes of the same color are
connected in parallel. Pins S2 and S3 are used to select which group of photodiodes (red, green,
blue, clear) are active. Photodiodes are 110 m x 110m in size and are on 134-m centers.
Terminal Functions
TERMINA

I/O

L NAME
GND

OE

OUT

DESCRIPTI
ON
Power supply ground. All voltages are referenced to GND.
Enable for fo (active low).

S0, S1

1, 2

Output frequency scaling selection inputs.

S2, S3

7, 8

Photodiode type selection inputs.

VDD

Output frequency (fo).

Supply voltage

Table 1. Selectable Options


S
L0

S1
L

OUTPUT FREQUENCY SCALING


(fo) down
Power

2%

S2
L

S
3
L

Red

PHOTODIODE TYPE

20%

Blue

100%

Clear (no filter)

Green

Available Options

DEVICE

TCS3200

40C to 85C

PACKAGE
LEADS
SOIC8

TCS3210

40C to 85C

SOIC8

PACKAGE
DESIGNATOR
D

ORDERING
NUMBER
TCS3200D

TCS3210D

Recommended Operating Conditions

5.5

UNI
T
V

High-level input voltage, VIH

VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V

VDD

Low-level input voltage, VIL

VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V

0.8

40

70

TY
P
4.5

M
A

UNI
T
V

0.2
5

0.4
0
5

Supply voltage, VDD

Operating free-air temperature range, TA

MIN

NOM

2.7

MAX

Electrical Characteristics at TA = 25C, VDD = 5 V (unless otherwise noted)


VOH

PARAMET
ER
High-level output voltage

IOH = 2 mA

VOL

Low-level output voltage

IOL = 2 mA

IIH

High-level input current

IIL

Low-level input current

IDD

Supply current

Full-scale frequency (See Note 4)


Temperature coefficient of responsivity
kSV
S

Supply voltage sensitivity

TEST CONDITIONS

MIN
4

5
Power-on mode

1.4

Power-down mode
500

S0 = H, S1 = L

100

S0 = L, S1 = H

10

700 nm, 25C TA


70C= 5 V 10%
V
DD

NOTE 4: Full-scale frequency is the maximum operating frequency of the device without saturation.

A
mA

0.1

S0 = H, S1 = H

V
A

60
0
12
0
12

kHz

20
0.

ppm/
C
%/ V

kHz
kHz

QTR1A
Functional Description

The Pololu QTR-1A reflectance sensor carries a single infrared LED and phototransistor pair.
The phototransistor is connected to a pull-up resistor to form a voltage divider that produces
an analog voltage output between 0 V and VIN (which is typically 5 V) as a function of the
reflected IR. Lower output voltage is an indication of greater reflection. For a similar sensor
with a digital I/O-compatible output, see the QTR-1RC reflectance sensor.
The LED current-limiting resistor is set to deliver approximately 17 mA to the LED when
VIN is 5 V. The current requirement can be met by some microcontroller I/O lines, allowing
the sensor to be powered up and down through an I/O line to conserve power.
This sensor was designed to be used with the board parallel to the surface being sensed.
Because of its small size, multiple units can easily be arranged to fit various applications such
as line sensing and proximity/edge detection. For a line sensor with eight of these units
arranged in a row, please see the QTR-8A reflectance sensor array; for a similar array of three
slightly different sensor components, see the QTR-3A. For a smaller sensor with longer range,
and intended for use with the board perpendicular to the surface, please see the QTR-L-1A
reflectance sensor.

Interfacing with the QTR-1A Output


There are several ways you can interface with the QTR-1A output:

Use a microcontrollers analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to measure the voltage.

Use a comparator with an adjustable threshold to convert the analog voltage into a
digital (i.e. black/white) signal that can be read by the digital I/O line of a microcontroller.

Connect the output directly to the digital I/O line of a microcontroller and rely upon its
internal comparator.
This last method will work if you are able to get high reflectance from your white surface as
depicted in the left image, but will probably fail if you have a lower-reflectance signal profile
like the one on the right.

QTR-1A output 1/8" away from a spinning


white disk with a black line on it.

QTR-1A output 3/8" away from a spinning


white disk with a black line on it.

Included Components
This module has a single mounting hole intended for a #2 screw (not included); if this
mounting hole is not needed, this portion of the PCB can be ground off to make the unit even
smaller. The reflectance sensor ships with a 3-pin 0.1" header strip, which can be soldered in
the conventional perpendicular orientation or parallel to the PCB, as shown below. You can
also solder wires, such as ribbon cable, directly to the pads for the smallest installation.

SM-S4303R servo
Description
The SM-S4303R is a standard-sized servo that has been built by SpringRC specifically for
continuous rotation, making it an easy way to get your robot moving. It features two ball
bearings on the output shaft for reduced friction, and it offers easy access to the rest-point
adjustment potentiometer. This is the most popular continuous rotation servo we carry.

Overview
The SM-S4303R is a standard-sized servo that has been built by SpringRC specifically for
continuous rotation. At 6 V, it has a maximum rotation speed of 54 RPM (no-load) and can
produce up to 71 oz-in (5.1 kg-cm) of torque. It features two ball bearings on the output shaft
for reduced friction, and it offers easy access to the rest-point adjustment potentiometer. The
servo can be controlled using a direct connection to a single microcontroller I/O line without
any additional electronics, which makes it a great actuator for beginner robotics projects.
The SM-S4303R continuous rotation servo converts standard RC servo position pulses into
continuous rotation speed. The default rest point is 1.5 ms, but this can be adjusted by using a
small slotted screwdriver to turn the middle-point positioner. Pulse widths above the rest point
result in counterclockwise rotation, with speed increasing as the pulse width increases; pulse
widths below the rest point result in clockwise rotation, with speed increasing as the pulse
width decreases.