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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016. pp.

28-38

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


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ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2016. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

A Review of the Effects of Syrian Refugees Crisis on Lebanon


Issam Atala *
Sagesse University Beirut Lebanon.
*Corresponding author: info@issamatala.com

Keywords

Abstract

Syrian Refugees
Human rights
Unemployment
Socioeconomic Impact
Sectarian-Political Impact
Corruption

Lebanon has entered its fifth year as a country holding the largest number of Syrian refugees in the
region fleeing the war in Syria. All regions and cities in Lebanon with a high concentration of Syrian
refugees share a similar extended marginality, underdevelopment, and have a weak infrastructure.
Syrian refugees enjoy different levels of political and legal conditions, freedom of mobility, access to
goods and services, access to the labor market all across their geographical settlements within Lebanon.
The Syrian refugee crisis has now become a threat to the stability of Lebanon.
This paper shows the shifting developments of the refugee crisis in Lebanon since the beginning of the
war in Syria. It analyses, researches, explains, and evaluates the result of the Syrian Refugees on the
economy, health, education, environment, and transportation sector resulting in overcrowding,
competition for jobs and businesses, threat to security and safety through the implementation of a mixed
method approach using both primary and secondary data.
The main issue is to evaluate to what extend the Syrian refugees crisis impacted Lebanon. A survey was
conducted in all regions of Lebanon; the respondents are from different age group, different background,
different income and different educational level. The data was analyzed using SPSS.
The aim of this research is to disclose the mismanagement of the crisis that shape the State of Lebanon's
policy towards it. The work deployed by NGOs and UNHCR agencies in Lebanon could not replace
Lebanese government responsibilities and tasks. Funds, rules and legislations to Lebanese governments
are becoming critical if the countrys stability is to be guaranteed. There is more need than ever to take
actions assuming the responsibilities of maintaining and protecting Lebanon from a catastrophic
situation.
In its conclusion this paper proposes guidelines to regulate and manage the presence of the Syrian
refugees along with a needed law for migrant protecting both the refugees and the citizens of Lebanon.

1.

Introduction

History is founded in the context of the past but created to inform the future (Archibald R. R., 1999). Historians are frequently asked: what is the
usage or significance of studying History? Why what happened years ago matter? The answer is that History is unavoidable. It studies the past
and the legacies of the past in the present. Studying History is essential for every person. It is vital for rooting people in time (Corfield, 2008).
Moreover, it gives out the ways in which societies interact and communicate with each other. It helps the human being define its identity and
develop essential skills for good citizenship (Archibald R. R., 1999). By learning about the causes and effects of events in History, civilized
people can learn better ways to deal with conflict among individuals and nations (Mapriem, 2009).
1.1 Lebanon: the democratic republic
Lebanon is called a democratic republic with a multi confessional and pluralistic society; it has long been hoped to be an example for the
peaceful coexistence of multi ethnic and multi religious groups based on tolerance and respect for human rights. Unfortunately, it has often been
an arena for internal strife and external interferences. It has paid and continues to pay a high price to maintain its colorful mosaic amongst
extremely fundamentalist and totalitarian regimes (Ekmekji, 2012).
Forty years and Lebanon is still paying the heaviest price for regional turmoil, international deals and compromises, citizens backwardness and
political administrative corruption; forty years of suffering a suffering in most cases passive and nonresistant. It is high time for a Change to
ensure the safety and stability of this country (Younan & Younan).
1.2 Syrian refugee crisis
To date, Lebanon and Syria, two neighboring countries, do not have clear official demarcating lines identifying their borders. Since the
beginning of the Syrian crisis in 2011, Lebanon generously maintained an open border policy and permitted refugees to temporarily, but freely
invade its territory. The huge influx of refugees from Syria has been one of the largest humanitarian emergencies of its kind in the world for
many years. Lebanon has the highest proportion of Syrian refugees compared to any other country in the world. The U.N. refugees agency has
officially registered more than 1.5 million Syrian refugees.
Lebanon has no clearly designated Syrian refugee camps, the refugees are housed on an ad-hoc basis within the Lebanese society. A percentage
of Syrian refugees are renting houses for accommodation while others are squatting in abandoned buildings and others are living in empty shops,
community halls or other spaces, or pitching tents on privately owned land.

2.

Research Hypothesis

How can Lebanon protect itself from a crisis that is caused by a huge number of refugees when its infrastructure cannot cater for its own
population? As the crisis in Syria daily intensifies with thousands continuing to flee to Lebanon, shortage of humanitarian needs is rapidly
escalating; the open door hospitality displayed by Lebanon was taken for granted and resulted in serious challenges that such measures affect the
countrys internal stability and commitments to their citizens.

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A Review of the Effects of Syrian Refugees Crisis on Lebanon


International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

3.

Main Outcomes

3.1 Economic outcome


The refugees put an additional strain on an already stagnant economy due to poor government performance, and policy. Most business sectors in
Lebanon have been impacted by this crisis. As an example the exports sector has seen a sharp recession attributed to the closure of the land route
through Syria due to the war. In addition, foreign direct investment fell, and the ongoing conflict makes it doubtful that investors confidence
will recuperate soon.
3.2 Tourism outcome
Several countries have forbidden their citizens to travel to Lebanon due to the sudden eruptions of violence, explosions, bombs, and armed
clashes occurring at different times in major cities around Lebanon. Obviously, this has hit tourism quite hard and resulted in a considerable drop
in the number of visitors from the Gulf and other countries due to threats and the deteriorating security situation.
3.3 Human development and social outcome:
The already severely constrained countrys health and education system was ill-prepared to handle the increased demand resulting from the flow
of Syrian refugees. Besides, the competition in jobs and businesses imposed by the Syrian.
Health and Education outcome:
There is an increase in demand for an already poor public health service. The same problems hit the education sector: The increase in demand
for education services arising from the Syrian children refugees is leading to a rise in fiscal costs, and a significant trend towards non-formal
education. Moreover private education is highly expensive and a great number of refugees are finding themselves unable to continue their
education and therefore have to work, hence a further decrease in job opportunities for the Lebanese labor force.
Competition in jobs and businesses:
Unemployment is rising in all sectors. The Syrian spillovers are further amplifying already difficult labor market conditions and are predicted to
result in more and more unemployment and poverty. This is leading to a fueling competition and anger between the Lebanese hosts and their
Syrian guests, as both have to compete over scarce jobs where low waged Syrian laborers are driving the Lebanese workers out of the labor
market. Furthermore, Syrian refugees have already started opening businesses in Lebanon at competitive rates increasing the threat to Lebanese
businesses (ILO/ROAS, 2013).
Social cohesion:
Overloading, saturation of basic public services, and competition for employments are among the causes of the deterioration of the social
relations between the Lebanese hosts and the Syrian refugees. Moreover, it shouldnt be neglected that cultural differences emerged as additional
triggers of the lack of social empathy between the Lebanese communities and the Syrian refugee families.
3.4 Infrastructure outcome:
The infrastructure network, mainly water supply, electricity and sanitation, was already facing severe pre-crisis challenges in balancing supply
growth with demand for management. The network was mostly expanded on an ad-hoc system, and severe shortages in supply are being faced
by the population.
Solid Waste Management - SWM
Solid waste management is a big challenge for the Lebanese authorities mainly due to the increased waste generated by the Syrian refugees, the
burden posed on the municipalities as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of financial resources, the lack of
understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire
handling system functioning (Guerrero, Maas, & Hogland, 2012). Solid wastes are being randomly discharged without concern about the result
on the environment. The gradual daily quantity of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) attributed to refugees is predicted to reach 324,568 tons per
year by the end of 2014. This growing annual waste generated by refugees is notable and is equivalent to 15.7 percent of the solid waste
generated by Lebanese citizens prior to the crisis (Ministry of Environment, 2014).
The key effects of the Syrian refugees on solid waste management can be categorized as follows:

Overstressing of existing solid waste management infrastructure

Increased pollution of surface

Increased pollution of ground water

Increase in open dumping and open burning

Increased risks from health care waste


Environmental effect
The high increase in the number of population aggravated by the influx of Syrian refugees is giving rise to serious environmental issues in a
country where the environment has been neglected by the officials and has been suffering degradation for many years before the crisis. The large
amount of refugees deplete and pollute scarce water resources. Other effects include soil erosion and deforestation especially in the non-formal
camps located in the Northern region of Lebanon. Lebanons environment and natural resources are being seriously affected and the extent of
degradation and damage occurring across many environmental sectors are becoming very large (Ministry of Environment, 2014).
The negative effects of the Syrian refugees on environment can be categorized as follows:

effect on the water and wastewater sectors

effect on air quality

effect on solid waste sectors

effect on the land use and ecosystems


Transportation and Overcrowding
Major roads and streets within the main cities and main arteries leading to the cities are having to cater for a greater number of cars, vehicles,
and vans although their road capacity is limited, hence creating chaos and havoc resulting in an increased number of accidents. Overcrowding is
becoming a very significant problem in many host communities where a 100% increase in population is being witnessed.

Issam Atala *

30

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

4.

Need for the study (importance)

It is a fact that as in all cities, changes are inevitable at all levels. The Syrian conflict is increasingly affecting everyday life in Lebanon. Lebanon
now has more than 1.5 million Syrian refugees, with more arriving every day. It is predicted that by the end of 2015 one in three people in
Lebanon could be a Syrian refugee. The image of the great Lebanon is slowly fading away (Eldebo & Midgley, 2013).
For Lebanon, the conflict is different than what is internationally seen, for the regime and stability are constantly being threatened. What needs
to be highlighted is how Lebanon should deal with this crisis in order to survive. There is more than ever need to understand the extent of the
crisis and its implications on every Lebanese citizens future and to search for solutions to remedy it. The major concerns emphasized in this
study are:

The focus on how the actual Syrian refugees crisis has become a threat for Lebanon existence as well as the additional costs imposed
on Lebanese daily lives.

Suggest realistic solutions and strategies in order to decrease this large outflow and protect Lebanon from demise.

Recommend effective actions for a short and long term basis.


The need for the study is:

To show the essence of the threats that are being imposed on the Lebanese society caused by the Syrian Refugees.

To show the importance of developing and implementing strategies, solutions, actions, and laws for Refugees in order to protect both
the Refugees and the local citizens.

To point out how the politicians should deal with such scenarios.

To avoid further deterioration as the existing corrupt political system has led Lebanon to the edge of the abyss.

Purpose of the study (objectives)


The purpose of this study is to assess and analyze the effect of the war in Syria on Lebanon. It will attempt to survey the nature, causes, and
consequences of the war on Lebanon, weaving together social, political, cultural and economic history. This study will hopefully provide an
understanding of the vibrant, broken, resilient and ever hopeful Lebanese citizen, while tracing the intricacies of this fascinating society. Thus,
the intention of writing this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of a topic that is highly debatable where the legal aspects have strong
political implications.
The study aims to analyze and shed light on the consequence of the enormous influx of refugees from Syria on hosting communities in Lebanon.
It seeks to capture the perceptions of host community members about how their lives were before the refugee crisis, and how they have been
affected by the arrival of the refugees. The study also aims at developing a framework for bridging the gaps in perception of the future. It will
investigate the roles that the national and international responses have played in improving or intensifying these consequences, and making
specific recommendations (Eldebo & Midgley, 2013).
In addition, the study will aim to provide indicative tools to assess the consequence of Syrian refugees in Lebanon by documenting key questions
related to:

Existing handling mechanisms.

Existing social and economic conditions.

Respondents fears and aspirations regarding the future.


It also highlights the unacceptable levels of corruption reached within the public offices in Lebanon in their dealing with the Syrian refugees
cases and the necessity to combat it. Even though corruption has always existed in Lebanon, its effects were expanded after the end of the 15
years civil war and are still increasing and intensifying till now. Corruption in Lebanon governs all sectors of society and all divisions of
government. The effects of corruption are remarkable and can be classified as political costs rendering fragile the relationship between citizens
and the state, financial costs especially in terms of investment and lack of corporate governance, as well as socio economic costs. Moreover, the
consequences of corruption have affected the politicians which lead to a lack of proper legal implementation mechanisms regarding the Syrian
refugee crisis.
This study explores critical ideas in the field of human rights focusing on the significance of citizenship, notions of hospitality in face to state
sovereignty and notions on legality in managing the Syrian refugee crisis. It analyzes how the right to have rights for Syrian refugees is
negatively affecting the Lebanese communities.
The overall purpose of this study is consequently to find an answer to a set of research questions. A well-managed and planned research design
guarantees that this is done in the most accurate way possible. Hence, the research design is a global plan for relating the conceptual research
problems to the relevant empirical research. It states what methods are going to be used and what data is required. As a result, various research
questions have been raised and tested via a questionnaire and can be summarized in one global question: to what extent the Syrian refugees
crisis affected Lebanon?

5.

Scope of the study

The scope of this study is to present a vision of a nation in regard to the causes and consequences of the Syrian uprising and its effects on its
state and society. Lebanon already endures the problem of Palestinian refugees who arrived since 66 years ago on a temporary basis and have
now become permanent residents threatening the stability and security of this country and imposing a heavy burden on all its sectors. Lebanon
fears a repeat of the Palestinian experience with Syrian refugees if the war in Syria continues with no actions and strategies being taken to speed
up the return of these refugees to Syria. Many researches and articles compare Syrian refugees with their Palestinian predecessors; as a result
both will certainly change the weak balance of the Lebanese population and affect the socio and political situation of the Lebanese State and
society (Pizzi, 2015).
In an attempt to represent a possible explanation for what is being observed in Lebanon nowadays, this study formulates a hypothesis based on
the impact of the Syrian refugee crisis, and is set out to test whether there is a relationship between Syrian refugees and the fallback of
socioeconomic and political situation in Lebanon? In other words, if the Syrian refugees negatively do impact the weak stability of Lebanon!

6.

Methodology of the research: data collection

This study is intended to create a platform for new debates on Syrian refugees presence in Lebanon and the rights discourse for this particular
group, by altering those previous assumptions that permeate the public discourse, politics and Lebanese law.

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

The research strategy started by gathering and studying some background information regarding the effects of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon;
thereafter the research questions were decided. The research questions require a general overview of the crisis of the Syrian refugees on Lebanon
in order to identify internal and external factors that are increasing their outcomes.
Both primary and secondary data are used in this research project. The primary data has been collected firstly by observing Lebanese citizens
reaction regarding the effect of Syrian refugees in order to reveal raw and critical data that is vitally useful to this study, secondly by a statistical
field study conducted out of a quantitative questionnaire designed to determine the general opinion of the Lebanese citizens, the issue of
granting Syrian refugees rights along with specific needs for reform in the legality of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Questions for the
questionnaire are composed and structured based on the research from significant literature within the effects of Syrian refugees on the Lebanese
citizens.
The questionnaire was distributed randomly in all regions of Lebanon, the surveyed individual are from different age group, different
background, different income and different educational level. The data was analyzed using SPSS.
On the other hand, the secondary data has mainly been collected from literature review in order to place the research findings and programmatic
experience within the wider context of knowledge that had already been generated from academic works and reports written by researchers
within different perceptions from both local and international communities and media coverage review such as journal articles, interviews, and
TV shows. Moreover, it has been critically evaluated and collected from different resources such as Historical data, web information, letters,
books, and official statistics gathered from officials of local, national and international aid organizations such as GOL, CDR, MOF, REACH,
UNICEF, and specifically UNHCR.
The results from the gathered primary and secondary data are dissected and analyzed in order to identify the most significant results. Moreover,
some conclusions will be drawn based on the results related to the research questions.

7.

Syrian refugees in Lebanon

For more than four years, Lebanese communities have hosted refugees in record numbers. Lebanons Syrian refugee issue, which began with
700 persons, has reached nowadays more than one million person, a number which represents 37% which means more than a quarter of
Lebanons overall population till the end of 2014 (World Bank, Lebanon Bears the Brunt of the Economic and Social Spillovers of the Syrian
Conflict, 2013). This huge number of refugees streaming across its 360 kilometer border with Syria represents today a gloomy milestone
aggravated by swiftly draining resources and a host community overextended to breaking point. Moreover, UNHCR estimated that about 1.5
million Syrians have entered Lebanon by the end of 2014. This huge number of Syrians can be credited to the long-standing social, cultural,
economic, and political relations between the two neighboring countries, in addition to the vast and typically porous border separating these two
countries (FAO, The Impact of the Syria Crisis on Agriculture Food Security and Livelihoods in Lebanon, 2014)

8.

Descriptive statistics

Results of the survey by respondents were analyzed to identify, interpret and explore the relationship between Syrian refugees presence and its
result on Lebanese hosts as well as determine the need for emerging and ongoing actions in this setting.
A. Respondents distribution by gender
Table 1. distribution by gender

Gender

Gender * Lebanese Districts Crosstabulation


Lebanese Districts (LD)
Percentages
Beirut
North
Mount
Beirut
Bekaa
Suburbs Lebanon Lebanon
Count
24
8
9
26
5
Male
% within LD
54.5%
42.1%
64.3%
51.0%
55.6%
Count
20
11
5
25
4
Female
% within LD
45.5%
57.9%
35.7%
49.0%
44.4%

South
Lebanon
11
61.1%
7
38.9%

Total
83
53.5%
72
46.5%

From the Respondents by gender table, 155 respondents filled out the questionnaire. Of the 155, 83 (53.5%) are male and 72 (46.5%) are
female. The Beirut Suburbs and North Lebanon regions show large difference in the number of respondents where 64% of respondents were
male in North Lebanon and 42% in Beirut Suburbs. That shows the highest percentage of respondents being females.
B. Respondents distribution by age
Table 2. Respondents by age

Percentages
20-25
25-30
Age of Responder
30-40
40+

Age of Responder * Lebanese Districts Crosstabulation


Lebanese Districts (LD)
Beirut
North
Mount
Beirut
Bekaa
Suburbs Lebanon Lebanon
Count
4
3
3
12
5
% within LD 9.1%
15.8%
21.4%
23.5%
55.6%
Count
16
6
4
22
2
% within LD36.4%
31.6%
28.6%
43.1%
22.2%
Count
12
8
5
13
2
% within LD27.3%
42.1%
35.7%
25.5%
22.2%
Count
12
2
2
4
0
% within LD27.3%
10.5%
14.3%
7.8%
0.0%

South
Lebanon
5
27.8%
5
27.8%
6
33.3%
2
11.1%

Total
32
20.6%
55
35.5%
46
29.7%
22
14.2%

Issam Atala *

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

From the Respondents by age table, out of the 155 respondents, 55 (36%) corresponds to the 25-30 age group (majority of respondents),
followed by 46 (30%) who belong to the 30-40 age group, then by 32 (21%) who belong to the 20-25 age group, and then by 22 (14%) who
belong to the 40+ age group. The reason behind the similar percentage between 25-30 and 30-40 age group categories is that these two groups
are highly involved in university (MBA) and work environment.
C. Respondents distribution by educational level
Table 3. Respondents by educational level
Educational Level of Responder * Lebanese Districts Crosstabulation
Lebanese Districts (LD)
Percentages
Beirut
North
Mount
Beirut
Bekaa
Suburbs Lebanon Lebanon
Count
2
8
5
5
5
Bac II or none
% within LD
5%
42%
36%
10%
56%
Count
22
7
5
15
3
Educational University Graduate BA
% within LD
50%
37%
36%
29%
33%
Level of
Count
10
2
3
28
1
Responder University Graduate MBA
% within LD
23%
11%
21%
55%
11%
Count
10
2
1
3
0
Higher Education
% within LD
23%
11%
7%
6%
0%

South
Lebanon
4
22%
10
56%
2
11%
2
11%

Total
29
19%
62
40%
46
30%
18
12%

As exhibited in the Table above, 56% of respondents holding BA degree are in South Lebanon, followed by 50% in Beirut, then 37%, 36%, and
33% in Beirut Suburbs, North Lebanon, and Bekaa respectively, and then by 29% in Mount Lebanon. On the other hand, 55% of respondents
holding an MBA degree belong to Mount Lebanon, however 11% of respondents only belong to Beirut Suburbs, Bekaa, and South Lebanon. The
higher education shows the highest percentage in Beirut with 23% followed by 11% in Beirut Suburbs and South Lebanon where Mount
Lebanon displays the lowest percentage 6% indicating some contradictions due to the fact that the higher education institutions are mainly
located in Beirut and Mount Lebanon.
D. Respondents classification based on monthly income
The table below shows 43% of respondents earning between $1,000 and $1,999 belong to Beirut, followed by 41% for Mount Lebanon, then by
36% and 32% for North Lebanon, and Beirut Suburbs respectively, and then by 22% for South Lebanon.
Table 4. Respondents by monthly income

Educational Level of Responder * Lebanese Districts Crosstabulation


Lebanese Districts (LD)
Percentages
Beirut
North
Mount
Beirut
Bekaa
Suburbs Lebanon Lebanon
Count
2
8
5
5
5
Bac II or none
% within LD
4.5%
42.1%
35.7%
9.8%
55.6%
Count
22
7
5
15
3
Educational University Graduate BA
% within LD
50.0%
36.8%
35.7%
29.4%
33.3%
Level of
Count
10
2
3
28
1
Responder University Graduate MBA
% within LD
22.7%
10.5%
21.4%
54.9%
11.1%
Count
10
2
1
3
0
Higher Education
% within LD
22.7%
10.5%
7.1%
5.9%
0.0%

South
Lebanon
4
22.2%
10
55.6%
2
11.1%
2
11.1%

Total
29
18.7%
62
40.0%
46
29.7%
18
11.6%

It should be noted that Bekaa, South Lebanon, and Beirut Suburbs display respectively the highest percentage 89%, 61%, and 53% of
respondents earning less than 999$ which is considered based on the average cost of living below poverty level and pure human slavery. A 0%
of the two categories of monthly income (1,000-1,999$, and 3,000+) is displayed in Bekaa.
The main data collected is based on the following:
A

City Demographic

A.1

How does the number of Syrian refugees population residing in your city compared from 3 years ago
till now:
Number significantly increased
Number increased a little
Number remained the same
Number decreased a little
Number significantly decreased
Top 3 reasons why Syrian refugees have settled in your city:d
Access to health services
Access to jobs
Access to education
Access to natural resources (land for agriculture)
Available housing
Security
People knew family / friends here

A.2

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

A.3

Top 3 accommodation contexts for Syrian refugees in your city:f


Rented apartment
Unfinished apartment / building
Hosted by another family
Collective shelter
Basement / Garage
Tent

Access to basic services

B.1

How have the following basic services been affected by the Syrian refugees crisis?
Operating as
Strained but
Very affected in
before
coping
some areas

Very affected in
all areas

Electricity supply
Water supply
Waste water
management
Solid waste
management
Health services
Education

Syrian refugees outcome

C.1

Has the unemployment rate been affected by the Syrian refugees during the last 3 years in your
community?
Rate significantly increased
Rate increased a little
Rate remained the same
Rate decreased a little
Rate significantly decreased
Have wages been changed during the last 3 years in your community?
Rate significantly increased
Rate increased a little
Rate remained the same
Rate decreased a little
Rate significantly decreased
Have prices of everyday goods and services been affected by the Syrian refugees?
Rate significantly increased
Rate increased a little
Rate remained the same
Rate decreased a little
Rate significantly decreased

C.2

C.3

C.4

How have attitudes towards hosting Syrian refugees changed during the past 3 years?
Greatly improved
Somewhat improved
Remained the same
Somewhat worsened
Greatly worsened

C.5

Has your city witnessed an increase in any of the following since the onset of the Syrian refugee crisis?
Violent crime
Vandalism
Theft
Youth violence
Domestic violence
None

C.6

How safe do you feel in your city?


Very unsafe
Relatively unsafe
Relatively safe
Very safe

Issam Atala *

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

If unsafe, do you believe that this is related to the Syrian conflict and its consequences?
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
For the questions C.7 to C.11, please indicate to what extent you agree with the following statements:
C.7

C.8

The Syrian conflict is the main reason for the stability and security deterioration in Lebanon?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
The economic situation is getting worse due to the inflow of large number of Syrian refugees?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree

C.9

The new visa regulation concerning Syrians coming to Lebanon was an important decision taken by the
Lebanese government in order to restrict the increase of refugees?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree

C.10

The establishment of formal camps for hosting Syrian refugees is an important medium to restrict the
random distribution of Syrian refugees across the country?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Lebanon should establish an effective emergency response and denote a law concerning the rights of
Syrian refugee in Lebanon?
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly disagree

C.11

This research study described the Lebanese perceptions about the consequence of the Syrian refugees on their life as well as their responses to
various solutions about the crisis. The findings have revealed that the Syrian conflict is the main reason for the stability, security and socioeconomic deteriorations.

9.

Conclusion

The aim of this paper was primarily to assess the effects of Syrian refugees on the daily life of the Lebanese people, and to develop an
appropriate framework that can serve as an organizational tool for managing the crisis for the wellbeing of the Lebanese people and Syrian.
9.1 Main suggestions
Before discussing the recommendations, it is essential to say that this research study acts as a trigger to unleash an emergency call for the
Lebanese people and the international community that Lebanon is in Danger.
Resolving or at least curbing the inflow of Syrian refugees would lessen the growing strains on Lebanon; however the prospects for reducing this
inflow are dim in the short term without any national active work plan.
The plan is composed of three phases, with each phase overlapping the next, consistent with the complex nature of the Syrian refugees crisis:
A. Emergent response phase
B. Recovery phase
C. Continuity phase
These points will best position Lebanon and its institutions to respond effectively and efficiently in face to this crisis where the main objective of
this plan is to ensure the return and resettlement of Syrian refugees to their homeland Syria.
A. Emergent response phase - the call plan - includes the following steps:

The foundation of a National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC). The NCMCs composition for an effective
coordination and implementation of response and relief measures in the wake of Syrian refugees crisis must include a
member from every Lebanese ministries as well as municipalities where a high number of refugees resides. In order to
provide an appropriate environment, this committee will develop, maintain and refine: a multi-disciplinary crisis response
team, provide a well-defined communication system, and maintain a common framework for dealing with the current
situation in order to return Lebanon to its pre-crisis level of functioning, as soon as possible. This committee is characterized
by three Cs, Command, Communication and Control, where best, updated and credible information about the location, the

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

number, the employment situation should be gathered and received by the team management about each refugee in
coordination with the UNHCR leading the way to the best suited orders, decisions and communications between the various
public institutions (ministries and municipalities).
The clear demarcation of the border between Syria and Lebanon with effective and strict control to deter illegal entrance and
terrorists.
The consideration of a greater role to be granted and given to municipalities in the determination of the refugee status within
its borders in coordination with the UNHCR and the Lebanese authorities.

Thus, the outcomes of this phase shall be able to provide the country with an acceptable level of preparedness towards the Syrian crisis
facilitating effective and coordinated actions.
B.

Recovery phase is a complex task that includes both shortterm and longterm actions to help Lebanon return to normal physical
operations and overlaps with both response and continuity planning to help the country resume normal economic and social operations.
It includes the following consecutive steps:

The establishment of temporarily small-scale camps in partnership with the UNHCR, NGOs and the international
community in line with international standards. Such camps would encompass several advantages such as the grouping of
the assimilated Syrians into local communities or urban areas into a specific geographical area, the restriction of the
distribution of refugees scattered all overall Lebanese districts, the better control over the Syrian number, the more coherent
aid delivery and better perspectives of security monitoring to restrain refugee populations from being exploited as safe haven
for armed and jihadist groups.

The activation of municipal role; municipalities are key actors in this national plan. Effective local emergency management
is comprehensive in scope, risk-based and involves collaboration with other officials and agencies within the community and
located at other levels of Lebanese government. Nowadays, the municipalities need greater capacity building and support
considering the rapid rise in population coupled with the decrease in available resources and the strain on current resources.
The municipal needs can be classified in four areas:
Capacity building that municipalities should call for is municipal-staff training in technical and crisis management
skills, coordination, and planning.
Funding are needed to cover the response of the refugee crisis.
Navigation of national processes and coordination with ministries. Specifically, some existing bureaucratic
systems and processes at the central government level hinder municipalities to perform their municipal duties.
Need for equipment to support the municipal activities and duties, such as waste collection and water provision.
Additional waste bins and trucks are needed to increase the number of solid waste collection cycle, as well as
additional pipes to improve water access and sewage management.

The Syrian war is not in all districts of Syria. Thus, some districts are witnessing fights where others are not. The Lebanese
government along with the Syrian authorities in collaboration with the international communities, UNHCR and the
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (ICRC) should work and coordinate together in order to:
Understand the situation on the Syrian ground and gather reliable information about the areas where refugees seek
to return or resettle in a way to minimize the challenges they face upon arrival ensuring the safety of return.
Understand the political and security situation of intended destinations including freedom of movement, and the
availability of housing, assistance and protection for women, children, minorities, and other vulnerable groups.
Examine the procedures for returning or resettling, including details on what required documentation, available
modes of transportation, and other administrative requirements needed.
Acquire important information about potential housing disputes, opportunities for employment, and availability of
public services and facilities.
Support the reintegration and rehabilitation needs to promote long-term economic and social development for
those who return or resettle to a new Syrian geographical destination; this is essential to ensure that refugees who
return or resettle are not abandoned but are given the support needed to rebuild their lives over the long term.

C.

Continuity phase is an ongoing, comprehensive process to ensure the continuity or uninterrupted provision of operations and services.
It includes the following steps:

Put into action the return and resettlement mechanism where refugees will be gradually sent back to Syria.

Plan programs to reunite families and offer support systems to assure access to essential services (shelter, water, food,
sanitation, and health services, infrastructure and education)
It should be noted that the international dimensional area of this comprehensive national emergency and continuity management plan
represented by the international communities is involved within this phase with the following commitments:

The provision of adequate resources to Lebanon in order to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, comprising through
granting development aid to support Lebanese infrastructures affected by the mass inflow and then tackle the rising concern
in the local population

The provision of more support to self-reliance activities for Syrian refugees in order to ensure that they are less dependent on
subsidies and assistance.

The intensification of efforts to raise the number of places for Syrian refugees internationally on resettlement, humanitarian
admission, or other practices of admission, particularly through the activation of the temporary protection EU Directive.

9.2 Recommendations
It is essential that Lebanese Government, donor agencies, and NGOs, work and cooperate together to empower and support municipalities all
over Lebanon to strengthen their capacity in order to reconcile local-level challenges, and strengthen the capacity of the National Crisis
Management Committee (NCMC).
Recommendations to the Lebanese Government: set a national strategy for linking Ministries with Local Governance and improving
coordination processes
1.

Change current trends in refugee crisis treatment

Issam Atala *

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Engage with municipalities & streamline linkages between ministries:


Engage the Syrian authorities, international community and the ICRC to work closely with public sectors and civil society to realize
necessary conditions, and put in action the return and resettlement of refugees to Syria mechanism
Engage the private sector to work closely with public sectors and civil society to foster economic growth
Increase municipal administrative & fiscal capacity:
Anti - corruption efforts:

Recommendations to donors agencies: promote municipal / organizational collaboration and reform humanitarian architecture
1. Support medium to long-term approaches, including longer funding cycles:
2. Fund hybrid approaches to relief & development:
3. Encourage implementing agencies to work in partnership with municipalities:
Recommendations to NGOs: partner with municipalities
1. Develop collaborative relationships through joint planning and implementation:
2. Build genuine partnerships with municipalities to build capacity:
3. Immediately increase and improve access to information for municipalities:
The suggestions made for the objectives are essential for the successful implementation of the plan. Moreover, the recommendations, stretching
over different areas and dimensions and ranging from improved governance to the well management of crisis, present a framework on which a
full action plan can be developed for Lebanon to flounce and recover from the corruption extended over the various public Lebanese sector. It is
also suggested that it is possible to evaluate the need for a National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC), based on a framework, as an
organizational arrangement for managing the crisis, in a scientifically responsible manner and to make recommendations on what can be done to
reject specific deficiencies.
The principles and philosophy of maintaining the sovereignty of Lebanon provide a valuable tool in the quest for public institutional excellence.
This paper attempted to make a contribution, in general, to the understanding of the importance of maintaining the stability of Lebanon.

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