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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics is the study of dynamics of gases, interaction between a


moving object and the atmosphere
Greek words aero air and dyne force or power

Introduction Aircraft

Any weight carrying device designed to be supported by air


Aerostat (device lighter than air) Air balloon, air ships
Aerodyne (device heavier than air)
o Power driven (fixed wing aircraft normal planes, seaplane,
amphibian aircraft, helicopters)
o Non-power driven (gliders)

Parts of An Small Aircraft

Main Parts
Wings
Power plane (Engine)
Tail plane
Fuselage
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BASIC AERODYNAMICS
Landing Gear
Functions of Parts of Small Aircraft

Fuselage
o Main body of a plane
o Connected to other part of the plane
o Carries passenger and pilot

Wings
o To produce lift force (Main function)
o Stores fuel
o Stability (Lateral left right (Rolling))
American English
Wings
Left
Right

British English
Main plane
Port
Starboard

Horizontal Stabilizer / Tail plane


o Only for stability purposes (Longitudinal up down (Pitching))
o Able to produce a little lift
o Stores little fuel
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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

o Fuel can be transported to main wing to control weight of plane


o Trimmable tail plane (Flexible wing, able to control direction of
wing)
Vertical Stabilizer / Fin
o Only for stability purposes (Directional left right (Yawing))

Rudder
o To produce directional stability (Directional left right (Yawing))
o Controlled by rudder paddle
o To go right, push the right side rubber pedal forward, rudder will go
the right

Elevators
o To produce pitching stability (Longitudinal up down (Pitching))
o When one goes up, the other will go up (Moves together)
o To go down, elevator must down, tail go up, nose go down
o Push control tower to go down

Ailerons
o To overcome stability (Lateral left right (Rolling))
o To produce rolling movement
o When one goes up, the other will go down (Interconnected left and
right)

Flaps
o
o
o
o

Produces lift during takeoff (More than aileron)


Produces drag during landing
Bigger than aileron
Controlled by lever in the cockpit

Propeller
o To produce thrust (Mechanical > Kinetic energy)
o To produce air movement around the plane
o Propeller engine, jet engine, piston engine

Landing gear
o For landing purposes
o To support plane on the ground
o Consist of brakes
o Must be kept back to avoid drag that uses more fuel

Cockpit / Flight deck


o To control the whole aircraft

Empennage (Consists of fin, rudder, tail plane and elevator)


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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

The

lift of a plane is affected by:


Volume of air (More air, more lift)
Density of air (Denser air, more lift)
Temperature of air (Hot air denser, more lift)

Function of Control Wheel, Control Column & Rubber


Pedals

Parts
Control
Wheel
(Yoke)
Control
Column
(Elevator)
Rudder/
Brake
Pedals

Function
To control the ailerons and the
roll axis (Roll)

To control the altitude of plane


(Pitch and Roll)

To turn the plane (Yaw)

*Banking is rolling and yawing


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Description
When the control
wheel is turned
LEFT, the plane
will roll LEFT
When the control
column is pulled
UP, the plane will
elevate UP
When the LEFT
rudder pedal is
pressed, the plane
will yaw to the left

BASIC AERODYNAMICS
Position of Aileron
Aileron down
Aileron up

Explanation
MORE lift due to higher pressure
at the bottom
LESS lift due to lower pressure at
the bottom

Parts of A Big Aircraft

Trailing edge flaps


Augment lift (More lift)
Augment drag
Leading edge flaps (Krueger)
Augment lift only (No drag)
Used during take off and landing
Slats
Delay stall (when hit AOA angle of attack)
o Stall is when all lift is destroyed
o Happens when AOA angle of attack is hit
o 15o 27o
The higher the angle of attack, the higher the lift
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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Nacelle
Engine housing (casing)
Cowling
Panel of nacelle that can be opened
Fixed on the nacelle
Pylon
Mounts the engine
Takes the thrust of engine
Take the rotation of engine
Takes vertical load (weight)
Protects the wing against fire (fire wall steel & titanium)
Spoilers
Kill lift
Slow the aircraft
Fixed almost 90o

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

Spoilers

Flight Spoilers

Speed Brakes

Ground Spoilers

On top of wing
spanwise

Flight spoiler
panel with
different mode
(Simultaneous
operation)

Ground spoiler
panels

Move in
conjunction with
UPGOING (one
aileron that goes
up only)

Moves up to
about 70 degree
and stays there

Moves up to 87
degrees and stays
there

Effective
ROLLING
movement

Operated by
speed brake lever

Bigger than speed


brake and air
brake
Opertaed by
speed brake lever
to move up and
activated after
landing

Operated by flight
control (yoke)

8.1 Earth Atmosphere

Most civil aircraft operate between Sea Level (SL) and 45,000 feet.
(Troposphere region 36000ft)
Composition of air
o Nitrogen (78%)
o Oxygen (21%)
o Carbon dioxide (0.03%)
o Inert gases (0.97%)
Sea Level Temperature (15oC)
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BASIC AERODYNAMICS

45o North Latitude (London)


As altitude increases, the temperature, pressure & density
decreases
Pressure should be maintained in a plane at 14,000ft (10 psi 14.7 psi)
TTSIE
o Troposphere
o Tropopause
o Stratosphere
o Ionosphere
o Exosphere

Speedbrakes & Ground spoilers Handle


Up:

Ground spoilers & Speedbrakes

Flight:
Speedbrakes

Armed:
None

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