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AC POWER

1. Electric Power Generation ac


DC or AC
Edison started dc power generation and transmission, 1882.
First DC transmission lines in Germany (2400 V dc, 59 km),
1882.
Nikolas Tesla invented ac induction synchronous motors,
1888.
First 3-phase ac transmission line in Germany (12 kV ac, 179
km), 1891
Coal or Natural Gas
39% coal, 27% natural gas, 19% nuclear, 6% hydro, 7%
renewable (wind=4.4%, biomass=1.7%, solar 0.4%,
geothermal=0.4%), 1% oil in 2015

2. Power and Energy

Energy (work) = power time


1 kWh = 0.5 lb of coal, 0.07 gallons of oil, 7.7 cubic feet of
natural gas, and 8200 gallons of dam water.

3. Power in Electric Circuits

P = I2R
In dc circuit, P = VI
In ac circuit, P = VI * pf

ac circuit
I
R
jL
V

R: resistance in
L: inductance in H
L: reactance in
Z = R + jL: impedance in
p.f.: power factor is cosine of the angle of the impedance
S = VI: apparent power in VA

Phasors
AC voltage:
v(t ) Vmax cos(t )
V
V max is the rms (root-mean-square) value of the
2
sinusoidal voltage.
The rms phasor representation of the voltage is as follows.
V V V cos jV sin
Examples:
v(t ) 169.7 cos(t 60) in phasor V 12060

i(t ) 100cos(t 45) in phasor I 70.745 50 j 50

Imaginary Number
4 2.
4 j 2 .
j 1 .

Complex Number in Rectangular Form


C1 3 j 4 (or 3 + 4j).
C2 12 j 5 .
C1 C2 [3 12] j[4 5] 15 j 9 .

C1C2 3 j 4 12 j 5 3 12 j 4 j 5 3 j 5 j 4 12
= 3 12 4 5 j 3 5 4 12 16 j 63 .

C = A + jB = Re{C} + jIm{C}
Im

Re
A

Complex Number in Polar Form

Eulers relation
e j cos j sin .
where is the phase in degrees.
C1 5e j 53.1 = 553.1 3 j 4
C C
where C is the magnitude and is the phase of C.

Im

Re

Polar form to rectangular form


C1 553.1 5cos(53.1) j 5sin(53.1) 3 j 4 .

Rectangular form to polar form

The magnitude:

C1 32 42 5 .
The phase:
4
tan 1 = 53.1
3

Multiplication
C2 12 j5 1322.62 .

C1C2 553.1 1322.6 (5)(13)(53.1 22.6) 6575.7

Example 1
Express the following complex numbers in the rectangular
form.
(b) 5180 (c) 2 135 (d) 260
(a) 245

Solution

1
1
j (2)
2 j 2
2
2
(b) 5cos180 j5sin180 5(1) j 5(0) 5
(c)
1 1
2 cos 135 j 2 sin 135 2
j
1 j
2
2

3
1
(d) 2 cos 60 j sin 60 2 j 2
1 j 3
2
2
(a) 2 cos 45 j 2sin 45 (2)

Example 2
Express the following complex numbers in the polar form.
(b) 2 j2
(c) 5
(d) j5
(a) 1 j 3

Solution
(a) magnitude = 1 3 = 2; phase = tan 1

3 = 60;

answer = 260
2
22 (2) 2 2 2 ; phase = tan 1 = 45;
2
answer = 2 2 45
(c) mag. = 5; phase = 180; answer = 5180
5
(d) mag. = 5; phase = tan 1 tan 1 = 90; answer =
0
590

(b) mag. =

PROBLEMS

1. Express the following complex numbers in the rectangular form.


(b) 10120 (c) 3 90 (d) 5 120
(a) 430
2. Express the following complex numbers in the polar form.
(d) j5
(a) 2 3 j 2 (b) 5 j 5 3 (c) 3
3. Do the following additions and multiplications.
(a) ( 2 3 j 2 )( 5 j 5 3 ) (b) 10120 + j3

Purely resistive load


v(t ) Vmax cos(t )

iR (t ) I R max cos(t )
V
I R max max
R
The instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor is
pR (t ) v(t )iR (t ) 12 Vmax I R max (1 cos 2t ) VI R (1 cos 2t )
The average power is
V2
PR VI R
I R2 R [W]
R
Phasor representation
V V 0
Z R0
V 0
IR
I R 0
R0
S V I R VI R 0 P
where S [VA] is the apparent power and P [W] is the real power.

The resistor absorbs real power.


The power factor is one.

Purely inductive load


v(t ) Vmax cos(t )
di (t )
1
v(t ) L L , iL (t ) Vmax cos(t )dt
L
dt
Vmax
iL (t )
sin(t ) = I L max cos(t 90) [A]
L
(L is the inductive reactance)
pL (t ) v(t )iL (t ) 12 Vmax I L max (cos 2t 90) VI L sin 2t
Phasor representation
V V 0
Z L90 jL
V 0
IL
I L 90
L90
S V I L V 0 I L 90 VI L 90 jVI L jQ

Q VI L
where S [VA] is the apparent power and Q [var] is the reactive

power.

The inductor absorbs reactive power but no real power.


The current lags the voltage.
The power factor is zero.

Purely capacitive load


v(t ) Vmax cos(t )
dv(t )
iC (t ) C
dt
Vmax
iC (t )
sin(t ) I C max cos(t 90) [A]
1

C
1
(
is the capacitive reactance)
C
pC (t ) v(t )iC (t ) 12 Vmax I C max (cos 2t 90) VI C sin 2t
Phasor representation
V V 0
1
1
1
Z
90 j

C
C jC
V 0
IC
I C 90
1
90
C
S V I C V 0 I C 90 VI C 90 jVI C jQ

Q VI C
where S [VA] is the apparent power and Q [var] is the reactive

power.

The capacitor delivers reactive power.


The current leads the voltage.
The power factor is zero.

General load
Load impedance: Z R jX Z
v(t ) Vmax cos(t )
V V 0

I
Z Z
i (t ) I max cos(t )
V
where I max max
Z
p(t ) Vmax cos(t ) I max cos(t )
I

= 12 Vmax I max cos 12 Vmax I max cos(2t )


= VI cos VI cos(2t )
= VI cos VI [cos 2t cos sin 2t sin ]
= VI cos (1 cos 2t ) VI sin sin 2t
VIcos [W]: real power
VIsin [var]: reactive power
Phasor representation
S V I V 0 I VI VI cos jVI sin P jQ
Power factor
cos: power factor
: angle of the impedance
For inductive load the current lags the voltage and the power
factor is said to be lagging.
For capacitive load the current leads the voltage and the
power factor is said to be leading.

Example 1. The voltage v(t) = 141.4cos(t) is applied to a load


consisting of a 10- resistor in parallel with an inductive reactance
XL = L = 3.77 .

+
10

v(t)

j3.77

Calculate (a) the real power and (b) reactive power absorbed by the
load, and (c) the power factor.
SOLUTION.
(10)( j3.33)
Z
3.527669.3436
10 j 3.33
1000
I
28.35 69.3456
3.527669.3456
(a) P VI cos (100)(28.35) cos(69.3456)
= 1000 W
(b) Q VI sin (100)(28.35)sin(69.3456)
= 2653 var
(c) p.f. = cos(69.3456) = 0.3528 lagging
Example 2. Assume that the voltage V = 120 [V] = 120<0 [V] and
the impedance Z = 4 + j3 []. Find (a) the current I and (b) the real
power consumed by the resistor.
I
4
j3
V

SOLUTION. (a) I = V/Z = 120<0/5<36.9 = 24<36.9


(b) P = I2R = (24)2(4) = 2304 [W]
or P = (VI)pf = (VI)cos(36.9)
= (120)(24)(0.8) = 2304[W]

Complex Power
V V 0
Z Z (Impedance angle is )
V 0
I
I
Z
S V I * (V 0)( I ) VI
= VI cos jVI sin
= P jQ
jQ

The complex power angle is always the same as the


impedance angle.

Exercise 1.
A single-phase voltage source with V = 100<0 volts delivers a
current I = 10<36.9. Calculate the real power and reactive power
delivered by the source. (P = 800W; Q = 600 var)

Example 3. The voltage v(t) = 169.7cos(377t) is applied to a load


consisting of 100- resistor connected in series of 0.2-H inductor.
I
100
0.2 H j(377)(0.2) = j75
v(t)

Impedance: Z 100 j 75 12536.9


1200
0.96 36.9 (lagging power factor)
Current: I
12536.9
Complex power: S VI * 115.236.9 92.16 j 69.12
Q = 69.12
= 36.9
P = 92.16

Power factor: pf = cos(36.9) = 0.8


Real power: P (115.2) cos(36.9) (115.2)(0.8) 92.16 [W]
Reactive power: Q (115.2)sin(36.9) 69.12 [var]

Example 4. Power factor correction


We would like to correct the power factor of the circuit above to be
one by connecting a capacitor in parallel with the circuit. Find the
capacitance of the capacitor.

I
100

C
0.2 H

v(t)

SOLUTION.
The reactive power delivered by the capacitor should be 69.12 [var].
V2
Q
CV 2 = 69.12
1
C
Q
69.12
C

1.2732 105 [F]


2
2
V
(377)(120)

Example 4. An incandescent lamp having a hot resistance of 66


is put into a socket that is connected to a 115-V supply. What is the
current flow through the lamp? (I = 1.74 A)
What is the power of the lamp? (P = 200W)
Example 5. The battery is rated at 12V. The total line resistance is
0.04 ohm, the battery internal resistance is 0.01 ohm, and the load
resistance is 1.15 ohms. Determine (1) Current flowing in the circuit,
and (2) voltage across the load. (I = 10A, Vload = 11.5V).
Rline = 0.02

Is
+

+
12V

Internal resistance Battery


of the battery
is 0.01.

Rload = 1.15

Vload

Rline = 0.02

Determine (a) the power lost in the wiring and (b) power input to the
load. (4W, 115W)

Example 6. Assume a 150-W incandescent lamp at each ceiling


outlet. Also assume the load connected to one convenience outlet to
be a 10-A hair dryer, with a power factor of 0.8. Calculate (a) the
power of the lamps and the current I1 and (b) the power of the hair
dryer, and (c) the total current, assuming a 120V ac source.

(a) P = 2(150) = 300W, I1 = 300/120 = 2.5A


(b) apparent power S = (120) (10) = 1200 [VA]; real power P =
(120) (10) (0.8) = 960W,
(c) I2 = (10) (0.8j0.6) because the current lags the voltage in a
hair dryer circuit which has inductance; Itot = 2.5 + (8j6) =
8 + 2.5 j6 = 10.5 j6 = 12.1<30 [A]
Example 7. The nameplate of a (single-phase) motor shows the
following data: 3 hp, 240 V ac, 17 A. Assume an efficiency of 90%.
Calculate the motor (and therefore circuit) power factor.
SOLUTION 1 hp = 746W. The motor output is (3)(746) = 2238W.
Power input = 2238/0.9 = 2487W = P (real power).
For ac, P = VI(power factor) that is 2487W = (240V) (17A) (power
factor).
Power factor = 2487/(240 17) = 0.61.
*** Note that there is a large difference between volt-amperes and
watts.

14.23 Energy in Electric Circuits

Energy = power time (Wh or kWh)

Example 8.
(a) Find the daily consumption of the appliances listed if they are
used daily for the amount of time shown. (Answer: 2.815
kWh)
Toaster (1340 W)
15 minutes
Percolator (500 W) 2 h
Fryer (1560 W)
h
Iron (1400 W)
h
(b) Assuming that average cost of energy is $0.12/kWh, find the
daily operating cost. (34 cents)

Example 9. It has been estimated that the average power demand of


an American household with electric cooking is 1.8 kW. Calculate
the monthly electric bill of such a household, assuming a flat rate of
$0.12 per kilowatt-hour. (Answer: $155.52)