Você está na página 1de 42

State of Arizona

House of Representatives

HOUSE BILL 2281

Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signing House


Bill 2281 into law on 5-11-2010.
The legislation Prohibits Ethnic Studies
classes that promote “the Overthrow of the
United States government.” And “Gringos.”

*****

-i-
Senate Engrossed House Bill
State of Arizona
House of Representatives
Forty-ninth Legislature
Second Regular Session
2010
HOUSE BILL 2281
AN ACT
AMENDING TITLE 15, CHAPTER 1, ARTICLE
1, ARIZONA REVISED STATUTES, BY
ADDING
SECTIONS 15-111 AND 15-112; AMENDING
SECTION 15-843, ARIZONA REVISED
STATUTES; RELATING TO SCHOOL
CURRICULUM.
(TEXT OF BILL BEGINS ON NEXT PAGE)
H.B. 2281
-1-
1 Be it enacted by the Legislature of the
State of Arizona:
2 Section 1. Title 15, chapter 1, article 1,
Arizona Revised Statutes,
3 is amended by adding sections 15-111
and 15-112, to read:
4 15-111. Declaration of policy
5 THE LEGISLATURE FINDS AND DECLARES
THAT PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS SHOULD BE
6 TAUGHT TO TREAT AND VALUE EACH
OTHER AS INDIVIDUALS AND NOT BE
TAUGHT TO
7 RESENT OR HATE OTHER RACES OR
CLASSES OF PEOPLE.
8 15-112. Prohibited courses and classes;
enforcement
9 A. A SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER
SCHOOL IN THIS STATE SHALL NOT
INCLUDE
10 IN ITS PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION ANY
COURSES OR CLASSES THAT INCLUDE ANY
OF THE
11 FOLLOWING:
12 1. PROMOTE THE OVERTHROW OF THE
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.
13 2. PROMOTE RESENTMENT TOWARD A
RACE OR CLASS OF PEOPLE.
14 3. ARE DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR
PUPILS OF A PARTICULAR ETHNIC GROUP.
15 4. ADVOCATE ETHNIC SOLIDARITY
INSTEAD OF THE TREATMENT OF PUPILS
AS
16 INDIVIDUALS.
17 B. IF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
OR THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
18 INSTRUCTION DETERMINES THAT A
SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER SCHOOL
IS IN
19 VIOLATION OF SUBSECTION A, THE
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION OR THE
SUPERINTENDENT
20 OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION SHALL
NOTIFY THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OR
CHARTER SCHOOL THAT
21 IT IS IN VIOLATION OF SUBSECTION A.
IF THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION OR
THE
22 SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
INSTRUCTION DETERMINES THAT THE
SCHOOL DISTRICT OR
23 CHARTER SCHOOL HAS FAILED TO
COMPLY WITH SUBSECTION A WITHIN
SIXTY DAYS AFTER
24 A NOTICE HAS BEEN ISSUED PURSUANT
TO THIS SUBSECTION, THE STATE BOARD
OF
25 EDUCATION OR THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION MAY DIRECT THE
26 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TO
WITHHOLD UP TO TEN PER CENT OF THE
MONTHLY
27 APPORTIONMENT OF STATE AID THAT
WOULD OTHERWISE BE DUE THE SCHOOL
DISTRICT OR
28 CHARTER SCHOOL. THE DEPARTMENT
OF EDUCATION SHALL ADJUST THE
SCHOOL DISTRICT
29 OR CHARTER SCHOOL'S
APPORTIONMENT ACCORDINGLY. WHEN
THE STATE BOARD OF
30 EDUCATION OR THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION DETERMINES
THAT THE
31 SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER
SCHOOL IS IN COMPLIANCE WITH
SUBSECTION A, THE
32 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SHALL
RESTORE THE FULL AMOUNT OF STATE
AID PAYMENTS
33 TO THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OR CHARTER
SCHOOL.
34 C. THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
SHALL PAY FOR ALL EXPENSES OF A
HEARING
35 CONDUCTED PURSUANT TO THIS
SECTION.
36 D. ACTIONS TAKEN UNDER THIS
SECTION ARE SUBJECT TO APPEAL
PURSUANT TO
37 TITLE 41, CHAPTER 6, ARTICLE 10.
38 E. THIS SECTION SHALL NOT BE
CONSTRUED TO RESTRICT OR PROHIBIT:
39 1. COURSES OR CLASSES FOR NATIVE
AMERICAN PUPILS THAT ARE REQUIRED
TO
40 COMPLY WITH FEDERAL LAW.
41 2. THE GROUPING OF PUPILS
ACCORDING TO ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE, INCLUDING
42 CAPABILITY IN THE ENGLISH
LANGUAGE, THAT MAY RESULT IN A
DISPARATE IMPACT BY
43 ETHNICITY.
H.B. 2281
-2-
1 3. COURSES OR CLASSES THAT INCLUDE
THE HISTORY OF ANY ETHNIC GROUP AND
2 THAT ARE OPEN TO ALL STUDENTS,
UNLESS THE COURSE OR CLASS VIOLATES
3 SUBSECTION A.
4 4. COURSES OR CLASSES THAT INCLUDE
THE DISCUSSION OF CONTROVERSIAL
5 ASPECTS OF HISTORY.
6 F. NOTHING IN THIS SECTION SHALL BE
CONSTRUED TO RESTRICT OR PROHIBIT
7 THE INSTRUCTION OF THE HOLOCAUST,
ANY OTHER INSTANCE OF GENOCIDE, OR
THE
8 HISTORICAL OPPRESSION OF A
PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE BASED
ON ETHNICITY,
9 RACE, OR CLASS.
10 Sec. 2. Section 15-843, Arizona
Revised Statutes, is amended to read:
11 15-843. Pupil disciplinary proceedings
12 A. An action concerning discipline,
suspension or expulsion of a pupil
13 is not subject to title 38, chapter 3,
article 3.1, except that the governing
14 board of a school district shall post
regular notice and shall take minutes
15 of any hearing held by the governing
board concerning the discipline,
16 suspension or expulsion of a pupil.
17 B. The governing board of any school
district, in consultation with
18 the teachers and parents of the school
district, shall prescribe rules for
19 the discipline, suspension and
expulsion of pupils. The rules shall be
20 consistent with the constitutional
rights of pupils and shall include at
21 least the following:
22 1. Penalties for excessive pupil
absenteeism pursuant to section
23 15-803, including failure in a subject,
failure to pass a grade, suspension
24 or expulsion.
25 2. Procedures for the use of corporal
punishment if allowed by the
26 governing board.
27 3. Procedures for the reasonable use
of physical force by certificated
28 or classified personnel in self-defense,
defense of others and defense of
29 property.
30 4. Procedures for dealing with pupils
who have committed or who are
31 believed to have committed a crime.
32 5. A notice and hearing procedure for
cases concerning the suspension
33 of a pupil for more than ten days.
34 6. Procedures and conditions for
readmission of a pupil who has been
35 expelled or suspended for more than
ten days.
36 7. Procedures for appeal to the
governing board of the suspension of a
37 pupil for more than ten days, if the
decision to suspend the pupil was not
38 made by the governing board.
39 8. Procedures for appeal of the
recommendation of the hearing officer
40 or officers designated by the board as
provided in subsection F of this
41 section at the time the board
considers the recommendation.
42 C. Penalties adopted pursuant to
subsection B, paragraph 1 of this
43 section for excessive absenteeism
shall not be applied to pupils who have
44 completed the course requirements
and whose absence from school is due
solely
H.B. 2281
-3-
1 to illness, disease or accident as
certified by a person who is licensed
2 pursuant to title 32, chapter 7, 13, 15 or
17.
3 D. The governing board shall:
4 1. Support and assist teachers in the
implementation and enforcement
5 of the rules prescribed pursuant to
subsection B of this section.
6 2. Develop procedures allowing
teachers and principals to recommend
7 the suspension or expulsion of pupils.
8 3. Develop procedures allowing
teachers and principals to temporarily
9 remove disruptive pupils from a class.
10 4. Delegate to the principal the
authority to remove a disruptive
11 pupil from the classroom.
12 E. If a pupil withdraws from school
after receiving notice of possible
13 action concerning discipline, expulsion
or suspension, the governing board
14 may continue with the action after the
withdrawal and may record the results
15 of such action in the pupil's permanent
file.
16 F. In all action concerning the
expulsion of a pupil, the governing
17 board of a school district shall:
18 1. Be notified of the intended action.
19 2. Either:
20 (a) Decide, in executive session,
whether to hold a hearing or to
21 designate one or more hearing officers
to hold a hearing to hear the
22 evidence, prepare a record and bring a
recommendation to the board for action
23 and whether the hearing shall be held
in executive session.
24 (b) Provide by policy or vote at its
annual organizational meeting
25 that all hearings concerning the
expulsion of a pupil conducted pursuant
to
26 this section will be conducted before a
hearing officer selected from a list
27 of hearing officers approved by the
governing board.
28 3. Give written notice, at least five
working days before the hearing
29 by the governing board or the hearing
officer or officers designated by the
30 governing board, to all pupils subject
to expulsion and their parents or
31 guardians of the date, time and place
of the hearing. If the governing board
32 decides that the hearing is to be held
in executive session, the written
33 notice shall include a statement of the
right of the parents or guardians or
34 an emancipated pupil who is subject to
expulsion to object to the governing
35 board's decision to have the hearing
held in executive session. Objections
36 shall be made in writing to the
governing board.
37 G. If a parent or guardian or an
emancipated pupil who is subject to
38 expulsion disagrees that the hearing
should be held in executive session, it
39 shall be held in an open meeting
unless:
40 1. If only one pupil is subject to
expulsion and disagreement exists
41 between that pupil's parents or
guardians, the governing board, after
42 consultations with the pupil's parents
or guardians or the emancipated pupil,
43 shall decide in executive session
whether the hearing will be in executive
44 session.
H.B. 2281
-4-
1 2. If more than one pupil is subject to
expulsion and disagreement
2 exists between the parents or
guardians of different pupils, separate
3 hearings shall be held subject to this
section.
4 H. This section does not prevent the
pupil who is subject to expulsion
5 or suspension, and the pupil's parents
or guardians and legal counsel, from
6 attending any executive session
pertaining to the proposed disciplinary
7 action, from having access to the
minutes and testimony of the executive
8 session or from recording the session at
the parent's or guardian's expense.
9 I. In schools employing a
superintendent or a principal, the
authority
10 to suspend a pupil from school is
vested in the superintendent, principal or
11 other school officials granted this
power by the governing board of the
12 school district.
13 J. In schools that do not have a
superintendent or principal, a
14 teacher may suspend a pupil from
school.
15 K. In all cases of suspension, it shall be
for good cause and shall be
16 reported within five days to the
governing board by the superintendent or
the
17 person imposing the suspension.
18 L. RULES PERTAINING TO THE
DISCIPLINE, SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION
OF
19 PUPILS SHALL NOT BE BASED ON
RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, SEX, NATIONAL
ORIGIN OR
20 ANCESTRY. IF THE DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION, THE AUDITOR GENERAL OR
THE
21 ATTORNEY GENERAL DETERMINES
THAT A SCHOOL DISTRICT IS
SUBSTANTIALLY AND
22 DELIBERATELY NOT IN COMPLIANCE
WITH THIS SUBSECTION AND IF THE
SCHOOL
23 DISTRICT HAS FAILED TO CORRECT THE
DEFICIENCY WITHIN NINETY DAYS AFTER
24 RECEIVING NOTICE FROM THE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, THE
SUPERINTENDENT OF
25 PUBLIC INSTRUCTION MAY WITHHOLD
THE MONIES THE SCHOOL DISTRICT
WOULD
26 OTHERWISE BE ENTITLED TO RECEIVE
FROM THE DATE OF THE DETERMINATION
OF
27 NONCOMPLIANCE UNTIL THE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
DETERMINES THAT THE SCHOOL
28 DISTRICT IS IN COMPLIANCE WITH THIS
SUBSECTION.
29 L. M. The principal of each school shall
ensure that a copy of all
30 rules pertaining to discipline,
suspension and expulsion of pupils is
31 distributed to the parents of each
pupil at the time the pupil is enrolled in
32 school.
33 M. N. The principal of each school shall
ensure that all rules
34 pertaining to the discipline,
suspension and expulsion of pupils are
35 communicated to students at the
beginning of each school year, and to
36 transfer students at the time of their
enrollment in the school.
37 Sec. 3. Effective date
38 This act is effective from and after
December 31, 2010.

Arizona Bill Targeting


Ethnic Studies Signed
Into Law
Gov. Jan Brewer signs the bill that bans
schools from teaching classes designed for
students of a particular ethnic group.
School districts may appeal the law, which
becomes effective Dec. 31, 2010.
A bill that aims to ban ethnic studies in Arizona
schools was signed into law Tuesday by Gov. Jan
Brewer, cheering critics who called such classes
divisive and alarming others who said it’s yet another
law targeting Latinos in the state.
The move comes less than 20 days after Brewer
signed a controversial immigration bill that has
caused widespread protests against the state. The
governor’s press office did not return requests for
comment Tuesday evening.

HB 2281 bans schools from teaching


classes that are designed for students of a
particular ethnic group, promote
resentment or advocate ethnic solidarity
over treating pupils as individuals. The
bill also bans classes that promote the
overthrow of the U.S. government.
The bill was written to target the
Chicano, or Mexican American, studies
program in the Tucson school system, said
state Supt. of Public Instruction Tom Horne.
School districts that don’t comply with the new
law could have as much as 10% of their state
funds withheld each month. Districts have the right
to appeal the mandate, which goes into effect Dec.
31.
Tucson Unified School District officials say the
Chicano studies classes benefit students and promote
critical thinking. “We don’t teach all those ugly
things they think we’re teaching,” said Judy Burns,
the president of the district’s governing board.
She has no intention of ending the program, which
offers courses from elementary school through high
school in topics such as literature, history and social
justice, with an emphasis on Latino authors and
history. About 3% of the district’s 55,000 students
are enrolled in such classes.
Horne has been trying to end the program for years,
saying it divides students by race and
promotes resentment. He singled out one
history book used in some classes, “Occupied
America: A History of Chicanos,” by Rodolfo
Acuna, a professor and founder of the
Chicano studies program at Cal State
Northridge.
“To begin with, the title of the book implies to
the kids that they live in occupied America, or
occupied Mexico,” Horne said last week in a
telephone interview.
Also last week, Augustine Romero, director of
student equity in the Tucson school district, said it
now had become politically acceptable to attack
Latinos in Arizona.
Ethnic studies are taught at high schools and colleges
nationwide, but the Tucson district officials say their
14-year-old program is unique because it’s
districtwide, offered to grades K-12, and can satisfy
high school graduation requirements.
In Los Angeles, more educators have been attempting
to build curriculums, teaching lessons or units in
ethnic studies, especially with the growth of charter
schools in the area, said Maythee Rojas, the president
of the National. Assn. of Ethnic Studies. “I don’t
think it’s uncommon anymore,” she said.
In Tucson, the program is supported by a court-
ordered desegregation budget, and is part of the
district’s initiative to create equal access for Latinos.
Board member Mark Stegeman said he believes the
board needs to consider the program carefully and
whether the courses, as taught, violate the new law.
Perhaps an external audit could be done to assess
that, he said.
Ethnic studies courses are sometimes controversial
because people believe the programs are attempting
to replace one voice with another, Rojas said.
The Tucson district plans to double the number of
students in Chicano studies in the upcoming school
year, said Sean Arce, the director of the program.
Arce said that now that the bill has become law, he’s
waiting for direction from the district’s legal
department.
http://patdollard.com/2010/05/arizona-bill-targeting-ethnic-
studies-signed-into-law/

Bill targets ethnic studies program


in Arizona
Curriculum accused of fostering 'ethnic chauvinism'
The state of Arizona signed into law the nation's toughest
immigration law last month. Now - Arizona State Governor
Jan Brewer has signed a bill targeting a school
district's ethnic studies program, saying it fosters
resentment against whites on the part of Mexican-
Americans.

The Tucson Unified School District program offers


specialized courses in African-American, Mexican-
American and Native-American studies.
LOS ANGELES, CA - State schools chief Tom Horne, a
supporter of the bill, says he thinks that the Tucson
school district's Mexican-American studies
program teaches Latino students that they are
oppressed by white people - and that public
schools should not be encouraging students to
resent a particular race.
"It's just like the old South, and it's long past time
that we prohibited it," Horne says.
The measure signed this week prohibits classes
that advocate ethnic solidarity, that are designed
primarily for students of a particular race or that
promote resentment toward a certain ethnic
group.
The Tucson Unified School District program offers
specialized courses in African-American, Mexican-
American and Native-American studies. The courses focus
on history and literature, and include information about the
influence of a particular ethnic group.
The district's Mexican-American Studies program explores
the role of Hispanics in the Vietnam War, and a literature
course emphasizes Latino authors.

Horne, a Republican, claims that the program


promotes "ethnic chauvinism" and racial
resentment toward whites while segregating
students by race. He was prompted into action after he
learned that Hispanic civil rights activist Dolores
Huerta told students in 2006 that "Republicans
hate Latinos."
The measure doesn't prohibit classes that teach about the
history of a particular ethnic group, as long as the course is
open to all students.
About 1,500 students at six high schools are enrolled in the
Tucson district's program. The district is 56 percent
Hispanic, with nearly 31,000 Latino students.

---

http://www.catholic.org/politics/story.php?id=36538&wf=rsscol

Mexican Revolutionaries
in America
By Cliff Kincaid | May 18, 2010
http://www.aim.org/aim-report/mexican-revolutionaries-in-
america/

There are many obvious flaws in the book, and the


treatment of communist subversion in the Western
hemisphere is one of them.
One of Bill Ayers’ courses at the University of
Illinois includes Pedagogy of the Oppressed as
required reading. Author Paulo Freire, a
Brazilian Marxist, declared:
“This, then, is the great humanistic and historical
task of the oppressed: to liberate themselves and
their oppressors as well.”
It turns out that the Freire book is required reading
in “Raza Studies” or Mexican-American courses
in the high schools in Tucson, Arizona, where
students have been protesting Arizona’s new
immigration law. Other required books are
Occupied America by Rodolfo Acuña, a professor
emeritus of Chicano studies at California State
University in Northridge (CSUN), and Prison
Notebooks by Antonio Gramsci, the Italian
Communist.
Occupied America, the fifth edition, includes an
image of Fidel Castro on the front cover, and Castro
and Che Guevara on the back cover. It refers to
white people as “gringos” and actually includes a
quotation on page 323 from Jose Angel Gutierrez
of the Mexican American Youth Organization
(MAYO), who was angry over the cancellation of
a government program. He declared:
“We are fed up. We are going to move to do away
with the injustice to the Chicano and if the
‘gringo’ doesn’t get out of our way, we will
stampede over him.”
The book goes on:
“Gutierrez attacked the gringo establishment
angrily at a press conference and called upon
Chicanos to ‘Kill the gringo,’ which meant to end
white control over Mexicans.”
Reviewing this material for the National Association
of Scholars, Ashley Thorne commented that,
“Actually, ‘kill the gringo’ meant ‘kill the gringo.’
But admitting that makes Mexicans look radical,
infuriated, revolutionary, Acuña sidestepped that
image and substituted it with one of browbeaten
Latinos rising to overthrow injustice.”
The Arizona citizens upset about this kind of material
said that they initiated an investigation into the
problem back in 2007 and found it difficult to get
access to the books. One activist said the concern
began when parents came to be aware of violence
in the schools directed against white and black
children. “This investigation was undertaken to
find the roots of this hate,” she told me. Another
person, in turn, “told me the books in their
Mexican-American classes are kept under ‘lock
and key’ and the kids can’t even take them home.
She said she asked to see them but they were very
secretive about them and she was prohibited.”
However, the citizen activists persisted, demanding
access to the books under a state open records law.
The courses, after all, are taxpayer-funded.
Eventually, a list of books was produced, and a
controversy ensued.
The footnotes for Pedagogy of the Oppressed tell us
a lot about the nature of the book. Sources include
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Mao, Herbert
Marcuse, and Vladimir Lenin.
The American Educational Research Association
(AERA), which Bill Ayers serves as a vice-
president, includes a “Paulo Freire Special
Interest Group” in his honor. AERA has more than
25,000 members, including “educators;
administrators; directors of research; persons working
with testing or evaluation in federal, state and local
agencies; counselors; evaluators; graduate students;
and behavioral scientists.”
More open than even Bill Ayers about the mission,
Paula Allman wrote Critical Education Against
Global Capitalism, incorporating the ideas of
Marx, Freire and Antonio Gramsci, the Italian
communist who emphasized the subversion of
Western cultural institutions such as the
educational system. Allman is in the School of
Continuing Education at the University of
Nottingham, England. The foreword to her book is by
UCLA Professor Peter McLaren, one of those on
Bill Ayers’ own “blog roll” of favorite websites,
and an open advocate of “Revolution as
education,” the subtitle of one of his books.
Allman, he wrote, was “part of a bold new group
of Marxist educationalists in Britain…”
Here, McLaren is leading the charge, as Ayers tags
along and gets most of the “glory.”
Bill Ayers explains to his students that Freire’s
Pedagogy of the Oppressed is “a complicated and
layered book that will likely take you some time
and sustained commitment.” This is a book
written by a Marxist for the purpose of sparking
communist revolution. As the title indicates, this is
a Marxist view of oppressors and the oppressed.
Hence, students reading this book are supposed to
come to an understanding of how various groups
in society are being “oppressed.” In fact, students
themselves may come to believe, under careful
guidance, that they, too, are members of the
“oppressed” class. Didn’t such a realization lead
to the “student movement” of the 1960s, of which
Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, were
prominent members?
Perhaps this has something to do with the “new
SDS,” a new group of student activists being
groomed by the Movement for a Democratic
Society, under the watchful eyes of Ayers, Dohrn
and their comrades.
The “Oppressed” in America
In the hands of a skillful “educator,” and in the
context of the reading of Pedagogy of the Oppressed
and Occupied America, the apparent aim is to
convince the Mexican-American youth that they
are the victims of the “oppressors” — white
society. Occupied America opens with a map of
“The Mexican Republic, 1821,” showing Mexico
in control of the Southwest United States. The
subtitle of Occupied America, “A History of
Chicanos,” sets the tone. Freire promises them
“liberation” from the gringos.
There are many obvious flaws in the book, and the
treatment of communist subversion in the Western
hemisphere is one of them. The book examines the
wars in El Salvador and Nicaragua in the 1980s
from the standpoint of the U.S. trying to maintain
“North American hegemony” and the power of
the “ruling elite.” President Reagan is portrayed
as a fool for insisting that the Soviets and Cubans
constituted any kind of threat to the region. Pro-
communist groups such as the Committee in
Solidarity with the People of El Salvador
(CISPES) are depicted as helping refugees and
countering “Reagan’s propaganda.”
But Reagan is attacked not only for resisting
communist subversion. “In 1981 Reagan declared
war on working families by firing 11,400 air traffic
controllers…” it declares. When Reagan was elected
president, “he appointed his Mexicans to offices.”
(emphasis in original). The book explains that
Reagan’s Mexicans were not “committed people” but
“were conservative” and, for the most part, had “few
links to the community.” What’s more, “resistance to
bilingual education increased during the Ronald
Reagan years,” it says ominously.
Despite a controversy over the use of such books as
Occupied America in the Tucson, Arizona schools,
the University of Arizona in 2008 co-sponsored a
four-day institute with Tucson Unified School
District’s Mexican American/Raza Studies program
that featured Peter McLaren as a keynote speaker.
McLaren’s website opens with music and the face
of Che Guevara on a red flag urging people to
“join the revolution,” while another speaker,
Sandy Grande, an associate professor of education
at Connecticut College, has a website that
features a Che Guevara quotation:
“The first step to educate the people is to
introduce them to the revolution. Never pretend
you can help them conquer their rights by
education alone, while they must endure a
despotic government.”
Grande’s research “has focused on critical theory
and American Indian intellectualism and she has
written widely on topics that include
revolutionary struggle, identity, power and
environmental ethics.” According to her bio,
Professor Grande’s approach “is profoundly inter-
and cross-disciplinary, and has included the
integration of critical, feminist and Marxist
theories of education with the concerns of
American Indian and environmental education.”
It says that she “teaches Foundations of Modern
Education, School and Society, and Methods of
Teaching. In addition to these courses, she has also
taught courses in Multicultural Education,
History of American Education, and the Pedagogy
of Revolution.”
Grande, chair of the Education Department, says
that “our legacy builds upon on a long list of
teacher/intellectuals: Paulo Freire, Maxine
Greene, Peter McLaren, Michelle Fine, Antonia
Darder, Joel Spring, Michael Apple, Marie Clay,
Linda Thuwai Smith, Lisa Delpit, and Vine
Deloria.”
Ayers must be wondering why he failed to make the
grade.
One of the leading critics of the Freire approach is
Sol Stern of the Manhattan Institute, who points out
that China and Cuba, “whose regimes Mr. Freire
praised,” never reformed their own educational
systems along these lines and instead have
concentrated on producing more industrial
managers, engineers and scientists.
It seems that Pedagogy of the Oppressed is being
reserved for the capitalist countries still in need of
“liberation.”
In a lengthy analysis, Stern notes that Pedagogy of
the Oppressed “has achieved near-iconic status in
America’s teacher-training programs” and that
one study found that it was “one of the most
frequently assigned texts” in the curricula of 16
schools of education — 14 of them among the top-
ranked institutions in the country. “These course
assignments are undoubtedly part of the reason
that, according to the publisher, almost 1 million
copies have sold, a remarkable number for a book in
the education field,” he noted.
The Fake “Conservatives” in Britain
Guess which political party is dedicated to funding
“the training of an army of independent community
organizers to help people establish and run
neighborhood groups?” It’s the British
Conservative Party, which “won” the May 6
elections but failed to get a majority of members of
Parliament. It was the first “hung parliament,” with
no party getting a majority, since 1974.
But don’t assume that because this party, led by
David Cameron, calls itself and is called
“conservative,” that it is truly conservative. This
“conservative” party had actually adopted
variations on the ideas of the left-wing and
socialist parties in Britain. It openly said that it
favored the idea of creating a “Big Society”
supposedly as an alternative to Big Government.
Making a complete mockery of the term
“conservative,” the British Conservative Party also
wants:
• A new “Big Society Bank,”
• A “National Citizen Service,”
• An annual “Big Society Day” to celebrate the
work of neighborhood groups and encourage
more people to take part in social action.
In reports in advance of the British election, our
media were referring to the “center-right” British
Conservative Party. But this party is on the left, in
terms of many domestic, social, and foreign policy
issues, and was not “conservative” in any traditional
sense. It offered voters very little alternative to the
competing leftist parties.
This is a warning of what happens when traditional
conservatism is watered down and loses its appeal
and meaning. This will continue to happen to the
Republican Party if it continues to ignore the
“values voters,” caters to socially “progressive”
libertarians, and spends money on such things as
lesbian dancers at strip clubs. This actually
occurred under chairman Michael Steele.
Except for some talk about making bureaucracy more
efficient, the British Conservative Party became a
laughingstock in terms of promoting limited
government. What’s more, it had moved far to the
left in order to attract votes from the sexually
different.
A story on the British Conservative Party website,
“Conservatives Champion Gay Equality,” said,
“Under the leadership of David Cameron, the
British Conservative Party has gone further in
supporting gay equality than other centre-right
parties in similar countries and the Party is now
taking the case for greater equality to America, in
particular highlighting the benefits of civil
partnerships. [Nick] Herbert discussed the issue on
the [British] Today programme, and is due to give a
speech at the Cato Institute in Washington D.C. on
the theme.”
The “Gay” Conservatives
Herbert, who is openly homosexual, is the
Conservative Party Shadow Secretary of State for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. He “married”
his boyfriend last year.
Herbert said in the speech at Cato, a major libertarian
think tank in the U.S., that “I’m especially honored to
be sharing a platform with one of Britain’s most
valuable exports, Andrew Sullivan.”
Keep in mind that Andrew Sullivan, who is HIV-
positive, was caught soliciting so-called “bare-
backing sex”-unprotected anal intercourse-with other
homosexuals. This revelation, however, hasn’t hurt
his marketability on the liberal talk show circuit,
especially the Chris Matthews show. Sullivan, who
sometimes calls himself a “gay conservative,” has
since “married” another man.
At Cato, Herbert said he looked forward to the day
when “the Prime Minister of the UK or the President
of the United States could just as easily be gay as
black.”
He declared that homosexuality “isn’t a condition to
be cured and it can’t be willed away through prayer.”
In fact, however, homosexuality can be cured or
changed through secular therapy, ministries, and
other methods. That is why the group, Parents and
Friends of Ex-Gays and Gays, exists.
The Cato Institute is the preferred vehicle for
insinuating such “values” as homosexuality into
the conservative movement and the Republican
Party here. Cato is also militantly pro-marijuana.
Cameron, Conservative Party leader and candidate
for Prime Minister in the May 6 election, says he is
not only pleased that the age of consent for gay men
was reduced from 21 to 18 in 1994 and to 16 in 2000,
but believes that criminal convictions related to past
homosexual activity should be expunged from one’s
personal records.
Here were some other gems from Cameron:
• “We are totally committed to the fight for gay
rights and there will be absolutely no going
back on equality legislation if a Conservative
government is elected next month.”
• “We have backed tougher legislation to crack
down on gay hatred and we will extend tax
advantages and new rights to flexible working
to those in civil partnerships.”
The reference to “gay hatred” is designed to justify
government repression of those with anti-homosexual
views.
Cameron was so desperate for gay votes that he gave
an interview to a British publication known as Gay
Times, which advertises “gay escorts” and “the
hottest hardest online gay movies.” He also
announced that he would send Herbert to Poland to
try to convince Polish Catholic politicians to tone
down their opposition to homosexuality.
Sounding like Obama’s “safe schools” czar Kevin
Jennings, who promoted homosexuality in schools
before getting his administration job, Cameron told a
British publication called “Pink News” that he wants
to give teachers “the tools” they need to deal with
prejudicial attitudes such as “homophobia” in the
schools. He also declared:
• A willingness to consider additional funding
for transgendered people suffering from
mental problems;
• That he rejects “socially conservative views,”
which he compares to “homophobia;”
• That gay couples should be free to adopt
children;
• That tax breaks for married couples should
also be granted to homosexuals in a “civil
partnership.”
Branching into other areas, the British
Conservative Party favors:
• Action “to combat climate change” and
“immediate action to give Britain leadership
in a low carbon world.”
• “A strong and effective relationship with
China.”
• “We will back the NHS [National Health
Service]. We will increase health spending
every year.”
There is a section in the party’s “Conservative
Manifesto 2010″ that calls for “One World
Conservatism,” including a commitment to
fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals of
the United Nations by spending more on foreign
aid.
It happens to be the same goal as that of the
“progressive” Obama Administration.
Don’t be fooled by the “conservative” victory in
Britain.
Kagan’s Goldman and Gay Controversies
President Obama says he wants his Supreme Court
nominees to represent ordinary people. But how
many of them sat as paid members of an advisory
panel for Goldman Sachs, now under indictment for
deceiving investors? USA Today was the first to
disclose that Obama Supreme Court nominee Elena
Kagan was on the Goldman panel from 2005 to
2008.
The White House played down the connection, and
most of the media followed suit. Obama spokesman
Robert Gibbs said her work for Goldman had nothing
to do with the activities in the case that the Securities
and Exchange Commission has filed against the firm.
He claimed, “This is a panel that had absolutely
nothing to do with the decisions that Goldman has
made that they’re now being investigated for.”
So what did she do for Goldman anyway? Where are
the minutes of those meetings? Goldman describes its
Global Markets Institute as being in the business of
providing “research and high-level advisory services
to policymakers, regulators and investors around the
world.”
At the recent Goldman annual meeting, Peter
Flaherty of the National Legal & Policy Center
confronted Goldman CEO Lloyd Blankfein about
Goldman’s financial support of Jesse Jackson.
Blankfein said he didn’t know if Goldman
supported Jackson. Flaherty said, “I challenged
him by asking, ‘You do not know?’ and ‘You give
Jackson’s group six-figure sums and you don’t
know about it?’ I believe that Blankfein does
know and he was being dishonest.”
So what about Goldman and Kagan? More work
needs to be done by the media on this controversy.
Our media should not be content with what the White
House and Goldman say
Answers are also needed in regard to reports that
Kagan is a lesbian. Peter LaBarbera of Americans for
Truth points out, “Kagan has a strong pro-
homosexual record, including, as Harvard dean,
fighting to keep military recruiters off the campus
because the military bars homosexuals. Americans
certainly have a right to know if her activism is
driven by deeply personal motivations that could
undermine her fairness as a judge.”

Editor's Notes:
The pro-gay British "conservatives" aren't the only
ones who have a problem with traditional
conservatism. Fox News employs Tammy Bruce, a
lesbian who masquerades as a conservative. She has
just joined the homosexual Republican group
GOProud as the chair of its advisory council. You
may recall that David Keene of the American
Conservative Union made a bone-headed move by
inviting GOProud to the recent Conservative Political
Action Conference. Social conservatives who want to
preserve traditional values and the traditional family
were justifiably outraged. Bruce has appeared at
functions sponsored by the Log Cabin Republicans,
another homosexual activist group, and served on
California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's
Transition Team.
I repeat: you can't be a legitimate conservative and be
either pro-homosexual or a homosexual. This
completely distorts the meaning of the word
"conservative." We need accuracy in political
terminology.
Speaking of distorting conservatism, the Washington
Post has hired somebody named David Weigel to
"cover" the conservative movement. I first came
across him when he made fun of AIM's 40th
anniversary conference because I had given a long
speech in which I noted, in passing, that I had
released a copy of my original birth certificate and
wondered why Obama was not releasing his. I then
became a "birther," which is a term of derision.
Frankly, I didn't pay much attention to Weigel, and
refused to return his telephone calls because I
recognized he was a hatchet man out to make
conservatives in the media look bad. At that time,
however, he was working for some left-wing rag
called the Washington Independent and was a
contributor to Reason, the libertarian magazine. Now,
he is with the Post, which is part of the company that
recently announced it is selling Newsweek, another
one of its liberal properties. Like so many other
liberal media companies, the Post is in disarray and
scrambling to survive. The paper compounds its
problems by hiring a hack like Weigel.
Cliff Kincaid is the Editor of the AIM Report and can
be reached at cliff.kincaid@aim.org
http://www.aim.org/aim-report/mexican-
revolutionaries-in-america/

Interesses relacionados