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VOLUME

19

ISSUE

MAY/JUNE 2016

Wind Power

Safety
Good safety is
good business

Solar

Geothermal

Hydro

Biofuel

Municipal solar
microgrids offer
resiliency and
lower costs.

Our spotlight on
emerging and
commercialized
technologies.

Wave energy
prototypes that are
winning awards.

Is Argentina still
dumping biodiesel
in the EU?

p. 27

p. 35

p. 44

p. 39

Environment

New nuclear plants are necessary to lessen the worlds dependence on fossil fuels,
to meet the needs of both developed and expanding economies, and to slow the
amount of CO2 emitted into our environment. NuScale Power has developed a
clean, reliable, carbon-free Small Modular Reactor technology. It has the smallest
environmental footprint of the technologies available today generating electricity.
It will play a significant role in meeting future demand in the U.S. and other nations
as part of a diverse energy portfolio. Environment: The Element of Nu.

NuScale Power
@NuScale_Power
@NuScale_UK
2016 NuScale Power, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

nuscalepower.com
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contents

THE BIG
QUESTION
Technology
transfer
opportunities
between
offshore energy
industries.
Credit: Keystone
Engineering.

13

features

18
WIND

Playing it Safe:
Minimizing Safety
Risks in the Wind
Energy Industry
As the wind industry
workforce expands to
accommodate the evergrowing number of wind
farms, how should the
industry ensure that
workers stay safe on the
job?
William Steele

27

35

SOLAR

GEOTHERMAL

Outlook on Municipal
Solar and Microgrids
Driven by the desire to
be more disaster-proof
or just to save money,
municipalities are turning
to the promise solar PV
and microgrids all over the
world.
Jennifer Runyon

Commercial
and Progressive
Geothermal
Technology Update
Geothermal technologies
are growing with the
market based on their
applications in lowand high-temperature
systems, while progressive
technologies are pushing the
limits of accessible thermal
resources.
Jennifer Delony

32

ON THE COVER
An installation crew
stands in front of the
Siemens 6-MW wind
turbine in Germany.
Credit: Siemens.
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

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features
departments & columns
NEW

39

5 Editors Letter
Tipping Points

6 Regional News
From the Global Renewable
Energy Industry

BIOENERGY

The Battle Over


Argentine Biofuel
The existing EU tariffs on biodiesel
from Argentina are under review.
Here is the latest update.
Bruce Dorminey

13

44 Hydro Here and Now


45 Resources
45 Advertisers Index
46 Last Word

The Big Question


What Opportunities Exist for
Technology Transfer from
Offshore Oil and Gas to the
Offshore Wind Industry?

Renewable Energy Projects in


Emerging Markets Yielding 28
Percent Higher Returns than
North America and Europe

32 Data Points
100 Percent Renewable
Energy in Canada

On RenewableEnergyWorld.com
RenewableEnergyWorld.com and our social
media communities help you stay connected
to news, opinion and technology updates
from the renewable energy industry.
Visit us online to:
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Read todays featured article
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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

A SP ECI A L A DV ERT I SI N G SEC T I O N

Siemens Steam Turbines


Your CSP Partner
As the concentrated solar
power plant market
continues to grow and
evolve, Siemens steam
turbines have been an
important ingredient
in enabling operators
to extend the effective
dispatch capability of the
plant and thus improving
overall plant economics.
Siemens steam turbines have
been applied in over 70 CSP
plants. Siemens capability in
partnering with the developer
in these projects has resulted
in plant cycle parameters that
are optimized for the plant economics. This partnership coupled lead time makes Siemens
the preferred partner to provide
steam turbines for such plants.
In one such installation at
Ivanpah, USA, the Siemens
steam turbine operating in a
solar tower configuration has
been running at steam conditions that result in excellent
cycle efficiency and, thus, in a
far better and continuous dispatch regime for the operator

thereby reducing frequent


start-stop operations. This
results in higher revenue to the
operator.
At Ashalim in Israel, a Siemens steam turbine has been
operating in a parabolic trough
plant configuration and generates 110 MWe for an additional 4.5 hours per day due to the
effective combination of the
steam turbine with a salt reservoir system.
It is also possible to develop
a hybrid configuration (ISCC)
that combines steam generated
in a solar thermal plant together with a combined cycle plant.
Such plants have been configured in North Africa and the
USA. In one such instance, a

Siemens turbine (70 MW) is


currently operating in Egypt.
In addition, Siemens can
also be a partner in optimizing
the cycle design with respect
to startup times and output
based on the financial boundary conditions that exist locally. The modular construction of
a steam turbine also minimizes construction efforts at site to
meet customer expectations for
overall construction and commissioning schedule.

MORE INFORMATION

siemens.com/steamturbines

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From t he Editor

PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej


CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony
PRODUCTION

ART DIRECTOR Kelli Mylchreest

PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari Rodriguez


SENIOR ILLUSTRATOR Chris Hipp
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT
MANAGER Emily Martin

AD SERVICES MANAGER Toni Pendergrass

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Even as the price of oil tumbles, renewables are making progress all
over the world. In fact, as our Last Word explains, a true decoupling
of oil prices and renewable energy prices has taken place, particularly with regard to returns on renewable energy projects in the developing world. Today, we are seeing an equal amount of investment dollars
going to projects in the developing world as we are seeing investments
being made on projects in the developed world. Thats a first.
The de-centralized nature of renewable energy means that small
villages and rural areas in very remote locations can leapfrog the
grid, becoming energized with solar microgrid technology. Further,
innovative pay-as-you-go type business models are proving that
bringing green energy to the developing world is no longer a charitable endeavor. There is real money to be made in this work.
Finally, Bloomberg New Energy Finance shows us that globally the
amount of new clean energy capacity installed in 2014 was greater
than the amount of new fossil-powered energy capacity a trend that
the firm expects will continue as we move forward.
In conversations that I have with those working in the fossil industry, I get the sense that statistics like these often make them feel defensive about the work they are doing and fearful about the future of their
careers. It is important for us all to keep in mind that it took more than
100 years to get to this point in our energy evolution and a full transition to clean energy will likely take an equally long time. Its a mighty
long see-saw but the tipping point may very well be here.

Jennifer Runyon, Chief Editor


RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016 5

REGIONAL

news

AFRICA & MIDDLE EAST

Kenya Taps Geothermal


Energy in Rift Valley

Construction
Underway on Jordan
PV Power Plant
Enerray and Desert Technologies have started

With African Development Bank (AfDB) sup-

construction on a 23.1-MW sovereign-backed PV

port,Kenya has received approval from the

project within the Maan Development Area in

Climate Investment Funds Clean Technology

Southern Jordan. DT and Enerray are acting both

Fund (CIF-CTF) for a US$29.65-millionconces-

as investors, co-developers and turn-key Engineer-

sional loan to co-finance up to two geother-

ing, Procurement and Construction (EPC) contrac-

mal projects to increase the countrys power

tors for the project.

capacity, particularly drawing on untapped

This project is one of 12 approved by the Minis-

geothermal resources in the Rift Valley. The

try of Energy and Mineral Resources in Round 1 of

Concessional Finance Program for Geother-

the direct proposal process for photovoltaic proj-

mal Generation will build on the energy

ects, and is backed by a twenty-year power pur-

advancements already underway in the suc-

chase agreement (PPA) with the National Electrical

cessful development of the countrys show-

Power Transmission Company. Jordans Ministry of

case Menengai Geothermal Field.

Finance has issued a sovereign guarantee in sup-

The CTF funds will create a concessional


lending program designed to ensure the projects financial viability and commercial bank-

port of the PPA, which will receive a tariff of 0.12


JOD per kWh [US $0.169 kWh].
The project finance was arranged by the Inter-

ability by shoring up conventional financing

national Finance Corporation (World Bank Group),

and breaking down barriers to private invest-

with a total project cost of $50.2 million. Equip-

ment. The program will support up to two

ment consists of Jinko modules and inverters and

geothermal generation projects structured as

MV equipment provided by SMA. The project is

Independent Power Producers (IPPs), and will

expected to generate approximately 147 million

be implemented with AfDB support.

kilowatt-hours annually.

Kenya is already demonstrating its abili-

During a recent site visit by members of DTs

ty to reshape its energy future by developing

Board and representatives of the press, Nour

its vast geothermal resources through Menen-

Mousa, CEO of Desert Technologies and Chairman

gai, saidJoao Duarte Cunha, AfDBs Coordi-

of Falcon Maan, commented: The success of this

nator for CTF. But it still faces market barri-

first photovoltaic energy procurement round in

ers to full deployment of its renewables. This

Jordan has been felt throughout the Middle East:

infusion of capital will thus serve to build

as well as follow up rounds in Jordan, we are see-

investor confidence and improve bankability

ing major renewable energy initiatives in the UAE,

of these vital resources. Furthermore, the suc-

Egypt, Morocco and soon Saudi as well. As a Saudi

cess of the IPPs developed in this program can

renewable energy company, we are excited by the

serve as a beacon for other countries looking

opportunities we see in our home market of MENA

to achieve similar green energy goals.

[Middle East North Africa].

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

NORTH AMERICA

US Celebrates One Million Solar Installations


US
While the exact date that the U.S.

the ITC battle was that we need-

be acknowledged in a big way.

installed its 1,000,000th solar

ed the support from all groups

We would like to have one tweet

installation is hard to pinpoint,

[across the political spectrum],

for every solar installation, said

according to the Solar Energy

said Dan Whitten, VP of commu-

Witten. The hashtag will be

Industries Association (SEIA), the

nications at SEIA. In some ways

#MillionSolarStrong, he said.

country is there. The organization

this is a big thank you to all of

plans to celebrate the milestone

the groups who helped us along

incredible growth that the solar

in May with a three-pronged

the way, he added.

industry has experienced as well

approach that includes politi-

According to SEIA it took 40

The celebration will mark the

as to show its importance to the

cal outreach, a large social media

years to get to one million instal-

energy sector. We are a major

push and an event to take place in

lations but it will take just two

part of the energy picture and

the near future.

years to get to two million. That

that is a very good thing for the

phenomenal growth deserves to

United States, said Witten.

One thing we learned from

the large Feed-In Tariff program, covers renewable energy proj-

Ecolibrium
Receives TV
Certification

ects generally larger than 500 kilowatts (kW) and was designed to

The Ecolibrium Boulder R&D

strike a balance between community engagement and achieving

Laboratory is now a Certified

value for ratepayers.

Partner Lab by TV Rheinland

Ontario Seeks 600 MW Wind


Ontario is launching a second phase of the competitive Large
Renewable Procurement (LRP) process. The LRP, which replaced

On August 1, 2016, Ontario plans to issue an RFQ (request for

PTL. Under the Partner Lab

qualifications) for 930 MW of renewable energy. Ontario has set tar-

Program, racking manufactur-

gets of up to 600 MW of wind, up to 250 MW of solar photovoltaic,

er Ecolibrium Solar is qualified

up to 50 MW of hydroelectricity and up to 30 MW of bioenergy.

to conduct testing, within their

The province will continue to ensure renewable energy pro-

scope of accreditation, to ANSI/

curement encourages the selection of projects with local sup-

UL2703, while TV Rheinland

port and competitive prices, as well as projects with First Nation

PTL will provide any addition-

and Mtis participation. It is expected that the plan will save the

al testing required and UL2703

typical residential electricity consumer an average of $1.67 per

certifications for solar racking

month on their electricity bill.

products. Expanding our R&D

The IESO engagement process will include surveys, webinars

capabilities to include in-house

and meetings with industry associations, municipal associations

UL2703 testing is a priority for

and Indigenous communities. Further engagement opportunities

us, said Jan van der Werff, Eco-

will take place during the LRP II RFQ and RFP phases.

librium CEO.
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

REGIONAL

news
EUROPE

UK Building Biogas Pipeline


A 1.3-km pipeline is being constructed by Fulcrum in the UK

of new gas infrastructure.


The UK Biogas indus-

capabilities and has a wealth


of experience working on large

to connect a 12 million biogas

try is experiencing consider-

scale projects, with tight time

plant to the UK distribution net-

able growth and has expanded

constraints, all of which will

work at a site in Welbeck Col-

seven-fold since 2010 accord-

ensure we prove to be a valuable

liery. Burrell & Sons is the the

ing the Anaerobic Digestion

addition to the industry.

main contractor for the project.

and Biogas Associa-

Fulcrum traditionally designs

tion (ADBA). With

and installs new gas and utility

around 400 operation-

infrastructure to domestic prop-

al plants across the

erties and business premises to

UK, the organization

receive gas from the UK Gas net-

also suggests there is

work. This new project reverses

scope for more than a

Fulcrums installation process,

thousand.

enabling energy produced by bio-

Fulcrum has

gas generators to be fed into the

a wide variety of

UK network via the installation

transferable skills,

ASIA PACIFIC

Inner Mongolia PV Plant Overcomes Harsh Weather


Clenergys 20-MW photovolta-

and teamwork and the support

the span of 100 days and in the

ic power station was successful-

of our partners, said Daniel

face of blizzards and bitter cold.

ly connected to the grid in Guy-

Hong, President of Clenergy.

The project is a significant

ang, Inner Mongolia, after what

The company said that its

step for Clenergys PV program,

it said were months of hard

team completed the 20-MW

following the 30-MW PV proj-

work. Clenergy made concerted

photovoltaic power station in

ect in Zhongwei, Ningxia, and

efforts in partnership with

the 7.6-MW distributive

the projects stakeholders

PV program in Chuzhou,

to overcome harsh weath-

Anhui.

er and a tight supply chain

Clenery is a global

schedule in order to fin-

renewable energy com-

ish the project on time. It

pany that employs near-

could not have been done

ly 400 people over four

without our cooperation

continents.

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

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REGIONAL

news

Chinese Solar Manufacturers


Dominate Market in 2015

LATIN AMERICA

other regions of the world, indicating strong growth for the PV

Invenergy Building
Wind Farm
in Uruguay

sector overall. At the end of 2015 a cumulative 215-GWp of PV

Invenergy Wind in April announced

cells/modules had been shipped into the market and the glob-

that it had closed on the acquisi-

al PV industry looks to be well on its way to a cumulative 1-TWp

tion and financing of Campo Palo-

According to the latest PV Manufacturer Capacity, Shipments, Price


and Revenue Report from SPV market research, in 2015 Chinese
solar module manufactures added manufacturing capacity in

PV Manufacturers Shipping 3% of Total in 2015


2015 Shipments 50.8-GWp
7% Trina
7% JA Solar
7% Hanwha-Q-Cells

mas Wind Farm, which currently


is under construction in the Salto
Department of Uruguay.
The company purchased the
wind farm from a Uruguayan subsidiary of Abengoa while Teyma
Uruguay, also an Abengoa affiliate,

Other 38%

5% Canadian Solar

will continue to perform project bal-

5% First Solar

ance of plant work. Project financ-

5% Jinko Solar
5% Yingli
SunPower 3%

4% Motech
4% NeoSolar

Gintech 3%
Zhongli 3%

4% Shungfeng-Suntech

ing was provided by the Inter-American Investment Corporation, and


DNB acted as the Mandated Lead
Arranger and B-Loan Participant.
With power generation at
approximately 90 percent renewables, Uruguay is a global leader in

in shipments by 2023, said Paula Mints author of the report.

renewables, and this is a market

Chinese manufacturers accounted for 48 percent of those ship-

that we are excited to enter, said

ments, dominating the global market.

Matthew Olive, Invenergys Vice

The top ten PV manufacturers in 2015 were Trina, JA Solar,


Hanwha Q-Cells, Canadian Solar, First Solar, Jinko Solar, Yingli,

President of Development and Origination for the Americas.

Motech, NeoSolar, and Shungfeng-Suntech. Shungfeng-Suntech

The facility will have the capacity

owns a controlling interest in US-based Suniva so Sunivas ship-

to generate 70 MW of power from 35

ments are included in the Shungfeng-Suntech total. The report

Vestas V1102.0 MW wind turbines

shows that in 2015, PV manufacturer cell/module revenues

when commercial operation com-

increased by 23 percent to $32.1-billion from $26.1-billion.

mences in February 2017. The state-

The chart presents manufacturers with a minimum 3 per-

owned utility Usinas & Trasmis-

cent share of 2015 shipment volume, a significant feat with

iones Electricas (UTE) will be the

current industry gigawatt volume shipments.

offtaker/lessor for the full capacity


of the wind farm under a long-term

[Editors note: For the most in-depth analysis of the global solar market
from a supply side perspective, purchase Mints full report at this link.]
10

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

lease agreement.

Funding Secured for Solar,


Storage Microgrid in Maldives
The $45M that the European

enhance the use of renew-

systems consisting of solar pho-

Investment Bank (EIB) is provid-

ables, provide affordable power

tovoltaic panels, together with

ing to reduce diesel usage and

to unserved and under-served

efficient modern diesel genera-

the cost of electricity generation,

businesses and residences, and

tors, and integrated lithium accu-

reduce CO2 emissions

mulators in the Maldives outer

in the Maldives is now

islands. It is expected to cost a

available.

total of $175M.

The EIB signed off

The project supports the Gov-

on the loan in March.

ernment of Maldives goal of

The project will finance

becoming carbon neutral by 2020

individual microgrid

and the EIB said that it is in line


with the EU priority objectives

Maldivian capital

of promoting renewable ener-

from above. Credit:

gy, tackling climate change and

Shutterstock.

reducing poverty.

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for wind energy
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The Big Question

Stakeholders weigh in on worldwide renewable energy issues

What Opportunities Exist for


Technology Transfer from
Offshore Oil and Gas to the
Offshore Wind Industry?
THE PARALLELS BETWEEN OFFSHORE OIL AND WIND are plenty. Each
technology requires anchoring heavy equipment to the seabed or
figuring out how to stabilize it through flotation. Each relies on
cabling or piping to transport the product. Each needs specialized
vessels equipped to transport people and supplies to locations far
out to sea. Additional similarities include permitting, environmental concerns, dealing with opposition and many more.
Read the responses below to see answers to this months big
question: What Opportunities Exist for Technology Transfer from
Offshore Oil and Gas To the Offshore Wind Industry?

Many, if done right and by respecting the


differences between both markets as each
offer unique challenges and opportunity. Oil
& gas has always driven a quality and HSE
demand first, which offshore wind regrettably lacked in the early years. Thankfully,
James Ritchie
this has changed through learning vital lesChief Operating
sons from oil & gas while still pushing innoOfficer, Tekmar
vation to achieve cost reduction.
Energy
There was a legacy of the oil and gas influence where thoughts of cable protection were
of secondary importance. This may have been
understandable when the oil pipeline itself took precedence but in
offshore wind, the power cables integrity is paramount.
As the offshore wind industry continues to look at ways of
reducing costs and inefficiencies, developers are increasingly realising the benefits of bringing in the cable protection supplier at an
earlier date.
Closer engagement at the start minimizes installation times

Keystone delivered small light,


jacket structures that could be
lifted from a ship to be installed
in place rather than barged or
floated in place for the Block
Island wind project. Credit:
Keystone Engineering.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

13

The Big Question

by enabling the most effective techniques to be picked rather than working


around the sole method available for the job. Involvement in the foundation
design stages means we can fully optimize the protection systems design and
make innovations which eliminate the need to use a steel J-tube.
This approach can lead to savings in excess of hundreds of thousands of
dollars for each turbine installed while the importance of these subsea cables
to wind farms has led to advancements in protection systems that are now
bringing benefits beyond offshore wind.

Design and analysis software can support both the offshore oil and gas and wind farm industries enabling engineers to model any type of offshore structural system
and provide optimal design against environmental loads,
such as waves, wind, and current in addition to mechanical loads from wind turbines. Engineers can use software
Parvinder Jhita, to explore the effects of fatigue, ship impact loads, transSenior Product
portation, and installation and use it to provide options for
Manager, Offshore, safe, cost-effective solutions that potentially can save many
hours of design time.
Bentley Systems
Design and analysis software, such as Bentleys SACs
can be integrated with well-established turbine manufacturer simulation software for a fully coupled analysis. This integration allows
users to accurately simulate the loads on a wind turbine platform structure
and enables engineers to optimize these steel structures for cost, installation
weight, and strength.

Skilled engineers can transfer their knowledge of postdesign fabrication and installation engineering for the oil
and gas sector to the design of offshore wind foundations.
For example our firm leveraged its extensive offshore
engineering knowledge to design the substructures for the
Block Island Wind Farm (the first offshore wind farm in
Ben Foley,
the U.S.) by adapting the steel jacket foundations used in
General Manager, the oil and gas industry as the design-basis for the deepRenewables,
water wind turbine support structures. We used offshore
Keystone
engineering software to deliver an alternative to typical
Engineering
offshore wind monopile foundations that are limited to
shallower water depths and smaller wind turbine generators and incorporated load models from the turbine generator designer to optimize the design of the total structure and ensure safe
14

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

The Big Question

operation under a wide range of weather conditions, including tropical systems. The resulting foundation is designed to withstand the 100-year hurricane and checked for robustness against the 1,000-year hurricane. The foundation requires less steel than a comparable foundation and can operate in a
much wider weather window commonly found far off the northeast coast of
the United States.

The offshore oil industry can bring four main lessons to


the offshore wind industry. First, proven technologies and
experience from offshore applications should be considered and tailored for offshore wind applications. Secondly, safety and compliance levels should be matched at the
forefront of all design, manufacturing and installations.
Jo Shailes,
Third, as is the case with oil, never stop innovating and
Vice President
finding new ways to push the boundaries. And finally, the
of Marketing,
best solution is achieved when suppliers and customers
Trelleborg Offshore engineers work shoulder-to-shoulder.
We find that proven expertise and a passion for innovative polymer engineering in the offshore oil and gas sector
accelerates performance for our customers in renewables.

We believe the oil and gas sector has a significant amount


to offer the offshore wind industry not just in terms of
technology transfer, but knowledge transfer too.
Since its inception, the oil and gas sector has continually pushed the boundaries with regards to design and engineering, and today operates to the highest standards of
David Currie,
health, safety and quality.
CEO, JDR and
At JDR, weve found that many of the lessons weve
Member of the
learned from solving technical challenges related to operOffshore Wind
ating in the worlds harshest and most remote environEnergy Council
ments are equally applicable to offshore wind. As a result,
weve been able to apply our experience in designing, engineering and manufacturing subsea cables and umbilicals
for the global oil and gas industry, to develop pioneering solutions for renewables customers, while retaining our proven design and technical reliability.
However, technology and knowledge transfer go both ways and in todays
low oil price environment, we believe that opportunities also exist for the
renewables sector to share best practices and lessons learned particularly
around cost reduction and operational efficiency.
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

15

The Big Question

Installation techniques, personnel transfer, risk management


and of course safety, are all areas where companies can use
their oil and gas experience for the benefit of offshore wind
operations. And as companies build experience in installing
and operating offshore wind farms, there is now technology
transfer back to oil and gas, not least as a result of the innoBenj Sykes,
vation that has been driven by the need to reduce the cost of
Head of Asset
electricity from offshore wind as the sector matures.
Management
DONG Energys roots can be found elsewhere in the enerand UK Country
gy sector with its history established in managing oil and
Manager for
gas resources in the Danish sector of the North Sea, proOffshore Wind,
viding many years of experience in working offshore. This
heritage of working out at sea in some of the most challengDONG Energy
ing and inhospitable conditions has been key to the growth
of the companys offshore wind business, with knowledge,
insight and expertise that my firm has accumulated over decades applied to
this new growing industry.

Our company was formed in 2002 to bring specialist skills


and technologies from the offshore construction industry,
particularly oil and gas, into the emerging offshore wind
sector. That exchange of knowledge and experience has
been highly successful and in 2006 we went on to develop SeaPlanner, having recognized the need for a reliable,
Dominic
integrated system that improves operational efficiency and
Stratton
safety offshore.
Business
In high-risk environments, such as oil and gas and offDevelopment
shore wind construction, safety, security, and asset risk
Manager, SeaRoc
management is of the highest priority so the ability to
Group
access data from a variety of sources to bring complete,
real-time visibility of site operations is important
In December 2015, SeaPlanner was selected by energy giant DONG Energy as the provider for personnel management, vessel and
helicopter tracking and communications system for its UK offshore wind farm
portfolio including far offshore Round 3 sites. Utilizing this technology allows
DONG Energy to closely monitor its sites from a central location, ensuring the
highest level of safety and optimal project efficiency at all times.
So this technology, the concept of which was born in the oil & gas sector, is
now serving the latest generation of offshore wind projects and other marine
sectors around the world.

16

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

The Big Question

Probably the most obvious response to this question is the


undertaking of offshore vessel operations and seabed engineering. Indeed, much can be learned from the many years
of building offshore structures, from the development of engineering standards for seabed stability and seismic activity
through to offshore vessel logistics and installation methodDoug Friday,
ologies. The oil and gas industry does however have far more
Chief Executive
to offer. As energy practitioners, it is our responsibility to
look at the total lifecycle of our energy solution and to ensure
Officer, Expede
that we are applying the most efficient and effective method
of development. Looking beyond the issue of fossil fuels we
should look to adopt the best practices of our longstanding energy forbearers.
Although learnings from installation and engineering methods bring value,
the greatest contribution the oil and gas sector can make to the offshore
wind industry is a highly evolved integrated strategy towards energy developments. From approaches for risk management, project execution methodologies through to the management of personnel safety and the environment.
Over the course of many years, the industry has developed a highly effective
approach to overall system development. The offshore wind industry should
adapt this approach to its needs to produce a more efficient project with high
safety standards and low local environmental impact.

We have been observing the German offshore wind industry since 2009 when the projects got bigger and were
springing up like mushrooms due to high financial incentives they received. The dynamic lead to the fact as we
noticed that the whole industry basically started from
scratch. Offshore wind farm operating companies were set
Jendrik
up by German energy supplying companies from nothing.
Odenwald,
The development and construction of wind turbines and
Owner, General
the building of wind farms was so highly specialized and
Manager & Marine specifically engineered that there was no use for existing
Surveyor, Brager
vessels or equipment from the oil & gas industry.
Solutions
The German governments regulations, decisions and
money flow pushed the offshore wind industry into a vacuum that created an urgent need for knowledge, people and
vessels and the capacities are there to supply the market sufficiently.
With the oil & gas crisis it will be interesting to see whether and how oil
& gas vessel operators will move into the wind market and how the offshore
wind industry will react. This could potentially bring about the first stress
test for the most highly financed wind vessel operators.
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

17

COV E R S TO RY

Minimizing Work
Safety Risks in th
Wind Energy Indu
WILLIAM STEELE, Contributor

Like all energy sectors, the wind industry is one filled


with risks. From testing and production of wind turbine components through to transport, installation and
lifetime servicing of turbines, occupational safety and
health (OSH) risks abound at every step of the process.

As the wind industry workforce


expands to accommodate the
ever-growing number of wind farms,
how should the industry ensure that
workers stay safe on the job?
That the number of people working in the wind
industry is rapidly growing surpassing one million
in 2014 and projected to surpass two million by 2030
adds further cause for attention to be paid to safety.
Today, OSH is at the forefront of the wind industry
supply chain, and efforts to foster safer working environments are materializing in several ways.
Chris Streatfeild, RenewableUKs Director of Health
& Safety, said that the energy industry is familiar
with OSH risks.
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MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

ker
he
ustry

A worker stands
atop a Vestas turbine
to perform service.
Credit: Vestas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

19

Cov e r S to ry

Good experience in managing working height, working in


confined spaces, electrical mechanical safety etc., all of these
are hazards were very familiar with; weve got a long history at
managing them well. The wind turbine isnt particularly complex
or unique in respect to safety.
On the other hand, he said that working in remote areas such
as offshore wind farms and onshore wind turbines far from population centers bring additional challenges.
An important aspect to improving safety includes documenting accidents work that serves to highlight the most risk-prone

UAV technology
allows operators to
obtain aerial views
of turbines without
having to climb
the tower. Credit:
Shutterstock.
20

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

operations, and provide foundations for a knowledgesharing culture within the


industry.
The annual summary of
accidents in the UK wind sector provided by RenewableUK
shows around 1,500 accidents
and other incidents occurred
between 2007 and 2011,
including four deaths and
some 300 injuries to workers. For the time being there
is not one single group cataloging accidents for the global
wind industry.
Its an area that every
industry finds challenging, said Streatfeild. There
remains a lot of opportunity
for development. But there are
already existing forums and
mechanisms by which lessons
learnt are being shared.
For its part, RenewableUK
is hosting the Renewable
Industry Safety Exchange
(RISE), which seeks to facilitate the collection and dissemination of safety incidents, and examples of best
practices throughout the global wind industry.
One example offering at
least partial data from a
pan-national level is the G9
Offshore Wind Health and
Safety Association a collection of some of the largest offshore OEMs working to improving safety in
the wind industry. G9s

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Cov e r S to ry

Annual Incident Report indicates that in 2014,


among the 944 reported offshore incidents, 95
required first aid, and 89 were medical treatment injuries.
Collective industry awareness of accident
incidence rate is taken as central to advancing
safety by the authors of the Occupational safety
and health in the wind energy sector (EU-OSHA,
2013) report, because at the very least it provides motivation for continual improvement.
However, the effort to improve safety is driven by a variety of others sources, too. As Jakob
Holst, Secretary General of the Global Wind
Organization (GWO) explained:
[The whole industry is] working to improve
safety. Its not just a sentimental issue poor
safety can increase downtime of technicians,
lengthen time needed for servicing of turbines,
and in turn reduce a wind farms productivity.
Good safety is good business.
Thats why it is important to embed safety into the working environment, or as Streatfeild referred to it, safe by design. The focus
of which is on evaluating risks of operations
(installation, O&M or otherwise), site circumstances, and projecting these through the life-cycle of a wind turbine. By incorporating better safety features across the whole spectrum you design
in such a way that the exposure to risk is marginalized.
Improvements in the reliability of technology therefore has a
direct impact on safety. Fewer breakdowns mean fewer repairs.
Equally, improved diagnostics through smart use of data, can
further reduce breakdowns, limit the severity of faults when they
do occur and reduce servicing.
Altogether, improvements are leading to operations becoming
much more efficient and therefore reducing the need for workers to be out in a [risky] environment; and it means when they
are out, theyre involved in multiple activities, reducing their risk
exposure in terms of both time and severity, said Streatfeild.
When technicians are required to climb turbines, theyre
increasing aided by state-of-the-art technologies including safety devices, access tools, and inspection equipment
which make work safer. These have a valuable role to play said
22

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

Installation of Siemens 6-MW


wind turbine in Germany. The
nacelle design offers an improved
working environment with
safe and easy access to all key
components. Credit: Siemens.

Streatfeild: UAVs [unmanned


aerial vehicles, aka, drones]
are a very good example
when inspecting a turbine, you can eliminate the
need for a lot of climbing.
Its quicker, its safer, and its
more cost-effective.
The bottom line is that better safety equipment and procedures are invariably highly

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Cov e r S to ry

cost-effective. As Streatfeild explained: Almost all


health and safety improvements are either cost-neutral, or in most cases, will
reduce costs. There are very
large, immediate returns on
investments made in health
and safety.
Of course embedded safety will only take the industry so far. Presently, there
remains a distinct human
factor in the loop: Once
youve reduced those risks
as much as possible, its then
that we look at how best to
ensure worker safety. Its here
where training comes in,
alongside procedures, auditing and risk assessment.

A Standard Training Protocol


A critical element to ensuring a safe working environment is training the aim of
which is assurance that workers are competent, well supported and safe.
Here, the wind industry has
leap-frogged its nascent status by borrowing safety standards for training from existing industries: Effectively, the
approach of the wind industry has been to reference
other industry standards [e.g.
oil and gas, construction] as
a source material, but then
adapt this in view of the particular risks of the wind sector, said Streatfeild.
24

MAY/JUNE 2016

Drones such as this one can be used for aerial wind turbine inspection
and monitoring. Credit: Aibotix.

Most companies ensure technicians complete training programs, and some countries have unified programs for safety and
equipment training. Still, what is called for by the likes of GWO
and EU-OSHA is a consistent set of industry-wide training standards, appropriate for workers involved in projects for any company across the globe. Such a unified landscape of standards is
not easy to achieve, but it would be immensely valuable.
There was the realization that all wind farm owners have
similar requirements in training technicians, but there was no
mutual recognition of training between companies this is a
problem when multiple companies are working on large projects, said GWOs Holst.
For instance, if all NRG is supplying workforce for Siemens wind power when installing turbines of a DONG project.
Prior to standardized training, the worker would have to attend
three almost identical courses within each of the three involved
companies.
Part of the solution from GWO is Basic Safety Training (BST)
a safety standard covering five modules (First Aid, Manual
Handling, Fire Awareness, Working at Heights and Sea Survival) which ensures training from certified providers meets a
common, high level of proficiency, that is recognized across the
industry, thereby reducing the need for repeated training.
Holst explained: With the BST, the three companies would
recognize training and worker competences, and thus save both
time and money.
In the future, GWO has plans to roll out a standard for Basic
Maintenance Training.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

Cov e r S to ry

Streatfeild acknowledged the role of mutually recognized


courses and certifications.
The principle of portability of training standards, such that
one isnt excessively repeating training with no added value, is
very important. Its an important element of reducing costs, and
risk within the wind sector.
Further, it isnt just money that may be saved through standardization, but potentially lives. Too much training, or repeated training, can become counter-productive. When you are asked
to attend almost identical training that is arguably not necessary, the average worker will not be motivated. Paradoxically, too
much training can be a safety risk, said Holst.

A Looming Skills Gap


There is a final aspect to safety in the wind industry worth noting. Reporting on the European wind landscape in 2013, the EUs
Wind Energy Technology Platform (TPWind) claimed that theres
currently a shortage of around 5,500 appropriately qualified staff

per year that could reach


18,000 by 2030. Of note, over
half of the coming shortfall
will exist within the O&M
division the area that carries the highest risk and
number of accidents.
With those circumstances,
the wind industry would be
remiss not to establish effective safety measures wherever possible. Almost certainly,
standardized training has a
roll to play, but as Streatfeild
remarked, while training is
very important; it is only one
small part of a jigsaw of making the wind sector safe.

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S O L A R A N D S TO R AG E

Municipal Solar and Microgrids:


A PV Market Outlook
Whether driven by the desire to be more
disaster-proof or just to save money,
municipalities are turning to the promise
solar PV and microgrids all over the world.
JENNIFER RUNYON, Chief Editor

Small cities and towns are prime off takers for solar power
and solar developers are hoping to delve further into that market in 2016.

Solar Because It is Green and a Good Deal


Located in the northeast of the U.S., Peterborough, New Hampshire took on the title of The Greenest Town in New Hampshire in late 2015 after it turned on a 1-MW solar array that
will power its townhouse, fire station and library through a
group net-metering arrangement. Borrego Solar developed
the project and served as the engineering, procurement and

construction provider.
Peterborough purchases the solar energy through a
PPA at a rate of US $0.08 per
kilowatt-hour, less than what
it pays for power from Eversource, the local utility. A $1.2
million grant from the public
utilities commission helped
fund the project in addition to
a grant from the USDA Rural
Business Development fund
that covered the cost of filling

Solar array at the town of


Peterborough, New Hampshire
wastewater treatment facility.
Credit: Renewable Energy World.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

27

S o l a r a n d S to r ag e

the lagoons on which the panels are located.


Other proactive cities and
towns across the U.S. can
seek grants that help pay the
cost of installing solar and
then work with developers
such as Borrego to figure out
how to complete the projects.
The town of Peterborough welcomes the new solar
power plant, which is a part of
our plan to reduce our carbon
dioxide emissions while generating energy savings, said
Rodney Bartlett, Peterboroughs town administrator.

Solar Because It Isnt Nuclear


According to Paula Mints latest market update, Japan is
still one of the hottest markets for solar PV. The country
turned to renewable energy
after the Fukishima disaster five years ago, pledging to
shut down all nuclear power
plants in the country.
The market today is mostly driven by a generous Feedin Tariff (FIT) that the government enacted to help kick
start the transition to renewable energy. Mints pointed out in her report that the
government is committed to
solar PV and is looking to
develop a sustainable model
for doing so.
One such model might
just be found in the Japanese city of Miyama (Fukuoka
28

MAY/JUNE 2016

Fairfield, Connecticuts Operation Hope Fairfield, the shelter that will be


energized 24/7 because of the solar microgrid. Credit: Schneider Electric.

Prefecture) where the local government has just rolled out Miyama Smart Energy, a program that lets homeowners in the town
purchase locally-produced clean energy from the city itself at a
rate that is lower than what they must pay for electricity from the
local utility.
Miyama is home to the 23-MW Kyushu Solar Farm 7, which
produces energy for the town and for which it receives FIT payments from the federal government. In turn, Miyama sells that
power to its interested citizens using the incumbent utilitys system. If more power is needed, the city buys additional electricity
at the wholesale market, said analyst Junko Movellan. She added
that the city hopes to meet all electricity needs from local renewable energy, including hydro and geothermal in the future.
Its business model is very similar to that of CCA [Community
Choice Aggregation] here in the U.S., said Movellan.
Bundling other benefits such as a Home Energy Management system (HEMs) that includes a tablet so that homeowners
can track their energy use and a reward system that gives them
points that can be redeemed for other city services, Miyama is the
first city in the country that is authorized to sell electricity to its
customers. But it most likely wont be the last. At least 12 other
Japanese local governments are looking to do the same thing.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

S o l a r a n d S to r ag e

Microgrids Because of
Resiliency
The memory of Hurricane
Sandy in the U.S. Northeast
still brings shudders to city
and town administrators
who watched as their citizens
went days, and in some cases
weeks, without power, water,
and heat after the disaster
struck. In all, some 8 million
households in 17 states were
affected by the storm and its
path of destruction. While
some buildings and homeowners had back-up generators powered by diesel, as
the fuel to power them ran
low, anxiety about what could
happen next increased.
To help alleviate some of
the anxiety and bring more
resiliency to municipalities,
Schneider Electric is offering solar-powered microgrids
to those cities and towns that
may want them.
In the town of Fairfield,

Connecticut, Schneider built a 300-350 kW microgrid that uses


60 kW of combined heat and power, a 47-kW solar photovoltaic system and a 300-kW natural gas generator along with a control and distribution system, energy efficiency measures and
on-grid and island modes to bring peace-of-mind that future
storms wont as heavily impact the town.
Most of the time, the microgrid is connected to the larger grid
but should disaster strike, the police and fire stations, an emergency communications center, a cell phone tower and a public
shelter will remain energized 24/7.
When a power outage cascades through the grid the microgrid
is alerted to electrically separate and protect itself from the disturbance. At that time, it uses its own distributed generation resources to distribute power to the towns identified critical facilities.
Fairfield paid for its microgrid through a $1.1 million grant
from the state of Connecticut and put in $130,000 from its own
coffers to fund the project.

Solar, Storage and Microgrids for the Rest of Us

Peterborough, Miyama and Fairfield are all early adopters


of new technology towns that understood its benefits and
then went out and explored funding opportunities, applying
for grants and taking advantage of incentives in order to bring
green energy and resiliency to their municipalities. But grants
and incentives are not intended to fund the whole worlds transition to renewables.
In order to make it more simple for the mainstream market,
Schneider Electric is working on how to make microgrids modular, scalable and repeatable, said
Mark Feasel, Vice President of the Electric Utility Segment & Smart Grid. Feasel said Schneider believes the technology exists today but the chasm that has
to be crossed in order to attract more
municipalities is related to business
models.
The main market is a community
that has some plans around sustainability and reliability and they have energy
bills to worry about and need some help
The large-scale PV array near the Fukuoka Prefecture, Miyama
on how to figure that out.
To that end, Schneider has deployed
City Hall in Japan. Credit: Google Earth.
RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

29

S o l a r a n d S to r ag e

a new sales force within


the company to go out and
engage with communities and
other potential end-users that
might want a microgrid. Feasel said while Schneider can
supply the equipment and
expertise, it is working with
select partners that would
finance and own the assets.
Under that model the municipality would receive the
microgrid as a service. They
wouldnt have to put capital
up to do it, said Feasel.
The company is working with Duke Energy on
a pilot project at its own

headquarters near Boston, MA. We do believe that the non-regulated arms of utility holding companies make great partners
because they understand how to own and operate assets and, by
the way, they arent going out of business anytime soon.
For Schneiders microgrid, Duke Energy will finance the project and sell the power to Schneider through a PPA. Schneider
will not have to come up with any capital upfront but will use
its own equipment in the microgrid, which will also include a
400-kW photovoltaic system built and operated by REC Solar.
A portion of the PV will be on carports at the campus. Schneider Electrics microgrid controller StruxureWare demand side
operation will optimize the photovoltaic energy, storage and the
facilitys existing natural gas generator during grid-connected
and islanded operation. It will also store up to 1 MWh of electricity using EcoBlade, the companys energy storage system
powered by lithium-ion batteries.
Expect to continue to see announcements related to municipal
solar and microgrids in 2016 and beyond.

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WHAT WILL IT TAKE


FOR CANADA TO GO

100% RENEWABLE?
COMMERCIAL/GOVT ROOFTOP SOLAR 1.7%

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 1.9%

2050
PROJECTED
ENERGY
MIX

TRANSITION TO 100%
WIND, WATER, AND SOLAR
(WWS) FOR ALL PURPOSES
(ELECTRICITY, TRANSPORTATION,
HEATING/COOLING, INDUSTRY)

WAVE ENERGY 2%

HYDROELECTRIC

16.5%

SOLAR PLANT

17.7%

OFFSH

32

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

Stanford professor Mark Jacobson has a plan


to secure 100 percent clean energy in Canada.

1.5% RESIDENTIAL ROOFTOP SOLAR


0.2% TIDAL TURBINE

40-YEAR
J
JOBS
CREATED

NUMBER OF JOBS WHERE A PERSON IS


EMPLOYED FOR 40 CONSECUTIVE YEARS

290,716

CONSTRUCTION
JOBS

460,013

OPERATION
JOBS

ONSHORE WIND

37.5%

HORE WIND

21%

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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

33

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MW of new geothermal
capacity that came online
last year, most of it was from
small binary/organic rankine
cycle (ORC) projects, but the dominance of new binary/ORC installations in 2015 is not indicative of
how the geothermal market will
grow in the future, according to
a report from the Geothermal
Energy Association (GEA).
Flash technologies account for
Installed capacity (GW)
14
12
10
8
6

about 58 percent of global geothermal production, dry steam


about 25 percent, and binary/ORC 16 percent. (See Figure 1.)
Released in March, the 2016 Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production Report estimated that binary/ORC
will continue to grow substantially in tandem with the flash
and dry steam markets.
The growth of flash, dry steam, and binary/ORC turbine
technologies is directly tied to their specific applications in
the market, report author Benjamin Matek, Industry Analyst
& Research Projects Manager for GEA said. Flash and dry
steam technologies are suited to high-temperature resources, while binary/ORC can produce power from lower temperature resources.
The way geothermal
gets developed is that highBack pressure
er temperature resourcBinary
es are developed first, then
Triple flash
lower temperatures are
Double flash
developed second, Matek
said. In the U.S., were
Single flash

Figure 1: Operating capacity

by technology type.

Dry steam

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

Credit: Geothermal Energy


Association.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

35

G e ot h e r m a l

developing a lot of binary


now because we built out our
high-temperature resources
except, for example, in the
Salton Sea.
Some other countries that
are active in geothermal
development, such as Indonesia, the Philippines and Kenya,
are still building out high-temperature fields with flash/dry
steam systems, and later may
start to build in lower temperature fields with binary/ORC
systems, he said, adding that
some countries only have lowtemperature resources.
Additionally, the report
noted that South and Central America, which are in
the process of understanding
their geothermal resources,
likely will develop a balanced
mix of binary/ORC, flash and
dry steam projects as their
markets grow.
Providers of high-temperature turbine technologies
include Toshiba, Mitsubishi
and Fuji, the report said. In
addition, Ormat Technologies
currently covers most of the
lower temperature turbine
installations, but other providers, such as Electratherm,
Exergy and Turboden, have
entered the market.

EGS On The Cutting Edge


Researchers, government
agencies and industry participants point to enhanced
36

MAY/JUNE 2016

geothermal systems (EGS) as the next of wave of technology


that will enable developers to tap untold amounts of geothermal
resources around the world especially those with little-to-no
hydrothermal activity. But how long it will take is uncertain.
Depending on how you define EGS, its either a ways off, or
its already here, Chad Augustine, Geothermal Energy Engineer/
Analyst for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),
told Renewable Energy World.
According to Augustine, the idea behind EGS is to find ways to
build geothermal energy production where underground hydrothermal activity is reduced. If a developer drills deep enough, he
said, hot rock exists, but often that rock does not have the ability
to circulate fluid like the natural hydrothermal systems used in
traditional geothermal projects today.
With EGS, the technology either enhances an existing fracture network or creates one and builds an underground heat
exchanger so fluid can be injected into the ground, circulated
through that rock, where it heats up and comes to the surface,
Augustine said. At the surface, its just like any conventional
geothermal power plant, where binary cycle or perhaps even a
flash cycle is used to generate electricity.
One definition of EGS technology is for what Augustine calls
greenfield projects, where there is no indication of an existing
hydrothermal system. An alternative definition is any adjustment
made to a well or to the subsurface to enhance its permeability
and make it into a commercially viable geothermal project.
It will be a while before greenfield EGS projects become a significant part of the market, Augustine said, without committing
to a specific time frame for that development. On the other hand,
progress already is being made in using EGS to enhance existing
wells, make wells more productive, and access parts of existing
reservoirs that have low permeability.
In the U.S., for example, five projects received funding under
the The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to
advance the application of EGS. Those U.S. Department of Energy-funded projects include:
Ormats Desert Peak project in Nevada
Altarock Energys Newberry Volcano projects in Oregon
Calpine Corp.s Geysers project in California
The University of Utahs Raft River project in Idaho
Ormats Bradys Field project in Nevada
Augustine said the projects made progress in demonstrating

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

G e ot h e r m a l

We can drill at 10 kilometers but it gets expensive, he said. Six kilometers is a more realistic cut off
in terms of the ability to drill
that deep and the ability to
drill that deep at a reasonable price.

GEA Report Takeaways

Ormat Technologies Geothermal Power Plant, Steamboat Spring,


Nevada. Credit: Wikimedia Commons Rjglewis.

the benefits of EGS. Ormat, for example, successfully enhanced


the operating geothermal field at the Desert Peak project by stimulating an injection well that had very low permeability.
The company injected water into the well in order to open up
the fracture network and increase the wells injectivity, he said.
It worked to the point where they were able to increase the output of the power plant by an additional 1.7 MW.

EGS Potential
NRELs involvement in EGS advancement is primarily related to
analysis. Augustine said that based on findings so far, NREL has
determined that, even with limits on how deep developers can
drill, there is a lot of EGS potential in the U.S. The potential, he
said, is so large that it is almost more than its worth quoting a
number for.
He did, however, point to findings from analysis completed
in 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey that he believes produced
a fair estimate of 500 GW of EGS potential at depths between
three and six kilometers.
Most of that potential in the U.S., he added, is based in the
Western states.
Other studies have looked at EGS potential down to a depth of
10 kilometers, but Augustine said six kilometers is a more realistic drilling depth both in terms of technology and cost.

The GEAs power production


report found that the global geothermal market currently is at 13.3 GW of operating capacity in 24 countries,
and planned capacity under
development is 12.5 GW in 82
countries. In addition, the geothermal market is expected to
reach 18.4 GW by 2021, and
32 GW by the early 2030s.
That growth, according
to GEAs Matek, has been
estimated by measuring
increased support for geothermal at the government
level around the world.
He said that countries are
starting to increase their geothermal goals to match the
pledge made by the United
Nations and the International
Renewable Energy Agency for
a five-fold growth in installed
geothermal capacity by 2030.
In addition, about two dozen
countries have listed geothermal in their Intended
Nationally Determined Contributions as a resource they
expect to tap to comply with
the Paris Agreement.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

37

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B I O E N E RG Y

The Battle Over Argentine Biofuel


Argentina biodiesel faces anti-dumping
tariffs if it enters the EU market but
there might be some relief in sight.
BRUCE DORMINEY, Contributor

After years of crying foul, Argentina finally got some good news
late last month when a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel
ruled that current European Union tariffs and import regulations on imports of Argentine biodiesel should be revamped.
Although the final outcome of the dispute has yet to be
resolved much less an ultimate settlement Argentinas
biodiesel industry hopes it will be able to re-start biodiesel
exports to the EU perhaps as soon as late this year.
The WTO ruled that EU anti-dumping tariffs imposed on
Argentine biodiesel imports werent inherently illegalbut
ruled in favor of Argentina on several counts where the EU
inconsistently applied the WTOs antidumping rules, including

how it calculated the tariffs,


Jim Lane reported in the Biofuels Digest. Both sides have
60 days to appeal the decision, Lane noted, which the
Argentines see as good news
that may help them re-open
the European market that has
negatively impacted their biodiesel industry since antidumping tariffs were applied
in 2013.
Argentinas biodiesel products had previously dominated

Huge storage facility for soy


beans waiting to be exported
from Brazil to the US and
Europe. Credit: Shutterstock.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

39

the market in the EU. Some 90


percent of all biodiesel imported into the EU had come from
Argentina and Indonesia.
Reuters reported that the
EU had argued that Argentina was dumping or selling
biodiesel at below the cost of
production and harming local
producers. Anti-dumping
dutyis a protectionist tariff
that a domestic government
imposes on foreign imports
that it believes are priced
below fair market value.
However, the WTO said the
EU regulation at the heart
of the matter did not violate
WTO rules, Reuters reported.
Specifically, the WTO panel
rejected Argentinas claim
that a central article of the EU
regulation as such violated the WTOs anti-dumping
agreement, Reuters noted, but
upheld other claims that the
EU had acted inconsistently
with the pact.
In a statement, the European Biodiesel Board (EBB) said
it regarded the panel decision
as a first episode in the legal
battle engaged by Argentina in the WTO and before the
European Court. The government of Argentina, the
EBB noted, initiated the proceeding at the WTO level in
December 2013, asking for
the annulment of the EU antidumping measures.
We see this as excellent
40

MAY/JUNE 2016

news, Luis Zubizarreta, head of Argentinas biodiesel industry


chamber, CARBIO, told Reuters. The European Unions decision
regarding Argentine biodiesel was unjust, he added. Now well
be able to reopen a market that we had developed very well.
A European Commission (EC) statement after the ruling
noted that Argentine companies benefit from an unfair advantage because they have access to raw materials at prices that
are artificially low compared to the world market prices available to the EU biodiesel producers. The reason for this, the EC
statement noted, is high export taxes imposed by Argentina
and Indonesia on raw materials used in the biodiesel production (soya beans and soybean oil in Argentina and palm oil in
Indonesia). The WTO investigation, the statement continued,
found that the dumping margin for Argentina was as much as
49.2 percent.
Reuters also noted that the EU anti-dumping duties were
imposed after then President Cristina Fernandez ordered the seizure of Argentinas top energy company, YPF, from its previous
parent, Spains Repsol.
A USDA foreign agricultural service information report prepared by USDA experts working at the U.S. Embassy in Buenos
Aires noted that biodiesel production in Argentina is projected at 2.33 billion liters in 2016. Biodiesel in Argentina is almost
exclusively made from soybean oil, the USDA report noted, with
local investments of over $1.5 billion since 2007, and production
capacity reaching a high last year of 5.2 billion liters generated
from 38 biodiesel plants.
Until mid-2013, the USDA report noted, Spain was Argentinas
primary biodiesel market. But late that year the EU implemented an average duty of 24.6 percent on Argentine biodiesel due to
alleged dumping, which in practice meant closing of the market.
In late 2013, the USDA said, Argentine exports were redirected to the United States to supply biodiesel for the East Coast. In
2015, most of the approximately 450 million liters of that Argentine biodiesel was used as heating oil; and was levied with only a
4.6 percent duty.
The EU, once the number one market for Argentine biodiesel
exports, the 2015 USDA report continued, is for all practical purposes currently closed due to these continued high anti-dumping
duties. Thus, the USDA expects that the U.S. biodiesel market will
be Argentinas most active destination, with predicted exports in
2016 at 750 million liters.

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Bioenergy

Refocus on Europe?
Even if there is what Argentina considers a forthcoming
equitable agreement in the
near future, its too soon to
know if European biodiesel
producers will go along with
it. Or whether there will be
continued appeals by both
sides.
For its part, the EBB
remains optimistic that it will
be successful in convincing
the WTO and the European
court to recognize the massive damages suffered by the
EU biodiesel producers as a
result of unfair imports.
The WTO panels report
is not an outright victory for
the Argentinian industry,

as many of its claims together with the request to withdraw


the EU anti-dumping duties have been rejected by the WTO
panel, the EBB noted in a statement. However, the EBB reported that it considers the WTO decision only as a first episode in a
long, strenuous legal battle over the legitimacy of the EU defense
measures.
Prices of soybeans, the raw material, are more expensive in
Europe than biodiesel imported from Indonesia and Argentina,Secretary General of the European Biodiesel Board, Raffaello Garofalo told Reuters. Its like saying steel costs more than a
car. Its impossible to compete.
A European Commission spokesperson in Berlin told Renewable Energy World that the WTO panel ruling can be appealed by
both parties between 20 and 60 days.
The EU has yet to decide on the best course of action, said
the spokesperson. Since the panel outcome is an intermediary
step, it is too early to speculate on the consequences for our practice as those consequences would very much depend on the exact
final rulings.
However, the USDA report noted that biodiesel exports to the
EU arent likely to resume until late this year at earliest.

Irrigation of a soybean
field in Argentina.
Credit: Shutterstock.

42

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

Hydro Here a nd Now

Award-winning Wave Energy

Alison LaBonte,

PhD, is the marine


and hydrokinetic
technology program
manager for the
U.S. Department
of Energys Wind
and Water Power
Technologies Office.

The Wave Energy Prize


was announced in 2015
during the keynote address
at the National Hydropower Association conference, International
Marine Renewable Energy Conference, and Marine Energy Technology Symposium. This announcement represented a milestone for
the U.S. Department of Energys
(DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office the commencement of its first public prize challenge, with a total purse of US $2.25
million, stemmed from realizing
that a technology leap in the efficiency of wave energy converters
(WEC) was needed to jolt wave energy toward sweeping cost reductions.
This pathway could ultimately make
wave energy, still in early stages of
development, competitive with more
traditional forms of energy, paving
the way to large-scale implementation within a generation.
Fast-forward a year 92 teams
registered for the Wave Energy Prize, with 66 of these submitting technical data for review by
the judging panel. In August 2015,
20 teams were qualified and began
developing 1/50th scale models of
their WEC devices. Between then
and January 2016, they submitted revisions, numerical modeling
results, model design and construction plans, and results from their

1/50th scale model tank testing in order to move to the


next round of evaluation.
On March 1, DOE announced
nine finalists and two alternates.
Each finalist will now receive up
to $125,000 of seed funding from
DOE, with alternates receiving up
to $25,000 to develop 1/20th scale
models of their WEC technologies. These models will be tested
at the Naval Surface Warfare Centers Maneuvering and Seakeeping
(MASK) Basin at Carderock, Md.,
beginning this summer.
ACE a benefit-to-cost ratio
was selected as a metric appropriate for comparing low technology
readiness level WEC concepts when
there is not enough data to calculate
the levelized cost of energy from a
device. ACE is determined by dividing, in essence, the wave energy
extraction of a WEC by its structural cost. Finalists were determined
based on their potential to double the current state-of-the-art ACE
value of 1.5 meters per million dollars (m/$M) to 3 m/$M during 1/20th
scale tank testing at the MASK
Basin, making them eligible to win
the grand prize of $1.5 million.
Testing is to begin in August and
run through mid-October, with
the prize winner(s) announced in
November. For information about
the teams, click here.
This article was previously published in the April issue of Hydro
Review magazine.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

43

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Adver t iser s Index


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Asia Power Week41

Leipziger Messe
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Distributech 20173
Hamburg Messe & Congress11
Hammond Power Solutions25
InterSolar North America6
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Siemens AG4
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Soltec9
Trojan Battery Company2

REW.com26

The Adveritsers Index is published as a service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions.
44

MAY/JUNE 2016

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

Last
the

WORD

Emerging Market Projects


Yield Higher Returns

Haresh Patel is

CEO and co-founder


of Mercatus, leading
the companys
evolution of
the business
strategy, roadmap
development and
service offerings.
Haresh has more than
twenty-five years of
experience driving
high revenue growth
through sales and
marketing leadership
positions.

It may be time to re-think J. Paul Gettys famous formula for success: rise
early, work hard, strike oil. For energy investors today, a more successful
formula might revolve around renewable energy projects particularly in
emerging markets.
Taken in aggregate, IRRs for renewable energy projects in the developing
world are 28 percent higher than those
in EU and North America. If there was
an exchange-traded fund for developing world projects, who in their right
mind wouldnt bite? I know I would.
The findings are part of a larger
picture in which emerging markets
are driving growth in advanced energy even as fossil-fuel prices continue
their tumble. The findings are captured in our recently released Mercatus Global Advanced Energy Insights
Report. Other key findings include:
Investment in advanced energy
in emerging markets matched that of
developed countries for the first time
in 2015.
Advanced energy projects were
bigger on average in emerging countries than in North American and
European markets.
The type of growth in emerging
markets differed from that in developed regions, presenting more opportunities for utility-scale projects than
North America and Europe.

Emerging countries are supplying a


growing hunger for electricity with a
mix of large, utility-scale renewable
energy projects and distributed generation think solar panels on rooftops. In South America, the average
project size was 64 MWdc, while Africa averaged 45 MWdc and the Middle East averaged 34 MWdc. Average
project sizes in Europe (3 MWdc) and
North America (11 MWdc) were distinctly smaller, said the report. Over
the next four years, a growing share
of new capacity across the globe
including new solar capacity will
go online in emerging markets.

Epic Transformation
Contrary to assumptions that declining oil and gas prices would dampen
investments in clean energy, we see
no correlation between these trends.
What we do see, with US $12 trillion flooding into the market, is the
onset of epic transformation. Most of
the growth is in developing regions,
so thats where energy producers are
investing more heavily. Theres a real
opportunity for these markets to leapfrog fossil-fuel dependence, similar to
how Africas mobile phone revolution
skipped the landline era.
So remember: rise early, work hard,
invest in renewables in emerging
markets.

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

MAY/JUNE 2016

45