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Gerundive and Gerund Exercises

Exercise 64A
1. Friends must always be conserved
2. Friends had to be searched by you all
3. Ennius said that friends must be had by all
4. How many friends must each one have?
5. Did Laeuius persuade you that friends muyst be delighted by all?
6. Among friends the truth must be said.
7. The birthdays of the friends must always be remembered by you
8. Lying must be repelled by friends
9. Now Cicero had to hand over the rostra.
10. Catullus wrote A perpetual night must be slept by us
11. They must not make the gladiators start a fight
12. Clodius having been wounded must be dragged to the shop by friends.
13. For Clodius having been extracted and with many wounds must be killed
14. In the Curia the corpse of Clodius did not have to be cremated by the people.
Exercise 64B
1. Tibi, If you do not want to come with us, you must stay at home.
2. Mihi, This orator must be praised by me because he was talking well in difficult things.
3. Vobis, When you all will have arrived at Rome, you all will have to look at the burning
Curia.
4. Illi, Milo was the mayor of Lanuvius; he must go there in order to appoint a priest.
5. Nobis, These difficult things will have to be done by us.
Exercise 63B
1. Cant tell: A friend does nothing to offend a friend.
2. Gerund (both of them): Many friends are able to be obtained by hearing rather than by
speaking.
3. Gerundive: It is necessary for all to desire friends and allies, for the sake of having a life
worth living. (modifying vitae vitalis gerundive NOT because of causa, but because of
feminine)
4. Gerund: For does cicero believe that some obtain friendship by using riches?
5. Gerundive: With things of humans fragile, we are able to live ones life agreeably by
delighting in friendship. (modifying amico)
6. Gerund: Are we made luckier by talking with friends?
7. Gerundive: Laelus about friendship was speaking for the sake of holding Scipio in
memory. (modifying Scipionis)
8. Gerundive: Will you give me all philosophical work for having friends? (modifying
amicis)

Chart for analyzing tenses

Gerundive and Gerund Exercises


Est (present)
Erat (imperfect)
Erit (future)
Fuit (perfect)

Has to be done/must
Had to be done
Will have to be done
Had not to have done/must have been done

Wheelocks Review
Section 1
1.
2.
3.
4.

A verbal noun
ing
Genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, neuter singular
A gerund will either be the object of a preposition or a direct object (never the
subject)
5. The infinitive (to do something)
Section 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Adjective
Gerundive = adjective
Us-a-um endings, fully declinable, agrees with the noun it modifies
It is declined like a 2nd declension adjective
They can be distinguished in 3 ways:
a. Gerund = noun, gerundive = adjective
b. Gerund = active, gerundive = passive
c. Gerund is formed based on sentence construction, gerundive agrees with word it
modifies

3rd principal part + ere