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Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

www.elsevier.com/locate/envsoft

An organic matter and nitrogen dynamics model for the ecological


analysis of integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems:
I. model development and calibration
D.M. Jamu 1, R.H. Piedrahita
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Received 25 July 2000; received in revised form 20 September 2001; accepted 11 January 2002

Abstract
A dynamic and mechanistic mass balance model (Integrated Aquaculture/Agriculture System model, or IAAS) for predicting
nitrogen and organic matter outputs from aquaculture ponds and their subsequent recycling in conventional agriculture practices
has been developed and calibrated using data from Honduras, Thailand and Malawi. The model, developed using Stella modeling
software (High Performance Systems, Inc. Hanover, New Hampshire), simulates individual fish growth, organic matter, nitrogen
(organic, total ammonia and nitrate), dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton, crop growth, soil nitrogen concentrations and soil water
balance. Processes included in the model are fish growth, crop biomass growth, allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter
production, organic matter decomposition, nitrogen input, nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, diffusion, uptake and
leaching. The model has been calibrated using literature and observed parameter values from experiments. The calibration procedure
involves running the model using inputs from observed data, comparing the model output to observed data, and making appropriate
adjustments to parameter values until a general fit between the model and observed values is observed. The structure of the model
allows users to modify parameter values to suit different simulation scenarios via a user interface display that also includes graphs
and tables for model output. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Nitrogen cycling; Organic matter; STELLA; Aquaculture; Dynamic model

Software availability
Name of software: IAAS
Hardware requirements: Laptop or desktop IBM-compatible or Macintosh PC. Microsoft Windows
3.1 or Windows/95/98 or NT with minimum
2Mb RAM and 1 Mb of hard disk space for
IBM compatible PC and 68020 processor or better or System 7 or later for Macintosh computers
(requirements depend on Stella version used)
Software requirements: Stella Research or Stella
save-disabled
demo
available
at
http://www.hps-inc.com
Contact address: Raul H. Piedrahita, Biological and

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-530-752-2780; fax: +1-530-7522640.


E-mail addresses: rhpiedrahita@ucdavis.edu (R.H. Piedrahita);
D.Jamu@cgiar.org (D.M. Jamu).
1
Current address: ICLARMThe World Fish Center, P.O. Box
229, Zomba, Malawi.

Agricultural Engineering Department, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis


CA 95616-5294 USA
E-mail: rhpiedrahita@ucdavis.edu
Availability: Free, available upon request

1. Introduction
Integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems are increasingly being promoted as an environmentally sustainable
method for producing aquatic and terrestrial crops. In
integrated systems, wastes from one system component
are recycled as inputs to another system component.
Through
waste
recycling,
integrated
aquaculture/agriculture systems can be used to treat
aquaculture effluents, increase farm productivity through
efficient resource utilization, spread financial risk
through diversification and reduce system nutrient losses
(Singh et al., 1996; Williams, 1997).

1364-8152/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

To take advantage of the attributes of the integrated


aquaculture/agriculture system stated above, adequate
scientific information is required on the important processes governing nitrogen dynamics and system productivity, and how they affect different functions of the
integrated system. Because of the complexity of integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems (Edwards et al.,
1988), it is impractical to conduct basic field experiments that answer questions concerning the contribution
of different processes to the structure and function of
the system (Thornley and Verberne, 1989). Previously,
researchers have used conventional tools for agroecosystem analysis like energy budgets and bioresource flow
conceptual models to describe and analyze integrated
systems. However, this approach does not capture the
dynamic properties of the system (Conway, 1987; Lightfoot et al., 1993).
Simulation models are useful tools in the analysis of
complex systems and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients (Anderson, 1992). Models assist scientists in conceptualizing, summarizing and analyzing complex
phenomena (Hall and Day, 1977). Simulation models
have been used to simulate different terrestrial and
aquatic systems (Hall and Day, 1977; France and
Thornley, 1984). Existing models developed to analyze
integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems have largely
been empirical (van Dam, 1995; Schaber, 1996, steady
state (Dalsgaard, 1996) or have failed to incorporate
major components of the system (van Dam, 1995;
Dalsgaard, 1996; Schaber, 1996). The empiricism of current integrated systems models, their lack of dynamical
properties, and exclusion of important system components limit their extendability and utility in the ecological analysis of dynamic ecosystems.
A new model (Integrated Aquaculture/Agriculture
System model or IAAS) has been developed for simulating organic matter and nitrogen dynamics through aquaculture and integrated conventional agriculture. Given
the scope of the material related to the description of
IAAS, it was decided to present it in two parts. The
objective of this first part is to present an overview of
the model and some details of significant model components. A brief overview of the model calibration is also
presented in this first part. Application of the model to
identify important processes and priority areas for future
research in integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems is
presented in the second paper (Jamu and Piedrahita,
2002). Further details are available elsewhere (Jamu,
1998).

2. Model overview
The model described in this paper is a dynamic, deterministic and mechanistic model that simulates fish and
crop production, organic matter, phytoplankton, dis-

solved oxygen (DO), and nitrogen dynamics in an integrated aquaculture/agriculture system. The model builds
upon existing pond ecosystem models (Nath, 1996; Piedrahita, 1990) and a general crop model (SUCROS1)
(Spitters et al., 1989). The model, developed using
Stella modeling software (High Performance Systems,
Inc, Hanover, New Hampshire), has a simulation time
step of 0.125 d and the model differential equations are
solved numerically using Eulers method. The model can
be used to study long-term (i.e. several years) trends by
simulating consecutive production cycles.
The aquaculture ecosystem model developed here is,
however, markedly different from previous models
because of its explicit treatment of organic matter and
nitrogen dynamics and the inclusion of aquaculture pond
sediments as part of the mass balance calculations.
Nitrogen is treated as a major component in this model
because of its role as a major limiting nutrient controlling the diversity, dynamics and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic systems (Vitousek et al., 1997). On
the other hand, organic matter provides the main link for
integration of aquaculture and agriculture, and plays a
pivotal role in the recycling of nutrients in ecological
systems (Ruddle and Zhong, 1984; Voght et al., 1986).
Although the agriculture component model incorporated
in the integrated model is not very different from the
original SUCROS1 model, the soil nitrogen and water
balance models have been greatly simplified, and now
include simple and reduced statements to describe soil
water and nitrogen processes and their effects on crop
growth. The model strengths over existing integrated
aquaculture/agriculture models (van Dam, 1995;
Dalsgaard, 1996; Schaber, 1996) are that the present
model is largely mechanistic and includes the important
components of the integrated aquaculture/agriculture
system, while previous models are largely empirical and
exclude the major system components/processes. The
model has been developed using a modular approach
where modules, sub-modules, and sub-models are
developed based on biophysical and functional similarity
of the state variables (Table 1). The model consists of
two modules, i.e. aquaculture and agriculture (Table 1).
Each module consists of mass balance calculations for
the state variables which describe the state or condition
of the system (Shoemaker, 1977). Figure 1 shows the
major components (sub-modules) of the model and the
main pathways and linkages between them and the surrounding environment. The model contains 19 state variables that are expressed in units of concentration: kg
ha1 for nutrient and biomass concentrations and number
of individuals ha1 for population densities (Table 1).
Thirty-nine variables and parameters can be modified by
users. Initial values must be input for the following state
variables: fish weight, chlorophyll a concentration, dissolved oxygen, terrestrial leaf area index, fresh and
stable organic matter content in terrestrial soil. For the

Agriculture

Fish pond water column

Aquaculture

Terrestrial crop

Terrestrial soil

Fish pond sediment

Sub-module

Module

crop growth (leaf , stem, storage/grain


and root)

Soil nitrogen

Irrigation
Fresh organic matter
Stable organic matter

Soil evaporation

Crop transpiration

Pond sediment nitrogen

Pond sediment organic matter

Water quality

Phytoplankton

Fish population
Feed quality

Fish growth

Sub model

Crop biomass; water


Root biomass; shoot and total leaf biomass
Microbial biomass; fresh organic matter; stable
organic matter nitrogen
Crop biomass; soil water; organic matter biomass,
water quality
Root biomass; root length; storage biomass; fresh
organic matter biomass; soil nitrogen; pond sediment
organic matter

Fish biomass, phytoplankton and organic matter


biomass, Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), Dissolved
oxygen (DO)
Fish population
Feed (natural, artificial); nitrogen and carbon
concentration
Phytoplankton biomass, DO, TAN and nitrate-N; fish
biomass
Organic matter biomass; nitrate-N and TAN
concentration; organic nitrogen; fish biomass
Carbohydrates and crude protein, cellulose, lignin and
stable organic matter concentrations; TAN
concentration; nitrate-N concentration, organic
nitrogen, DO
TAN concentration; nitrate-N concentration; organic
nitrogen concentration
Leaf area index; root biomass; soil nitrogen
concentration
Dead leaf biomass; soil water

State variables

Table 1
Modules, sub-modules, state variables and external forcing functions for N dynamics in integrated aquaculture/agriculture system

Air temperature; soil water,


solar radiation

Soil temperature, soil water


Soil temperature

Canopy and air temperature;


wind speed; Solar radiation
Soil temperature; solar
radiation

Water temperature

Water temperature

Water temperature; solar


radiation

Water temperature, solar


radiation

Forcing function

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D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

3.1. Terrestrial crop sub-module


The terrestrial crop sub-module simulates the crop
biomass growth rate as a function of soil water availability, air temperature, solar radiation and soil nitrogen
concentration. The crop biomass growth rate is simulated
using the SUCROS1 sourcesink model (Spitters et al.,
1989). In this approach, gross assimilated carbon feeds
a pool of carbohydrates, and the carbohydrates are partitioned into roots, shoots, and storage organs as a function of phenological age of the plant. Information on
gross partitioning coefficients of assimilated carbon to
different crop components, crop phenological development rate, maximum carbon assimilation rate and respiration rates of the different crop organs is available from
the literature (Penning de Vries, 1982). The crop considered in the model is corn (Zea mays).
3.2. Terrestrial soil sub-module
Fig. 1. Conceptual model for the integrated aquaculture/agriculture
system showing pathways and linkages between different components
and the surrounding environment.

other state variables (Table 1), initial values can be set


to zero when their values are not known.
The aquaculture and agriculture modules can be run
separately
or
as
a
single
integrated
aquaculture/agriculture model. Integration of aquaculture and agriculture is established through the creation
of water, organic matter, and nutrient pathways between
the two modules. The major pathways between the two
systems are through the utilization of: (a) agricultural
plant wastes as pond fertilizers, (b) pond water to irrigate
agricultural crops and (c) pond sediments to fertilize
agricultural crops. The transfer of plant waste to fertilize
the aquaculture pond is assumed to occur after harvest
of the agricultural crop and irrigation occurs during the
fish production cycle. In cases where sediment organic
matter is removed from the pond at the end of the fish
production period, the sediment mineral nitrogen and
organic matter concentrations are used as the initial sediment values for the next production cycle.

3. Agriculture module components and processes


The agriculture module is used to simulate crop
biomass growth, soil organic matter and nitrogen concentrations, and crop soil water loss through crop transpiration and soil surface evaporation. The module consists of two main sub-modules: terrestrial crop and soil.
Each of the sub-modules is further broken down into
sub-models as shown in Table 1.

The second sub-module in the agriculture system


component of the model is the terrestrial soil sub-module
(Table 1, Fig. 1). The terrestrial soil sub-module simulates soil nitrogen and organic matter concentrations, and
soil water balance. The modeling of soil nitrogen availability and uptake follows the approach of van Keulen
and Seligman (1987) whereby nutrients are available
through decomposition of organic material based on first
order kinetics. The processes affecting soil nitrogen are
fertilization (inorganic and organic), organic matter
decomposition, leaching, and crop uptake. It is assumed
that nitrogen input through wet deposition in rainfall is
insignificant relative to the other sources, and nitrogen
is primarily available to the crop plants through mass
flow with the transpiration stream.
The terrestrial soil gains organic matter through root
death, reincorporation of crop waste and pond water irrigation. The terrestrial soil loses organic matter primarily
due to decomposition. In the model, a multiple pool
approach, where the organic matter is divided into several pools based on the reactivity of each pool (Thornley
and Verberne, 1989), is used to simulate organic matter
decomposition. In the present model, the organic matter
is divided into four organic matter pools (easily decomposed, moderately easy to decompose, slowly decomposable, and stable). The organic matter pools decay at
different rates based on their reactivity expressed in a
unit of d1 (in parenthesis) as shown in Eq. (1) (van
Keulen and Seligman, 1987).
Easily decomposable (0.8)
Moderately decomposable (0.05)

(1)

Slowly decomposable (0.0095)


Stable (8.3 105)
The easily decomposable organic matter is made up

D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

of readily metabolizable subgroups of organic matter,


composed primarily of carbohydrates and crude proteins.
The moderately decomposable organic matter is made
up of cellulose a, and the slowly decomposable organic
matter is composed of lignin compounds. Stable organic
matter is defined as the organic matter that has undergone decomposition at least once (van Keulen and Seligman, 1987).
Soil water balance is simulated using simplified calculations for a homogeneous soil layer as affected by evapotranspiration rates, soil type and soil water content at
field capacity (Addiscott and Whitmore, 1987). For simplicity, clay and loam are considered to be the two main
soil types. Any intermediate soil types between clay and
loam are treated as either loam or clay depending on
the dominant soil mineral component, e.g. loamy clay is
classified as clay. This classification removes the need
for fine delineation of soil types.
The leaching of water from the agriculture component
through downward transport of water outside the corn
root zone is calculated as the difference between actual
soil water content and water content at field capacity for
the soil type. Water loss due to surface runoff is not
taken into account in the calculation of soil water. Irrigation is calculated based on a fixed frequency schedule
whereby the total amount of water for irrigation is calculated as the cumulative crop evapotranspiration between
irrigations. Irrigation is equal to zero when rainfall is
greater than crop evapotranspiration.

4. Aquaculture module components and processes


The aquaculture module consists of the fishpond water
column and fishpond sediment sub-modules. The fishpond water column sub-module consists of sub-models
that are used to simulate fish growth and population, feed
quality, phytoplankton biomass, and water quality (Table
1). The fishpond sediment sub-module is used to simulate pond sediment organic matter and nitrogen dynamics (Table 1).
4.1. Fish growth
The fish growth model simulates the growth of an
individual fish using a fish bioenergetic model adapted
from Bolte et al. (1994) that is parameterized for Nile
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The model (Bolte et al.,
1994) has been modified to include the effects of feed
quality, feed preference and digestibility of different feed
resources on fish growth. The model has also been modified to include a multiplier that accounts for genetic differences between Nile tilapia and other tilapia species.
Details of these modifications are described elsewhere
(Jamu and Piedrahita, 1996; Jamu, 1998).

575

4.2. Fish population


The total number of fish in the aquaculture pond is
dependent on the initial number stocked, mortality and
reproduction:
d(population)
stocking birthdeathharvest
dt

(2)

Fish harvest in Eq. (2) occurs at the end of the production period. It is assumed that stocking, birth and harvest are equal to zero during the production cycle. The
assumption of zero birth rates may be a simplification
in so far as mixed sex tilapia production is concerned.
However, inclusion of births would require the consideration of an age-structured population model. The simulation of age structure is not important in the present
model since the effects of recruits on the pond carrying
capacity is implicitly included in the fish bioenergetic
growth model. Fish population in the pond is assumed
to be affected by mortality rates only. Fish mortality in
aquaculture ponds is a result of a variety of factors like
high-unionized ammonia concentrations, low DO conditions, predation, poor handling during sampling, and
disease. While it is desirable to predict fish mortality
from simulated water quality conditions, the problems
of identifying the actual causes of fish mortality makes
this approach impractical (Nath, 1996). The fish mortality rate (death in Eq. (2)) is expressed using a logistic
equation (Pearl and Reed, 1920):
dP g(PaP)
P

dt
Pa

(3)

where: g=mortality rate (d1); Pa=management allowable fish population; P=fish population at time, t (fish.
ha1). The management allowable population is calibrated based on survival data recorded at fish harvest.
4.3. Feed intake and preference
Tilapias show a preference for phytoplankton, which
disappears under phytoplankton-limited conditions
(Schroeder, 1978). In nature, tilapias have a predominantly herbivorous diet consisting of phytoplankton,
vegetable debris, zooplankton, and benthic organisms
(Philippart and Ruwet, 1982). Under waste-fed conditions common in integrated aquaculture/agriculture
systems, supplementary feed is applied to ponds to augment the natural food supply. Therefore, both natural and
supplemental feed may be available to the fish. In the
model, it has been assumed that tilapias prefer natural
feed (phytoplankton and detritus) to artificial feed in the
following order: phytoplanktondetritussuppemental
feed (Schroeder, 1978; Spataru, 1978; Philippart and
Ruwet, 1982). While this preference series may be true
for waste-fed tilapia ponds, it may not hold for systems

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D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

where fish are fed high quality feeds. Apart from feed
quality, fish physiology and learning behavior may also
affect fish preference for certain feed types. Therefore,
the feed preference series adopted here should be viewed
as a simplification of the complex behavioral and physiological factors that influence feed preference by fish in
aquaculture ponds. The feed intake for feed resource i
is dependent on the total feed intake rate, a preference
factor (analogous to a half saturation constant), and the
feed concentration. Feed intake rate for the ith feed
resource can be generally presented as:
ci
ri R
Ksi ci

(4)

where ri = intake rate for feed i (g d1); and R is the total


feed intake rate (g d1) (Nath, 1996), Ksi=half saturation
constant for uptake for the ith feed resource (mg l1),
and ci=concentration of the ith feed resource (mg l1).
The Ks value for feed uptake captures the effects of feed
preference by fish and feed concentrations on the feed
intake rate. Based on Eq. (4), fish in the model are
allowed to initially feed on phytoplankton by setting the
Ks for phytoplankton uptake by fish to a lower value
relative to the Ks for detritus. When the fish cannot meet
their daily requirements, they supplement their total feed
requirements by consuming detritus and artificial feed.
This approach requires the determination of feed uptake
coefficients and feed uptake factors that are used to calculate feed intake rates for each of the three feed
resources. The feed uptake coefficient is defined as the
Monod coefficient for the feed resource expressing feed
uptake as a function of its concentration and corresponding half saturation constant. For example, the phytoplankton uptake coefficient (PUC) is expressed as:
PUC

Chla
Ksp Chla

(5)

where: Chla=measure of phytoplankton biomass density


(chlorophyll a, mg l1); Ksp=half saturation constant for
phytoplankton uptake (mg l1). A similar equation can
be developed for the detritus uptake coefficient (DUC)
as follows:
Dwc
DUC
Ksd Dwc

(6)

where: DWC=the concentration of detritus in the water


column (mg l1) and Ksd=half saturation constant for
detritus uptake (mg l1).
The feed (phytoplankton, detritus, artificial) uptake
factor is defined as the fraction of feed consumed by the
fish for each of the feed resources after accounting for
the effects of feed concentration and preference. Since
it has been assumed that tilapia prefer phytoplankton to
other feed resources, the phytoplankton uptake coefficient is always equal to the phytoplankton uptake factor

(PUF=PUC). Therefore, the phytoplankton uptake rate


(rp, g d1) is equal to the feed intake rate multiplied
by PUF:
rp R.PUF

(7)

The PUF is always less than one, although it can


approach one if the phytoplankton concentration is much
greater than the half saturation constant for uptake.
Therefore the phytoplankton uptake by fish (rp) will
always be less than the total feed intake rate (R). The
balance; R(1-PUF), will have to be met through fish
feeding from the detritus and artificial feed pools. In the
case of the present model the next preferred feed is
assumed to be detritus and the detritus uptake factor
(DUF) is calculated as:
DUF (1PUF)DUC

(8)

The detritus uptake factor is then used to calculate the


detritus feed intake rate (rd, g d1) as:
rd R.DUF

(9)

If artificial feed is available, it will constitue the balance of the total diet, R(1PUFDUF). Therefore, the
artificial feed uptake factor (AFF) is:
AFF 1(PUF DUF)

(10)

and the artificial feed factor by the feed uptake rate (ra,
g d1):
ra R.AFF

(11)

4.4. Feed quality


Fish growth in integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems can be affected by low feed quality. The effect of
feed quality on growth is incorporated in the model
based on the work of Urabe and Watanabe (1992) and
the definition of a balanced diet as presented by Sterner
and Hessen (1994). The model for the effect of feed
quality on fish growth is expressed as:
q

N:CF
QCE

or q

if QCE N:CF

(12)

if QCEN:CF

where:QCE Kc(N:Cz) is the critical food nitrogen to


carbon ratio below which fish production would be limited by nitrogen, N:CF=nitrogen to carbon mass ratio in
food (g N/ g C), Kc=carbon gross growth efficiency (g
feed C incorporated in fish biomass/g feed C consumed),
N:Cz=nitrogen to carbon mass ratio in fish (g N/g C).
The parameter Kc is determined by calculating the ratio
of fish biomass growth rate to food intake rate, all
expressed in terms of carbon (Lucas, 1996). Feed N:C
ratios in excess of the critical feed nutrient requirements
results in decreased fish growth rates due to the meta-

D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

bolic costs associated with the breakdown of excess


nitrogenous products from the fish. However, low feed
N/C ratios due to low protein feed and inadequate N
fertilization are more common in waste-fed aquaculture
where herbivorous and detritivorous fish such as tilapia
are reared (Bowen, 1987) and the effects of high feed
N:C ratios on fish growth have been ignored.
4.5. Phytoplankton biomass
The phytoplankton mass balance calculations incorporated in the IAAS model account for phytoplankton
growth, grazing by fish, respiratory losses, settling, death
and sporadic effluent losses through irrigation water. The
phytoplankton sub-model is linked to: (i) the fish growth
sub-model through fish grazing, (ii) organic matter
dynamics through dead phytoplankton and, (iii) nitrogen
dynamics through nitrogen uptake and mineralization of
dead phytoplankton. Phytoplankton growth rate is a
function of phytoplankton biomass, solar radiation, temperature, and nutrient concentrations. Nitrogen is considered to be the only limiting nutrient for phytoplankton
growth based on the fact that nitrogen is the primary
nutrient limiting productivity in tropical aquatic and
aquaculture systems (Moss, 1969; Melack et al., 1982;
Knud-Hansen et al., 1991). Phytoplankton settling and
death are expressed as first order processes with respect
to phytoplankton biomass. The temperature limitation
coefficient is expressed as a skewed normal function
(Svirezhev et al., 1984; Nath, 1996).
4.6. Water quality
The major parameters affecting water quality in the
aquaculture module are organic matter, dissolved oxygen
(DO), and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). Organic matter decomposition results in the depletion of DO due to
microbial respiration and nitrification. Decomposition of
organic matter also releases nitrogen which undergoes
ammonification to form TAN. TAN levels above the tolerance threshold for the fish and DO below the tolerance
threshold for fish affect fish growth rates (Boyd, 1995).
The major sources of organic matter in a waste-fed
aquaculture pond are applied feed and organic fertilizers.
The organic matter mass balance calculations for the
water column account for losses that occur during
organic matter decomposition, pond effluent discharge
during harvest and/or irrigation, and fish consumption.
Organic matter is produced within the pond through phytoplankton death, fish death, and fecal production. In
addition, the pond gains organic matter through organic
fertilization and pond influent. The simulation of organic
matter decomposition in the pond water column and
sediment is based on the multi-G model of Westrich and
Berner (1984). The multi-G approach is similar to the
approach adopted in the modeling of terrestrial crop

577

organic matter described earlier. The decomposition of


organic matter can be expressed as:
rGi kiTcGi

(13)

Gtm

Gi

(14)

i1

where: rGi=rate of decomposition for the ith group


organic matter group (kg ha1 d1); Gi =concentration
of organic matter in the ith group (kg ha1); Gtm=the
total concentration of organic matter (kg ha1); ki=decay
rate constant of the ith organic matter group as a function
of the substrate C:N ratio (d1); Tc=temperature multiplier. The concentrations of different groups or organic
matter fractions are determined from proximate analyses
for different feeds or fertilizers being applied to the
pond. Literature values (Gohl, 1981) can be used if the
proximate analyses are not available. These data are
input to the IAAS model by the user.
Dissolved oxygen concentrations are simulated using
the DO sub-model that follows the procedures described
by Piedrahita (1990). In this sub-model, the water column DO mass balance calculations include photosynthetic DO production, DO exchange with the atmosphere,
consumption
through
biological
(fish,
phytoplankton and microbial populations) respiration in
the water column and sediment oxygen demand. The
demand for oxygen in the sediment is primarily due to
the oxidation of TAN through nitrification, and of methane and hydrogen sulfide by a wide range of bacteria.
Only nitrification oxygen demand in the sediment is
modeled explicitly. The remaining oxygen sinks
(methane and hydrogen sulfide oxidation, macrobenthos
respiration) are combined into a single sediment respiration term that is calibrated from measured sediment respiration rates (Boyd and Pippopinyo, 1994). Sediment
respiration rate is expressed as a function of temperature
and water column oxygen concentrations (Walker and
Snodgrass, 1986):
rOs ksO2

O2
KO2 O2

(15)

where rOs=sediment respiration rate (mg O2 l1 d1);


ks=specific sediment respiration rate (d1); O2=water
column oxygen concentration (mg O2 l1 ), and KO2=half
saturation constant for oxygen (mg O2 l1).
Water column and sediment TAN is produced from
the ammonification of organic nitrogen which occurs
during the decomposition of organic matter. The nitrogen transformations are simulated using first order models adopted in other fish pond ecosystem models
(Piedrahita, 1990; Kochba et al., 1994). The rate of nitrogen mineralization is calculated as a first order reaction
from the organic matter decomposition rate (Eq. (13)).

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D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

In addition to organic matter mineralization, the pond


nitrogen mass balance also includes nitrogen fertilization
influent and effluent discharge, diffusion between sediment and water column, denitrification and fish
excretion. Fish nitrogen excretion is modeled explicitly
using mass balance calculations by expressing the fish
bioenergetic model in terms of nitrogen. Any excess
nitrogen not utilized by the fish is assumed to be
excreted as TAN. The simplified equation for calculating
fish TAN excretion is:
rTAN rF rFC rET

(16)

where rTAN=TAN production rate, rF=TAN excreted during fasting catabolism, rFC=TAN excreted during feeding
catabolism and rET=TAN excreted in excess of fish
requirements for growth and metabolism. All units in
Eq. (16) are in kg ha1 d1. It is assumed that all the
nitrogen in excess of the fish requirements for growth
and respiration is excreted as TAN. In addition, the
nitrogen model includes diffusion terms for nitrate nitro
gen (NO
3 N) and TAN. The diffusion of NO3 N
and TAN is obtained from (Blackburn and Blackburn,
1992):
Diffusion rate (Porosity)(Diffusion coefficient) (17)
(Concentration difference)
Depth
where: Diffusion rate=diffusion rate for nitrogen species
(kg m2 d1), Porosity=void volume fraction
(dimensionless), Diffusion coefficient (m2 d1), Concentration difference=difference in concentration between
water and sediments (kg m3), and Depth=sediment
depth (m). Porosity values are calculated from published
bulk density and organic matter particle density values
as follows:
Bulk density
Porosity 1
Particle density

(18)

where: Bulk density and Particle density have units of


kg m3. Mean values for sediment bulk and particle density from a pond sediment characterization study by
Munsiri and Boyd (1995) are used in the model as
default values. It is assumed that all the pore spaces in
the sediment are occupied by water, therefore the volume of pore space in the sediment is equal to sediment
pore water volume.

organic matter in the sediment. The sediment is divided


into two zones: the upper 1 mm layer whose oxygen
status is dynamic and dependent on the oxygen concentration in the water column, and an anaerobic layer at
sediment depths greater than 1 mm. The first order decay
constants for the different organic matter pools in the
aerobic layer are similar to those adopted in the water
column. However, for the anaerobic layer, lower (about
1020% of the aerobic values, Prats and Llavador, 1994;
Reddy and Patrick, 1984) decay rate constants are used
to reflect the overall lower efficiency of other electron
acceptors in the oxidation of organic matter.
Sediment nitrogen simulations are generally similar to
those of the water column. However, in addition to diffusion, leaching, and nitrification, sediment pore water
TAN is adsorbed by the sediment exchange complex.
In this model, unidirectional movement of TAN to the
exchange complex is assumed to occur during TAN
adsorption. It is further assumed that equilibrium
between porewater and adsorbed TAN is reached instantaneously. The maximum amount of TAN adsorbed by
sediments is determined by a potential upper limit for
TAN adsorption calculated from sediment cation
exchange capacity (CEC) values (Mehrani and Tanji,
1974). The potential upper limit for TAN adsorption calculated from CEC values is only approximate, since not
all exchange sites on the sediment are occupied by TAN
as other cations compete for the exchange sites. TAN
adsorption only occurs when the potential upper limit
for TAN adsorption is greater than the TAN adsorbed
by the sediment, i.e. when the exchange sites are not
completely occupied by TAN. The TAN adsorption rate
is defined as the rate at which pore water TAN is
attracted to the sediment through physical and chemical
processes (Tchobanoglous and Schroeder, 1987). TAN
adsorption rate can be obtained from the following equation (Deizman and Mostaghimi, 1991):
TANadsorption (PorewaterTAN)

(19)

(SpecificTANadsorption)(AdsorbedTAN)
where: TANadsorption=rate of TAN adsorption by the
sediments (kg ha1 d1), PorewaterTAN=TAN in the
pore water (kg ha1), SpecificTANadsorption=specific
rate of TAN adsorption (d1) and AdsorbedTAN=Fraction of TAN adsorbed (Dimensionless). The fraction of
TAN adsorbed by the sediment is expressed as (van Raaphorst and Malschaert, 1996):

4.7. Pond sediment organic matter and nitrogen


dynamics

AdsorbedTAN

The mass balance calculations for pond sediment


include settling, resuspension, and decomposition.
Organic matter settling and resuspension are represented
as first order processes, while the multi-G model (Eqs.
(13) and (14)) is also used to simulate decomposition of

where: KD=TAN distribution coefficient (dimensionless),


defined as the ratio of sediment to pore water TAN.
In addition to the processes occurring in the sediment
accumulated during the growing season, the model also
incorporates processes occurring in the mineral compo-

KD
(KD 1)

(20)

D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

nent of the soil. There is a lack of information on the


extent to which the mineral soil participates in pond
sediment and water column processes. However, in the
current pond sediment sub-module, the model boundaries are determined by considering the sediment sampling depth for the parameters of interest. In the data
used here for model testing, a 5-cm core sampling depth
was used to determine the nutrient and organic matter
of pond sediments (Berkman, 1995). The volume of mineral soil involved in sediment nitrogen and organic matter processes is, therefore, defined as the difference
between the sampling depth and the depth of accumulated organic matter multiplied by the pond area. Using
this definition, the organic matter layer is assumed to be
a distinct and separate layer from the mineral layer, an
assumption validated by Munsiri and Boyd (1995). The
nitrogen processes occurring in the mineral sediment are
similar to those occurring in the organic matter layer.
These nitrogen processes include Ficksian diffusion,
leaching through water infiltration losses, denitrification
of nitrate, and total ammonia adsorption by the soil
exchange complex.

5. Model Calibration
Calibration values for parameters in the agriculture
module were available from published reports because
the model has been validated for a wide range of
environmental conditions (Spitters et al., 1989). Therefore, only the aquaculture model was calibrated. The
calibration procedure involved running the model using
inputs from observed data, comparing model output
against observations and making appropriate adjustments
to parameter values until a general fit between model
output and measured values was achieved. Given the
scope and structure of the model, the calibration process
was carried out sequentially for each sub-module in the
aquaculture component model (Table 1).
Data inputs from the Pond Dynamics/Collaborative
Research Support Program (PD/A CRSP) database
(Berkman, 1995) were used to provide initial model
values for state variables, site characteristics (elevation
and latitude), and environmental variables (wind speed,
solar radiation, air and water temperature). The PD/A
CRSP database contains a variety of fish production and
environmental data obtained during the conduct of different fish culture experiments conducted at five sites
around the world. Data from the PD/A CRSP experiments conducted at the Rwasave Fish Culture Station,
Butare, Rwanda (2.4 S and 29.45 E) were chosen for
calibrating the model (Table 2). The site is located at an
elevation of 1625 m and has a humid tropical climate
with average annual temperatures between 14 and 28C
and a mean monthly humidity range of 5983%
(Bowman and Claire, 1996). The water supply to the

579

station had a pH range of 6.57.0, and alkalinity of


17 mg l1 as CaCO3. The soils at the site are acidic
(pH=4.54.8), and organic matter and cation exchange
capacity range between 0.7 and 5.1% and between 4.5
and 17.6%, respectively. The dataset chosen for calibrating the model consisted of observations collected during
the conduct of an experiment on fertilization of tilapia
pond using plant wastes and chicken manure at 1000 kg
ha1 wk1 and 500 kg ha1 wk1 dry weight, respectively. This dataset was chosen because it is the only dataset in the PD/A CRSP database where plant wastes
were used as a pond fertilizer. Considering that plant
wastes from crop systems provide a crucial link for integration, calibration of the model using this dataset provided realistic parameter estimates for the range of
inputs normally used in waste-fed aquaculture systems.

6. Conclusions
The integration of aquaculture and agriculture activities is of primary interest for aquaculturists and agricultural ecologists as a means of sustaining system productivity and mitigating the negative environmental
impacts of aquaculture effluents. The role of integration
in sustaining system productivity and reducing the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture can only be
enhanced if more information about the integrated system, module interactions and processes and mechanisms
controlling the functioning of the integrated system is
known (Fig. 1).
IAAS represents an important first step in formalizing
a model that includes the most important components
of an integrated aquaculture/agriculture system, and that
quantifies the complex interactions between the different
components of the system. For example, the inclusion
of pond sediments as part of the mass balance calculations in the model is particularly important because of
the role that sediments can play in pond water quality
as well as in the recycling of nutrients to the agriculture
component. Because the model has been developed in a
modular format, individual sub-modules and sub-models
can be modified independently without affecting the
integrity of the model. The inclusion of processes and
interactions between the main system components and
the adoption of the modular format to the model provides a useful tool for exploring the effects of different
management scenarios on the ecological performance,
productivity, and environmental effects of different types
of integrated aquaculture/agriculture systems.

Acknowledgements
The research described here was conducted with funding from the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative

580

D.M. Jamu, R.H. Piedrahita / Environmental Modelling & Software 17 (2002) 571582

Table 2
Parameter calibration values for the aquauclture module obtained using fish production and pond data Rwanda (PD/A CRSP Workplan 4, Experiment
3) as model input
Parameter/constant

Calibrated

O2 consumed per oxidized 3 g g1


organic matter
Ks for phytoplankton C 1 mg C l1
uptake rate
Denitrification rate k

10 d1

TAN diffusion rate k

5.0E10 m2 d1

NO3 diffusion rate k


Ks for nitrogen uptake
TAN partition coefficient

0.00015 m2 d2
1 mg N l1
10 g g1

Water column respiration 1 d1


rate k
Sediment respiration rate k 0.5 d1
Upper sediment N mineralization rate k
Lower sediment N mineralization rate k
Phytoplankton
respiration
rate k
TAN adsorption capacity
Ks for detritus uptake
Non-algal light extinction
coefficient
Chlorophyll a per phytoplankton biomass ratio
Phytoplankton death rate k
Anaerobic layer mineralization rate k
Sediment oxygen demand k
Phytoplankton digestibility
Phytoplankton
respiration
rate k
Nitrification
rate k

Literature range

System

1.083.00 g g1

marine sediments; fishponds Jrgensen, 1976; Schroeder,


1978
fish ponds; laboratory
Nath, 1996; Perschbacher
and Lorio, 1993; Northcott
et al., 1991
fish tanks/ponds; marine Neori, 1996; Acosta-Nassar
sediments
et al., 1994; Vanderborght et
al., 1977
fish ponds
Hargreaves, 1995; Schroeder, 1978; Acosta-Nassar et
al., 1994
marine sediments; fish ponds Acosta-Nassar et al., 1994
laboratory systems
Prats and Llavador, 1994
fish ponds; agricultural soils Hargreaves, 1995; Mehrani
and Tanji, 1974
fish ponds
PD/A CRSP data

16 mg C l1
0.0510 d1

0.000150.00062 m2 d1
0.11 mg N l1
540 g g1

Reference

0.032.57 g O2 m1 d1

fish ponds

0.05 d1

0.00010.05 d1

lake sediments; fish ponds

Teichert-Coddington
Carlos, 1993
Kochba et al., 1994

0.003 d1

0.000010.003 d1

lake sediments; wetlands

Reddy and Patrick, 1984

0.005 d1

0.0050.05 d1

laboratory

0.00012 g g1
40 g C l1
8.42 m1

40 80 gC l1

pond sediments
fish ponds
fish ponds

Lee et al., 1991; Prats and


Llavador, 1994
PD/A CRSP data
Nath, 1996
PD/A CRSP data

0.02 g g1

0.0050.025 g g1

fish ponds

Lee et al., 1991

0.09 d1
0.001 d1

0.010.09 d1
0.00010.0008 d1

freshwater sediments

Hagiwara and Mitsch, 1994


Jrgensen, 1979

1.4 d1
0.72 d1
0.05 d1

0.51.4 d1
0.380.80 d1
0.0050.05 d1

freshwater sediments

0.05 d1

0.050.1 d1

Research Support Program (PD/A CRSP), supported by


USAID Grant No. LAG-G-00-96-90015-00 and by contributions from the participating institutions, and by the
Rockefeller Foundation through a fellowship awarded to
the first author. Special appreciation is due to the PD/A
CRSP colleagues who collected the data used in this
study. The authors wish to thank Dr Randall Brummett
for permission to use the ICLARM Malawi aquaculture
database. Thanks are also due to the Malawi Meteorological Department for permission to use the Malawi
weather database. The PD/A CRSP accession number
for this paper is 1229.

freshwater

and

Walker and Snodgrass, 1986


Popma, 1982; Boyd, 1995
Lee et al., 1991; DiToro et
al., 1971
Prats and Llavador, 1991

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