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VII.

SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS


Any steady-state (SS) voltage or current in a linear time-invariant (LTI) circuit with a sinusoidal input source is
sinusoidal with the same frequency. Only the magnitude and phase (relative to the source) may be different.

Phasors vectors (i.e., complex numbers) that represent sinusoids. Since all V,I in the circuit
are sinusoids with the same frequency, only magnitude & phase are needed to describe any V,I.
sinusoids: v(t) = Vcos(t+) = Re[Vej(t+)] = Re[Vejet] phasor: Vej = V
v(t) = Vsin(t+) = Vcos(t+-/2) phasor: V(-/2)
For convenience, define phasors in terms of cosine (i.e., the real part of a complex exponential)

Eulers Identity: e jx = cos( x) + j sin( x) , cos( x) = 1 e jx + e jx , sin( x) = 1 e jx e jx

Differentiation/integration become algebraic operations w/ phasors (i.e., complex exponentials)

d
dt

dt

2j

Ex: d e j (t + ) = je j (t + )

1
j

dt

Capacitor Impedance:

Inductor Impedance: Z L = jL
ELI Voltage (EMF) LEADS Current (I) by 90
Complex Impedance/Generalized Ohms Law: Z = V

ZC =

1
jC

ICE Current (I) LEADS Voltage (EMF) by 90

allows for easy nodal analysis (no differential equations); series/parallel resistor laws apply
Maximum Average Power Transfer Theorem
power transferred to load impedance ZL
is maximized when ZL=Zth*
Decibel (dB) unit of measure for ratios of power, voltage, and current levels (often used to
express gain). Power: 1dB=10log10(P1/P2); V,I: 1dB=20log10(V1/V2)=20log10(I1/I2)
Frequency Response systems inputoutput transfer function vs. frequency (given
sinusoidal input). Both magnitude and phase plots are needed (output freq = input freq)
General transfer function can be written as a product of poles and zeroes
H ( ) = Ae

( j )

j
1 + j

z1 1 + z 2

j
j
1 + 1 +
p1
p2

Aej

1/j

+ 20 dB

20 dB

dec

A
0dB

dec

0dB
1

H ( j )

zeroes roots of the numerator


poles roots of the denominator

Break point frequency BP poles and zeros are break point freqs
at a zero frequency, the magnitude is +3dB (=2) and the phase is +45
at a pole frequency, the magnitude is -3dB (=1/2) and the phase is -45
Bode Plot logarithmic plots for frequency response

H ( j )
H ( j )

40 dB
20 dB
0dB

1
+

1/(1+j/p)

+ 20 dB
dec

z z 10 z
10

10 p 10 p

0dB
20 dB
40 dB

20 dB

(1+j/z)

z z 10 z
10

to draw Bode plot for general transfer function, add individual pole and zero plots

dec

10 p 10 p

Filters
Lowpass Filter (LPF) VC in RC circuit / VR in RL circuit / VC and RLC circuit
(for current output, switch from series to parallel and switch L and C)

H () =

Vout
Vin

1
1+ jL R

H ( ) =

Vout
1
=
Vin
1+ jRC

H ( ) =

Vout
Vin

1
2
1+ jRC + ( j ) LC

Highpass Filter (HPF) VL in RL circuit / VR in RC circuit / VL in RLC circuit


(for current output, switch from series to parallel and switch L and C)

H ( ) =

Vout
j L R
=
Vin
1+ jL R

H ( ) =

Vout
jRC
=
Vin
1+ jRC

H ( ) =

Vout
Vin

( j )

LC
2
1+ jRC + ( j ) LC

Bandpass Filter (BPF) VR, IR in RLC circuit

H ( ) =

Vout
jRC
=
2
Vin
1+ jRC + ( j ) LC

at low freq, cap. impedance

Z C = j1C

dominates

I = Z in Zin = jCVin , Vout = IR jRCVin


tot
C

at high freq, ind. impedance Z L = jL dominates

I = Z in Zin = jinL , Vout = IR jLin R


tot
L

Resonant Frequency o = 1

LC

At o, Z C = 1 = j L = jZ o , Z L = jo L = + j L = + jZo Vout = Vin


C
j o C
C
(capacitor and inductor impedances are equal in magnitude, opposite in sign)
Characteristic Impedance: Z o = L C

BPF Bandwidth = 2 = difference between half-power frequencies


Quality Factor Q (1) measure of peakiness or filter selectivity (high Q low bandwidth)
(2) measure of energy stored vs. energy dissipated (high Q low loss)
Q=

= 1

series RLC: Q =

Zo
=
R

LC
R

parallel RLC: Q = R =
Zo

Tradeoffs: Bandwidth/selectivity/speed/energy loss


(e.g., high Q low (high selectivity) low slow transients e-t)

R
LC