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WHAT IS MATTER ?

Anything that has mass, volume or occupy


space

Matter consist of atoms, molecules or ions

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WHAT IS ATOM,
MOLECULE AND ION ?
ATOM
Tiny particles of an element that cannot be
created or destroyed
Example :
Copper metal consist of copper atoms, Cu

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Example :
Aluminium metal consist of aluminium atom, Al

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MOLECULE

Two or more atoms that are chemically


bound together
Example :
One chlorine molecule, Cl2 consist of two Cl atoms

Cl

Cl

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Example :
One carbon dioxide molecule, CO2 consist of one
carbon atom and two oxygen atoms

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ION

A charged particle (cation or anion) that


forms from an atom when it loses or gains
one or more electrons

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HOW THE CATION FORM?


Example :
A neutral lithium, Li atom contains 3 electrons.
When it loses one electron, it forms Li+ ion.

Li

Li+ + e

Li+

Li
Electron configuration : 2.1

Electron configuration : 2
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HOW THE ANION FORM?


Example :

A neutral fluorine, F atom contains 9 electrons.


However, in chemical reactions a fluorine atom
gains one electron to form fluoride, F- ion.
F + e F-

F
F with 9 electrons
Electron configuration : 2.7

F with 10 electrons
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Electron configuration : 2.8

Classification of Matter According to Its Composition:


Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
MATTER
PURE SUBSTANCES
ELEMENTS

MIXTURES

COMPOUNDS

HOMOGENEOUS
HETEROGENOUS

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MATTER

Anything that has mass, volume and occupy


space
Example :

Air
Water
Chair
Almonds
Salt
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ELEMENT
Substance that consist of only one kind of
atom.
The element can be atom or molecule
Example : Na, C(graphite), O2, O3, Cl2
Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler
substances.
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COMPOUND
A substance that is composed of two or
more elements that are chemically
combined in fixed proportions.

They contain two or more kinds of atoms

Example : water, H2O


sodium chloride, NaCl
butane, C4H10
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MIXTURE

Combination of two or more substances in


which the substances retain their distinct
identities.
Two types of mixtures:
Homogeneous
Heterogeneous
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Homogeneous Mixture

Composition of the mixture is the same throughout.


Example :
A spoonful of sugar dissolves in water

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Blood
Milk

Tea

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Heterogeneous Mixture

Composition of the mixture is not uniform.


Example :
Iron filings and sand

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Mixture of fruits
Mixture of oil,
water and sand

Mixture of oil and water


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EXERCISE 1
Classify each substance as an element or a
compound.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Aluminium, Al
Sulphur, S8
Chlorine, Cl2
Methanol, CH3OH
Carbon, C
Baking soda, NaHCO3
Nickel, Ni
Gold, Au
Carbon monoxide, CO
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Elements & The Periodic Table

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What are the information


that can be derived from
the isotope notation ?

Proton number (Z)


Nucleon number (A)
Number of electrons
* X is the symbol of the element
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All known elements are listed in the periodic table

1
2
3

4
5
6

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In periodic table, elements are arranged in


order of increasing proton number (Z).
Each element is represented by a unique
chemical symbol.
Example :
Helium He

Silver Ag

Aluminium Al

Tin Sn

Copper Cu

Uranium U
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There are seven horizontal rows of elements


called periods.
The vertical columns of elements are
called groups.

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PERIODS

The periods are numbered 1 through 7 on


the left-hand side of the table.
In each period (horizontal row), the atomic
number increases from left to right.
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GROUPS
The group in the Periodic Table are
numbered from 1 to 18.

Elements in the same group have the


same number of valence electron.
Number of valence electrons indicate the
group of the elements.
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Groups of elements in the periodic table


The elements are arranged in the same group according
to their chemical behavior and number of valence
electrons.
Group 1 : Alkali metals

Group 2 : Alkali earth metals


Group 3 4 : Transition elements
Group 13
Group 14
Group 15
Group 16 : Chalcogen
Group 17 : Halogens

Group 18 : Noble gases Asimilasi 2016/2017

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2
Elements
in the
same
group have
similar
properties

18
17

3
4
5

6
7

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Metalloids :
(elements that have properties between those metals
and nonmetals)
Boron (B), Silicon (Si), Arsenic (As) and etc

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Determining the Group & Period

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Example :

Na, sodium
Proton number, Z = 11
Electron configuration = 2.8.1
Valence electron = 1
Group = 1
Period = 3

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Mg, magnesium
Proton number, Z = 12
Electron configuration = 2.8.2
Valence electron = 2
Group = 2
Period = 3

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F, fluorine
Proton number, Z = 9
Electron configuration = 2.7
Valence electron = 7
Group = 17
Period = 2

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EXERCISE 2
Which group and period do these elements
belong to?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Nitrogen, N (Z = 7)
Potassium, K (Z=19)
Lithium, Li (Z = 3)
Boron, B (Z = 5)
Calcium, Ca (Z = 20)

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METALS, NON-METALS,
METALLOIDS
Metals are located on the left side and in
the middle of the periodic table.
Nonmetals are located on the upper right
quarter of the table
Metalloids are elements that lie along the line
that separates metal from nonmetal.
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EXERCISE 3
Classify each elements as metal, nonmetal or
metalloid.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Barium, Ba
Iodine, I
Oxygen, O
Sulphur, S
Chorine, Cl
Iron, Fe
Chromium, Cr
Silicon, Si
Boron, B
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Ions & The Periodic Table

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Group 1, 2, 13 to 17 tends to form ions that


have the same number of valence electrons as
the nearest noble gas
Group 1 elements (alkali metals) tend to
lose 1 electron and form 1+ ions.
Group 2 elements (alkali earth metals) tend
to lose 2 electrons and form 2+ ions.

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Example :
Lithium, Li loses one valence electron to
attain the same number of valence
electrons as Helium, He
Li

Li+ + e

Magnesium, Mg loses its two valence


electrons to attain the same number of
valence electrons as Neon, Ne
Mg

Mg2+ + 2e
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Group 15 tend to gain 3 electrons and form


3 ions.

Group 16 tend to gain 2 electrons and form


2 ions.

Group 17 (the halogens) tend to gain 1 electron


and form 1 ions.

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Example :
When fluorine, F ionizes, it accepts one
additional electron for a total of 8 valence
electrons the same number of electrons
as Neon, Ne.
F + e F-

Oxygen accepts two additional electrons


for a total of 8 valence electrons the same
number of electrons as Neon, Ne.
O + 2e

O2
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EXERCISE 4
Based on their position in the periodic table,
what are the ions these elements tend to
form?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Barium, Ba
Chlorine, Cl
Potassium, K
Nitrogen, N

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Type of Elements
&
The Type of Bonds Formed

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A MOLECULAR VIEW OF ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

PURE SUBSTANCES
ELEMENTS
ATOMIC

COMPOUNDS

MOLECULAR

MOLECULAR
(COVALENT)
IONIC

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Elements
MOLECULAR

ATOMIC
Have single
atom
as
their basic
unit

Does
not
exist
as
single atom
Example :
Chlorine, Cl2
Bromine, Br2
Oxygen, O2
Phosphorus, P4
Sulphur, S8

Example :
Copper, Cu
Sodium, Na
Helium, He
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Example :
Bromine exist
as diatomic
molecule

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Molecular Compounds (Covalent)


Compounds that are composed from two or
more nonmetal atoms.

Type of bond formed is covalent bond


Example : H2O, CO2 , SO2 and etc

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Example :
Water (liquid)

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Ionic Compounds
Compounds that are composed of one or
more cations paired with one or more
anions.

In most cases, the cations are metals and


the anions are nonmetals.
Type of bond formed between cations and
anions is called ionic bond
Example : NaCl, LiF, CaCl2 and etc.
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Example :
Table Salt
(NaCl)
ClNa+

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Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond


and Metallic Bond

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Ionic Bond (Electrovalent Bond)


Chemical bond formed when metal combine
with nonmetal by electron transfer.
Metal atom transfer its valence electrons to
nonmetal atom and form cation.
Nonmetal atom accept electrons from metal
atom and form anion
The electrostatic force between cation and
anion forms ionic bond.
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Example :
Formation of ionic bond in NaCl

Electron transferred from


sodium to chlorine

2.8.1

2.8.7

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Na+
2.8

Cl
2.8.8

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Formation of ionic bond in MgO

2.8.2

2.6

Mg2+
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2.8

O2
2.6

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Covalent Bond
Chemical bond formed when nonmetal atoms
combine.
Electrons are shared between nonmetal atoms
The shared electrons that appear in the space
between the two atoms are counted as the
octets (or duplet) of both atoms

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Example :
Formation of covalent bond in H2 molecule

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Example :
Formation of covalent bond in O2 molecule

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Metallic Bond
All metal atoms in the sample contribute
their valence e- to form an electron sea
that is delocalized throughout the
substance

Electrostatic attraction between the


positively charged metal ions and the
sea of delocalised valence electrons
forms metallic bond.

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Example: Electron-sea Model


Group 2

Group 1
e-

eNa+

Na +

Na +

e-

Na +

e-

e-

Na +

Na +

e-

Mg2+

e-

Na +

Mg2+

Na +

Delocalised e
Valence
electrons
Mg2+

e-

e-

Sodium, Na

Mg2+

e-

e-

Mg2+

e-

Mg2+

ee-

eMg2+

Mg2+

e-

e-

e-

e-

ee-

eNa +

Mg2+

nucleus

e-

e-

e-

e-

Magnesium, Mg
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Writing The Chemical Formula


&
Naming the Ionic and Covalent
Compounds

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Chemical formula
A notation of atomic symbols and numerical
subscripts that shows the type and number
of each atom in a molecule or formula unit
of a substance.

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Compounds Formed from Monatomic Ions

The name of the cation is the same as the name


of the metal.
Many metals name end with ium.
The name of the anion takes the root of the
nonmetal and adds the suffix ide

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Common Monatomic Ions


Charge

Formula

Name

Cations
1+

H+

Hydrogen

Li+

Lithium

Na+

Sodium

K+

Potassium

Cs+

Cesium

Ag+

Silver

Mg2+

Magnesium

Ca2+

Calcium

Ba2+

Barium

Zn2+

Zinc

Al3+

Aluminium

2+

3+

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Charge

Formula

Name

Anions
1

Hydride

Fluoride

Cl

Chloride

Br

Bromide

Iodide

O2

Oxide

S2

Sulphide

N3

Nitride

P3

Phosphide

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Writing Formulas & Naming Ionic Compounds


Ionic compounds always contain positive
and negative ions.

In the chemical formula, the sum of positive


charges (cations) must always cancel
exactly the sum of negative charges
(anions).
(net charge = 0)

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Example :
Write formula for the ionic compound that forms
from sodium, Na and chlorine, Cl.

Step 1 :
Write the symbol for the metal and its charge
followed by the symbol of the nonmetal and its
charge.

Na+

Cl

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Step 2 :
Equalize the net charge. The overall net charge is
equal to zero.

Na+

Cl

Cation = 1(1+) = 1+
Anion = 1(1) = 1
= 0

1
Overall net
charge = 0

Step 3 :

Write the formula. The formula is NaCl.


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Step 4 :
Write the name of the ionic compound.
Name of cation :
metal

Base name of anion :


Nonmetal, ending
with ide

The name of this compound is sodium chloride

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Ionic Compounds Containing a Polyatomic Ion


Most polyatomic ions
containing oxygen.
Example :

are

oxoanions;

Oxoanions
NO3

Name
nitrate

NO2
SO42

nitrite
sulphate

ClO
ClO2
ClO3
ClO4
CrO42
CO32Asimilasi 2016/2017

anions

hypochlorite
chlorite
chlorate
perchlorate
chromate
carbonate

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Example :

KNO3

potassium nitrate

NH4NO3

ammonium nitrate

CuSO4

Copper(II) sulphate

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EXERCISE 5
Write the formula for the ionic compound that
forms from:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Magnesium, Mg and Oxygen, O


Aluminium, Al and Oxygen, O
Sodium, Na and fluorine, F
Calcium, Ca and chlorine, Cl

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EXERCISE 6
Give the name for each of the following
compounds :
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

NaNO3
CuSO4
Na2CO3
K2CrO4
Fe2(SO4)3

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Naming Molecular Compounds


For binary molecular compounds, their names
have the form :

prefix

Name of first
element

Base name of second


prefix
element + ide

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The prefixes given to each element indicate the


number of atoms present.
mono 1

hexa 6

di 2

hepta 7

tri 3
tetra 4
penta 5

octa 8
nona 9
deca 10

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Example :

CO2

Carbon dioxide

N2O

dinitrogen monoxide

CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride

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EXERCISE 7
Name each compound :
a) BCl3
b) SF6
c) P2O5

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