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Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation.

Spectroscopy consists of many different applications such as atomic absorption spectroscopy,

atomic emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,
infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dual polarization interferometry, nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, Mssbauer spectroscopy and so on.
Spectroscopy /spktrskpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic
radiation.[1][2] Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed
according to its wavelength, by a prism. Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any
interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data
is often represented by a spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength
or frequency.
Spectroscopy and spectrography are terms used to refer to the measurement of radiation
intensity as a function of wavelength and are often used to describe experimental spectroscopic
methods. Spectral measurement devices are referred to as spectrometers, spectrophotometers,
spectrographs or spectral analyzers.
Daily observations of color can be related to spectroscopy. Neon lighting is a direct application of
atomic spectroscopy. Neon and other noble gases have characteristic emission frequencies
(colors). Neon lamps use collision of electrons with the gas to excite these emissions. Inks, dyes
and paints include chemical compounds selected for their spectral characteristics in order to
generate specific colors and hues. A commonly encountered molecular spectrum is that of
nitrogen dioxide. Gaseous nitrogen dioxide has a characteristic red absorption feature, and this
gives air polluted with nitrogen dioxide a reddish brown color. Rayleigh scattering is a
spectroscopic scattering phenomenon that accounts for the color of the sky.
Spectroscopic studies were central to the development of quantum mechanics and included Max
Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation, Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric
effect and Niels Bohr's explanation of atomic structure and spectra. Spectroscopy is used in
physical and analytical chemistry because atoms and molecules have unique spectra. As a result,
these spectra can be used to detect, identify and quantify information about the atoms and
molecules. Spectroscopy is also used in astronomy and remote sensing on earth. Most research
telescopes have spectrographs. The measured spectra are used to determine the chemical
composition and physical properties of astronomical objects (such as their temperature and

(scientific instrument for measuring the amount of ultraviolet light absorbed by a substance)

1. A spectrophotometer is an instrument that measures the amount of light absorbed by a
sample. Spectrophotometer techniques are used to measure the concentration of solutes in
solution by measuring the amount of the light that is absorbed by the solution in a cuvette
placed in the spectrophotometer .
2. The spectrophotometer technique is to measures light intensity as a function of
wavelength. It does this by diffracting the light beam into a spectrum of wavelengths, detecting
the intensities with a charge-coupled device, and displaying the results as a graph on the
detector and then the display device .

3. 1)Measure the concentration of the solution A spectrophotometer optically determines the

absorbance or transmission of characteristic wavelengths of radiant energy (light) by a chemical
species in solution. Each molecule absorbs light at certain wavelengths in a unique spectral
pattern because of the number and arrangement of its characteristic functional groups, such as
double bonds between carbon atoms. According to the Beer-Lambert law, the amount of light
absorbed at these wavelengths is directly proportional to the concentration of the chemical
4. 2) Identify organic compounds by determining the absorption maximum. Spectrophotometers
are used to identify organic compounds by determining the absorption maxima (which for most
compounds and groups of compounds have very distinct fingerprints (that's what the absorption
curves and peaks are called). 3) Used for color determination within the spectral range If one is
working in the range of 380 to 700 nm, the spectrophotometers can also be used for color
determination within this spectral range
5. Example -In the Figure below the red part of the spectrum has been almost completely
absorbed by CuSO4 and blue light has been transmitted. Thus, CuSO4 absorbs little blue light
and therefore appears blue. -We will get better sensitivity by directing red light through the
solution because CuSO4 absorbs strongest at the red end of the visible spectrum. But to do this,
we have to isolate the red wavelengths
6. 1)Light source The function of the light source is to provide a sufficient of light which is
suitable for marking a measurement. The light source typically yields a high output of
polychromatic light over a wide range of the spectrum.
7. I) Tungsten Lamp Tungsten Halogen Lamp, it is the most common light source used in
spectrophotometer. This lamp consists of a tungsten filament enclosed in a glass envelope, with
a wavelength range of about 330 to 900 nm, are used for the visible region. They are generally
useful for measuring moderately dilute solutions in which the change in color intensity varies
significantly with changes in concentration

5th slide:
Essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage).
Commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment.
Scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion concentration (or pH) in a solution,
indicating its acidity or alkalinity.
Measures the difference in electrical potential between a pH electrode and a reference electrode.

An apparatus for measuring the intensity of light in a part of the spectrum, especially as
transmitted or emitted by particular substances.
Founder of Beckman Instruments and financier of the first "silicon" company in Silicon
Valley, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory

Notable Awards:
Hoover Medal (1981)
Tolman Award (1985)
Vermilye Medal (1987)
National Medal of Technology (1988)
National Medal of Science (1989)
Presidential Citizens Medal (1989)
Bower Award (1992)
Public Welfare Medal (1999)
Othmer Gold Medal (2000)