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Swapan Kumar Biswas (b.1947), a Bengali follower of Ambedkar, produced a detailed and
influential reinterpretation of existence of Buddhist during the time of the Indus civilization in an
ancient India. According to Biswas, the Aryan conquerors, whom he characterized as "Aryan
Brahmins" (Biswas 1999:5, 9), invaded India (Biswas 1995:175). After their successful
invasion, they conquered the aboriginal Indians by various cunning techniques and enslaved
them in the name of the Shudra. The conquror Aryan Brahmins prohibited every sort of literary
activity to the aboriginals. The language of the indigenous peoples was known as the Prakrit
language, from this language, they developed an artificial language, known as the Sanskrit
language (Biswas 1995: 35; 1999: 56). Although the Aryans sought to erase all evidence of the
culture conquered by them, for Biswas it was nevertheless possible to make some statements
about it. According to him, the pre-Aryan inhabitants of India were known as the `Assuras', who
were mentioned in the Vedas; they were the backbone of the Indus Valley Civilization, which, he
therefore described as the "Indian Assura Civilization" (Biswas 1999:58). The
core of his theory is that, the Indian Assura civilization was casteless and completely a Buddhist
civilization. In his book, Biswas says,
"[...] it has become quite obvious that in the pre-Vedic period, our countrymen followed a faith
which goes down to the ages as Buddhism. [...] Yet Buddhism declined in India. It seems to have
been destroyed by the invading Aryans along with the opulent cities of Harappa, Mohenjodaro in
which it grew into maturity. [...] The native people of India, who believed in the doctrine of
liberty and equality, continued their struggle for their independence. Eventually Buddhism
emerged as a major religious and social force, once again during 6th5th century B.C. with the
advent of Prince Siddharth, ..." (Biswas 1999: 155, 157, 158)".
According to Biswas, Siddhartha Gautama stands in a tradition of predecessors of previous 27
Buddhas (Biswas 1999:6480). His attempt to revive Buddhism in India but again, Brahmins
done counter-revolution against the Buddhism and destroyed it completely until at the end of the
19th century Buddhism once again experienced a further revival. The `untouchables, Shudras
and Adiwasis' are for Biswas in general `the descendents of the valiant Assura race who ruled the
pre-Vedic India' (Biswas 1998: 106).
We get detailed information regarding the religion of the Indus civilization from the two sourcesfirst, from the archaeological discoveries at the sites of Mohenjodaro and Harappa and second,
from the records of the Aryans, who described the religious behaviour and beliefs of the people
they conquered. In the Rig-Veda of the Aryan Brahmins, there is mentioned that, the religion of

the Indus peoples was different from that of the Aryans; which was called as the Satya-Dharma
in Rig-Veda. In the RigVeda, the Dasas are presented as the spoilers of the Vedic sacrifices. In
the RigVeda (II:13:8:11, II:14 ), Indra kills the demons Jatusthira, Drbhika, Urana, Arbuda, Asna
and Rudhrika, Pipru and Mrgaya because the religion of Jatusthira and Pipru was different than
that of the Aryan Indra.The Aryans were calling to this religion of the aboriginals as the SatyaDharma that is, the religion of the Truth. It was nothing but the ancient form of Buddhism,
since; Buddhism itself is the religion of the Truth. It was also known as the Shraman-Dharma
and its religious preachers or teachers were known as the Shramanas. From the archaeological
evidences of the Indus civilization, we find a number of symbols that are of religious
significance, that are special to Buddhism like the symbols of the Bodhi tree, a statue of the
meditating Yogi, worship of Peeple tree, seals of the Swastik, seals of Dhamma-Chakra, seals
having the brances and leaves of the people tree, seals of the Dhamma-Chakra and animals such
as the elephant and deer bowing in front of the meditating yogi, which is similar to the deers
bowing in front of the Gotam Buddha, the dressings of the Indus peoples similar to the Buddhist
monks; all these things clearly suggest that, the religion of the Indus civilization was Buddhism.
If we read the descriptions of the religion of the Indus peoples from the writings of the Aryans the Vedas - we find the figures of a wandering ascetic frequently mentioned. We find that they
practised meditation, that they were celibate, and that they observed an austere life that they
wandered about homeless. Again, these peoples are called as the Asuras by the Aryan
Brahmins in their Rig-Veda and described them as the destroyers of the Yagnyas. The ideas of
renunciation, meditation, karma and rebirth, ultimate liberation all these ideas were very
important to the Indus Valley Civilization. We can see all these ideas in Buddhism. The Buddha
Himself indicated the Indus Valley origins of His tradition when He said that the path which He
taught was an ancient path and the goal to which He pointed to was an ancient goal. We also
have a Buddhist belief in six Buddhas prior to the Buddha Shakyamuni within this aeon. All
these point to continuity between the tradition of the Indus Valley Civilization and the teachings
of the Buddha. If we would try to collaborate all these things together, we would find that, there
emerges a picture of the religion exactly similar to that of Buddhism.
Even if, we will observe the ideas of present Hinduism, we can see a strong similarity of
Hinduism with that of ancient Buddhism. Even today, peeple tree is worshipped by the Hindus
and Buddhists alike. However, after 500 years of the Buddhas death (in 185 B.C.), the Brahmins
done the Brahmanization of Buddhism by incorporating various Brahmanical concepts like God
worship, concept of incarnation, Heaven-Hell, good deeds, bad deeds, concept of Casteism and
untouchability ans so on. Due to these Brahmanical concepts in present Hinduism, we feel it as
the polluted form of Buddhism. If we would eliminate these dirty Brahmanical concepts from
Hinduism, then we can see it as a pure form of Buddhism and we can form a continuous link of
Indus times ancient Buddhism with that of the Gotamas Buddhism and now present Buddhism
in an altered form of Hinduism.

Peeple tree is very important in Buddhism. This peeple tree worship was most prevalent among
the Indus peoples. We have found numerous seals of the Indus civilization, on which, there is
depicted the leaves or the branches of the peeple tree. In some seals, we can see the Indus
peoples worshipping a peeple tree. The Pipal tree was considered most sacred by them. The
discovery of a large number of seals with papal trees engraved on them suggests that this tree
was considered sacred, same as some nowadays Hindu do.

Picture: Peeple tree worship in Indus civilization.

Swastik is another Buddhist symbol, which was the most widely used during the Indus times.
From the circumstantial evidences, it becomes very clear that, Swastika was a religious symbol.
Swami Vibekananda also says that, Swastika was the symbol of Buddhism. He says that,
Swastik was initially a symbol of Buddhism, a sign of the universal reign of Buddhism; the
Buddhists spread it all over the World.

Picture: A harappan seal with Swastik.

From the seals and excavations, we can also see a dressing similarity between the dressing of the
Indus peoples and that of the Buddhist monks. Gotam Buddha used to wear his dress on his left
shoulder, keeping his right shoulder bare. This type of fressing is seen in case of Shambara, an
Indus king. He is known as a priest king by the researchers. His dressing is similar to that of the
Gotam Buddha. If king himself is a religious person, obviously, his peoples must be devout
Buddhists. Shamabara was later on killed by the Aryan king Indra. Such type of dressing is not
seen in case of the Aryans or their Gods and Goddesses. They Aryan God-Goddesses are always
less dressed and they wear more jewellary and weapons to kill the aboriginal Indians.

The Indus priest-king in Buddhist attire.

to the Indus dressings.

The saffron robe of the Buddha similar

Salutation by uniting both hands together is a typical feature of Buddhism. It is also seen in
Hinduism, which is an altered form of Buddhism. This type of salutation is never seen among the
Aryan Brahmins aor in other religions. This type of salutation system was most widely followed
by the Indus peoples. We have got an earthern doll of the Indus times in this salutation posture
having its both hands together in salutation. The Santhals of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa, who are
the original Buddhists, usually do their ceremonies in this salutation position. Almost all the
Hindus do salutation in this position, which shows that, they are the earlier Buddhists.
Picture: Santhals in salutation posture.

Picure: AYogi in meditation.

Out of ignorance, many peoples consider the above seals as that of Pashupati. Pashupati means
the God of the animals. If he is the God of the animals, then, the animals should have shown
bowing in from of Pashupati, but in case of the above seal, we see that, the animals are attacking
on him!

If he is the God of the animals, then, why animals are attacking on him? It clearly means that, he
is not Pashupati. Some says that, he is a Shiva. The general presenatation of Shiva is that, he is
always shown wearing the lion skin and a snake in his neck. Also, Shiva is always shown with
damaru, bull, sitting on the lion skin spread on the ground, beads in his neck, etc. But in case of
the above seal, the Yogi devoid of these things; he is also shown in a good clothes. It means that,
the Yogi in the above seals is not Shiva at all!
Who is this Yogi then? The dressing of the above Yogi is similar to the dressing of the Buddha.
As like the Buddha, he is wearing his clothes on his left shoulder, whereas, his right shoulder is
bare. As like Gotam Buddha, he is using full clothes on his body. The Jain monks are completely
naked, so he cant be a Jain monk. Gautam Buddha is the only religious person, who wears
sufficient dressing on his body. He had strictly ordered to his monks to wear more than one layer
of the clothes on their body.
In the above seal, there is also a picture of the buffalo. The buffalo was the favorite animal of the
aboriginal Indians; hence, it is depicted in the above seal. The Brahmins were the enemies of the
aboriginal Indians, so, they hated them and their buffalos. The aboriginals were known as the
Asuras. To defame the buffalos, the Aryan Brahmins declared it as the voyage of the death God,
Yama. It means that, buffalo was the sign of the death for the Aryan Brahmins. An Asura king
named Mahishasura (who was herding the Buffalos), was the greatest enemy of the Aryan
Brahmins. The Brahmin king Indra killed him in the battle. Even now, a Dhangar caste among
the aboriginal Indians is known as the herder of the buffalos. Thasts why; the Brahmins hate
them and say that, Dhangars are the idiot peoples. Emperor Ashoka was himself a Dhangar, who
was a famous Buddhist Emperor.
In the above seal, the Yogi is an Asura, who is in meditation. The surrounding animals like the
elephants, lions, buffalos, etc are attacking on him but without getting disturbed, he is doing his
meditation. This picture depicts the Sean of the Mara attacking on the meditating Gotam Buddha.
When Gotam Buddha was in deep meditation, Mara attacked on him to create disturbance in his
meditation but still he continues his meditation and gets enlightened. The above picture is
obviously, the picture of a meditating Buddha. In fact, he is the first Buddha of the Indus
civilization in a deep meditation trying to attain enlightenment and he is being attacked by the
Mara but still, he remains silent and undisturbed and continues his meditation.
From all these evidence, we can conclude that, the above seal of the Indus civilization depicts the
pre-enlightenment condition of the first Buddha.

Below the meditating Yogi, we can see the two deers bowing and facing to each other and there
is Dhamma-Chakra between these two deers. Deer is the symbol of Buddhism and of the
Shramana tradition of the Indus civilization. We can see the same type of presentation in case of
the Dhamma-Chakra Pravartan sutta images. In those pictures also, we can see two deers
bowing and facing to each other and there is a Dhamma-Dhakra in between these two deers.
This type of picturesque is typically seen in Buddhism. The existences of such seals during the
time of Indus period suggest that, Buddhism was the prevalent religion of those peoples.
Details of the Mohenjo-daro citadel:
1 College
2 Bath
3 Rooms (guest rooms?)
4 Loading platform and granary
5 Drain
6 Residence for priests (?)
7 Assembly hall
8 Temple complex(?)
9 Bastions (of baked brick)
10 Tower (of baked brick)
11 Mud-brick embankment
12 Stairs
X Buddhist stupa

In the foreground is the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro. The tower in the background is the
Buddhist stupa of Mohenjo-daro.
In the Indus cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, the large Buddhist Stupa has been discovered
during the excavations. The archeologist named Rakhaldas Bandopadhyay was attracted to see
this big Stupa. The archeologists team named this place as the religious town and the special
zone of the Stupa was named as the Stupa region. They didnt call it as the temple or the
church or the mosque, but they named it as the Buddhist Stupa. It proves that, Buddhism was the
religion of the Indus civilization.
Buddhism is the religion of cleanliness. The Buddhist monks were particularly aware of the
cleanliness. Thats why; we can see numerous ponds in various Buddhist caves all over India.
The evidence of the big bath near the Buddhist Stupa in the Indus city of Mohanjo-daro suggests
that, it was a Buddhist religious place in the ancient India.
A very big Buddhist Stupa, which was seen by Maisan in 1826, Mr. Burnes in 1831 and by
Genaral Cunningham in 1853 in Hariupiya (Harappa town), was destroyed by the brick thieves.
The two British engineer brothers in 1915-18 also used the bricks of this Stupa for 100 mails
railway lines. The earlier researchers preserved the photos of these sites for their discoveries. If
these documents would not have been present, we would have lost this precious evidence of the

ancient Buddhism. These pre-Aryan evidences of the Indus towns are sufficient enough to prove
that, the Indus civilization was completely a Buddhist civilization.
The Brahmin writers and historians purposefully tried to hide these Buddhist evidences to do the
Brahmanization of the Indus civilization by creating the confusion about the religion of the Indus
peoples. The Brahmins tried to destroy the Buddhist evidences of the Indus valley so as to
eradicate the presence of Buddhism there. The Ram-Krishna mission Institute of culture and
Heritage of India, vol. 1, on page 121-122 says that, From the different evidences of various
places of the Indus Valley, we cant conclude of any religious faith.since, we dont get
any religious structure in Harappa or Mohenjo-daro. We have to rely on the seals, earthly pots,
copper plates, the stone statues, etc.
A surprising thing is that, this cunning Brahmanical text has not uttered a single word about the
Buddhist Stupa in Mohanjo-daro. This utter nonsence of the Indian Brahmins is nothing but one
of the cunning tactics to hide the truth of existence of Buddhism during the Indus times.
Some cunning Brahmins say that, those Stupas were built during the time of the Mauryan Empire
but the bricks of it were not of the Mauryan time but were of the pre-Aryan Indus times. The
style of building was typical that of the Harappan style. The picture on the articles beneath the
Stupa was of the Indus culture type. According to the Buddhist tradition, the contents of the
articles (Ash and bones) were that of the Harappan origin. All these things suggest that, the
religion of the Indus was nothing but Buddhism.
There is lot of confusion about the word Arya or Aryan. The entire World
recognizes Prussian Brahmins as the Arya or the Aryans; which is completely a
false thing. The truth is that, Brahmins are not the Arya or Aryans and the Arya or
Aryans are not the Brahmins!
The Prussian Brahmins accepted each and every aspect of the Indus civilization
after conquering it. Initially, Brahmins were the worshipper of nature like Agni (i.e.
the fire), Wayu (i.e. the air), etc. The peoples of Indus civilization were also the
Nature worshippers but along with it, they had also developed the statue worship.
Thats why; we see the statue of Adi-Buddha in the excavations of the Indus
civilization. The backward and superstitious Prussian Brahmins were the blind
devotees of nature and they worshipped nature as like present God worshippers. On
the other hand, the Indus peoples were not blind devotees of nature as like the
present God worshippers. Their chief object behind the statue worship was to
remember their great ancestors. Later on, Brahmins accepted this statue worship
from them and converted it into the statue worship of the Gods to glorify their
priesthood. Thats why; Abraham had opposed to the statue worship of his own
peoples because it was not remained pure and selfless but it was corrupted by the
Prussian Brahmins and it had became the medium of Brahmins priesthood. So,

Abrahams rebellion was against the Prussian Brahmins to relieve his peoples from
the clutches of Brahmin priesthood. His struggle against the Brahmins was
contunied by Moses, Jesus Christ, Lord Buddha, Muhammad Paigambar and all the
Indian emancipators like Mahatma Basaveshvara, Varkari Saints, Shivaji and
Sambhaji maharaj, and Phule, Shahu, Ambedkar.
After the fall of Indus Empire, the Prussian Brahmins accepted many words from the
Marhati language of the Indus peoples into their Old Baltic Prussian language and
created their own Sanskrit language. The Indus civilization researcher Mr. P. S. Sadar
has proved that, the primitive language of the World was that of Indus civilization,
which was known as Marhati language. From this primitive language of Marhati
only, the other Worldly languages like French, Greek, English, Latin, Arabic, Urdu,
Marathi, Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi and so on came into existence.
As discussed earlier, Brahmins accepted numerous words from this primitive
Marhati language of Indus civilization and given them hard pronunciations to
convert them into Sanskrit language. For example, Brahmins converted Marhati
word haat into hast (i.e. hand into English language), daat into Sanskrit word
dant (i.e. tooth in English). In this way, Brahmins did some hard pronunciations in
each and every word of Marhati language to convert them into the words of Sanskrit
language. It is called as Sanskritization or Sanskrutikaran. In this way, Brahmins
created their Sanskrit language by the method of Sanskritization or Sanskrutikaran.
The aboriginal Indians were known as Ahi peoples. Ahi means serpant. There
are many references in Rig-Veda referring to the word Ahi as serpant. The word
ARI became OPHIS in Greece, AHURA, AZURA, ASURA, ASSYRIA in the MiddleEast. Also, word AHI became AHIR, ABHIR, AHER, MAHAR, and YADAVAS in India in
the later times. During the Vedic times, this AHI word became ARI. Some Ahis
continued their enemity with the invader Brahmins very strongly. The Brahmins
started calling them as MAHA-AHI which became MAHA-ARI in the later times.
After few centuries, these MAHA-ARI were being called as MAHA-AAR and then,
MAHAR. Thus, the MAHAR peoples of MAHARASHTRA are the direct descendants
Indus AHIS. In the other words, they are the Maha-Arya (the greater Aryans) i.e.
the greater beings.
From the above discussion, we can see that, the word AHI got converted into ARI
and then into AAR. The Ahis of Indus civilization were the greatest enemies of the
invader Prussian Brahmins. Thats why; they were calling them as MAHA- (ARI,
AAR, ARYA or the ARYAN). Thus, ARYA or ARYAN means the enemy of Brahmin (who
are the descendants of the aboriginal Indian Ahis). Maha-Arya or Maha-Aryan
means the biggest enemy of the Brahmins.
The Prussian Brahmins were underdeveloped, uncivilized, cunning and cruel ones.
On the other hand, the aboriginal Indus peoples were well developed, civilized,

educated and illiterate ones. Due to their noble behaviours, their titles of ARI, AAR,
ARYA or the ARYAN became the matters of nobility. Thats why; the meaning of
these words (ARI, AAR, ARYA or the ARYAN) became a noble being.
In short, the word AHI became ARI which then became ARIY or ARIYO in the Pali
language at the time of Buddha. The Vajji Kshatriyas were known as Ayyo at the
time of Buddha and Mahavira. Ayyo means a noble Kshetriya (Kshetriya means a
noble land owner or noble aboriginal Indian). Thus, AYYO, ARIY or ARIYO means
THE NOBLE ONES in Pali language. With the extensive use of Pali language during
the time of Buddha, the word ARIY or ARIYA became very common. The meanings
of ARIY or ARIYA or AYYO was a noble being in Pali language at the time of
Buddha. Thus, MAHA-ARI became MAHA-ARIYA or MAHA-ARYANS in the Sanskrit
language. In the other words, we can say that, the aboriginal Indian AHIS are the
original Aryas or the Aryans and MAHAR peoples are the MAHA-ARYA (i.e. the
greater Aryas) or the MAHA-ARYANS (i.e. the Greater Aryans).
While creating their Sanskrit language from the Indian Prakrit languages, Brahmins
also used these Pali words of ARIY or ARIYA and converted it into the Sanskrit word
ARYA or ARYAN. The Pali language is a Prakrit language (i.e. the natural primitive
language of the native Indus peoples). In this Pali language, the word ARIY or
ARIYA means a great being or a noble being. Thats why; Lord Buddha had
accepted this word in His teachings. The four ARIYA TRUTHS means the four Great
Truths. Buddhas ARIYA ASTHANGIK MARG means Buddhas Great Eight-fold
Path. Thus, ARYA or ARYAN is purely an altered form of the Buddhist Pali word
ARIY or ARIYA. While accepting this Pali word into their Sanskrit language,
Brahmins did Sanskritization or Sanskrutikaran of it and converted it into the
Sanskrit word ARYA or ARYAN and given it the meaning of a great being or a
noble being of the Pali language. In this way, by doing a robbery, Brahmins became
the false great beings with the misuse of the words like the Aryas or Aryans!!
From the above discussion, we can understand the truth that, Brahmins are not the
Aryas or the Aryans but they are the Prussians!
When the British came to India, they found that, India is ruled by Brahmins with
their codes of Manusmriti. To know the Brahmanical system, the British had sent
William Jones and the Germans had sent Max Muller to India to learn the Sanskrit,
since, all the Brahmanical knowledge was hidden by Brahmins in that language only.
These two great intellectuals learnt Sanskrit and tried to understand the
Brahmanical literature. While their stay in India, Brahmins told them that they are
the Aryans to support the supremacy of their Brahmin race. Actually, word Arya or
Aryan denotes the moral quality of person and it has nothing to do with the concept
of race. A real fact is that Brahmins are of Caucasian race; they are not the Aryas or
the Aryans. However; Brahmins misguided these thinkers to prove their false
greatness. These thinkers spread the concept of Aryan Race throught the Europe.
Thus, through the translation of William Jones this poison of Brahmins Racism

entered into the European society from India. Thats why; we can see racism at its
peak by the second half of the 19th century. This racism of Brahmins is present in
India since last 5000 years after their invasion in India.
Max Muller spread the Brahmins concept of the Aryan race very rigorously in
Germany. By taking an inspiration from Max Muller, all the Germans and particularly
Hiter was much influenced by the Aryan concept. This racist poison of Prussian
Brahmins poisoned Hitler who identified himself with the hero of the mythical Aryan
race and massacred about 60 millions of the Jews, and the world is yet to recover
from Nazism. Thus, racism of Brahmins is destructive to the world society.
In their later research, the Germans and Europeans found that, the word Arya or
Aryan is related to Buddhism. The Buddhism is a noble religion recognized all over
the World. The Germans got much delignted and inspired to find association of the
word Arya or Aryan with Buddhism. So, they send their expeditions to Tibet in
1937 to study more on the Tibetans since they were the original Buddhists. In later
times, Hitler declared himself as the Lord of the Aryans and Brahmins of India
declared him as the 10th incarnation (Avatar) of Brahmin God Vishnu which is known
as Kalki Avatar. Brahmins say that, Kalki will wage a war. So, Indian Brahmins of RSS
met to Hitler and inspired him to wage a World- war. So, Hitler waged two World
wars in succession and killed thousands of innocent peoples. Since, the Jews are the
descendants of aboriginal Indians, Hitler killed them brutally. His chief teacher was
Gayatri Devi who was the wife of a Bengali Brahmin. Thus, misunderstanding of
Europeans (especially of the Germans) about the word Aryan or Aryan became the
sole reason for the origination of Racism across the World which leads to the World
wars. The Indian Brahmins are the originators of Black and White Racism since
ancient times. They had started their Varna system (Varna means Colour) in India
which was based on colour only!

The Brahmins and their Brahmanism is the root cause of all racism and it is sustained by various
Brahmin organizations like RSS, VHP (Vishva Hindu Parishad), Bajarang Dal, Congress, BJP,
Indian Communist Party, and so many RSS wings. On the other hand, our movement of
BAMCEF and Bharat Mukti Morcha is fighting against them to eradicate the Racism and
Rasteism as well as the Varna system from India as well as from the whole World en total.
Finally, the conclusion of above discussion is that, the words like Arya or Aryan are
actaully related to the aboriginal Indians and belong to Buddhism only. Buddhism is
a religion of the noble beings and so, being Buddhist means being a noble person or
in other words, being the Arya or Aryan! Thats why; Buddha had called his
Dhamma as the Arya Truth meaning a Noble Truth and the Arya-Marg meaning a
Noble Path. Due to attachment of the Arya or Aryan words with Buddha and his
Dhamma, peoples give a due respect to these words all over the World. Thats why;
many Germans and Tibetains call themselves proudly to be Aryans due to their
strong attachment towards Buddhism. However, Brahmins misguided them by falsly

calling themselves as the Aryans. In this way, Brahmins became successful in

misguiding the entire German population. By coming under the bad influence of
Brahmins, Germans produced evil minded Hitler who became a reson for the two
World wars and the genocide of thousands of innocent peoples in those wars.
However, now, it is the duty of every aboriginal Indian as well as every Buddhist to
know the real meaning of the word Arya or Aryan and to liberate the Worldly
peoples from the mental slavery of the Brahmins. Everyone should keep in mind
that, Brahmins are the Prussians; they are not the Aryas or the Aryans. So, they
must be called as PRUSSIAN BRAHMINS instead of the Aryan Brahmins!!