Você está na página 1de 251
Hellenistic Pottery: Athenian and Imported Moldmade Bowls Author(s): Susan I. Rotroff Source: The Athenian Agora, Vol.y : American School of Classical Studies at Athens Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3601993 Accessed: 14/12/2008 07:47 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates y our acce p tance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the p ublisher re g ardin g an y further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ascsa . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American School of Classical Studies at Athens is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Athenian Agora. http://www.jstor.org " id="pdf-obj-0-2" src="pdf-obj-0-2.jpg">

Hellenistic Pottery: Athenian and Imported Moldmade Bowls Author(s): Susan I. Rotroff Source: The Athenian Agora, Vol. 22, Hellenistic Pottery: Athenian and Imported Moldmade Bowls (1982), pp. iii-136 Published by: American School of Classical Studies at Athens Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3601993

Accessed: 14/12/2008 07:47

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless

you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.

Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ascsa.

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

Hellenistic Pottery: Athenian and Imported Moldmade Bowls Author(s): Susan I. Rotroff Source: The Athenian Agora, Vol.y : American School of Classical Studies at Athens Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3601993 Accessed: 14/12/2008 07:47 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates y our acce p tance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the p ublisher re g ardin g an y further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ascsa . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. American School of Classical Studies at Athens is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Athenian Agora. http://www.jstor.org " id="pdf-obj-0-44" src="pdf-obj-0-44.jpg">

American School of Classical Studies at Athens is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Athenian Agora.

http://www.jstor.org

THE

ATHENIANAGORA

RESULTSOF EXCAVATIONS

CONDUCTEDBY

THE AMERICANSCHOOL OF CLASSICALSTUDIES AT ATHENS

VOLUMEXXII

HELLENISTICPOTFERY

ATHENIAN

AND

IMPORTED

MOLDMADE

BOWLS

BY

SUSAN I. ROTROFF

THE AMERICANSCHOOL OF CLASSICALSTUDIES AT ATHENS

PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

1982

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Rotroff, Susan I Hellenistic pottery.

1947-

(The Athenian Agora; v. 22) Bibliography:p. Includes index.

1. Athens-Antiquities.

2. Pottery,

Hellenistic-Greece,

Modemrn-Athens.3. Greece,

Modemrn-Antiquities. 4. Athens. Agora.

  • I. Title.

I. Series: American School of ClassicalStudies

in Athens. Athenian Agora; v. 22.

DF287.A23A5 vol. 22

ISBN 0-87661-222-2

938.5s [938.5]

80-23055

PRINTED IN GERMANY at J. J. AUGUSTIN, GLUCKSTADT

FOR MY PARENTS

who gave me opportunityand encouragement

AND FOR

DOROTHYBURR THOMPSON

who initiatedme into the

mysteriesof the Hellenisticworld

PREFACE

CCT

ellenisticpottery has been neglected,and deservedly."So wroteR M. Cookin 1960(GreekPainted

ILi Pottety,p. 203). Whenviewed in

the lightof the Classicalmasterpieces, Hellenistic ceramics may

seem to have little to offer.Potting had become a tradeoften pursuedby an indifferentcraftsman; the

proportionof ill-centered,ungainly, and poorlyfired pots is large.But thereis still much thatHellenistic

potterycan offer, to the archaeologist,certainly, and perhapseven to the art historian.

For the archaeologistHellenistic pottery can providewhat any potteryprovides: a chronologicalframe-

work.Even the meanestfragment may serveto datea significantbuilding or deposit.Fortunately for the

archaeologist,

Hellenistic pottery is no longerneglected; in recentyears there has been increasedinterest in

the Hellenisticceramics of manysites around the Mediterranean. Several volumes have appeared and more

are expected soon.

Whatcan Hellenisticpottery offer to the art historian?The type of potterypresented in this volume

representsthe firstlarge-scale application of the mold processto the productionof Greektableware. The

mold techniquehad earlierbeen appliedto terracottafigurines and in a few instanceswas used to produce

pots of unusualdesign. Most pottery,however, continued to be wheelmadeand it was not untilthe intro-

ductionof the so-calledMegarian bowl thatmolds were used on a largescale. These bowls therefore stand

at the beginningof a long seriesof moldmadeceramics, which includes such distinguishedsuccessors as

Arretineand Wedgwoodpottery.

These vesselsalso representthe firstGreek experiment in modularart. A limitednumber of motifs,

most of them stampedinto the molds with small,re-usable masters, reappear in countlessarrangements

andcombinations. This modular approach to the decorationof the surfaceof the bowlis a comment,albeit

a naiveand probably unintentional one, on the relationshipof the workof the artist/artisanto the technolo-

gy of massproduction. It reflects,as does contemporarymajor art, the redefinitionof humanpossibilities

thatcame with the disintegrationof political,ideological, and artistic boundaries in the Hellenisticage. It is

a commentthat has been echoedmore self-consciouslyby manyartists in our own century;viewed in the

context of the art of the AmericanSixties, the bowls have a peculiarmodernity.

This book grew out of

an interestin the Hellenisticworld kindled and encouragedby DorothyBurr

Thompson.Her love forHellenistic minor arts and her ability to reconstructthe fabricof antiquityfrom the

scrapsand remnantsthat are the archaeologist'sportion have inspiredtwo generationsof studentsand

scholars.The dedicationof this volumeto her is my inadequateexpression of gratitude,respect, and love

for her as a teacher,a scholar, and an individual.

The presentstudy is concernedwith only a smallpart of the Hellenisticpottery found in the Ancient

Agoraof Athens:the moldmadehemispherical bowlswhich were manufactured

from the late

3rd to the

early1st century before Christ. It is intendedas the firstof twovolumes, the secondand larger of

whichwill

be devotedto the Hellenisticwheelmade pottery fromthe Agora. I haverelied heavilyfor format on Agora

XII, which deals with the Archaicand Classicalblack and plain pottery. I also owe much to G. Roger

Edwardsand his fine volumeon CorinthianHellenistic pottery. Edwardsdevoted years of study to Athe-

viii

PREFACE

mnianHellenistic pottery as well, and generouslyturned over to me manyphotographs and notes accumu-

lated in the course of those researches.

  • I wouldlike to thankT. LeslieShear, Jr., Director of the AgoraExcavations, and Homer A. Thompson,

formerDirector of the excavations,for permissionto studyand publishthe material;both have readand

rereadthe manuscriptin severaldifferent drafts, and it has benefitedgreatly from their many helpful

commentsand suggestions.My debt to HomerThompson is especiallygreat, for his publicationof the

Hellenisticpottery found in the earlyyears of excavationin the Agorapaved the wayfor this volume;his

interest,suggestions, and warmencouragement

have been a sourceof comfortand inspiration.Invaluable

help was givenby VirginiaGrace, who contributedmany hours of her time in patientexplanation of the

chronologyof the stampedamphora handles; and by FredKleiner, John Kroll, and Alan Walker, who gave

freelyof theiradvice on numismaticmatters. Thanks are also due JudithBinder, Peter Callaghan, William

A. Childs,C. W. J. Eliot, ChristianHabicht, Ulrich Hausmann, H. A. Shapiro,Shelley Stone, John S.

Traill,and Malcolm Wallace, all of whomcontributed their expertise and assistance on scholarlyproblems.

  • I am gratefulto CharlesK Williams,II and Nancy Boodkidisfor allowingand assistingme to see the

Hellenisticpottery at Corinth;to Hugh Sackettfor permissionto examinemoldmade bowls at Knossos;

and to James R McCrediefor the opportunityto look at Hellenisticmaterial on Samothrace.

Mostof the researchwas conducted in Athens,and I wouldlike to thankNancy Winter, Librarian of the

BlegenLibrary of the AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudies. I am also gratefulto RuthMacDonald of the

RalphPickard Bell Libraryat MountAllison University for her tirelessefforts to obtainobscure publica-

tions throughthe interlibraryloan system.

WhenI beganmy workon the moldmadebowls, I foundin the Agorafiles manyfine drawingswhich

had been done overthe yearsby Iro Athanasiadouand Piet de Jong;these havebeen supplementedwith

additionaldrawings by Helen Besi and AbigailCamp, to whomI am gratefulfor theirpainstaking work.

They cannot,however, be held responsiblefor the profilesof molds and drawingsof conventionalfloral

motifsand characteristic

stamps of variousworkshops, which are the workof the author.Thanks to William

  • B. Dinsmoor,Jr., who drewit, Plan A representsthe most completeand accuratereconstruction

of the

HellenisticAgora published to date.Eugene Vanderpool, Jr. and Alan Walkertook new photographsof

manyof the objectsin the Catalogue.Nikos Restakis,with the assistanceof KyriakiMoustaki, developed

and printedthe photographs.

Specialthanks are due LucyKrystallis, Secretary of the AgoraExcavations, for her assistancein amass-

ing the photographs,and to SpyrosSpyropoulos, mender, finder of misplacedpottery, and ingeniousarti-

ficer,whose contribution to this studyand to the Agorain generalis beyonddescription. I am indebtedto

ChristineEmbree and LynnA. Grantfor typingand editorialassistance, and to A. R Lockand the Cana-

dianWildlife Service for the loan of Her Majesty'sloyal paper cutter. I am especiallygrateful to MarianH.

McAllister,the editor,for the thoughtand careshe has devotedto this volume,and for the manyimprove-

ments she has suggested.

Researchwas supported in partby the SocialSciences and Humanities Research Council of Canadaand

the Samuel H. Kress Foundation;I am gratefulfor their generosity.

Wordsare inadequate to expressmy gratitudeto RobertLamberton, my friendand colleague,for every-

thingfrom editorial assistance and adviceon botanicalterminology to meditationson the relevanceof the

objectspresented here to the modernworld, and, most of all, forhis sustainingand loving support and pa-

tience.And finally, I thankmy parents,to whomthis volumeis in partdedicated, and withoutwhom, for

reasonsbeyond number,it would not have been written.

MOUNT ALLISON UNIVERSITY

SACKVILLE, NEW

BRUNSWICK

SEPTEMBER,1979

SUSANI. ROTROFF

TABLE OF CON'ENTS

PREFACE ...............................................................................................

vii

LIST OF PLATES .......................................................................................

xi

ABBREVIATIONSAND BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................

xiii

INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................

1

SCOPE ANDAIMS ..................................................................................

1

ARRANGEMENT OF THE CATALOGUE ..............................................................

1

C HRONOLOGY.......................................................................................

2

N OMENCLATURE ....................................................................................

2

T

ERMINOLOGY ......................................................................................

3

TECHNIQUE OF M ANUFACTURE ....................................................................

3

THE ORIGINS OF THE ATHENIAN MOLDMADE BOWL ................................................

6

P ROTOTYPES ........................................................................................

6

A RCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE ......................................................................

9

HISTORICALEVIDENCE .............................................................................

11

THE AGORAM ATERIAL ...............................................................................

14

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHENIANBOLS

.....................................................

14

 

CLAY AND GLAZE ..............................................................................

14

SHAPEAND SIZE ................................................................................

14

SCRAPEDGROOVES AND MILTOS .................................................................

15

PINE-CONE, IMBRICATE,FLORAL, AND FIGURED BOWLS .............

.....................................

15

PINE-CONE BOWLS ......................................................................

16

 

IMBRICATE BOW LS ..............................................................................

16

FLORALBO LS ..................................................................................

17

FIGUREDBOW LS

19

TYPESOF FIGUREDDECORATION

...........................................................

19

FIGURES DERIVED FROM TERRACOTTAALTARS ............................................

20

ABD U CTIONS .................................................................................

21

LABORSOF HERAKLES......................................................................

23

LABORSOF THESEUS ........................................................................

23

UNIDENTIFIEDSTAMPS .......................................................................

24

INTERIORRELIEF MEDALLIONS

.................................................................

24

WORKSHOPS .....................................................................................

25

ATTRIBUTIONS......................................................................

25

THE WORKSHOPS ............................................................................

26

W ORKSHOP OF BION

.....................................................................

26

HAUSMANN'S WORKSHOP .................................................................

27

x

TTABLEOF CONTENTS

M MONOGRAM CLASS ....................................................................

29

CLASS 1 ........................................................................

CLASS 2

.......................................

........

CLASS 3 ....................................................

LOCATIONOF SHOPS.........................................................

..

........

...

................................

.

.............................

..............

30

30

30

31

TYPES OF ITEMSMANUFACTURED ....

......................................................

CHRONOLOGY..

.................................................................................

LONG-PETALBOwLS

*

....................................... .....

* ..................

ORIG INS .................................

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

................

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

CHRONOLOGY...................................................................................

END OF M ANUFACTURE......................................

..................................

LONG-PETALBOwLS IN THEAGORA ...................................

WORKSHOPOF APOLLODOROS

................................................

OTHER TYPES OF MOLDMADE BOWLS................................*.........................

LOTUS-COROLLA

BOWLS ......................................................

CONCENTRIC-SEMICIRCLE

BOWLS..............................................

N ET-PATTERNBOW LS ...........................................................................

DAISYBOWLs ...................................................................................

OTHERTYPES OF MOLDMADEPOTTERY

..........................................

INSCRIPTIONS

.................................................

............

SIGNATURES

.................................

..............................

MONOGRAMS

ON MOLDS .......................................................

IMPORTEDBOWLS

....................................

o ........................

C ATALOGUE4

.....................................................................

INTRODUCTION

4

.................................

......................................

............

*

...........

..........

TERMINOLOGYAND CONVENTIONS .............................................................

DATES AND CONTEXTS

..................................

* .......................................

THECATALOGUE

..........................................................

.....

D EPOSITS9

................................

................

..............

...............

.............

INTRODUCTION...............................

.......................................................

STAMPEDAMPHORA

HANDLES .................................................................

C OINS

...........................................................................................

DATES

9

...........................................

..................................

TERMINOLOGY

ANDCONVENTIONS

.............................................................

.

......

DEPOSIT

SUMMARIES

....................................

.....................

...................

31

32

34

34

35

36

36

37

37

37

38

39

39

39

40

40

41

W42

44

44

44

44

45

94

94

4

94

95

96

96

APPENDIX: REVISED CHRONOLOGY OF PUBLISHED ATHENIAN HELLENISTICGROUPS ...............

107

THE AGORA:GROUPS A-E 1

....................................................................

THE KERAMEIKOS:

DIPYLON WELL B-1

................................

1

..........................

THEPIRAEUS:

THE PIRAEUS

CISTERN

1

.........................................................

CONCORDANCE

...................

I

..

......................

INDICES

1

...................................................................

......................

.................

.......................

.

.

.

107

110

III11

113

120

PLATES

Photographs

1 Pine-coneBowls

LIST

  • 2 Pine-coneBowls and Molds

3-6 ImbricateBowls

  • 7 ImbricateBowls and Molds

OF

PLATES

  • 8 ImbricateMolds. FloralBowls

9-13 FloralBowls

14

FloralBowls and Molds

15

FloralBowls with Figures

16

FloralBowl with Figures.Figured Bowls (Idyllic)

17-33 FiguredBowls (Idyllic)

 

34

FiguredBowls (Idyllicand Mythological:Herakles)

35

FiguredBowls (Mythological:Theseus, Odysseus)

36

FiguredBowl (Mythological:Rape of Persephone)

37

FiguredBowls (Mythological:Rape of

Persephone,Rape of Europa)

38

FiguredBowls (Mythological:Rape of

Ganymede)

39,40 FiguredBowls (Mythological:Prokne? Opheltes? Herakles and Auge)

41,42 FiguredBowls (Mythological:Dionysiac trio)

43-45

FiguredBowls (Mythological)

46-53

FiguredBowls (Hunting)

54

FiguredBowls (Hunting)and Molds

55

FiguredMolds. Fragmentsof Bowls (Imbricate,Floral or Figured)

56

Fragmentsof

Bowls and Molds (Imbricate,Floral or Figured)

57

Fragmentsof

Molds (Imbricate,Floral or Figured)

58

Fragmentsof

Molds. Long-petalBowls, Plain

59,60 Long-petalBowls, Plain

61

Long-petalBowls, Jeweled

62

Long-petalBowls, Jeweledand Variants

63

Long-petalMolds, Plain

64

Long-petalMolds. Lotus-corollaBowls

65

Lotus-corollaBowl and Mold. Daisy Bowl. ImportedBowls (Imbricateand Floral)

66

ImportedBowls (Floraland Figured)

67

ImportedBowls (Figured)and Fragments(Imbricate, Floral or Figured)

68

ImportedBowls (Long-petaland Concentric-semicircle)

69

ImportedBowls (Net-pattern).Related Moldmade Vessels

70

MoldmadeWest Slope Amphora

71

MoldmadeWest Slope Krater

xii

LIST OF PLATES

Drawings

  • 73 Pine-cone,Imbricate, and FloralBowls

  • 74 Floraland FiguredBowls

75-86 FiguredBowls

  • 87 Long-petal and ImportedBowls (Imbricateand Floral)

  • 88 ImportedBowls (Floral,Figured and Long-petal)

  • 89 ImportedBowls

(Concentric-semicircleand Net-pattern).Related Moldmade Vessels

90,91 RelatedMoldmade Vessels

  • 92 RepresentativeProfiles of

Bowls

  • 93 RepresentativeProfiles of

Molds

  • 94 ConventionalFloral Motifs on Bowls.Motifs from Bowls of the M MonogramClass and Classes 1-3

  • 95 Monogramson Molds and Signatureson Bowls

  • 96 Signatureson Lotus-corollaBowls

  • 97 Signatureson Net-patternBowl and MoldmadeGuttus

  • 98 Motifsfrom Bowls Produced by Hausmann'sWorkshop, Workshop A and the Workshopof Bion

  • 99 Plan of the AthenianAgora in the SecondCentury B.C., with Locationsof Deposits

ABBREVIATIONS

AND

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adriani = A. Adriani, "Un vetro dorato alessandrino dal Caucaso," Bulletin de la Societe Archeologique

d'Alexandrie42, 1967, pp. 105-127

Agora = TheAthenian Agora: Results of ExcavationsConducted by the AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudies

at Athens

 

Agora IV -

R

H. Howland, Greek Lamps and their Survivals, Princeton 1958

Agora

V

=

H.

S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period, Chronology,Princeton 1959

Agora VII

J.

Perlzweig (Binder), Lamps of the Roman Period, First to Seventh Centuryafter Christ,

Princeton1961

Agora X = M. Lang and M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens, Princeton 1964

Agora XII = B. A. Sparkesand L. Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th, and 4th Centuries

B.C., Princeton1970

Agora XIV = H. A. Thompson and R. E. Wycherley, The Agora of Athens, Princeton 1972

AJA = American Journal of Archaeology

AJP = American Journal of Philology

Andreiomenou,A.,

[1968],p. 80

<r' 'E(popsia KAaoOIK()V apxaIOTnfToV:

23: '056? "OO&voq 4*, AeAT21, B', 1966

AntiochIV, i = F. 0. Waage, "Hellenisticand Roman Tablewareof North Syria,"inAntioch-on-the-Orontes,

IV, i, Ceramicsand Islamic Coins,ed. F. 0. Waage,Princeton 1948, pp. 1-60

AthMitt = Mitteilungendes Deutschen ArchaologischenInstituts, Athenische Abteilung

BABesch = Bulletin van de Vereenigingtot Bevorderingder Kennis van de Antieke Beschaving

Baur, P. V. C., "MegarianBowls in Yale University,"AJA 45, 1941, pp. 229-248

Benndorf, O., Griechischeund sizilische Vasenbilder,Berlin 1869-1883

BMC = B. V. Head, A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum

BMC (Greece) = Central Greece, London 1884

BMC (Ionia) = Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Ionia, London 1892

Braun = K Braun,"Der Dipylon-BrunnenB,, Die Funde,"AthMitt 85, 1970, pp. 129-269

Bruneau,P., "La vaisselle,"in Delos XXVII,pp. 239-262

BSA = Annual of the British School at Athens

Byvanck-Quarles

van Ufford,L., "Unbol d'argenthellenistique en Suede,"BABesch 48, 1973,pp. 119-123

, "Le bol hellenistique en verredore au CorningMuseum of Glass,"BABesch 47, 1972,

pp. 46-49

, "Les bols

hellenistiques en verre dore,"BABesch 45, 1970, pp. 129-141

,

"Les bols

homeriques,"BABesch 29, 1954, pp.

35-40

,

"Le tresorde Tarente,"BABesch 33, 1958, pp. 43-52

,

"Variationssur le theme des bols megariens,"BABesch 34, 1959, pp. 58-67

See also "Les bols megariens"

xiv

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Corinth = Corinth:Results of ExcavationsConducted by the AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudies at Athens

CorinthVII, iii =

G.

R

Edwards, CorinthianHellenistic Pottery, Princeton 1975

CorinthXII = G. R Davidson, The Minor Objects,Princeton 1952

Courby = F. Courby, Les vases grecs a reliefs, Paris 1922

Delos = Exploration archeologique de Delos

Delos XXVII = L'Ilot de la maison des comediens, Paris 1970

Delos

XXXI = A. Laumonier, La ceramiquehellenistique a reliefs, 1, Ateliers "ioniens',Paris 1978

ACAT =

ApxaloAoyiKOV ACATiOV

Deonna, W., "Brfile-parfumsen terre cuite," Revue archeologique10, 1907, pp. 245-256

Edgar,C. C., "The treasureof Toukh-el-Qarmous,"Le musee egyptien2, 1907, pp. 57-62

Edwards,G. R, "Koroni:The HellenisticPottery," Hesperia 32, 1963, pp. 109-111

, "Panathenaicsof Hellenisticand Roman Times,"Hesperia 26, 1957, pp. 320-349

See also CorinthVII, iii and Pnyx

Etudes thasiennesIV = A-M. Bon, A. Bon, and V. R Grace,Etudes thasiennes, IV, Les timbresamphoriques

de Thasos, Paris 1957

Five Yearsof CollectingEgyptian Art, 1951-1956. Catalogueof an Exhibitionheld at the BrooklynMuseum,

Brooklyn,New York 1956

Grace, V. R., "The CanaaniteJar," in The Aegean and the Near East: StudiesPresented to Hetty Goldman,

Locust Valley,New York 1956, pp. 80-109

, "Noteson the Amphorasfrom the KoroniPeninsula," Hesperia 32, 1963, pp. 319-334

,

,

"Revisionsin EarlyHellenistic Chronology," AthMitt 89, 1974, pp. 193-200

"StampedAmphora Handles Found in 1931-1932,"Hesperia 3, 1934, pp. 197-310

and M. Sawatianou-Petropoulakou, "Les timbres amphoriques grecs," in Delos XXVII,

pp. 277-386

See also Etudes thasiennes IV and Picture Book No. 6

Gruben,G., "Der Dipylon-BrunnenB-l," AthMitt 85, 1970, pp. 114-128

Hama III, ii = A. P. Christensenand C. F. Johansen, Hama: Fouilles et recherches1931-1938, III, ii, Les

poteries

Harden,D.

hellenistiques et les terres sigillees orientales, Copenhagen 1971

B., "TheCanosa Group of HellenisticGlasses in the BritishMuseum," JGS 10, 1968,pp. 21-47

Hausmann = U. Hausmann,Hellenistische Reliejbecher aus attischenund bootischenWerkstatten, Stuttgart

1959

IG = Inscriptiones Graecae

JdI = Jahrbuchdes Deutschen ArchdologischenInstituts

JGS = Journal of Glass Studies

JNES = Journal of Near Eastern Studies

KerameikosXI = I. Scheibler, Kerameikos:Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen,XI, GriechischeLampen, Berlin

1976

Kleiner(with arabic numeral) = Athenianbronze coin type as given in Kleiner,I, pp. 3-8, 38, TableIV

Kleiner, I = F. S. Kleiner, "The Agora Excavationsand Athenian Bronze Coinage, 200-86 B.C.,"Hesperia

45, 1976, pp. 1-40

Kleiner,II = F. S. Kleiner,"The Earliest Athenian New Style BronzeCoins. Some Evidencefrom the

Athenian Agora,"Hesperia 44, 1975, pp. 302-330

Kleiner,F. S., "The1926 PiraeusHoard and AthenianBronze Coinage ca. 86 B. C.," AeAT 28, A', 1973

[1975],pp. 169-186

Kraus,T., "AntithetischeB6cke," AthMitt 69-70, 1954-55, pp. 109-124

Kraus, Zentralmuseum = T. Kraus,Megarische Becher im Romisch-germanischen

Zentralmuseumzu Mainz,

Mainz 1951

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

XV

Kroll,J. H., "Revisionsin EarlyHellenistic Chronology: Numismatic Appendix," AthMitt 89, 1974, pp.

201-203

Kiithmann, H., "Beitriige zur hellenistisch-r6mischen Toreutik," Jahrbuch des R6misch-germanischen

ZentralmuseumsMainz 5, 1958, pp. 94-138

Kyme I = J. Bouzek and L. Jansova, "MegarianBowls," in Acta UniversitatisCarolinae (KymeI), ed. J.

Bouzek, Prague 1974, pp. 13-76

LabraundaII, i = P. Hellstrom, Labraunda:Swedish Excavations and Researches,II, i, Pottety of Classical

and Later Date, TerracottaLamps and Glass, Lund 1965

Laumonier, A., "Bols hellenistiques a reliefs,"Bulletin de

correspondencehellenique, Suppl. I, Paris 1973,

pp. 253-262

See also Delos XXXI

"Les bols megariens" = L. Byvanck-Quarlesvan Ufford,

"Les bols megariens," BABesch 28, 1953, pp.

1-21

McCredie, J.

R, Hesperia, Suppl. XI, FortifiedMilitary, Camps in Attica, Princeton 1966

Metzger = I.

R

Metzger, "Piraeus-Zisteme,"AeAT 26, A', 1971 [1973], pp. 41-94

Metzger,

I.

R,

Eretria:Fouilles et recherches,II, Die hellenistischeKeramik in Eretria, Bern 1969

Murray, A. S., "A New Stele from Athens," Journal of Hellenic Studies 22, 1902, pp. 1-4

NC = Numismatic Chronicle

 

Nessana I

= Excavations at Nessana I, ed. H. Dunscombe Colt, London 1962

Noshy, I.,

The Arts in Ptolemaic Egypt, London 1937

Oliver, A., Jr., "A Gold-glass Fragment in the Metropolitan Museum of Art," JGS 11, 1969, pp. 9-16

, "Persian Export Glass," JGS 12, 1970, pp. 9-16

,Silverfor the Gods:800 Yearsof Greekand RomanSilver. Catalogue of an exhibition at the

Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio 1977

Pagenstecher,R, Die griechisch-dgyptischeSammlung Ernst von Sieglin, ExpeditionErnst von Sieglin, II, iii,

Die Gefdsse in Stein und Ton, Knochenschnitzereien,Leipzig 1913

Parlasca = K Parlasca,"Das Verhiltnis der megarischenBecher zum alexandrinischen Kunsthandwerk,"

JdI 70, 1955, pp. 129-154

Pergamon = Altertiimervon Pergamon

Pergamon I, ii = A. Conze, Stadt und Landschaft, Berlin 1913

Pergamon XI, i = 0.

Ziegenaus and G. de Luca, Das Asklepieion, Berlin 1968

Pernice, E. and F.

Winter, Der hildesheimer Silberfund, Berlin 1901

PictureBook No. 6 = V. R Grace, Amphorasand the Ancient Wine Trade(Excavations of the Athenian

Agora Picture Books, 6), rev. ed., Princeton 1979

Pnyx = G. R Edwards,"Hellenistic Pottery,"in Hesperia,Suppl. X, Small ObjectsfromthePnyx: II, Prince-

ton 1956, pp. 79-112

Price,M. J., "TheNew-Style Coinage of Athens:Some Evidencefrom the BronzeIssues," NC, ser. 7, 4,

1964, pp. 27-36

RE = Pauly-Wissowa,Real-encyclopddie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft

Richter,G., "AncientPlaster Casts of Greek Metalware,"AJA 62, 1958, pp. 369-377

Robert, C., "Homerische Becher," Berliner Winckelmannsprogramme50, 1890, pp. 1-96

Rostovtzeff,

M. I., The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World,Oxford 1941

Rubensohn, O., HellenistischesSilbergerdt in antiken Gypsabgiissen, Berlin 1911

SamariaIII = J. W. Crowfoot,G. M. Crowfoot,and K M. Kenyon, Samaria-Sebaste:Reports of the Workof

the Joint Expedition in 1931-1933 and of the British Expedition in 1935, III, The Objectsfrom Samaria,

London 1957

Schafer, J., HellenistischeKeramik aus Pergamon, Berlin 1968

xvi

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Schreiber, T., Die alexandrinischeToreutik, Leipzig 1894

Schwabacher = W. Schwabacher,"Hellenistische Reliefkeramik am Kerameikos,"AJA 45, 1941, pp.

182-228

Segall = B. Segall, Traditionund Neuschopfungin derfrihalexandrinischen Kleinkunst, Berliner Winckel-

mannsprogramm119/120, 1966

Siebert, G., Recherchessur les ateliers de bols a

reliefs du Peloponnesea l'epoquehellenistique, Paris 1978

SNG (Copenhagen) = N. Breitenstein and

W. Schwabacher,Sylloge NummorumGraecorum. The Royal

Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Copenhagen 1942

Strong, D. E., Greek and Roman Gold and Silver Plate, London 1966

Svoronos = J. N. Svoronos, Les monnaies d'Athenes,Munich 1923-26

SwedishCyprus Expedition III = E. Gjerstad,J. Lindros,E. Sjoqvist,and A. Westholm, TheSwedish Cyprus

Expedition:Finds and Results of the

Excavations in Cyprus, 1927-1931 III, Stockholm 1937

TarsusI = F. F. Jones, "The Pottery,"in

Excavationsat GozliiKule, Tarsus,I, The Hellenisticand Roman

Periods,ed. H. Goldman,Princeton 1950, pp. 149-296

Thompson = H. A. Thompson,"Two Centuries of HellenisticPottery," Hesperia 3, 1934, pp. 311-480

Thompson,D. B., "ThreeCenturies of HellenisticTerracottas,

II B: TheAltar Well," Hesperia 28, 1959,pp.

127-152

,

"II C: The SatyrCistern," Hesperia 31, 1962, pp. 244-262

,

"III:The Late Third CenturyB.C.," Hesperia 32, 1963, pp. 276-292

,

"IV:The

Early Second CenturyB.C.," Hesperia 32, 1963, pp. 301-317

,

"V: The Mid-SecondCentury B.C.," Hesperia 34, 1965, pp. 34-50

,

"VI:Late Second Century B.C. to 86 B.C.," Hesperia 34, 1965, pp. 50-71

"VII:The EarlyFirst Century B.C. A. The KybeleCistern," Hesperia 35, 1966,pp. 1-19

,

"VII:The EarlyFirst Century B.C. B. The MaskCistern," Hesperia 35, 1966,pp. 252-259

,

"VIII:The Late First Century B.C.," Hesperia 35, 1966, pp. 259-267

Vanderpool,E., J. R McCredie,and A. Steinberg,"Koroni: A PtolemaicCamp on the East Coastof

Attica,"Hesperia 31, 1962, pp. 26-61

, "Koroni:The Date of the Camp and the Pottery,"Hesperia 33, 1964, pp. 69-75

Vickers,M., "An AchaemenidGlass Bowl in a Dated Context,"JGS 14, 1972, pp. 15-16

Von Saldern,A., "GlassFinds at Gordion,"JGS 1, 1959, pp. 22-49

Wallace,W. P., "TheMeeting-point of the Histiaianand MacedonianTetrobol," NC, ser. 7, 2, 1962,pp.

17-22

Walters,H. B., Catalogueof the SilverPlate (Greek, Etruscanand Roman) in the BritishMuseum, London

1921

Watzinger = C. Watzinger,"Vasenfunde aus Athen," AthMitt26, 1901, pp. 50-102

Webster,T. B. L., "GreekDramatic Monuments from the AthenianAgora and the Pnyx,"Hesperia 29,

1960, pp. 254-284

, MonumentsIllustrating New Comedy,Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the

Universityof London, Suppl. XI, London 1961

Weinberg,G. D., "HellenisticGlass from Tel Anafa in Upper Galilee,"JGS 12, 1970, pp. 17-27

, "HellenisticGlass Vessels from the AthenianAgora," Hesperia 30, 1961, pp. 380-392

See also CorinthXII

Wuilleumier,P., "BrOle-parfums

en

terrecuite," Melanges d'archeologie

et d'histoire46, 1929,pp. 68-76

, Le tresor de Tarente,Paris 1930

Young, R. S., "An IndustrialDistrict of Ancient Athens,"Hesperia 20, 1951, pp. 135-288

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

xvii

, "Einhellenistischer Silberbecher im Antiquariumder StaatlichenMuseen zu Berlin,"JdI

82, 1967, pp. 1-14

, "MakedonischerSchild, makedonischerBecher," in Studienzur Vor-und Fruiihgeschichte, C

Schuchhardtzum 80 Geburtstagdargebracht,

Berlin 1940, pp. 48-72

, "Tongeschirr,"in Priene:Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungenund Untersuchungenin den Jahren

1895-1898,edd. T. Wiegandand H. Schrader,Berlin 1904, pp. 394-449

For abbreviationsused in the Catalogue,see p. 44.

IN I RODUCTION

SCOPEAND AIMS

This volume is a study of the Athenian version of the distinctive type of Hellenistic vessel commonly

knownas the "Megarianbowl". This is an approximatelyhemispherical, moldmade bowl, without foot or

handles,decorated all overits exteriorsurface with designs and figures in relief.These bowls were the stan-

dardAthenian drinking vessels from the late 3rd centuryto the mid-lst century,taking over the function

formerlyserved by the kantharos.1What was drunkfrom them was most often wine, and the varied scenes

whichdecorated them wouldhave been particularlysuitable at symposia,where they wouldhave served

as conversation pieces, recalling myth, literature, theater, and so forth.2

Bowls found in the excavationsof the AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudies in the AthenianAgora

between1931 and 1973form the basisof the presentstudy. The greatmajority of the materialis Atticand

the conclusions reached thereforeapply primarilyto Athenian bowls. Similarbowls were, of course, made

elsewhereas well, and some were importedto Athens.Examples of importsthat made theirway to the

Agoraappear at the end of the Catalogue.It wouldbe rashto drawconclusions about their dates from the

Athenian bowls, which follow a pattern peculiar to themselves.

There are fragmentsof over 1400 Hellenistic moldmade relief bowls from dated contexts in the Agora.

About 800 of these were considered by the excavatorsto be of sufficient interest to be registered in the

Agorainventory. About half of those are includedin the Cataloguein this volume.An attempthas been

madeto includeevery stamp and everysignificant variation of shapeand design. Duplicates and many frag-

ments from undated or late contexts have been omitted. The bowls published by Thompson in his prelimi-

nary study of Hellenistic potteryfrom the Agora3have also been omitted, althougha discussionof the dates

of Thompson'sdeposits (Groups A-E) may be foundin the Appendix.More elaborateshapes built on a

moldmade hemisphere (406410)

(406410)

have have been treated only briefly; they will be studied in more detail in

conjunctionwith the totallywheelmade pottery of the same shapes.

The bowlshave been consideredprimarily as archaeological

dating tools. Therefore iconographical

pro-

blems such as the relationshipof figuredgroups on the

bowlsto knownor documentedmajor sculpture

have been left asidein this study.The primarygoal has

been the establishmentof a reliablerelative and

absolutechronology for Athenianmoldmade bowls. Hand in hand with this has gone an attemptto

isolate workshopsand assign dates to them. In this endeavoronly the first steps have been taken, and it is to

be hopedthat the discoveryof new materialwill enrichour knowledgeof the workshopsand the relation-

ships between them.

ARRANGEMENTOF THE CATALOGUE

The bowls are arranged in the Catalogueaccording to type of decorationand subject matter, since these

are their most easily recognizable features. Numbers in bold-face type refer to objects in the Catalogue.

  • 1 The change from the kantharosto the moldmade relief bowl as a drinking vessel is

most strikingly illustratedin Dipylon well

B-1 in the Kerameikos,where kantharoiare common in the lower fill (AbschnittenI-IV), which containedno moldmade bowls, but

rare in the upper fills (AbschnittenV-XMI), where moldmade bowls are common. See Braun, pp. 166-170.

2 Pnyx,

p.

90.

3H.

A. Thompson, "Two Centuries of Hellenistic Pottery,"Hesperia 3, 1934, pp. 311-480.

2

INTRODUCTION

Objectsfrom the Agoranot cataloguedhere are referredto by theirAgora inventory numbers, which are

precededby a letter indicatingthe class to which they belong:L (lampsand lamp molds);MC (mis-

cellaneousclay objects); P (pottery);SS (stampsand seals,including stamped amphora handles); T (terra-

cotta figurinesand molds for their manufacture).

CHRONOLOGY

The introductionof a new typeof potterycan be of greathelp in buildinga reliableceramic chronology.

The appearanceof the moldmaderelief bowl therefore provides a much-neededlandmark in the stilllargely

unchartedterritory of Hellenisticceramics. The chronology of the bowls is, however,beset by several

specialproblems. Since they were made in moldsand couldbe reproducedmechanically, it is not possible

to assignexact datesto specificbowls. Even a relativechronology is not easilyestablished. Shape, tech-

nique,and decorationcan provideonly the verybroadest of outlines.Quality does not declineuniformly

and cannotbe used as a criterionof date.For establishinga chronologythe singlemost importantpiece of

informationabout a moldmaderelief bowl is the contextin whichit wasfound. For these reasons the dates

given n the Catalogueand elsewherein this volumeare approximateand dependheavily on the datesof

the contexts(see Introductionto Catalogue).The contextsthemselves are datedby coins and stamped

amphorahandles; if majoradjustments were to be madein the chronologyof the coinsor stamps,the chro-

nology of

the bowls would have to follow suit.

I have tried to be as precise as possible in the description

the

description of the deposits (pp. 96-106), and have

of

includeda considerableamount of detailabout the coins and stampedamphora handles which serve to

date them. For the amphorahandles especiallyI have presentedmuch previouslyunpublished information,

kindly suppliedby VirginiaGrace.

All dates are before Christ unless otherwise indicated.

NOMENCLATURE

The term "Megarianbowl" is the fruit of archaeologicalmisunderstanding.

In 1883 Otto Benndorf

publisheda numberof plastercasts of hemisphericalmoldmade bowls. The originalsof thesecasts were in

variouscollections in Athensbut weresaid to

havecome fromMegara. Benndorf therefore identified them

withthe yuaAaqmentioned by Athenaiosas a

bowlused by the Megarians,4and subsequently they came to

be known as "Megarianbowls". Further excavation and study have shown that the bowls Benndorf

published were manufacturedin Athens and have no specialconnection with Megaraor the yu6Aaq.5

"Megarianbowl" as a termhas in its favorthat it is in currentuse amongstarchaeologists

and sumsup

in two wordswhat must otherwisebe expressedby laboriousperiphrasis:

Hellenistic hemispherical mold-

made ceramicrelief bowl. In a studyof this sort,however, thereseems little point in perpetuating an in-

accurateterm, especially since it will be demonstratedthat the bowlsoriginated in Athens. Unfortunately,

no completelysatisfying substitute presents itself. "Relief bowl" invites confusion with other relief wares. To

avoidthis problem,Edwards suggested "moulded relief bowl".6 The adjective"moulded" (or "molded"),

however,is vagueand confusing, for it is commonlyapplied to wheelmadefeatures such as feet andlips (cf.

406,410). "Moldmade"

is moreaccurate, but to avoidconfusion with the manymoldmade Roman wares it

4Benndorf, Griechischeund sizilische Vasenbilder,pp. 117-118; Athenaios, Deipnosophistai xi.467c:

rudAaq.OIAiTah ?v AT6KTOIg Meyapcaq OUTG)pnoi KaAeTvTa nOThpia,

yudAaq. nlap9vioq 6'6

TOUAlovuoiou sV a' nepi T&V nrapd

TOIgiOTOpIKOIg

At?ewv 4nTOUp&VxV pnoi yudAaqnoTnpiou dT6oq, 6.g Mapouaag ypa6pi o iepeUg TOU 'HpaKAouq OUT-i OT6av

cioin 6 6aoiAeuq ei( Thv noAiv, ouvavTravolvou nAhpn yudAav ?xovrd Tiva, TOV O? Aa66vra

onrv5eiv.

5 Several examples illustrated by Benndorf are products of an Athenian workshop isolated by Ulrich Hausmann: Hausmann,

pp. 108-109, note 107. Benndorf,pl. 58:3 = Hausmann,pl. 6:1; Benndorf,pl. 60:5 = Hausmann,pis. 8:2 and 9:1; Benndorf,pl. 61:1, =

5, 6 Hausmann, pis. 7:1, 2:1 and 2. 6 CorinthVII, iii, pp. 88-90, 151.

INTRODUCTION

3

mustbe qualifiedby the adjective"Hellenistic". Since "Hellenistic moldmade relief bowl" is a cumbersome

term, the bowls will generallybe referredto simply as "moldmadebowls" throughout this study.

Attemptsto determinethe ancientname for the bowls have not been entirelysatisfying. Athenaios

mentionsan Atheniandrinking cup calledhpiTOpog, and it has been suggestedthat this was the namethe

Atheniansapplied to their moldmadebowls.7 Athenaios' source for this informationis Pamphilos,an

Alexandriangrammarian of the 1st centuryafter Christ,who presumablyhad access to Hellenistic

Atheniansources. The fplTOpog must have been hemispherical,but the namemay referto wheelmade

hemisphericalbowls, which were also made in Athens.

Athenaiosalso describesa Persiandrinking cup calleda KOV6U.8That this vesselwas hemisphericalis

suggestedby the storythat the KOV6Uwas originallya sortof crystalball in whichvisions appeared. It was

used for libations,and a hemisphericalbowl servesthis purposein both Achaemenidand ArchaicGreek

representations.9The comicpoets Menanderand Hipparchoseach use the wordonce, connecting it with

the east 10 It also occursin a Delianinventory of the 3rdcentury.11

Menander speaks of a g