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Cancer

Cancer History,

History,

 
 

Risk Factors,

Risk

Factors,

 

and Prevention

and

Prevention

 

Lecture 3

 

KIN 1304

 

Dr. McFarlin

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Slide 1

Slide 1
       

Cancer History, Risk Factors, and Prevention

Duration: 00:00:05 Advance mode: Auto

 

Cancer

Cancer History,

History,

Risk Factors,

Risk

Factors,

Notes:

In this lecture, we will focus on Cancer history,

risk factors, and prevention.

 

and Prevention

and

Prevention

 
 
 

Lecture 3

 

KIN 1304

 

Dr. McFarlin

Slide 2

Slide 2
       

Objectives

 

Objectives

Objectives

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:24

 

The objectives are to identify and describe the

Advance mode: Auto

 

Identify and describe the History and

Statistics regarding different types of

cancers the afflict Americans

history and statistics associated with different

types of cancers, discuss risk factors of each

cancer, and examine prevention strategies. Keep

 

Present and describe Risk Factors for

in mind that risk factors identify a sub-group of

 

cancer development

the whole population, which is at a greater risk of

 
 

Present cancer Prevention strategies

developing disease. In the case of today’s lecture

 

that disease is cancer.

Slide 3

Slide 3
       

Cancer

 

Cancer

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:26

 

Cancer is the 2 nd leading cause of death among

Advance mode: Auto

 

Cancer is the 2 nd leading cause of death

among Americans.

Leading cause of death in women 35 – 74

Americans (to cardiovascular disease). It is the

leading cause of death in women 35-74 years

old. In men, the most common forms of cancer

 

Most Common Forms

are lung, colon, and prostrate. In women, the

 

Men: Lung, Colon, and Prostate

 

most common forms are lung, breast, and colon.

 

Women: Lung, Breast, and Colon

Many cancers can be prevented or cured with

 

Many Cancers can be Prevented or

early detection.

 

Cured with Early Detection

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Slide 4

Slide 4
       

Cancer Prevalence in US

 

Cancer

Cancer Prevalence

Prevalence inin USUS

Notes:

 

N = 10.5 million people

This figure shows the estimated cancer

prevalence by type in the US as of 2003. You

Duration: 00:00:12 Advance mode: Auto

 
National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

 

should note some of the most prevalent types of

 

cancer as we will focus on these.

 
 
 

Slide 5

Slide 5
       

General Cancer Prevention

Duration: 00:00:32

 

General Cancer

General

Cancer Prevention

Prevention

Notes:

The next topic that we will discuss is general

Advance mode: Auto

 

Proper Screening and a Healthy

Lifestyle

Good Nutrition

cancer prevention strategies. Proper screening

and a healthy lifestyle go a long way to

preventing cancer. Some aspects of healthy

 

No Tobacco Use

lifestyle include good nutrition, no tobacco use,

 

Minimal Alcohol Consumption

minimal alcohol consumption, and regular

 
 

Regular physical activity

1 / 3 of Cancer deaths linked to tobacco

use

1 / 3 of Cancer deaths linked to Improper

physical activity. About 1/3 of all cancer deaths

are linked to tobacco use and another 1/3 are

linked to improper nutrition.

 

Nutrition

Slide 6

Slide 6 Estimated Cancer Survivors in US from 1971 to 2003

Estimated Cancer Survivors in US

from 1971 to 2003

 

Estimated Cancer

Estimated

Cancer Survivors

Survivors inin

USUS from

from 1971

1971 toto 2003

2003

Notes:

This graph depicts cancer survivors by year in

the US between 1971 and 2003. The noted

Duration: 00:00:20 Advance mode: Auto

 
National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

increase in cancer survival can be attributed to

 

use of early screening and more effective

 

treatment techniques. Survival rate in 2003 was

 
 

almost 4 times greater than it was in 1971.

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Slide 7 Notes: Lung Cancer Lung Lung Cancer Cancer Duration: 00:00:19 Advance mode: Auto • History
Slide 7
Notes:
Lung Cancer
Lung
Lung Cancer
Cancer
Duration: 00:00:19
Advance mode: Auto
• History and Statistics
• Early in the 1900’s, Primary Lung Cancer
was rare
• “Primary” suggests that the tumor began in
the lungs
Early in the 1900’s, primary lung cancer was
rare. The term “primary” suggests that the tumor
began in the lungs. The change in lung cancer
rates is due to tobacco use. About 152,000
people develop primary lung cancer each year
and 139,000 die from lung cancer each year.
• The changes in Lung Cancer rates is due
to tobacco use
• 152,000 new cases this year
• 139,000 will die
Slide 8
Notes:
Lung Cancer Con’t
Lung
Lung Cancer
Cancer Con
Con’’tt
Duration: 00:00:27
Advance mode: Auto
• Risk Factors
• Cigarette smoking (majority of cases)
• Radiation exposure
• Heavy exposure to certain fumes or
chemicals (i.e. Radon)
• Prevention and Screening
• Early screening with Chest x-rays and
sputum does not decrease death rate
The risk factors for lung cancer are cigarette
smoking, radiation exposure, and heavy
exposure to certain fumes or chemicals. Please
note that the majority of lung cancer cases are as
a result of cigarette smoking. Unfortunately early
screening with chest x-rays and sputum (spit)
has not been shown to decrease lung cancer
death rates. The best prevention is to STOP
smoking or never start.
• STOP SMOKING!!
Slide 9
Notes:
Lung Pathology
Lung
Lung Pathology
Pathology
Duration: 00:00:11
Advance mode: Auto
Healthy
Healthy Lung
Lung
Smoker
Smoker’’ss Lung
Lung
These images are lung tissue from a healthy lung
(left) and smoker’s lung (right). Smoking
dramatically alters cancer risk by changing the
morphology of the lung tissue.
Whyquit.com
Whyquit.com

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Slide 10

Slide 10
       

Chest X-ray Images

Duration: 00:00:17

 

Chest

Chest XX--ray

ray Images

Images

Notes:

These images show a normal chest x-ray (left)

Advance mode: Auto

 

Normal

Normal

Lung Cancer Lung Cancer www.szote.u-szeged.hu/radio/mellk1/amelk2b.htm, http://health.allrefer.com/health/cancer-lung-cancer-frontal-chest-x-ray.html

Lung Cancer

Lung

Cancer

Lung Cancer Lung Cancer www.szote.u-szeged.hu/radio/mellk1/amelk2b.htm, http://health.allrefer.com/health/cancer-lung-cancer-frontal-chest-x-ray.html

www.szote.u-szeged.hu/radio/mellk1/amelk2b.htm, http://health.allrefer.com/health/cancer-lung-cancer-frontal-chest-x-ray.html

and a chest x-ray (right) from an individual with

lung cancer. The lung cancer is circled in red.

 

Remember that chest x-rays are a useful

 

diagnostic tool, but they are not an effective

 

prevention technique.

 
   

Slide11

 
Slide11
   

Word Quiz

Questions:

Interaction type: Word Quiz

1. The most common forms of cancer in men and

Passing score: 70 Instructions: None Custom Message: None

women are ... Answer: lung, colon, prostate, and breast

2. This one lifestyle modifcation can prevent development of primary lung cancer. Answer: stop smoking

Slide 12

Slide 12
       

Colon and Rectal Cancer

Duration: 00:00:24

 

Colon

Colon and

and Rectal

Rectal Cancer

Cancer

Notes:

Colon and rectal cancer is common in both men

Advance mode: Auto

 

History and Statistics

and women. It accounts for 15% of all cancers

 

Common forms in both men and women

and 12% of all cancer deaths. The risk factors

 

15% of all cancers

include family history, ulcerative colitis, colonic

 

12% of all cancer deaths

polyps, previous gynecological or breast cancer,

 

Risk Factors

and a high fat/low fiber diet.

 

Family history

 

Ulcerative Colitis (Crohn’s disease)

 
 

Colonic Polyps

 

Previous gynecological or breast cancer

 

High Fat, Low Fiber Diet

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Slide 13

Slide 13
       

Preventing Colon/Rectal Cancer

Duration: 00:00:28

 

Preventing Colon/Rectal

Preventing

Colon/Rectal Cancer

Cancer

Notes:

The most effective way to prevent colon/rectal

Advance mode: Auto

 

Consume low fat, high fiber diet

cancer is to consume a low fat, high fiber diet. To

 

Annual rectal examination after age 40

screen for colon/rectal cancer, annual rectal

 

Annual fecal occult blood test after age

exams should be completed after the age of 40.

 

50

Annual fecal occult blood tests after the age of

 

50. Annual Sigmoidoscopy annually after the age

 

Sigmoidoscopy annually after age 50

 

After 2 negative tests, repeat scope every

3-5 years.

of 50. If you have 2 negative tests in a row, then

repeat the scope every 3-5 years.

Slide 14

Slide 14
       

Stages of Colon Cancer

Duration: 00:00:10

 

Stages of

Stages

of Colon

Colon Cancer

Cancer

Stages of Stages of Colon Colon Cancer Cancer www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cancer.gov/CDR0000062954.html

www.meb.uni-bonn.de/cancer.gov/CDR0000062954.html

Notes:

This figure shows the stages of the development

Advance mode: Auto

 

of colon cancer. Stage IV is the most threatening

 

form. Early detection will prevent colon cancer

 

from progressing to this point.

 
 
 

Slide 15

Slide 15
       

Breast Cancer

 

Breast Cancer

Breast

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:29

 

History and Statistics

Breast cancer is the leading cancer killer in

Advance mode: Auto

 

Most common form of cancer in women, but is not

women. 100 on 100,000 women develop it each

 

the leading killer

100 cases in 100,000 women per year

1.3% of all 40 year old women will develop it in the

year. 1.3% of all 40 year old women will develop

breast cancer in the next 10 years. The risk

 

next 10 years

factors associated with breast cancer include

 

Risk Factors

family history, fibrocystic breast disease,

 

Family history

Fibrocystic breast disease

 

estrogen usage, early menarche, late age of 1 st

 

Estrogen usage

Early menarche

pregnancy, and late menopause.

 

Late age of 1 st pregnancy

 

Late menopause

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Slide 16

Slide 16 Prevention and Screening for Breast Cancer Duration: 00:00:28 Advance mode: Auto

Prevention and Screening for Breast

Cancer

Duration: 00:00:28 Advance mode: Auto

   

Prevention and

Prevention

and Screening

Screening for

for

Breast Cancer

Breast

Cancer

Monthly breast self-examination after

the age of 20

 

Notes:

Screening for breast cancer is accomplished

using monthly self-exams after the age of 20,

annual physician exams after age 20, an initial

 

Physician breast examination every

mammogram at age 35 and biannually until 50,

 

year after the age of 20

and annual mammograms after age 50.

 

Initial mammogram at age 35 and

Evidence regarding the prediction rate during

 
 

biannually until 50

early mammograms is not conclusive.

 

Evidence regarding the prediction rate of

 

early mammograms is not conclusive

 

Annual mammogram after age 50

Slide 17

Slide 17
       

Mammogram Images

 

Mammogram Images

Mammogram

Images

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:10 Advance mode: Auto

 

Normal

Normal

Abnormal

Abnormal

These images show a normal mammogram and

an individual with breast cancer. The tumor is

 
http://www.mic.com.mt/screening_versus_diagnostic_mamm_Diagnositic.htm
http://www.mic.com.mt/screening_versus_diagnostic_mamm_Diagnositic.htm

http://www.mic.com.mt/screening_versus_diagnostic_mamm_Diagnositic.htm

denoted by the blue and red rings.

 
 
 

Slide18

 
Slide18
   

Choices

Questions:

Interaction type: Choices

  • 1. What percentage of all cancers can be

Passing score: 70

attributed to colon cancer?

Instructions: None Custom Message: None

1) 50% 2) 25% 3) 15% (Correct) 4) 5%

  • 2. What is the most effective way to detection

breast cancer? 1) routine assessments, which includes mammograms starting at age 35 (Correct)

 

2) routine assessments only

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3) mammograms only 4) annual Pap smear test after 30

Slide 19

Slide 19
       

Cervical Cancer

 

Cervical Cancer

Cervical

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:29

 

The rate of appearance of cervical cancer has

Advance mode: Auto

 

History and Statistics

The rate has decreased over the last 30 years due

to the introduction of the Papanicolaou (Pap)

decreased over the last 30 years due to the

introduction of the Pap smear test. The risk

 

smear test.

Risk Factors

factors for developing cervical cancer are

 

Frequent sex with multiple partners

frequent sex with multiple partners, certain

 
 

Certain female hormones

 
 

Smoking

Possibly oral contraceptive use

Prevention and Screening

Women should have an initial Pap smear

female hormones, smoking, and possibly oral

contraceptive use. The most effective way to

screen for and prevent cervical cancer is for

women to have a Pap smear performance when

 

performed when the become sexually active or at

age 18.

they become sexually active or at age 18.

Slide 20

Slide 20
       

Pap Smear Slide Images

Duration: 00:00:14

 

Pap Smear

Pap

Smear Slide

Slide Images

Images

Notes:

These slide images show a normal Pap smear

Advance mode: Auto

 

Normal

Normal

Cervical Cancer

Cervical

Cancer

and one from an individual with Cervical cancer.

Note the presence of the red stained tumor cells.

 
The blue stained cells are white blood cells that
The blue stained cells are white blood cells that

The blue stained cells are white blood cells that

 

are attempting to fight the cancer cells.

 
 
 

www.bioscicon.com/gallery.html

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Slide 21

Slide 21
       

Prostate Cancer

 

Prostate Cancer

Prostate

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:20

 

Prostate cancer is uncommon in men younger

Advance mode: Auto

 

History and Statistics

than 50 and the average age of diagnosis is 73.

 

Uncommon in men younger than 50

The risk factors include age and an improper

 

Average diagnosis age is 73

diet. Prevention and screening is accomplished

 

Risk Factors

via a physicians evaluation and a basic blood

 

test.

 

Age

 

Improper Diet

 
 

Prevention and Screening

 

Physician evaluation can detect problems

 

A blood test can screen for prostate cancer

Slide 22

Slide 22
       

Prostate Cancer

 

Prostate Cancer

Prostate

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:07

 
www.molecularenhancer.com/prostate_cancer.htm

www.molecularenhancer.com/prostate_cancer.htm

These images show a normal prostate and one

Advance mode: Auto

 

which has cancer. Note the enlargement of the

 

prostate gland.

 
 
 

Slide 23

Slide 23
       

Skin Cancer

 

Skin Cancer

Skin

Cancer

Notes:

Duration: 00:00:43

 

More than 500,000 cases of skin cancer are

Advance mode: Auto

 

History and Statistics

reported each year. It is the most common form

 

More than 500,000 cases each year

 

Most common form of Cancer

of cancer. 90% of cases are on areas of skin

 

90% in areas not usually covered by clothing (i.e. face, ears,

which are not usually covered (i.e. face, ears,

 

head, etc.)

 

Malignant Melanoma is deadly (~6,000 deaths per year)

and head, etc. Malignant melanoma is deadly

 

Risk Factors

(~6,000 deaths per year). Risk factors for

development of skin cancer include

 

Overexposure to the sun

 

Fair skin color

 

Prevention and Screening

overexposure to the sun and fair skin color. The

 

Avoid excessive sun exposure (avoid sun burns)

best way to prevent skin cancer is to avoid

 

Wear SPF =45 sun-screen

 

must protect against UVA and UVB

excessive sun exposure and use a sunblock with

 

Apply every 60 minutes

greater than or equal to SPF 45. Make sure that

 

your sun block is UVA/UVB protected and apply it

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every 60 minutes. Also, keep in mind that UV rays can pass through thin clothing unless it has been treated to be UV protected.

Slide24

 
Slide24
   

Choices

Questions:

Interaction type: Choices

  • 1. The rate of cervical cancer has

in the

Passing score: 70 Instructions: None Custom Message: None

________. 1) increased, oral contraceptives 2) decreased, oral contraceptives 3) decreased, Pap smear test (Correct) 4) increased, poor nutrition and chronic lack of exercise

  • 2. What is the the most effect way to screen for

prostrate cancer?

 

1) physical exam only 2) blood test only 3) x-ray of pelvic area 4) physical exam and blood test (Correct) 5) physical exam, blood test, and x-ray of pelvic area

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Slide 25

Slide 25
       

Next:

Other Major

 

Notes:

Diseases / Conditions

 

Next: Next:

This concludes the lecture on Cancer. Please

Duration: 00:00:10 Advance mode: Auto

 

Other Other Major Major

take the quiz over this lecture. If you have

questions pertaining to this lecture, please post

   

them in the discussion forum on WebCT.

 

Diseases Diseases //

 

Conditions Conditions

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