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FN 15 PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION

Date Performed: April 29, 2016

Group No. and Section: 5 - FCDE

Date Submitted: May 3, 2016

Group Members:
Cacdac, Frances May
Cedeno, Trisha Denise

Nature of Contribution:
Food supervisor; Discussion and Conclusion
Chief cook; Introduction, Methodology,
Proofreader
Housekeeper; Discussion and Conclusion
Dietitian; Results and Appendix; Compiler

Rocero, Raphaella Maria


Sebastian, Jo Marguerite

Report Grade:
Parameters

Score

Introduction

/5

Methodology

/5

Results

/35

Discussion

/40

Conclusions

/5

References

/5

Format

/5
TOTAL

EXERCISE NO. 7
Evaluation of the Micronutrient Content of Dishes

TABLE OF CONTENTS

/100

Page Number
INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS

DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
LIST OF APPENDICES

INTRODUCTION

Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients that help the body shore up bones, heal
wounds, and boost the immune system as they also perform important roles in the conversion of
food into energy and in cellular damage repair (Segal et al. 2016). Vitamins, in particular, are
organic substances and are furthermore categorized as either fat-soluble (Vitamins A, D, E, and
K) or water-soluble (Vitamin C and B complex) (Gavin 2014). On the other hand, minerals are
inorganic elements that can retain their chemical structure unlike vitamins which could be easily
broken down by heat, acid, or air (Gavin 2014; Segal et al. 2016).
Although vitamins and minerals are only needed by the body in small amounts, they
could already pose critical health risks when such quantity requirements are not met (Segal et
al. 2016). The most common examples of vitamin deficiencies include scurvy, blindness, and
rickets which are caused by the lack of intake of Vitamin C, A, and D, respectively (Gavin 2014).
Meanwhile, some of the most common mineral deficiencies could result into osteoporosis,
destabilization of protein structures, and occurrence of dental cavities due to lack of Calcium,
Sulfur, and Fluoride, respectively (Segal et al. 2016). However, it should still be kept in mind that
too much intake of a nutrient is also bad to the health as well and thus, proper choices of
ingredients for food preparation should be observed so as to ensure balance in nutrient intake.
In line with balancing the right amount of nutrients, this exercise aimed to identify the
common sources of vitamins and minerals in a typical Filipino diet; to plan and prepare a
vitamin- and mineral-rich dish and to calculate for its vitamin and mineral content (per household
serving portion and 100 grams of the dish); to compare for the vitamin and mineral content of
the different dishes prepared among the groups; and, to calculate for the %RENI for a reference
woman of the various vitamins and minerals found in the household serving portion and 100
grams of the dishes prepared.

METHODOLOGY

Prior to planning, food composition tables were used to list five (5) foods with the highest
amount of the following nutrients: thiamin, B-carotene, riboflavin, total vitamin A, niacin, and
ascorbic acid. The amounts were then indicated as nutrients per 100 g of each food item.
Each group were then given the chance to pick their own dish to be prepared in which
they were to infuse ingredients that could make their chosen dish more nutrient-rich in terms of
vitamins and minerals. The group, in particular, decided to prepare pancit canton and utilized
instant pancit canton noodles as the base ingredient for the dish.
Ingredients were first gathered and prepared and the edible portion (EP) was also
obtained prior to cooking. The vitamin and mineral contents of the whole dish was then
calculated and the dish was divided according to the indicated serving portion. Finally, the
percent Recommended Nutrient Intake (RENI) contributed per micronutrient was obtained using
the reference male (19 years old).

RESULTS

The focus of this exercise was to reach at least 33% of the RENI and PDRI values of the
required vitamins and minerals. In this exercise, the group decided to re-create and revamp the
pancit canton bought in the usual kiosks around the University of the Philippines, Diliman.
Table 1. Summary of total energy (kcal), %RENI, %PDRI, and total cost per serving
Energy (kcal)
%RENI
%PDRI
Total Cost (Php)
Fancy-t
720.05
28.92
28.46
73.41
Each of the vitamins required in the meal were able to reach their required percentages.
Vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid all reached the required 33% percent of
RENI and PDRI in one serving. Most of the vitamins were provided by the Baguio beans,
malunggay, and sayote (see appendix A).

Table 2. Summary of total vitamins with %RENI and %PDRI


Fancy-t
Vitamin A
Thiamin
Riboflavin
%RENI
%PDRI

389.08
428.85

32.79
35.77

36
42.55

Niacin
33.01
44.02

Ascorbic
Acid
137.13
171.42

Meanwhile, a high percentage of the phosphorus was found to be contributed by the


pancit canton noodles as well as the Baguio beans. Together with malunggay, Baguio beans,
were also the main contributors of the minerals in the dish (see appendix A).
Table 3. Summary of total minerals with %RENI and %PDRI
Fancyt
Calcium
Phosphorus
%RENI
45.74
50.63
%PDRI
45.74
50.63

Iron
62.08
62.08

Additionally, sensory evaluation suggests that the prepared dish, fancy-t, was generally
acceptable to the public (See Appendix A).

DISCUSSION

Micronutrient deficiencies are one of the leading nutritional problems in the Philippines
(FAO 2010). According to FAO (2010), nutrients that are found to be deficient among Filipinos
are more often than not, vitamin A, iron, and iodine. The vitamin A status of the country is
considered as a severe subclinical deficiency, affecting children 6 months - 5 years (8.2%) and
pregnant women (7.1%). Meanwhile, iron deficiency anemia was found to also affect infants,
pregnant women, lactating women, and male as well as older persons at values of 56.6%,
50.7%, 45.7%, and 49.1%, respectively. Prevalence of IDD (Iodine Defiency Disorder) was mild
(71mg/L). However, 35.8% children 6 12 years old still suffer from moderate and severe IDD.
These deficiencies can be accounted for on the diet of the Filipinos. Due to poverty, many
Filipinos continue to go hungry and become malnourished because of inadequate intake of food
and nutrients that the typical Filipino diet is grossly inadequate for energy and other nutrients
(FAO 2010). In order to compensate for the inadequate energy intake, the body utilizes protein
as energy source, thus the continuing Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) problem in the country.
Vitamin-deficient individuals who either lack enough intakes or have absorption
problems usually depend on vitamin supplements. Vegan individuals, for example, who do not
consume fish liver oils or dairy products, resort to vitamin D supplements. However, these
supplements alone cannot replace all of the nutrients and benefits of whole foods. These can
only provide for the nutrient gaps in one's diet but cannot be used as food substitutes. It is
always better to get nutrients from food which contains phytochemicals, fiber, and more
substances that work together in promoting good health which cannot be duplicated with just
pills (Zelman 2016) therefore it is not advisable to depend solely on supplements.
For a diet that aims to limit the calories but not the vitamins and minerals, the
appropriate food to consume are nutrient-dense foods. These are foods that contain many
vitamins and minerals but not very many calories. An example would be whole-grain foods
which are low in fat but high in fiber and complex carbohydrates. It easily makes the person feel
full longer thus prevents overeating. Besides eating calorie-dense foods, eating very frequently
or overeating also contributes an increased number of calories in the body. Fruits and
vegetables are also nutrient-dense foods that are naturally low in fat. Colorful fruits and
vegetablesespecially dark green and orange vegetablesadd flavor, nutrients and variety to
one's diet. Food substitutes may also be effective in decreasing calories. For example, skim
milk, low-fat milk or enriched milk can be used instead of powdered milk. Evaporated skim milk

may also be used instead of cream in recipes for soups, sauces and coffee. Low-fat cheeses
such as skim ricotta and string cheese can replace cream cheese as a spread or in desserts
and dip recipes. Plain non-fat yogurt can also replace sour cream in many recipes (Zelman
2016). Preserving the nutrients in the food starts can be done in several ways starting from the
storage up to the preparation of food. Vitamins are micronutrients that are more unstable than
macronutrients such as minerals. These may be lost due to trimming, paring and peeling of
vegetables and fruits, dissolution in water, oxidation when exposed to air, destruction by heat, or
when it reacts with other ingredients in the food that are alkaline or acidic.
Generally, the ways to conserve nutrients at home are reducing the amount of water
used in cooking, reducing the cooking time and reducing the exposed surface area. Specific
ways to conserve nutrients in the food when preparing at home include storing vegetables in
moisture-proof containers and placed inside the refrigerator. This helps to prolong the shelf life
of these perishable items. In preparing these items, it is also important to wash them and peel or
pare very thinly. When cooking, it is advisable to not overcook these items because some
nutrients are destroyed by heat. Some vitamins are water-soluble thus the amount of water
used in cooking must be limited. To avoid oxidation in air, these food items must not be exposed
for a long time and must be cut in larger pieces to reduce the exposed surface area. To increase
the vitamin and mineral content of purchased meals and snacks, the individual must opt to buy
healthy ones instead of junk foods that are very high in sugar, fat, carbohydrates and sodium
that cause diseases such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, liver diseases, kidney
diseases and more.
*insert table 11.3 (other file) and explanation*
The challenges that were encountered in planning and preparing a dish that is both
vitamin- and mineral-rich were reaching the required RENI for one serving of the dish,
decreasing the amount of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and other artificial flavor enhancers,
and limiting the food cost to keep the dish student-friendly. It was a challenge to meet the
required amount of RENI because in order to meet the prescribed amounts of vitamin and
minerals, the ingredients that were added must be chosen carefully in their right amounts in
order to have one serving of a nutritionally adequate dish. Since the flavoring of the Pancit
Canton is processed and artificial, the sauce was modified to contain natural flavoring agents
instead. What makes Pancit Canton a Pinoy favorite is its tasty and flavorful sauce, so the

modified sauce had to be at par with the original for the modified dish to be generally
acceptable. The Pancit Canton sold in kiosks found around the campus are greatly cheaper
than the modified and nutritinally adequate Fancyt dish. It was a challenge that was not
successfully met because some of the highly vitamin- and mineral- contributing vegetables were
expensive. Moreover, it was difficult to look for substitute ingredients given a short amount of
time for planning.
It is essential for precautionary measures to be observed in order to preserve the
vitamins and minerals contained in foods during meal preparation and in cooking, otherwise
substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals can be lost. The sooner food is eaten, the less
chance for nutrient loss to take place (Hempl and Wardlaw 2007).
To minimize the loss of vitamins and minerals when storing food, foods should be
refrigerated in moisture-proof, air-tight containers, for nutrients keep best at temperature near
freezing, at high humidity, and away from air. Fresh produce should be kept cool because
enzymes in food begin to degrade vitamins once the fruits or vegetable is harvested-- chilling
reduces this process. Fresh produce must be refrigerated, except for potatoes, tomatoes,
onions, and bananas, until consumed. Canned foods vary in the amount of nutrients lost due to
differences in storage time and temperatures. To be able to maximize the nutritive value from
canned goods, they should be stored in a cool and dry place (Hempl and Wardlaw 2007).
When preparing and cooking food, trim, peel, and cut fruits and vegetables minimally
enough to remove rotten or inedible parts. This is because oxygen tends to break down vitamins
faster when more surface area is exposed. Minimize reheating food and microwave, steam or
use a pan or wok with very small amounts of fat and a tight-fitting lid to cook vegetables to have
less contact with water. Add the vegetables last if there is fat or avoid adding fats to vegetables
during cooking if the liquid is to be discarded since fat-soluble vitamins will be lost in discarded
fat. Avoid adding baking soda to vegetables to enhance green coloralkalinity destroys vitamin
D, thiamin, and other vitamins (Hempl and Wardlaw 2007).
Considerable amounts of vitamins and minerals are destroyed in the process of cooking.
Heat, light, air exposure, cooking and water, and alkalinity are factors that can destroy vitamins
(Hempl and Wardlaw 2007). Vitamins can function only if they are intact, but because they are
complex organic molecules, they are vulnerable to destruction by heat, light, and chemical

agents. The strategies of cooking vegetables at moderate temperatures for short times and
using small amounts of water help to preserve the vitamins. Minerals, on the other hand, are
inorganic; they are indestructible and need not be handled with the special care that vitamins
require. However, minerals can be bound by substances that interfere with the bodys ability to
absorb them. They can also be lost during food-refining processes or during cooking when they
leach into water that is discarded (Whitney et al. 2009).
Fortification is the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or
present in insignificant amounts; additionally, it can be used to correct or prevent a widespread
nutrient deficiency or to balance the total nutrient profile of a food. On the other hand,
enrichment is the addition to a food of nutrients that were lost during processing so that the food
will meet a specified standard (Whitney et al. 2009). Many of the food options available in the
present are processed that have lost significant nutrients and have added sugar, fat, and salt as
they were transformed from farm-fresh foods to those found in the packages, such as bags,
boxes, and cans that line grocery-store shelves. Sometimes, these foods have been fortified to
improve their nutrient contents (Whitney et al.2009).
Meanwhile, processed foods may contain sodium without chloride; in additives such as
sodium bicarbonate or sodium saccharin, they do not always taste salty. Such not only contain
more sodium than their less processed counterparts but also have less potassium. People who
eat foods high in salt often happen to be eating fewer potassium-containing foods at the same
time. Potassium is lost and sodium is gained as foods become more processed, causing the
potassium-to-sodium ratio to fall dramatically such that even when potassium is not lost, the
addition of sodium still lowers the potassium-to-sodium ratio (Whitney et.al. 2009).
Food processing causes deficiency of important vitamins and minerals. At the same
time, foods that undergo food processing have significant addition in fat, sugar, and salt, which
when taken in excess get stored as fat in the body. Potassium and sodium are as equally
significant in the regulation of blood pressure. Processed foods should be limited and must be
avoided to decrease chances of having cardiovascular disease.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES
Food and Agriculture Organization [Internet]. c2010. Nutrition Country Profiles: Philippines.
[cited 29 April 2016]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/phl_en.stm
Gavin M. [Internet]. 2014. Vitamins and Minerals. Teens Health. The Nemours Foundation.
[cited 29 Apr 2016]. Available from: http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/vitamins-minerals.html
Groff J, Groper S, and Smith J. 2009. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism: 5th Ed. Print.
Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
(Hempl and Wardlaw 2007)
Segal et al. [Internet]. 2016. Vitamins and Minerals. Harvard Medical School. HelpguideOrg
International. [cited 29 Apr 2016]. Available from:
http://www.helpguide.org/harvard/vitamins-and-minerals.htm
(Whitney et al. 2009)
Zelman K. [Internet]. 2016. "What Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Can and Cant Do". [cited
28 Apr 2016]. Available from: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-andsupplements/nutrition-vitamins-11/help-vitamin-supplement
APPENDIX

Appendix A. Calculated Values (kcal, %RENI, %PDRI, food costing)


Table 1.1 Summary of ingredients and the corresponding total macronutrient amounts.
Ingredient

Energy

CHON

CHO

Fat

Pancit Canton

438.3

11.52

20.88

51.12

Onion

23.4

0.765

0.135

4.725

Garlic

19.35

1.05

0.045

3.69

Carrot

23.4

0.675

0.18

4.725

Cabbage

12.6

0.63

0.135

2.16

Baguio Beans

56.7

13.3

14.21

36.68

Soy Sauce

7.5

0.35

0.01

1.5

Cooking Oil

89.5

tr

9.91

0.08

Malunggay

27.3

1.83

0.57

3.72

22

2.3

0.15

2.85

Total

720.05

32.42

46.225

111.25

%RENI

28.92

42.66

%PDRI

28.46

45.66

Sayote

Table 1.2 Summary of ingredients and the corresponding vitamins and amounts.
Ingredients

Vitamin A

Thiamin

Riboflavin

Niacin

Ascorbic
Acid

Pancit
Canton

0.9

0.054

0.063

2.16

Onion

tr

0.027

0.0045

0.18

Garlic

0.0345

0.012

0.06

1.05

Carrot

750.6

0.018

0.036

0.36

3.6

Cabbage

1.35

0.018

0.0315

0.135

18.9

Baguio
Beans

19.6

0.154

0.098

1.05

Soy Sauce

tr

0.007

0.007

Cooking Oil

tr

tr

tr

Malunggay

387

0.063

0.156

0.93

69.3

980.5

0.025

0.06

0.4

10

Sayote

Total

2139.95

0.3935

0.468

5.282

102.85

%RENI

389.08

32.79

36

33.01

137.13

%PDRI

428.85

35.77

42.55

44.02

171.42

Table 1.3 Summary of ingredients and the corresponding minerals and amounts.
Ingredients

Calcium

Pancit Canton

Phosphorus

Iron

44.1

63.9

2.16

Onion

18

22.95

0.27

Garlic

4.2

18.15

0.315

Carrot

31.05

17.1

0.945

Cabbage

33.3

12.6

0.36

Baguio Beans

62.3

179.2

0.21

Soy Sauce

5.6

3.4

0.44

Cooking Oil

0.2

0.3

tr

Malunggay

103.8

35.4

1.35

Sayote

40.5

1.4

1.4

Total

343.05

354.4

7.45

%RENI

45.74

50.63

62.08

%PDRI

45.74

50.63

62.08

Table 2.1 Breakdown and total of cost of ingredients


Ingredients

Weight (g)

Cost (Php)

Amount

Cost per
Serving

Pancit Canton

60

10.50

1 pack

10.50

Onion

45

24.55

200g

5.55

Garlic

15

49.95

200g

3.75

Carrot

45

30.55

235g

5.85

Cabbage

45

35.70

510g

3.15

Baguio Beans

60

21.20

100g

12.75

Parsley

15

15.00

150g

1.5

Soy stir

10

4.5

30mL

1.5

Cooking oil

10

7.25

50mL

1.45

Malunggay

50

10.8

50g

10.80

Sayote

45

36.90

100g

16.61

Total

73.41

Table 3.1 Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the prepared mineral-rich dishes
Criteria

Group
1

Dish

Pizza Stick

Shawarma

Fruit and
Jelly Salad

Lumpiang
Toge

Fancyt

Serving
Portion

300g

182g

350g

240g

325g

Appearanc
e

7.75

8.25

8.75

7.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

Appealing
appearance.
Golden brown
crust but
contains a lot
of colors
inside. Mushy
and crispy
texture. It is
delicious.

Presentable
plate,
appetizing and
good portion
size. Mostly
green, variety of
color given by
the reddish
tomato, dark
brown meat,
and white
sauce.
Malunggay pita
bread is soft
and chewy,
tender ground
pork and

Good
plating, large
portion size.
Very colorful
with the
variety of
fruits added.
Gelatin
could have
been added
with flavor
and
sweetness.
Varied
textures
from the
fruits, gelatin

Strong
shrimp
aroma, really
good taste

Colorful,
aesthetically
appealing,
not over or
undercooked.
Delicious.

Texture/
8.25
Consistenc
y
Flavor
Comments

ground pork
liver, and crispy
texture from
chopped fresh
vegetables.
Savory, spicy
and salty, great
balance of
flavors, good
over-all taste.

and sago.
Fruits used
were fresh
and
complement
ed well to
the added
corn flakes.