Você está na página 1de 4


LASERS-Fast track material

1. Define the terms
a) Absorption: If the particle excites from ground state to higher energy state by absorbing photon of suitable
energy h, then the phenomenon is said to be absorption.
b) Spontaneous emission: The emission of photon takes place after the particle (electron) comes down to the
ground state after its life time in the higher energy state is the phenomenon of spontaneous emission.
c) Stimulated emission : In case of stimulated emission, the particle in higher energy state comes down to ground
level when made to interact with a photon before the life time , results in two photons each having exactly same
energy as the energy difference between the states and having same phase as the photon causing the stimulated

a) Absorption

b) Spontaneous emission
c)Stimulated emission
d) Pumping: The pumping of electrons refers to the process in which electrons from a lower energy level are made
to move into a higher energy level, so that a population inversion can be achieved between the levels.
e) Population Inversion: Population Inversion refers to a state in which there is more number of atoms with
electrons in a higher energy level than atoms in a ground or lower energy level. If N 1 and N2 are number of
electrons in a lower and a higher energy levels than at population inversion N2 > N1.

a) Population, Normal state

(E1<E2<E3 and N1>N2>N3)

b)Population Inversion state

(E1<E2<E3 and N2>N1)

Einsteins Coefficients
Einsteins coefficients give the relation between spontaneous and stimulated emissions.
B12 = Stimulated or Induced absorption, A21 = Spontaneous emission, B21 = Stimulated or induced emission
P21 = Probability, down transition, P12 = Probability, up transition, u () = Energy density function.
N1 = No. of particles in energy state-1, N2 = No. of particles in energy state-2
Equilibrium is N1P12 = N2P21


LASERS-Fast track material


Types of lasers
1. Solid state laser - Ruby laser
Ruby is a crystal of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in which some of the aluminum ions (Al3+) are replaced by chromium
ions (Cr3+).Laser rods are prepared from a single crystal of pink ruby which contains 0.05% (by weight) chromium
Active medium or active center: Chromium ions act as active centers in ruby crystal. So it is the chromium ions
that produce the laser.
Pumping source: A helical flash lamp filled with xenon is used as a pumping source. The ruby crystal is placed
inside a xenon flash lamp. Thus, optical pumping is used to achieve population inversion in ruby laser.
Optical resonator system: The ends of ruby crystal are polished, grounded and made flat. The one of the ends is
completely silvered while the other one is partially silvered to get the output. Thus the two polished ends act as
optical resonator system.
The three energy levels in ruby are Ground state (E1), Meta stable state (E2) and short lived state (E3).
1. Initially, when Xenon lamp is flashed, a very intense radiation in green of wavelength 5600 fall on the ruby


LASERS-Fast track material

2. The photons in the ground state absorbing energy and jump into energy level E3
3. The transition from excited state (E3) to meta-stable state (E2) is non-radiative transition or in other words there is
no emission of photons
4. The population inversion is achieved between states E2 and E1
5. Spontaneous emission from E2 to E1 will result in a photon wavelength 6943 and then stimulation begins.
6. When the photon beam become sufficiently intense, then a very powerful and narrow beam of red light of
wavelength 6943 emerges through the partially silvered end of the ruby crystal.

Construction of Ruby laser

2. Gas LASER - He-Ne laser

working of ruby

Helium neon laser used a mixture of 10:1 for its active medium. The mixture is at a pressure of about 1 mm of Hg,
the partial pressure of helium gas being 0.1 mm of Hg.
Active medium: The gas mixture of He and Ne forms the active medium. Ne acts as active center.
Pumping Source: Electric discharge method is used for pumping and achieving population inversion.
Optical resonator system: A set of mirrors one perfect and the other partially reflecting form the optical resonator

Construction of He-Ne laser

Ne laser

Working of He-

Up transition: Fast moving electrons by discharge collide with He atoms, and then He exited to F1-F2 and F1-F3.
Then, after by collisionof He with Ne atoms energy transfer takes place, and then Ne will be excited. By deexcitation
Down transition: E6-E5 (3.39 m, IR-Infrared), E6-E3 (6328 , Laser transition), E5-E3 (Non-radiative), E4E3 (1.15 m, IR), E3-E2 (Spontaneous - 6000), E2-E1 (De-excitation by walls)


LASERS-Fast track material

Applications of lasers
1. Lasers in Industry
a) Lasers can be used to blast holes in diamonds and hard steel
b) Laser can cut, drill and weld the materials precisely
c) Laser can drill the materials precisely without affecting the surrounding area
d) Laser range finders is used to measure distances
e) In electronic industry, lasers are used for soldering and trimming the materials.
f) High power carbon dioxide laser is used for cutting and drilling of metals.

2. Lasers in scientific research

a) Scientists are working on separating isotopes of uranium using laser.
b) For recording holograms.
c) Certain chemical reactions have been accelerated by using lasers.
d) Lasers are employed to create plasma.
e) High power laser sources are being used to destroy enemy aircrafts and missiles.
f) The position of a distance object can be measured by using lasers.

3. Lasers in Medicine
a) Argon and carbon dioxide lasers are used in the treatment of liver and lungs.
b) Lasers are used in elimination of moles and tumors.
c) For eye, retinal detachment can be welded by using lasers.
d) Pulsed neodymium lasers are employed in the treatment of liver cancer.
e) Laser is usually called nonmaterial knife.

Additional uses
1. Lasers are used in optical communication systems using optical fibers
2. Lasers are used to read data from CD.
3. Lasers are using now days to read barcodes.