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Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

AN INDIC ETYMOLOGY
Author(s): M. B. EMENEAU
Source: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 48/49, Golden Jubilee
Volume 1917-1967 (1968), pp. 55-57
Published by: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41694223 .
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Petersburglexiconquoted taravata.onlyfroman early 19th century Sanskrit lexicon. as being wordswithno real existence( voces nihili). Petersburglexicon added a referenceto the 13th centuryKashmirian Narahari's medical dictionaryRäjanighantu (dates givenby Keith as 1235-50). This content downloaded from 192. reliedin includingor omittingSanskritwords. 102 f.and mighthave noted also pardate( both theseare treatedby Mayrhofer ) . I mentionedgotha.248. 5 Nov 2014 06:57:30 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Some itemsincludedin our léxica mightwell be omittedentirely.sincein principle everyone of themmay achievelimitedliterarylife.221 on Wed.the name of the plant Cassia auriculata. 416 f..' young of crab '.as one such word. 1839). Perhapsin principleno such lexical itemshould be omitted. Such a one is màghamà ' a femalecrab '. attestation( Mayrhofer has not yetreachedthisword). I examined the word philologicallyand showed that it. In a review of Mayrhofer in Language 34. The major St.AN INDIC ETYMOLOGY BY M. The minorSt. and segava. EMENEAU Severalreviewershave asked questionsas to the principleson which Manfred Mayrhofer.32. But the ' ' great majorityof lexical items are withoutIndo-European etymologies.though fairlylate. Bàpû Gañgadhara's Nighantuprakãka (Bombay.but human frailtyis probably the most inclusivereason thatcould be alleged. The principles have not yetbecome entirelyclear. in myreviewof the pertinentfasciculein Language 39. The membersof one verysmall subclass of lexical items( with or withoutlate literaryuse ) have good Indo-European etymologiesand live on in later Indie ( Middle Indo-Aryan or Modern Indo-Aryan or both ).but since manyof theseare in facttakenfromthe léxica foruse by late Sanskrit authors. are creationsof the commentators. whichMayrhofer listed with no ( etymology ) as an epic word. It is forthisreason that I recordan etymologyfortaravata-. hadati has literary. B. in his KurzgefasstesetymologischesWörterbuchdes Altindischen . who failed to understandseveral epic passages. A numberof thesehave meaningsof the ' vulgar' sortthatmake themunsuitable foruse in Sanskritliterature.theyachievea certaintypeof life. Otherwords are registeredin Westerndictionariesas onlylexical. For themetymologiesshould be provided.

r However. even though this destroysthe possibilityof regarding Maràthì as their' port of entry' into Indo-Aryan. the Cassia species and the banyanare not closely similar. has numerousforms. 5 Nov 2014 06:57:30 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . takarai. -war. EMENE Sit R. 972 ) and thesomewhat laterDe'sìnàmamàìàof Hemacandra( 12th century).32. This content downloaded from 192. ) of the Indo-Aryan words. Maràthìvad. A DravidianEtymologicalDictionary( D ED ). Turner. It is in all probabilityfrom some such Kannada formthatthe vernacularIndo-Aryanformsarose. It would be pleasantlysimplisticifwe could posit that the numerous well-attested Kannada-Maràthîborrowingswerethe matrixwithinwhichthis Dravidian word penetratedinto Indo-Aryan.g. For thisword Turner recordsin Modern Indo-Aryanonly Hindi formswith considerableminorvariation. BSOAS. Mar. the Hindi element -war is less close to its ' banyan* word bar.248. Sanskritvata-wouldlook in the direction of Maràthì as the source of the form. forthcomingin 1968) adds from Burrow's collectanea Kannada taragasi and taruvasa. D.tarwar( Platts tarwar. tagirisa. this becomes less than certainwhenwe attemptto findan explanation for the ending ( Skt. Turner quotes fromthe modernvernacularsHindi tarwar.e. The Prakrit referencesare two léxica. entry5705. Burrow and Emeneau. Malayalam. and since neitheris earlierthanthe earlystagesof the vernaculars. B.221 on Wed. cakwàd. whicharise by metathesisof g and r. Ta.tarwar) Cassia auriculataand Maràthìtarvad. But thisseemsbotanicallyless thanprobable . it is at least possible that we are dealing with a medieval vernacular word whichwas Sanskritizedand Prakritizedby lexicographers. underthe head of this Sanskrit word. tagarce.Te. H.Tamil. -vata-. whichalso is based on the words in DED 2433. L. cakwar.words. E. and Telugu.56 ATT M. Since the Prakritreferencesare earlier than the Sanskrit. cakõr. If we were to assume thatthiselementis due to contaminationwith the ' banyan' words. Kannada. A ComparativeDictionaryof the Indo-Aryan Languages. Ka. specifically on Kannada formswithinitialc. -vad. It seemsmore reasonableto assume the element-war.e. Sanskritcakramarda-Cassia tora. derived-marda. A DravidianEtymologicalDictionary: Supplement( DEDS .378.all being lexical only. tarod Cassia auriculataor tora. Sheth ( as was noted above ) uses cakwaras the Hindi equivalentforPrakrittaravatta-. entry all apparentlynon-literary.? -war in these Hindi factorthatproducedthe second element of the formsas the contaminating taravata.g. tora and occidentalis. i. ' 12.with meanings C. the Pàialacchinamamàlàof Dhanapàla ( A. for which Sheth's dictionarygives as meaning Hindi cakwar. 2433. The formsalmostall begin with tak/gar-. lists the Prakrit word taravatta-.fromthe Dravidian ' tree words of DED 3856). We should notice again Sanskrit cakramarda-Cassia tora( in Susruta).(Burrow.

is to be foundin any of the Dravidian forms. whichdenotessomethingthat is ratherfarbotanicallyfroma Cassia species. A90BI8 This content downloaded from 192.221 on Wed.ratherthanthe other way around.ANINDIOETYMOLOGY 57 We have probablypostulatedthe correctdirectionof the borrowing. No trace of -vata.32. i. Dravidian to Indo-Aryan.e. This.or tarwarand attemptto reach the Dravidian commonelementtak/gar-and the Kannada forms with c-. On this theorywe arriveat an explanationof more details than if we should start withIndo-Aryantaravata. It should be noted thatTurner lists also Prakrittadavadà ' a small kind of myrobalan'. 5 Nov 2014 06:57:30 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .but our hypothesisgoes a considerabledistancetowardsexplainingits originin Indo-Aryan.248. hardlybelongs here.