Math Methods Notes
By Callum Nguyen
Graphs & Polynomials
Polynomial: expression where terms consist of only nonnegative integer powers
Degree: highest power of the polynomial
COMMON SETS OF
NUMBERS Real Numbers
(R) All numbers Natural
Numbers (N) {1,2,3,4..........}
Integers (Z) {.....
2,1,0,1,2....}
EQUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE
y = mx + c
m = gradient
c=y
intercept y  y =
m(x  x)
(x, y) is a point on the graph
m = gradient
:
a= x
intercept b
=y
intercept
Parallel lines have the same gradient
Perpendicular lines have the negative reciprocal gradient eg. If m=2, m of
perpendicular line =
TO FIND GRADIENT
or tan where
= angle the line makes with the positive x axis
DOMAIN AND RANGE
Domain: set of x values where the rule is defined
Range: set of y values where the rule is defined
Implied domain: if no domain is specified, the maximum possible set x values (the
produce a real y value)
applies
INTERVAL NOTATION
[a,b] Domain and range includes end points: closed circle
(a,b) Domain and range doesnt include end points: open circle
R set of all real numbers
+
R  set of positive real numbers (does not include zero)
R  set of negative real numbers (does not include zero)
R\{a} includes all real numbers except for a
 and are never included
FUNCTION NOTATION
Function label: Domain number set, function label (independent variable)
= rule in terms of independent variable only.
Eg. g: R\,0 R, g(x) =
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS
Can use long division
The remainder/factor theorem
If P(x) is divided by xa then P(a) = the remainder
If P(x) is divided by axb then P( ) = the remainder
If P(a) = 0 then xa is a factor of P(x)
QUADRATIC GRAPHS (DEGREE OF 2) PARABOLA
Expanded form: y =
2
ax + bx + c c = y
intercept
Axis of symmetry: x = , gives the x coordinate of turning point(because of the
symmetry of quadratics). You can substitute this into the rule to find y coordinate of
turning point
General formula:
Discriminate ( ):
If < 0, the equation has no solutions
If = 0, the equation has one solution
If > 0, the equation has two solutions
Factor form: y = a(x b)(x c), x = b,c are the x intercepts (b,0) and (c,0)
2
Factorising: ax + bx + c
Multiply a c
Find the factors of a c that add up to b
 Rewrite the quadratic as 4 terms by writing bx as the sum of two terms with
coefficients found above
Factorising using pairs
2
Eg. 5x 13x + 6
5 6 (=30)
10 + 3 = 30
2
= 5x  10x 3x + 6
= 5x(x 2) 3(x 2)
= (x 2)(5x 3)
2
Turning point form y = a(x b) + c
Turning points at
(b,c) Axis of
symmetry at x = b
In order to find turning point form can use completing the square
If a > 0 the graph is upright and has a minimum value of c at x
= b (turning point) Domain: R
Range: *c, )
If a < o the graph is inverted and has a maximum value of c at x
= b(turning point) Domain: R
Range: (,c+
TRANSFORMATIONS
a = Dilates graph (vertically) b = translation horizontally(b translates right) c =
translation vertically (c translated down)
CUBIC FUNCTIONS
(DEGREE OF 3) Expanded
3
form: y = ax + bx + cx + d
Domain: R
Range: R
y intercept: (0,d)
3
Transformation form: y = a(x b) + c
Point of inflection at: (b,c)
Factor forms: (a>0)
1. a(x b)(x c)(x d)
x intercepts at b, c and d
2
2. a(x b) (x c)
x intercepts at b,
c b is a turning
point
When sketching factorise first using highest common factor or long division and
then factorise the resultant quadratic
QUARTIC FUNCTIONS (DEGREE 4)
Domain: R
Range: dependent on what the minimum/maximum values are
Factor forms:
4
1. y = a(x b)
intercept and turning point at x = b
2. y= a(x b)(x c)(x d)(x e)
x intercepts at x = b, c, d, e
2
3. y = a(x b) (x c)(x d)
x intercepts at b, c, d
b is also a turning point
2
2
4. y = a(x b) (x c)
x intercepts and turning points at x = b, c
3
5. y = a(x b) (x c)
x intercepts at b, c
b is also a point of inflection
GRAPHS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
Types of transformations
Dilations:
y = af(x) dilates the graph by a factor of a
from the x axis also described as:
parallel to y axis
in the y direction
vertical dilation
if a > 1 the graph becomes
narrower if a < 1 the graph
becomes wider
y = f(n(x)) dilates the basic graph by a factor of
from the y axis
also described as
parallel to the x axis
in the x direction
horizontal dilation
Note: when both a vertical and horizontal translation applies, the rule can be
rearranged to use only a single (usually vertical) dilation
Refections: flips the graph
y = f(x) basic graph reflected in the x axis
y = f(x) basic graph reflected in the y axis
Translations: moves the graph left/right, up/down
y = f(x b) graph is translated horizontally b
units to the right f(x + b) translated b units
to the left
y = f(x) + c graph is translated
vertically c units up f(x) c
translated vertically c units down
To describe all translations the rule must be written in the form y = af(n(x b))
+c
HYPERBOLA
y=
Transformation
form: Vertical
asymptote at: x =
b
Horizontal asymptote at: y = c
Domain:
R\{b}
Range:
R\{c}
use long division to express rule in transformation form
TRUNCUS y =
Transformation form:
Vertical
asymptote at x = b
Horizontal asymptote at y = c
Domain: R\{b}
Range: (c, )
SQUARE ROOT FUNCTION y =
Transformation
form:
Terminating point
at (b,c) Domain:
*b, )
Range: *c, )
Exponential and Logarithmic
Equations
INDEX LAWS
and
m
LOGARITHM LAWS (X > 0)

y=a
x=
SOLVING INDICIAL EQUATIONS
Equating indices with base numbers the same
x
2x3
Solve for x: 5 25
= 625
x
2 2x3
4
= 5 (5 )
=5
x
4x6
4
=5
5
=5
=x
4x 6 = 4
5x = 10
X=2
Base number different
x
Solve 4 = 12
X=
Exact solution (base 10)
does not simplify
To find decimal approximation for solution, use CAS solve(...,x)
Base number unknown
Use index laws to simplify then use inverse operations
4
Solve for x: (x 2) = 625
X2=X
2=
X = 5 + 2, 5 + 2
X = 7, 3
INEQUATIONS (<,>)
Solve as normal, except when multiplying/dividing by a negative number the
inequality sign reverses.
LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS
As x > 0, there may be restrictions to the solutions of logarithmic equations,
these should always be considered
EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS (BASE e)
e 2.718
when writing on calculator
doesnt work, use ln(x)
NATURAL LOG EQUATIONS (e)
e works the same as any other number as the base. All index laws apply the same
INVERSES
An inverse relation is its mirror image through the line y=x
Eg. The mirror image of the point (4,5) in the line y = x is the point (5,4): x and y
swap
To find the inverse, swap x and y and the rearrange the equation to make y the
subject
Exponential and logarithmic graphs
EXPONENTIAL GRAPH
+
y = , a = R \,1 as the variable is a power, so it wouldnt change 1
Domain: R
+
Range: R or (0, )
Horizontal asymptote at y = 0
Transformations
Dilations:
y=k
dilates the curve by a factor of k from the x axis
y intercept affected
when x = 0, y = k
y=
dilates the curve from the y axis
y intercept not afected
Reflections:
y=reflects the curve in the x axis
range reflects: R or (y=
reflects the curve in the y axis
Translations:
y=
translates the curve b units horizontally
y intercept changes
y= +c
translates the curve c units vertically
range: (c, )
LOGARITHMIC GRAPHS
+
y=
, a is R \{1} because
+
Domain: (0,
or R
Range: R
X intercept (1, 0)
Vertical asymptote at: x = 0
Transformations:
Dilations:
y=k
dilates the curve vertically by a factor of k from the x axis
y=
dilates the curve horizontally by a factor of
x intercept is afected, solve y = 0
from the y axis
Reflections:
y=
reflects the curve
in the x axis y =
reflects the curve in the y axis
domain: R
x intercept: (1,0)
Translations:
y=
translates the curve b units horizontally
domain: (b,
)
asymptote:
x =b
find x intercept by y = 0
y=
+c
translates the curve c units vertically
Inverse functions f
1
RELATIONS
One to one: one x value has only one y value
Many to one: two or more x values have the one y value
One to many: one x value has two or more y values
Many to many: where two or more x values have two or more y values
use horizontal and vertical line test to determine the type of relation
Function is defines as a many to one or one to one relation
Only a one to one function has an inverse, if it is many to one; restrict domain
to make it one to one
The domain of the inverse relation = the range of the original relation
The range of the inverse relation = the domain of the original relation
To find inverse, swap x and y and then make y the subject
When finding an inverse function:
check the original function is a one to one, taking not of restricted domain
find the domain and range of the original function
swap x and y and transpose to make y the subject
write the inverse function in function notation
x intercepts will become y intercepts
Circular functions
tan
se
c
co
t
CONVERTING DEGREES AND RADIANS
To convert from degrees to radians multiply by
0
0
0
3 from radians to degrees multiply by
To convert
0
EXACT
4 VALUES
5
6
0
9
0
18
0
27
0
1
1
36
0
SYMMERTY PROPERTIES
Undefined
0
undefined
0
2
:
:)
:
nd
Quadrant
3rd Quadrant
:sin + = sin( ) :
:
:
4th Quadrant
:
)
COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES
:
= cos
:
:
NEGATIVE ANGLES
:
cos(
tan(
SOLVING TRIG EQUATIONS
be aware of any domain given
Solve: 2sinx 1 = 0 for x [0, 2
2sinx
=1
sinx =
1
x = sin ( )
Key angle:
Quadrants (where sine is
positive): 1,2 x = ,
= ,
General solutions of trig equations
If there is no restricted domain for a trig equation, then there will be an infinite
number of solutions. Using the cyclic nature of a trig function a general rule can be
developed.
SINE CURVE y = sin(x)
Key
features:
Amplitude:
a Period:
Domain: R
Range: [c a, c + a]
COSINE CURVE y =
cos(x)
Key
features:
Amplitude:
a Period:
Domain: R
Range: [c a, c + a]
TANGENT CURVE y = tan(x)
Key features:
Period:
Vertical asymptotes: (2k +
1) Domain: R\{(2k + 1) }
Range: R
Transformations:
y = a sin/tan/cos(x  b) + c
a dilates the curve vertically, if a < 0 then the curve is reflected in the x axis
n dilates the curve by a factor of horizontally,
b translates the graph horizontally
c translates the graph vertically, also the mean position
FINDING THE EQUATION OF A TRIG CURVE
First need to find:
c the vertical translation ( the curves mean position)
a the amplitude
 the period, hence find n =

b any horizontal translation of the curve
any reflection in the x axis
Differentiation
The derivative of a function is used to find the gradient at a given point
CONSTANT RATE OF CHANGE (also average rate of change)
INSTANTANEOUS RATE OF CHANGE
Rate of change at a particular point
= derivative of one variable with respect to another
THE GRADIENT FUNCTION
Only exists at the points on a curve where the curve is a continuous smooth function
Gradient does not exist at:
terminating point of the curve
any asymptote
where the curve suddenly changes direction
Graphing the gradient
1. A linear function
F(x)
function
2.
Quadratic function
f(x)
(b,0
)
(b,c)
Gradient before and
after turning point is
positive, therefore
graph of gradient
function is positive
For graphing gradient function:
Focus on any points of zero gradient (turning points/ points of inflection), these
become the x intercepts
Positive or negative slope
Discontinuous points/asymptotes
Determine the shape of the derivative function from the shape of the original
function
LIMITS
The value that the function approaches as the independent variable approaches a
given value.
Limit exists for a discontinuous function only if the function approaches the
same value from the left as the right.
Finding a limit:
Factorise all components if possible
Cancel down any common factors
Substitute the limit value
DIFFERENTIATION BY FIRST PRINCIPLES
f(x) =
Where h is the distance between the two points on the curve
and
THE CHAIN RULE
Eg. Find the derivative of (3x 2)
3
Let u = 3x 2 then y = u
=
2
9u
But u = 3x
2
Expression must be in index form
Short
cut
for
chain rule:
Derive inside of brackets, multiply current expression by derived brackets and
the current index, and decrease index by 1.
2
Eg. y = (x 5x
4
+ 4)
2
:
4(2x 5)(x 5x
3
+ 4)
THE
PRODUCT
RULE
When there are two
expression multiplied together Eg. (x + 3)
2
4
(3x + 2)
Let u = x + 3 and v =
2
4
(3x + 2)
3x2 +
2)3
Cross multiply
2
4
(3x + 2)
1 + (x + 3)(
2
3
3x + 2) )
2
HCF: 3x +
3
2)
2
3
2
2
3x + 2) ( 3x + 2) + 24x + 72x)
2
3
2
3x + 2) (24x +
72x + 2)
QUOTIENT RULE
Differentiate expression
divided by another
Eg.
let u = x
2
=x +1
:
:
=
let v
where
one
functions
is
Applications of Differentiation
TANGENTS AND NORMALS
Tangent: straight line that touches a curve a point. The gradient of the tangent is the
same as the gradient
of the curve at that point
Normal: straight line that is perpendicular to the tangent
Gradient of the tangent gradient of the normal =  1
Gradient of the normal is the negative reciprocal of the gradient of the tangent
o Eg. gradient of tangent = 2
Then gradient of
normal =
To find the equation of a tangent at a point
The coordinates of that point
Gradient at that point, by finding the derivative of the function and
substituting the x value
Use y  y = m(x  x)
To find equation of normal at a point
Coordinates of a point
Gradient at the point (negative reciprocal of tangent gradient)
Use y  y = m(x  x)
CAS:
tangetLine(equation
,x,xvalue)
NormalLine(equatio
n,x, xvalue)
DETERMINING STATIONARY POINTS (POINTS OF ZERO
GRADIENT)

Find where the derivative = 0
Determine whether the point is a local maximum, local minimum,
minimum, maximum or point of inflection by checking the gradient at a
point just before and just after the stationary point.
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM PROBLEMS
Max and min values of a problem usually occur where a local maximum/minimum
point occurs on the
curve (eg. the gradient is zero/derivative=0). For most max/min problems, the
function will have a restricted domain. Check the coordinates of the
terminating point(s) in case it is greater or less than any local max/min.
When solving max/min problems:
Draw diagram
Identify the quantity to be maximises or minimised(say f(x))
Express quantity in terms of one variable only (say x)
Solve f(x) = 0
Sketch a graph to confirm the max or min found
Answer the question
RATES OF CHANGE
The derivative also calculates the instantaneous rate of change,
, of one
variable with respect to another
The average rate of change from one point (x, y) to a second point (x,
y) =
The velocity is the rate of change of displacement with respect to time
Acceleration = rate of change of velocity with respect to time
Integration (+ c)
is the reverse process to differentiation
Integral:
Where c is a constant
if
where k is a constant
if
The integration of the sum of two functions can found by the integrating
each function individually
If
where k is a constant
Write all terms in index form and expand all brackets
FINDING C
Requires a point on the original curve
Eg. find the equation of the curve f(x) if f(x) = 2x + 4 and passes through the
point (1,8)
f(x) =
= x2 + 4x + c
f(1) = 8
8=1+4+c
8=5+cc=3
f(x) = x2 + 4x + 3
The graph of f(x) is the gradient function of f(x) To sketch the original function
from f(x)
The shape
X
intercepts
f(x)
Linear
Quadratic
Points on zero gradient
When f(x)>0 (top half of
graph)f(x) < 0
When
f(x)
Quadratic
Cubic
Stationary points
Gradient is positive
Gradient is negative
You can only determine the shape and stationary points but not the vertical
translations
DEFINITE INTEGRALS
If
then
AREA UNDER THE CURVE
If f(x) > 0 for the interval
the x =a, x=band the x axis
If f(x) < 0 for [a,b] then
So Area:
= f(b) f(a)
calculates the area bound by
is a negative value
Combing regions
Total area:
May need to subtract A2 if the area is negative
AREA BETWEEN TWO CURVES
A=
provided f(x) > g(x) for the interval [a,b]
If the two curves intersect then the areas must be calculates
separately where the integral becomes:
:
for each region (need to find point(s) of
intersection
ADDITION PRINCIPLE
Pr (A B) = Pr(A) + Pr(B) Pr(A B)
Or Pr( A B) = Pr(A) + Pr(B) Pr(A B)
MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE EVENTS
No common elements
Pr(A
B) = 0
Pr(A
B) = Pr(A) + Pr(B)
INDEPENDENT EVENTS
Pr(A B) = Pr(A) + Pr(B)
CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY
Probability of one event if another event has already occurred
Pr(AB) =
FACTORIAL NOTATION
Number of ways of arranging n objects
= n!
Eg. 4! =
KARNAUGH MAPS
B
B
A
A
n(A
B)
n(A
B) n(B)
n(A
B)
n(A
B) n(B)
n(A
n(A)
n(
of elements in set
n( ) )= total number
PROBABILITY TABLE
B
B
A
Pr(A
B)
Pr(A
B)
Pr(A
)
A
Pr(A
B) Pr(B)
Pr(A
Pr(B)
B)Pr(A)
1
MARKOV CHAINS
Tree diagram for a sequence of repeated events
i) probability of one outcome is conditional on the outcome
preceding
ii) the conditional probabilities of each outcome are the same every
time
eg. if it is raining on a particular day, the chance that it will rain the
next day is 60%. If it is not raining on a particular day the chance that
it will rain the following day is 45%. Given that is rained on a
particular day:
a) draw a tree diagram to show the outcomes over the next two
days
given:
b) The probability that is rained on day 2
Pr(R2) = Pr( R1 R2) + Pr(R1 R2)
= .6 .6 + .4 .45
= .54
SOLVING WITH MATRIXES:
T=
= 2 by1 matrix of starting values
To find number on second trial:
To find number in the long run(steady state):
MATRICES
DIMENSIONS
Number of rows(down) by number of columns(across)
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION
May only be done when the matrices have the same dimension
MULTIPLYING MATRICES
Can only be done if number of columns in the first matrix is the same as
number of rows in the second matrix
The product of a (2 3) matrix and a (3 2) matrix will be a (2 2) matrix.
INVERSE MATRICES A1
A A1 = 1
Can only find a (2
2) matrix by hand:
Where (ad bc) is the determinant
Inverse is:
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS USING MATRICES
Eg. solve simultaneously: 2x + 3y = 8
3x + 5y = 13
(coefficients) and
(variables)
=
Find inverse of square matrix: determinant = (2
5) (3
Multiply both sides of the equation by the inverse:
3) Inverse matrix is:
=
LHS gives the unit matrix
=
=
Number of solutions for simultaneous equations
Only one solution unless:
Lines are parallel = no solution
Lines are the same (infinite solutions)
MATRICES AND GRAPH TRANSFORMATIONS
Transformation
Matrix:
Reflection in the x axis
Multiply by
Reflection in the y axis
Multiply by
Dilation from the x axis(vertically)
Multiply by
dilation factor
Multiply by
dilation factor
Add the matrix
horizontal
Dilations from the y axis
(horizontally)
Translations
where a is the
where a is the
where b is the
translation and c is the vertical