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Russian Grammar Guide

Russian Grammar Guide


Senior Missionary Training Center
Instructions to Language Tutors and Missionaries
The objective of the language-tutoring program for senior missionaries is to enable them, and
others, to begin communicating meaningfully as early as possible in their mission language. In order to
help accomplish this objective, this grammar guide provides a focus on only the most basic
grammatical structures of the language for those who are studying the language for the first time. By
limiting the focus of the missionaries to the basic concepts outlined in this guide, seniors will be able to
concentrate their energy and attention on doing a few things very well, rather than trying to cover
everything. The content of this guide has been prepared to enable seniors to communicate the
following in their mission language:
Asking about and Expressing a State of Being
Asking about and Expressing Possession or Ownership
Asking about and Describing Objects, People and their Characteristics
Asking about and Expressing Desire, Need, Preference, Ability, Intention or Purpose
Asking about and Describing Simple Actions and Events
Asking and Answering Questions of Contrasting Attitudes, Emotions and Feelings
Asking and Answering Questions of Time, Date and Location
Asking and Answering Questions of Quality, Quantity, Number and Sequence
Asking and Answering Questions of Cause and Effect
Narrating Simple Experiences and Stories
The lessons are designed to ensure that the missionaries can communicate each of the above concepts
under the following three conditions:
Using both questions and answers
In the simplest forms of the present, past, and future
In both the affirmative and the negative
Lesson sequence to be followed: It is recommended that the grammar lessons be studied in the
sequence that they appear in this guide. Missionaries may refer to the designated language text for
further explanations on any of the points of grammar as they move through this guide.
Teach and practice from the visual displays: Use the visual displays in this document for practice
during tutoring sessions. They are designed to provide a visual connection between tutor and learner,
especially when on the telephone. The visual nature of the displays is intended to eliminate much of
the need for grammar rules, by showing rather than explaining.
Refer when necessary to the language text: For each lesson in this document, missionaries and tutors
may refer to the designated language text whenever necessary to answer questions they may have
regarding the grammar, and should continue to refer to it once they are in the field.

Pace for moving through this grammar guide: There is no need to move too quickly
through the lessons. Time should be spent on building confidence in using the structures in
each lesson before
moving on. Spend the necessary time increasing vocabulary and reviewing previous lessons
before moving too quickly ahead. The lessons will build on each other as you move through
the sequence.
Use a variety of activities: It is not necessary to cover a new lesson in each tutoring
session. Missionaries will gain more confidence when they are given the opportunity to
participate in a variety of activities on the same principle. This will more likely ensure that
they are not only mastering concepts and structures as they go, but that they have ample
opportunity to review and maintain their confidence in all past lesson material. Tutors should
plan and conduct many communicative language-type activities as part of their tutoring,
including the performance of tasks, which are studied separately.
Speak the language: Speak the language at every opportunity. An explanation here and
there may be necessary in English, but missionaries need ample opportunity to see
themselves communicating in the language. This will build their confidence more than
anything else. Tutors should limit their own use of the language to the structures and
vocabulary that the missionaries have learned up to that point, so as to increase the likelihood
of their success in listening and responding in the language during tutoring sessions.
Organize note taking: When missionaries have questions on particular grammatical
structures, they should write any notes in the margins of the text or on the visual display
sheets of this document where that particular principle is located. By doing so, their notes
will be automatically organized for future reference, because they will be written on the pages
which deal with that principle.
Use a pocket notebook for vocabulary: Vocabulary items should be written in an organized
way in a small, pocket-sized notebook, which can be carried with them for easy reference
while speaking the language. Keep two separate lists for easy access; one of verbs, and the
other for general vocabulary items. For example, keep a list of verbs in the front of the
notebook, and a list of all other vocabulary items in the back. Write in the language on the
left side of the page, with the English equivalent on the right side. This makes for easy
review by covering either one or the other side of the list.
Use vocabulary notebook for review: Not having easy access to ones notes is one of the
most frustrating hindrances of note taking, and thus of systematic review. By using the
vocabulary notebooks, missionaries can be much more successful in their review because
they can always be working from a current, up-to-date list. Be selective at first. Dont try to
remember or write everything down. Select those vocabulary items / verbs that you will use
most frequently and build from there.

Table of Contents
sec.

Name of principle

page

Russian Alphabet

Pronunciation tips

Basic Language Overview

Asking about and expressing a state of being

11

Gender of nouns

12

Asking about and describing objects, people and characteristics

13

Asking about and expressing ability

15

Asking about and expressing preference

16

Asking about and expressing possession or ownership

18

10

Asking about and expressing need

21

11

Asking about and expressing want

23

12

Asking questions question words

28

13

Asking and answering questions of location

29

14

Asking and answering questions of contrasting attitudes, emotions, feelings

31

15

Asking and answering questions of number

32

16

Asking and answering questions of time

34

17

Asking and answering questions of date

35

18

Asking about and expressing age

36

19

Asking and answering questions of quality

38

20

Expressing sequence

39

21

Verbs of motion

40

Case Overview

42

Verb Overview

47

Answer Key

55

Extra Documents

65

1.

Russian

The Cyrillic (or Russian) alphabet in alphabetical order

November 24, 2010

1.2 Cyrillic (The Russian Alphabet)

VOWELS

[] = tall, mom
[] = bench, head
[] = no, rope
[] = moon, group
[] = queen, swing

[] = yawn, yall
[] = yes, yellow
[] = yo-yo, yogurt
[] = you, ewe
[] = cheese, feet

CONSONANTS

[] = boy, grab
[] = van, of
[] = dog, food
[] = zoo, is
[] = good , hug
[] = pleasure, fusion

[] = pen, map
[] = fun, laugh
[] = tip, eight
[] = sip, grace
[] = cat, back
[] = shawl
[] = shampoo

[] = love, bill
[] = mom, ham
[] = north, pan
[] = rolled r
[] = cheese, church
[] = grits, bats
[] = J.S. Bach (a little more than an h sound, but not a k sound)
[] = this letter is always next to a vowel and creates diphthongs
= pie, guy = day, grey = boy, joy = queen, = knee
= yikes

= yay, yale = yoink, = huey = key

MODIFIERS

Russian

(These have no sound)

[] = (soft sign). Softens (modifies) preceding consonant


[] = (hard sign). Used to separate two sounds
November 24, 2010

1.3 Cyrillic Alphabet Practice


First, Here are a few helpful hints:
-Cyrillic (or the Russian Alphabet) is very phonetic, meaning that each letter generally has one assigned sound .
English is NOT phonetic (but if it was, the word through would be pronounced t-huh-r-ow-g-huh). This
makes reading Russian a lot easier than you would think.
-Cyrillic is broken up into vowels, consonants, and modifiers. There are:
10 vowels
21 consonants
2 modifiers

-REMEMBER: Russian is all about the sounds, not the letters


M = the m sound, NOT the letter m
C = the s sound, NOT the letter s
A = the ah sound, NOT the letter a

Now its
your turn!
Sound out the
following sound
combinations

Russian

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

18

20

21

November 24, 2010

Practice reading English words written with Russian letters:

Practice reading actual Russian words and guess their meanings:


(The little tick marks over the vowels simply show where to put the emphasis)

Read from The First Vision written out using Russian letters:
, ,
. ,
a ....
... a a , a ,
.... a
a, a a,
. a y , a , -
. !

Write your name using Russian letters: ______________________________


Write the names of all the cities you have lived in with Russian letters:
_________________

___________________

_____________________

_________________

___________________

_____________________

Using Russian letters, write out your testimony:


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Russian

November 24, 2010

2. Pronunciation tips
The (accent):

Can also be called:


emphasis, stress mark, strongest syllable etc.

About the (accent):

Russian
vowels

There is ONE and ONLY ONE accent per word.


Accents are ALWAYS on vowels. No exceptions

The is always accented. No exceptions

You will see the accent mark in learning materials, but in actual written
Russian it is not usually marked.
This also applies to the two dots over the [ ]. Instead, it will appear as [e].

The accent can affect the way surrounding vowels are pronounced. There
are four vowels that sound differently when unaccented. They are: A, O, , .
The other vowels always sound the same.

, , , :

if not accented

-it will sound


more like:

Ex: book
word
Bible
service
unless it is one vowel
before the accented vowel

-then it will
sound more
like:

uh yih
(bug)

(yip)

(far)

(fear)

Ex: Savior

= k-nEE-guh
= slO-vuh
= bEEb-lee-yih
= sloo-zhE-nee-yih

= spa-sEE-til
= pra-rOk
= svee- shEnst-vuh
= seem-yAh

prophet
priesthood
family

Other examples: (pay attention to A, O, , when unaccented)

Russian

mAh-muh
Mom

pAh-puh
Dad

see-strAh
sister

ah-pOs-tul
apostle

priz-ee-diEnt
president

tO-mus es mOn-sun
Thomas S. Monson

hu-ra-shO
good/ ok

mee-see-ah-niEr
missionary

rah-sEE-yih
Russia

oo-krah-EE-nuh
Ukraine

November 24, 2010

3. Basic Language Overview part 1


It will be helpful to review some of the basics of English. You may or may not remember all these
terms from school, but if you take some time to review and understand them now, learning Russian will
be MUCH easier.

What is a ________?
Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Article

Noun:

A noun is a person, place or thing (including qualities and ideas)


Ex: God loves Russia. The Book of Mormon can strengthen faith.

Pronoun: A pronoun is a substitute for a noun.


Ex: God calls missionaries. He blesses them.
(Pronouns: I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it, we, us, they, them, this, that, these, those)

Adjective:

Adjectives describe nouns.


Ex: Holy Ghost. Heavenly Father.

He is a smart, funny, happy, short, small boy.

Verb:

Verbs are the action words.


Ex: God called us. I know God loves us. I want you to pray. Preach My Gospel

Adverb: An adverb describes how a verb is being performed. It can also answer when? and
sometimes where? the verb is being done.
Ex: I learn quickly. He teaches here. We always speak Russian. We humbly ask thee.

Preposition: Prepositions are sometimes called place words because they tell us where something is
happening. Prepositions are used to add extra information, and can be used to make sentences very detailed.
Ex: The Elders taught the gospel with the Spirit near the tree on the hill under the evening sky.
(Prepositions: in, on, about, at, above, below, among, to, around, between, with etc)
There are about 60 prepositions in Russian

Conjunction: A conjunction connects two phrases or ideas together.


Ex: God hears us when we pray. Well sing and well shout. Its cold outside, but Ill still preach.

Article: An article further defines a noun. The only two articles we have in English are the and a(n).
Russian does not have articles!

Russian

November 24, 2010

3. Basic Language Overview part 2


Taking a deeper look at nouns and verbs

Nouns: Within a sentence, nouns/ pronouns can be the:


1) subject 2) direct object 3) indirect object 4) object of a preposition
Subject: The subject is the noun doing the action, or the who of the sentence.
Ex: God loves us.
Joseph saw God.
Moroni gave the plates to Joseph.
Missionaries pray to God.
Nephi is a prophet in the Book of Mormon.
Direct Object: The direct object is the noun that is being acted upon, or receiving the direct action.
Ex: God loves us. Joseph saw Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ.
Moroni gave the plates.
Indirect Object: The indirect object is the noun that is indirectly affected by the action, and usually comes after
the preposition to.
Ex: Moroni gave the plates to Joseph.
Missionaries pray to God.
I threw the ball to him.
Object of a Preposition: an object of a preposition simply means that the noun is being affected by a preposition.
Ex: Joseph prayed in a grove.
Missionaries pray about their investigators with faith.
Nephi is a prophet in the Book of Mormon

Verbs: Verbs are an action in one of five forms:


1) infinitive 2) past 3) present 4) future 5) imperative
Infinitive (base/ dictionary form/to form): Used when the verb follows another verb (secondary action).
Ex: He wants to read the Bible. The Spirit helps you to preach. They love to go to church
Past: used when the action has already happened.
Ex: Joseph read the Bible. You were preaching the gospel.
Present: used when the action is still happening.
Ex: Joseph reads every day. You are preaching.
Future: used when the action will be in the future.
Ex: Joseph will read. You are going to preach.

They go to church

They will be going to church.

Imperative: used when you are telling someone to do something.


Ex: Read this verse please. Preach the Gospel. Go to church.

Russian

November 24, 2010

They went to church

Please hand me that Bible.

3. Basic Language Overview practice


1. First, underline all the nouns in the following paragraph from p. 1 of Preach My Gospel:
Then go through it again and underline all the pronouns.
You are surrounded by people. You pass them on the street, visit them in their homes, and travel
among them. All of them are children of God, your brothers and sisters. God loves them just as
He loves you. Many of these people are searching for purpose in life. They are concerned for

their families. They need the sense of belonging that comes from the knowledge that they are
children of God, members of His eternal family. They want to feel secure in a world of changing
values. They want peace in this world, and eternal life in the world to come (D&C 59:23), but
they are kept from the truth because they know not where to find it (D&C 123:12).

2. Underline the verbs in the following sentences from p. 32-33 of Preach My Gospel
Prophets learn the gospel of Jesus Christ by revelation. They in turn teach the gospel to others
and testify of Jesus Christ as the Savior and Redeemer Through the Atonement of Jesus Christ,

we can receive eternal life if we exercise faith in Jesus Christ, repent, are baptized by
immersion for the remission of sins, receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, and endure to the end.

3. Label the selected words as either adjectives (adj) or adverbs (adv) from p. 121 of Preach
My Gospel
Diligence is steady, consistent, earnest, and energetic effort in doing the Lords work.
_____

_____

_____

_____

The Lord expects you to work diligently persistently and with great effort and care. A
_____

_____

diligent missionary works effectively and efficiently.


_____

_____

_____

4. Underline the prepositions in the following sentences


After praying to God in the name of Christ with faith, we work on our goals diligently.

When Joseph read a verse in the Bible, he decided to pray about which church was true
on his knees in a grove of trees.

Russian

November 24, 2010

5. Label the selected words as a noun (N), pronoun (pN), adjective (adj), verb (V), adverb
(adv), preposition (Pp), conjunction (con), or article (a) from p. 89 of Preach My Gospel
Practice 5a)
God loves you and all His children.

He is anxious to support you in your

___

___

___

___ ___

___

___

___ ___

practical and specific challenges. You have been promised inspiration to know what
___

___

___

___

___

___

___

to do and have been given the power to do it (see D&C 43:15-16).


___

___

___ ___

___

___

Practice 5b)
He will help you as

you try to recognize and understand

the Spirit through

___ ___

___ ___

___

___ ___

___

diligent scripture study. He will guide


___

___

message
___
___

of

___
___

___

___

___

___

you

___

___ ___ ___

___

___

to people who will receive

___

___

the Restoration. He will give


___

___

the

___

___

you power to deliver the

___

message and to testify of Christ and His gospel. He will shower His blessings
___

___

___

___

___

___

___

___

___

___

upon you through the gift of the Holy Ghost. He asks that you remain
___

___

___

___ ___ ___ ___

___

___

___ ___

___

___

___

worthy of this gift and that you ask, seek, and knock (see D&C 4:7; Matthew 7:7-8)
___
___
___
______ ___ ___ ___
___

6. Underline only the nouns/ pronouns and then label them as subject (S), direct object (DO),
indirect object (IO), or object of a preposition (OP) from p. 7 of Preach My Gospel
God is our literal Father in Heaven. He loves us. Every person on earth is a child of God and a

member of Gods family. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is our Savior and Redeemer.
Our loving Father in Heaven reached out to His children throughout biblical history by
revealing His gospel to prophets. Sadly many people rejected that gospel; even some of those
who accepted it changed gospel doctrines and ordinances and fell into unbelief and apostasy.

Russian

November 24, 2010

7. Label the selected verbs as infinitive (In), past (Ps), present (P), future (F), or imperative (Im)
from p. 127 of Preach My Gospel
The Lord declared, Every man shall hear the fullness of the gospel in his own tongue and in his
___
___
own language, through those who are ordained unto this power (D&C 90:11). Strengthen your
___
personal testimony to bring converting power to your words. First study the doctrines and the
___
___
lessons in your native language. That understanding will strengthen your testimony and your
___
capacity to teach and testify convincingly. You can then learn to express the message of
___

___

___

___

the Restoration in your mission language under the guidance of the Spirit.

Russian

November 24, 2010

10

4.

Asking about and Expressing a State of Being

He (is)

a missionary

Nouns

Personal Pronouns

? (Who?)
Singular

Plural

We

You

You

He

It

They

She

Demonstrative Pronouns

missionary (m)

missionary (f)

missionaries (pl)

__

Elder_____

_____

Brother____

_____

Sister____

grandfather

grandmother

representatives

friends

________________

________________

________________

________________

members of the church

? (What?)

This

Example:

church

Gospel

Book of Mormon

Bible

pen

Q: ? ?
________________
________________
Who is this?Is he a missionary?
________________
________________
A: , .
Yes, he is a missionary.
A: , . .
Q: ?
No, he is not a missionary. This is Brother Ivanov.
What is this?
A: .
Q: ?
This is the Book of Mormon.
Who are you?
A: .
A: .
This is a pen.
We are representatives of Jesus Christ.
A: ___________
A: __________
This is _____________
I am ___________
Russian

November 24, 2010

11

5.1 Gender of nouns


There are 3 categories of Russian nouns

Masculine

Neuter and Feminine

To determine category (gender), look at the last letter of the word:


word ends in:

(consonant)

Masculine

example:

Neuter

Feminine

hymn
Savior
gospel
testimony
book
Bible
love

? How do I make a word plural?


In English, the general rule of making a word plural is: + s.
Ex:
1 apostle
1 lesson
12 apostle+s
5 lesson+s
In Russian, the general rule is:

Masculine: + /

Neuter: / /

Feminine : /

Ex:
singular
A

plural
A

Ex:
singular

plural

Ex:
singular

plural

Apostle

Apostles

testimony

testimonies

book

books

missionary

missionaries

blessing

blessings

pen

pens

prophet

prophets

teaching

teachings

prayer

prayers

teacher

teachers

baptism

baptisms

church

churches

Fill in the gender of the following nouns:

Ex:

N .

priesthood

Russian

______

______

______

______

tie

work

service

Russia

______

______

______

______

priesthood

apartment

ward

Spirit

November 24, 2010

12

6.1 Asking about and describing objects, people and characteristics - part 1
Any word that directly describes a noun must match in gender

Which

hymn?

This

That

Masculine

Which

hymn
prophet
Apostle
verse
_______
Neuter
word

________

_______________

_________

Priesthood
teaching
blessing
_________
Feminine
book
church
sister
pen
_______
Plural

__________

Example:

verses
words
books
_______

Q: ? ?
Which hymn? This one?

A: , . !
No, not this hymn That hymn!

Q: ?
Which word?

A: .
This word.
Q: ______________?
_______________?

A: _______________.
_______________.
Russian

Q: ?
Which Book of Mormon?

A: .
That Book of Mormon.

Q: ? ?
Which verses? These?

A: , .
Yes, these verses.

November 24, 2010

13

6.2 Asking about and describing objects, people and characteristic (part 2)
Any word that directly describes a noun (including adjectives) must match in gender

(M)

kind

...

missionary

(N)

kind (good)
this is

kind

morning

(F)

kind

grandmother

(pl)

kind

Personal Pronouns
Singular

Adjectives

Plural

I
You
He
It

people

...
heavenly

We
You

...

...
...

smart

...

holy

They

...

She

true

...

...
eternal

...

Demonstrative Pronoun

beautiful

...

...

old

this

...
new

...
happy

...

...

big

___________

Masculine

father

missionary

day

spirit
___________
___________
Neuter

ordinance

teaching

Atonement
___________
___________
Feminine

girl

grandmother

book

church
___________
___________
Plural

missionaries

ordinances

books
___________
___________

Example:

Q: ?
Is this an eternal ordinance?

: , , .
Yes, this is a holy, eternal ordinance.

Q: ?
Are they old books?

A: , .
No, these are new books.
Russian

November 24, 2010

Q: ?
Is she a beautiful girl?

A: , , .
Yes, and she is a smart, happy girl.

Q: _____________________________?
_____________________________?
: ______________________________.
_____________________________.
14

7. Asking about and expressing ability


()

can

read

(not)

= to be able to (can)

()

()

(not) can

we

(not) can

()

()

you

(not) can

you

(not) can

Verbs

he

()

()

she

they

(not) can

(not) can

it

or

may we/I

_______________
_______________

Example:

to know + Acc.
to find out + Acc.
to speak with + Inst.

to speak (about) + Prep.


to teach +Acc/Dat. ( )
to master/ memorize + Acc.
to buy + Acc.
to do + Acc.
to pray (to) + Dat ()
(about ) + Prep ( )
to help + Dat.
to think (about) + Prep.
to read + Acc.
to write + Acc.
to share + Inst.
to sing + Acc.
to testify (to) +Dat. ( )
(about ) + Prep. ( )
to study + Acc.
to call (on phone)+ Dat.
___________________
___________________

Q: ?
Can you teach the lesson?

A: , .
Yes, I can teach the lesson.

A: , , .
No, we cant, but he can.

Q: ?

Q: ?
May I speak with the President?
A: , .
Yes, you may speak with him.

A: , .
I dont know, but I can find out.

What can you do?

A: ________.
I can ________.

Russian

November 24, 2010

15

8.1 Asking about and expressing preference: part 1 (verbs)

()

(not)

love/like

to read

= to love/like

Verbs

()

()

(not) love

we

(not) love

()

()

you

(not) love

(not) love

you

he

()

()

she

they

(not) loves

it

(not) love

c o

_________________
_________________

to play
to sing
to run
to draw
to eat + Acc.
to do + Acc.
to pray
to testify (about) + Prep.
to speak about + Prep.
to help + Dat.
to think about + Prep.
to read + Acc.
to teach + Acc/Dat. ( )
to learn + Dat.
to study + Acc.
_____________________
_____________________

Example:
Q: ?
Do you like to read?

A: , .
Yes, I like to read.
A: , .
No, I do not like to read.

Russian

Q: ?
What do you love/like to do?
A: .
I love to play with grandkids.
A: .
We love to study Russian (language).
A: .
We love to teach about Christ.
A: _________.
I love ____________.

November 24, 2010

16

8.2 Asking about and expressing preference: part 2 (nouns)


()

love/like

bread

(not)

= to love/like

Nouns (Accusative Case)

()

()

(not) love

we

(not) love

()

()

you

(not) love

you

(not) love

he

()

()

she

they

(not) loves

(not) love

it

__________
__________
__________

bread
cheese
prophet
husband
someone
milk
Gospel
something
Russia

Ukraine
Book of Mormon
family
wife
church
life
missionaries
grandkids
children
___________
___________
___________

Example:
Q: ?

Q: ?
What do you like/love?
A: .
I love life.
A: .
We love grandkids.
A: .
I like cheese.
A: ________.
We love __________.

Do you like Russia?

A: , !
Yes, I love Russia!

Q: ?
Do you like milk?
A: , .
Yes, I like milk.
A: , .
No, I do not like milk.
Russian

November 24, 2010

17

9.1 Asking about and expressing possession or ownership (part 1)


The possessive pronoun must match the gender of the noun it is describing

this (is)

my

husband

Possessive Pronouns
his her their my
your

Nouns (Nominative Case)

our

(m)

(m/n/f/pl)

(n)

(f)

this is

Masculine

husband

son

grandson

father

brother

grandfather
__________
__________
Neuter
blessing
_____________
________
Feminine

family

wife

daughter

granddaughter

mother

sister

grandmother
__________
___________

Plural

(pl)

Example:
Q: ?

_____________

Is this your family?

children
grandchildren
parents
nephews & nieces
______________

A: , .
Yes, this is my husband, Nikolai and our children.

A: , , , .
Yes, this is my parents, my brother and his wife, and this is my sister and her family.

A: , . .
No, this is their family. This is their grandson and nephews and nieces.

Q:___________________?
_____________________?
A: ________________________
________________________
Russian

November 24, 2010

18

9.2 Asking about and expressing possession or ownership (part 2)


At me

there is
or: (I have a question)

Genitive Pronouns
Singular
at me

Plural
at us

at you
at him
at her

a question

Nouns (Nominative Case)

at you

at them

there is/are

Any noun (Genitive case)

/
At who/ what
__________________

_____________
Example:
Q: ?

___________
___________

question
companion
prophet
son
Priesthood
testimony

Gospel
church service
something
family
book
church
daughter
idea
books
grandchildren
____________
____________

What do you have? (What at you there is?)

A: .
We have a family.

A: .
We have a prophet today and he has the priesthood.

A: .
I have an idea.

A: .
We have grandchildren and they have the Gospel.

A: .
We have a church service on Sunday.

A: .
I have a testimony.

A: _________________________.
____________________________.

Russian

November 24, 2010

19

9.3 Asking about and expressing possession or ownership (part 3)


When you express a lack of something, you must use the genitive case

At me

no
questions
or: (I dont have any questions)

Genitive Pronouns
Singular

at me
at you
at him
at her

Nouns (Genitive Case)

Plural

at us
at you
at them

no

Masculine

________

sugar
umbrella
__________

Neuter

meeting

time
-
something
___________
___________
Feminine

opportunity

pen

cigarette
___________
___________
Plural

sons

daughters

money

books

grandchildren

questions
___________
___________

Any noun (Genitive case)

/
At who/ what
__________________

_____________

Example:
Q: ?
Do you have a cigarette?

A: , .
No, I dont have a cigarette.

Q: ?

Q: ?

When will the meeting be?

Do you have children?

A: .

A: , .

We dont have a meeting this week.

Yes, but we dont have any sons.

A: , .
Yes, but we dont have any daughters.

A: , .
Yes, but we dont have any grandkids.
Russian

November 24, 2010

Q: ?
What dont you have?
A: _______________________.
________________________.
20

10.1 Asking about and expressing need: part 1 (verbs - use )


When expressing need, the subject that needs to do something is in dative case.

()

To me

is (not) needed

to speak

Dative Pronouns

is (not) needed

Singular

Plural

to me

to us

to you

to you

()

to her

to them

future
(nothing)
present

to him

tense

past

to it

Verbs

___________
___________
___________

Any noun (Dative case)

/
who/ what
_______________
_______________

to do
to find out
to say
to learn
to study
to pray
to buy
to find
to help
to think
to read

to know
________________
________________
________________

Example:

Q: -?

Q: ?

Do you need to find something?

Did he have to (need to) pray?

A: , -.

A: , .

Yes, we need to find something.

Yes, he had to (needed to) pray.

A: , .

A: , .

No, we dont need to find it.

No, he didnt have to (need to) pray.

Q: -?
Will you need to say something?
A: , -.
Yes, I will need to say something.
A: , -.
No, I will not need to say something.

Q: ?
What do you need?

A: -.
I need to buy something.

A: _________
I need to __________

A: _____________________
_______________________

Russian

November 24, 2010

21

10.2 Asking about and expressing need: part 2 (nouns)


When expressing need, the subject that needs is in dative case.

()

To me

(not) is needed

the Gospel

(not) is needed

Dative Pronouns
Singular

Plural

to me

to us

to you

to you

future present

()

to her

to them

(m)

(n)

_______________

()

(f)

Any noun (Dative case)

(f)

/
()
(pl)

Q: ?
Will you need some help?

A: , .
Yes, we will need help.

A: , .
No, we will not need help.

Q: ?
Did you need glasses?

A: , .
Yes, I needed glasses.

A: , .

Russian

help
pen
napkin
___________

___________

(pl)

(pl)

Example:

No, I didnt need glasses.

something
Gospel
blessing
___________

Feminine

to it

who/ what
_______________
_______________

___________

Neuter

(m,n,f)

(n)

Nouns (Nominative Case)


Masculine

friend

Holy Ghost

phone
______________

(nothing)
()

past

(m)

to him

tense

Q: ?

Plural

____________

friends
blessings
glasses
___________

Who needs a friend?

A: .
They need a friend.

A: .
We all need friends.

Q: ?
What do you need?

A: .
I will need the Holy Ghost.

A: _____________
I _____________

November 24, 2010

22

11.1 Asking about and expressing want (overview)

There are 3 different ways you can express want:


I want to eat

want + verb

I want breakfast

want + noun

I want them to eat breakfast


(I dont want *them+ nor do I want *to eat breakfast]
I want [them to eat breakfast])

want + [someone/ something


to do something] (set)

Underline what is wanted and then identify it as a verb, noun or set


The missionary wants to serve.

Verb Noun Set

God wants to bless us.

Verb Noun Set

We want you to come on Sunday.

Verb Noun Set

He wants a blessing.

Verb Noun Set

You will want to learn more about this message.

Verb Noun Set

That Elder wants a new tie to wear.

Verb Noun Set

The people wanted forgiveness.

Verb Noun Set

The prophets want us to obey the commandments.

Verb Noun Set

Joseph Smith wanted to find out which church was true.

Verb Noun Set

God wants us to listen to the Spirit.

Verb Noun Set

We want to return to God after we die.

Verb Noun Set

Do you want the branch president to call.

Verb Noun Set

They want the gift of tongues so they can communicate.

Verb Noun Set

They want you to share your testimony.

Verb Noun Set

Russian

November 24, 2010

23

11.2 Asking about and expressing want (verbs)

()

(not) want

to drink

= to want

Verbs

()

()

(not) want

we

(not) want

()

()

you

(not) want

you

(not) want

()

()

she

(not) wants

they

(not) want

he

it

Example:
Q: ?
Do you want to teach?

A: , .
Yes, I want to teach.

A: , .
No, I do not want to teach.

Q: ?
Does he want to know more?

A: , .
Yes, he wants to know more.

A: , .
No, he doesnt want to know more.

Russian

()

c o

_____________
_____________
_____________

to know + Acc.
to speak about + Prep.
to teach +Acc/Dat. ( )
to master/ memorize+ Acc.
to pray (to)+ Dat.
to testify (about)+ Prep.

to buy+ Acc.
to find+ Acc.
to do+ Acc.
to help+ Dat.
to think about+ Prep.
to read+ Acc.
to sing+ Acc.
to speak with+ Inst.
to study+ Acc.
___________________
___________________
___________________

Q: ?
Do you want to buy milk?

A: , .
Yes, we want to buy milk.

A: , .
No, we do not want to buy milk.

Q: ?
What do you want to do?

A: .
We want to sing.

A: _____________
I want to ________________

November 24, 2010

24

11.3 Asking about and expressing want (nouns)


()

want

bread

= to want

Nouns (Accusative Case)


Masculine

tea

chocolate

ticket

advice
__________
_______
Neuter

milk

hug

photograph
blessing
__________
_______
Feminine

sour cream

picture

water
__________
_______
Plural

eggs

investigators

ties

candy
__________
_______

(not)

()

()

(not) want

we

(not) want

()

()

you

(not) want

you

(not) want

()

()

she

(not) wants

they

(not) want

he

it

Example:
Q: ?
Do you want tea?

A: , .
Yes, I want tea.
A: , .
No, I do not want tea.
Q: ?
What do they want?

A: .
The missionaries want investigators.
Russian

November 24, 2010

Q: ?
What do you want?
A: .
I want water.
A: .
We want sour cream.
A: .
I want a hug.
A: .
We want advice.
A: _________.
I want _________.
25

11.4 Asking about and expressing want [someone to do something] (set)


When more than just an action (verb) or a thing (noun) is desired, you MUST use :
I want you to read: NOT: I want you nor I want to read it is I want [you to read].

()

(not)

want

so that
or: I (dont) want you to read

you

read (past tense)

= to want

= to read
(Past Tense = read)
(m) (pl)
(f) We read
(m) (pl)
(f) You read
(m) (pl)

He

read

()

()

(not) want

we

()

()

you

(not) want

(not) want

you

(not) want

so that

You

he

()

()

(f)

she

they

She

(not) wants

(not) want

They read

read

it

Example:
Q: ?
What do you want?

A: , .
We want you to come to church.
A: , .
I want them to know about the Gospel.
A: , ____________

I want _______________
Q: ?
What does God want?

A: , .
God wants us to return to Him.
A: , .
God want us to keep the commandments.

A: , .
He wants missionaries to think about Christ.

Russian

November 24, 2010

more past tense verbs:


(see verb overview: past tense)
verb
(m)
(n)
(f)
(pl)
(+) (+) (+) (+)
could
()()()()
knew
()()()()
spoke
()()()()
taught
()()()()
mastered/ memorized
()()()()
()()()() followed/ kept
()()()()
()()()()
()()()()
()()()() o
()()()()
()()()()
()()
()()
()()()()
____________________
____________________

(ex: commandments)
helped
came
did
thought about
cleaned

studied
prayed
returned
__________
__________

26

11.5 Asking about and expressing want: (review)

to want

We want

I want

You want (inform, sing)

You want (form/pl)

They want

He
She wants
It

()() wanted (sing.) m(f)(n)

wanted (pl.)

3 different ways to express want



I want

I want

infinitive verb
(to do something)

noun (acc.)
something

Ex: .
I want to read a book.

Ex: .
I want a book.

, noun/ (nom.) past tense verb

I want someone
to do something

Russian

November 24, 2010

Ex: , .
I want him to read the book.

27

12. Asking questions question words


Example:

who?

(nom)

?
Who said that?

(acc)

?
Who do you know?

(gen)

?
At whom exists a desire to serve? (Who has a desire to serve?)

(prep)

?
About whom are we speaking?

(dat)

?
To whom he gave money?

(instr)

?
With whom are you speaking right now?

what?

(nom)

?
What happened?

(acc)

?
What are you studying?

(gen)

?
From what do you suffer?

(prep)

?
About what did you find out?

(dat) ?
To what are they preparing?

(instr)

?
With what may I/we help?

where?

?
Where is the church?

?
To where he went? (Where did he go?)

when?

?
When is the meeting held?

why?

?
Why are we here?

how?

?
How are you?

which?

how much?/
how many?

Russian

? (m)

(acts like
adjective)

Which size?

?
How many rubles?

November 24, 2010

? (f)
Which book?

? (pl)
Which people?

?
How much sugar?

28

13.1 Asking and answering questions of location

Where

are found/ located

my

pants?

(m,n,f)

Where

is found/located

Descriptive word
(Adjective, pronoun etc.)
(Nominative Case)

Nouns (Nominative Case)

his

her

nearest

Masculine

_________

store
cheese

ATM machine
house
bathroom
____________

Neuter

(pl)
are found/ located

my (m)

that (n)

this (f)

__________

______

_________

milk
metro
office
_____________

Feminine

_________

bus stop
apartment
pharmacy
church
hospital
post office
_____________

Plural

my

our

____________

pants
scriptures
glasses

________

Example:
Q: ?

Q: ?

Where is my cheese?

Q: ?

Where are my scriptures?

Q: ?

Where is the pharmacy

Russian

Where is the post office?

November 24, 2010

29

13.2 Asking and answering questions of location: part two (explaining location)

The store

is located

on

the corner

Nouns (Nominative Case)


Masculine

store

cheese

ATM machine

house

bathroom
_________

Nouns (Prepostional Case)

(sing.)

_________

Neuter

in(the)

milk
metro
office
_________

_________

_________

_________

Plural

pants
scriptures

_________

_________

on(the)

_________

Neuter

building
meeting house
_________

_________

Feminine

_______
_________

bedroom
bed

street (name of street)


_________

(plural)

glasses

Example:

Q: ?

Q: ?

Where are my scriptures?

Where is my cheese?

A:

A: .
They are in the bedroom.

Your cheese is in the refrigerator.

Q: ?

Q: ?

Where is the pharmacy

Where is the post office?

A: .

A: .

The pharmacy is located on Lenin street


Russian

_________

Feminine

bus stop

apartment

pharmacy

church

hospital

post office

Masculine

refrigerator

store

house

wardrobe

table

corner

couch

November 24, 2010

The post office is located on the corner.


30

14. Asking about and answering questions of contrasting attitudes, emotions, feelings

()

(not)

feel

ones self

satisfied

= to feel

ones self

()

()

(not) feel

we

()

()

you

(not) feel

(not) feel

you

(not) feel

he

()

()

she

they

(not) feels

(not) feel

it

(m)
(f)
(pl)

healthy

_____________
_____________
_____________

_____________
_____________
_____________

happy
uncomfortable
good
great!
bad
sick

surprised

Example:

Q: ?
How do you feel?

A: .
I feel happy.

A: .
I feel bad.

A: .
I feel uncomfortable.

A: _________
I feel _________

A: _________
We feel _________

Russian

November 24, 2010

31

15.1 Asking questions of number

how much/ how many

grandchildren?

Nouns (Genitive Case)

grandchildren

children

sons

daughters

rubles
_____________ _____________
_____________ _____________
_____________ _____________

how much/ how many

Verbs

_____________
_____________

to cost
_____________
_____________

Example:
Q: ?
How many grandchildren do you have?

Q: ?
How much does this cost?

Q: ?
How many rubles?

Q: ___________?
________________________?

Russian

November 24, 2010

32

15.2 Answering questions of number

eleven

grandchildren

(m)
(n)
(f)
(m/n), (f)

_____________
_____________

one

two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen
twenty
thirty
forty
fifty
sixty
seventy
eighty
ninety
one hundred
one thousand
_______________
_______________

If 1 (including

_____________
_____________

21, 31, 101)


grandchild
child
son
daughter
ruble
_____________
_____________

If 2-4 (including 24, 32, 103)

grandchildren

children

sons

daughters

rubles
_____________ _____________
_____________ _____________

If 5-20 (Including 25, 38, 110)

grandchildren

children

sons

daughters

rubles
_____________ _____________
_____________ _____________

Example:
A:
Six children

A:
Twenty two grandchildren

A:
One hundred fifty seven rubles
A:
One daughter

A: _____________________?
________________________?
Russian

November 24, 2010

33

16. Asking about and answering questions of time (simply)


In Russian, there is more than one way to tell time. This is the simplest.

at

six

When?

:
: forty
: 4

--?
When?

(1)
(2-4)
(5-12)
oclock

at

at what time?

?
which time?
(what time is it?)

?
how much time?
(what time is it?)

20

30

40

50

10

five

in the evening

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

in the night

in the morning

in the day

in the evening

11

Example:

12

night
morning
day
evening
12:00 am - 4:00 am 12:00 pm 5:00 pm
3:59 am
11:59 am
4:59 pm
11:59 pm

Q: ?/ ?
When ? / At what time?

A:
At 3:15 in the afternoon/ day

A:
At 10:00 in the morning

A:
At 1:00

A: _____________________?
________________________?

Q: ?/
C ?
What time is it?

A:
8:30

A:
2:14

Russian

November 24, 2010

A:
1:56
A: _____________________?
____________________?
34

17. Asking and answering questions of date


?

When?

On Sunday

twenty second

?
When?

On Sunday

On Friday

On Monday
On Tuesday
On Wednesday
On Thursday
On Saturday

Example:
Q: ?
When is the conference?

A: .
On Sunday the fourth of August.

A: .
On Saturday the third of August.

A: __________________________.
____________________________.

Q: ?
When are you leaving?

A: .
On Tuesday the thirty first of January.

A: .
On Monday.

A: ___________________________.
___________________________.
Russian

of July
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
27th
28th
29th
30th
31st

of January

of June

of February
of March
of April
of May
of July
of August
of September
of October
of November
of December

Q: ?
When were you born?
A: .
Thirtieth of June.
A: .
Sixteenth of December.
A: _____________________________.
_____________________________.

November 24, 2010

35

18.1 Asking about age

How many
to you
(How old are you?)

years

(present tense- no change)

How many

to me
to you
to him
to her

to us
to you
to them

years

was

will be

Any noun (Dative case)

/
who/ what


to your son


to your daughter
_______________
_______________

Example:
Q: ?
How many to him years was? (How old was he?)

Q: ?
How many to your son years will be? (How old will your son be?)

Q: ?
How many to your daughter years ? (How old is you daughter?)

Q: ___________?
________________________?

Russian

November 24, 2010

36

18.2 Expressing age

To him

are fifty two


(He is fifty two years old.)

to us
to you to you
to him to them
to me

to her

(no change) is
was

will be

Any noun (Dative case)

/
who/ what

To the city


To my father
_______________
_______________

years.



______________
______________

1
41
91
_____
_____



______________
______________

2
34
63
_____
_____



______________
______________

5
8
17
39
56
_____
_____

year 1
(including 21, 31, 101)

years 2-4
(including 24, 32, 103)

years 5-20
(including 25, 38, 110)

Example:
Q: ?

Q: ?
How many to him years was? (How old was he?)

A: .

How many to the city years ? (How old is the city?)

A: .
The city is 275 years old.

He was 14 years old.

Q: ?
How many to my father years will be? (How old will my father be?)

A: .
My father will be 41 years old.

A: .

Q: ___________?
________________________?

A: _________________________.

My father will be 56 years old.

___________________________.

Russian

November 24, 2010

37

19. Asking and answering questions of quality

This

tie

This

(is) more
(This tie is newer)

new

Nouns (Nominative Case)

Adjectives

Masculine

(m)

person
missionary
__________
__________

__________
__________

(n)

(f)

Neuter

window

milk
_________
________
_________
________
Feminine

sister

car
_________
__________
_________
__________

Plural

(pl)

_________
_________

fruit
plates
___________
___________

more

less

()()()
most (m) (n) (f) (pl)

_________
_________

_________
_________

/ (m)
(n)
(f)
(pl)
new
old
fast/ quick
beautiful
cool

___________
___________

better
cleaner
more expensive
cheaper
older
younger
___________
___________

Example:

Q: ?
Are these fruits cleaner?

A: , .

Q: ?

Yes, these fruits are cleaner.

Whats better?

A: , .

A: . .

No, these fruits arent cleaner.

This car is better. It is more fast (faster).

Q: ?
Is this missionary the most cool (coolest)?

A: , .
Yes, this missionary is the most cool.

A: , .

A: , .
This milk is more expensive, but its more new (newer).

A: _________________________________.
_____________________________________.

A: _________________________________.
_____________________________________.

No, this sister is the coolest.

Russian

November 24, 2010

38

20. Expressing sequence


,

First,

address Heavenly Father

at the beginning

second

express the feeling of your heart

then

next

express gratitude

later

after that
before that
last
finally

close in the name of Jesus Christ, amen

_________________________________________
_________________________________________

eventually

_________

at the end

go along street _______


go straight


go left


go right

_________________________________________
_________________________________________

Example:
Q: ?

Q: ?
How to pray?

Where is the post office?

A: , .

A: , .

First, address Heavenly Father.

First, go straight.

50 .

, .

Then go along Lenin Street 50 meters.

Second, express feeling of your heart.

, .

, , .

After that, go left.

At the end, close in the name of Jesus Christ, amen.

Russian

November 24, 2010

39

21.1 Verbs of motion: to go by foot


()
I

(dont) go

to

work

every day

Nouns (Accusative Case)

()

()

(dont) go

we

(dont) go

()

()

you (dont) go

(dont) go

you

he

()
she

(dont) go

()
they

(dont) go

it

()

()

(dont) go

we

(dont) go

()

()

you

(dont) go

you

(dont) go

_______
_______

room
church
restaurant
park
store
school
office
university
________
________

work
concert
meeting
appointment
activity
ballet
__________
__________

in a month
__________
__________

______
______

every day

tomorrow

today

sometimes


each Wednesday

Nouns (Dative Case)

he

()

()

she

they

(not) wants

(dont) go

it

______
______

friend
doctor
aunt
us
_________
_________

Example:
Q: ?
Where to they often go?
A: .
They go to concerts often.
A: .
They go to their aunts each Wednesday.

Q: ?
Where are you going?
A: .
I am going to the doctor.
A: .
We are going to the ballet.

Q: ?
Do you still go to high school?
A: , .
No, I already go to university.

Q: ?
Is she going to a friends?
A: ,
Yes, she goes to her friends every day.

Russian

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40

21.2 Verbs of motion: to go by vehicle


()
We

(dont) go

to

the Caucasus

Nouns (Accusative Case)

()

()

(dont) go

we

(dont) go

()

()

you

(dont) go

you

(dont) go

he

()

()

she

(dont) go

they

(dont) go

it

()

()

(dont) go
()
(dont) go

we

(dont) go

()

you

(dont) go

()

()

she

(dont) go

they

(dont) go

you

*
_________
_________

city

*
___________
___________

summer cottage
fishing

Russia
Donetsk
USA

Ukraine
_________
_________

Black Sea
Caucasus
Ukraine
____________

____________

he

it

Example:
Q: ?

Q: ?
Where are you going?

Does he go to Ukraine often?

A: , .

A: .
We are going to the cottage tomorrow.

No, he rarely goes to Ukraine

A: , .
Yes, he will go to Ukraine in a month.

A:
I am going to the Helsinki temple.

*The use of the preposition vs. in regards to is still changing today. If you serve in Russia, you will
hear it used with . If you serve in Ukraine, however, you will generally hear .
Russian

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41


(CASES)

Russian

November 24, 2010

42

1.1 Case Overview (Nouns) - Intro


In Russian, every noun (including pronouns) must be in a case.
WHAT IS A
CASE?
HOW IS A CASE
SHOWN?

A case indicates the role of the noun in a sentence (subject, direct object, etc.)
The ending of a noun will actually change depending on which case it is in.
Using the sentence:
Joseph read the book.
subject

direct object

In Russian, both nouns (Joseph, book) must be put into a case to indicate the role for each. It
would look something like this (well just use the letter a as an example ending):
HOW ARE
CASES USED?

Joseph read the book(a).


Since Joseph is the subject of the sentence, it can stay the same, but because book is the direct
object, it takes on a case ending which can be signified in this instance with the letter (a). The
order of the sentence can now be changed around and it still makes sense because it is
understood that Joseph is the subject and book is the direct object.
Example:
Joseph book(a) read.
Book(a) read Joseph.
Read book(a) Joseph.

In Russian there are 6 cases. Every noun (and pronoun) MUST be in a case.
Accusative
(a)

Genitive
(g)

Nominative
Prepositional
(p)

Dative
(d)
Instrumental
(i)

Russian

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1.1 Case Overview (Nouns) Intro


Cases indicate the role of the noun in a sentence.
Natasha spoke with Ivan(i) about the gospel(p) and sent the Book(a) of Mormon(g) to Dmitri(d).

Accusative
Noun+(a)

Genitive
Noun+(g)

Direct object or
receiving the action

shows possession or of

Natasha sent the book(a).

Natasha sent the Book(a) of


Mormon(g).
Nominative
Noun (no change)

Dative
Noun+(d)

Subject or Dictionary form


Natasha sent.

Indirect object or to
Natasha sent the book(a) to
Dmitri(d).

Prepositional
Noun+(p)
used with the prepositions on,
in, about

Instrumental
Noun+(i)

Natasha spoke about the


gospel(p).

with or by the means of


Natasha spoke with Ivan(i).

Father in Heaven(p) loves us(a). Every person on earth(p) is a child of God(g). Because God
loves us(a), He reveals truth(a) to prophets(d). Then the prophets teach us(a). If we accept the
teachings(a) of the prophets(g), and live righteously, we can return to the presence(d) of God(g) and live
with him(i) and our families(i) forever. These principles will bless us(a) in our lives(p) and will increase
our understanding(a) about God(p).

Russian

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44

1.2 Case Overview practice


Put each noun into the appropriate case
Nominative: leave blank
Accusative: (a)
Genitive: (g)
Prepositional: (p)
Dative: (d)
Instrumental: (i)
1. Joseph Smith grew up in New York . Preachers of many
churches were in his town . He wanted to know the truth . He talked with
the preachers . He studied the Bible . He prayed, and he spoke with his
parents often about the gospel . One day, he
decided to pray in
a grove of trees . When he prayed, Joseph saw Heavenly
Father
and Jesus Christ . They spoke with him and told him that
none of the churches on the earth were true. They told Joseph that
they would soon restore the true church of Christ .

2. Heavenly Father created the first family when He gave Eve to


Adam . He placed them in the Garden of Eden . He then gave
them commandments . One
of these commandments was that they
should multiply and replenish the earth . God also gave them
another
commandment . God
told them
that they
could not eat the fruit
of
the tree
of knowledge
of good
and evil . Then Satan came to
them , spoke with them and tempted them . He spoke with Adam and
told him to eat the fruit on the tree .
3. Underline all the nouns/ pronouns and then mark the cases
In the temple, we learn about the Plan of Salvation. We want to
return to God when we die. In order to do so, we make sacred covenants
with Him. We promise to keep His commandments, and He
promises
us, that if we keep His commandments and love others, He will bless
us in this life so we can accomplish the things we promised to do.
Since we are not perfect, He will also forgive us if we repent.
Repentance is possible thanks to the Atonement of Jesus Christ. Christ is
our Savior, and it is with His name that we make these Eternal
Covenants. Missionaries teach and invite others, so they can make these
covenants as well. God's work and glory is to bring to pass the
immortality and eternal life of man every man.
Russian

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1.3 Case Overview: Asking about Who and What


Every noun can be described as either (who) or (what).
Ex: Joseph Smith prayed to God(d) in a grove(p) of trees(g).
Who prayed to who(d) in a what(p) of what(g).
In Russian, the words who and what
are also put into cases:

Case

Who

What

Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Prepositional
Dative
Instrumental

Ex: Joseph Smith prayed to God(d) in a grove(p) of trees(g).

prayed in
.
Q: prayed?
Q: Joseph prayed?
Q: In Joseph prayed?
Q: Joseph prayed in a grove ?

A: Joseph
A: God
A: grove
A: trees

(By the way: Instead of saying the name of a case as: Accusative / Dative etc.
native Russian speakers would call it: , / , etc.)
If you add - to the end of: (who)
it becomes: someone

and
and

(what)
something
Case

Someone

Something

Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Prepositional
Dative
Instrumental

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

Ex: Joseph Smith prayed to God(d) in a grove(p) of trees(g).


(-)
(-) (-) (-)
Someone
someone something something

Russian

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(VERBS)

Russian

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47

1.1 Verb overview: tenses (past, present, future)


In English, there are many ways to describe actions using verbs. Here are some examples:
Sergey studies his scriptures.
Sergey is studying his scriptures.
Sergey studied his scriptures.
Sergey will study his scriptures tomorrow.
Sergey has been studying his scriptures for hours.
Sergey had been studying his scriptures for hours before dinner.
Sergey is going to have been studying his scriptures for hours by dinner.
Sergey's scriptures are going to be being studied by him tonight.
Sergey's scriptures had been studied by him several times that week.
Sergey knew his scriptures would be studied by tomorrow.
Sergey was going to study his scriptures today.
Sergey's scriptures would always be studied by him.

simple present active


present continuous active
simple past active
simple future active
present perfect continuous active
past perfect continuous active
future perfect continuous active
future continuous passive
past perfect passive
future in the past passive
future in the past active
past continuous conditional passive

and there are also about 28 other ways, so


When you pray tonight, thank Heavenly Father we are not learning English.
Russian is simple- there is only:

Past

Present

Future

However, every Russian verb has two different versions:


Imperfect and Perfect
(in a dictionary, imperfect verbs will be listed first): imperfect / perfect
Ex: to pray: /
The perfect version of the verb is for describing an action/ event that takes place only one time, and
is finished (one time, completed action).
Ex: Joseph prayed in the grove. (The first vision) use
Even though Joseph prayed more than once in his life, and probably even prayed more than once
in the grove, we are referring to 1 specific event that took place only once and is completed.

The imperfect verbs are used for pretty much everything else (so when in doubt, use the imperfect
version of the verb).
Ex: Joseph prayed in the grove. (often) use

Russian

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1.2 Verb overview: tenses (past, present, future) - practice


VERB

imperfect

***(There is no perfect for


present tense because when the
action is in present tense, it is still
happening, and therefore cannot
be a 1-time completed action)

perfect

past

present

imperfect
perfect
Joseph prayed. Joseph prayed.
(on a regular (opening prayer)
basis)

imperfect
Joseph is praying.
(right now)

imperfect
Joseph will pray.
(every day)

perfect
Joseph will pray.
(closing prayer)

Dmitri writes in his


journal. (every day)

Dmitri will be writing


in his journal.
(during the meeting
tomorrow)

Dmitri is going to
write in his journal.
(tonight at 8:00)

Dmitri was
writing in his
journal.

Dmitri wrote in
his journal.
(this morning)

future

circle:
write in the tense:
(past/ present/ future)

Russian

I = imperfect
P = perfect

________________

I P

Joseph Smith studied the Bible as a young man.

________________

I P

Missionaries are serving in every nation.

________________

I P

Nikolai woke up to the sound of missionaries knocking on his door.

________________

I P

All men will die.

________________

I P

We are going to serve in Russia for a while.

________________

I P

Christ atoned for our sins.

________________

I P

Andrei will be an excellent home teacher.

________________

I P

The reformers were preparing the way for the restoration.

________________

I P

God loves His children.

________________

I P

Christ will judge us at the last day.

________________

I P

Elena had heard the missionary lessons several times before her baptism.

________________

I P

The Standard of Truth has been erected.

________________

I P

God will bless us every time we keep his commandments.

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1.3 Verb overview: pronouns intro to conjugation


you
(1 person)

If the English pronoun refers to only one


person/ thing, write it under singular. If it
refers to more than one person/ thing,
write it under plural

she
it

they

singular

we

he

you (addressing
an audience)

Step 1:
Organize these
I

Step 2:
further
organize

English pronouns

Step 3:

plural

singular

plural

If the pronoun refers to self


(1st person)
If the pronoun refers to the person
you are directly addressing
(2nd person)
If the pronoun refers to a third party
(someone/ something else)
(3rd person)

Pronouns:
(in no particular order):
English

you (pl.)
he
she
you (sing)
it
they
we
I

Russian pronouns

singular

plural

Translate into
Russian

Russian

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50

1.4 Verb overview: conjugation patterns in past tense


Describing an action in past tense is pretty easy. Just match the ending of the verb to the gender
of the person who did the action:
- to know
singular
plural
I
we
you you
replace with
he
Masc
she they
it
Neut
singular

-
+
+
+
Plural +
Fem

Examples:
to know
past tense: knew
Masculine
Neuter
Feminine

Plural

to want
wanted

to speak
spoke

to feel
felt

to pray
prayed

to read

to write

past

*(put on if the letter


before it is a vowel)

to believe

M
N
F
Pl

**Verbs that end in are


called reflexive verbs. They
change the same way
regular verbs do. Just take
off the letters at the end
of the word and then put
them back on after youre
done changing the verb.

past

imperfect

perfect

M
N
F
Pl

past

imperfect

perfect

________
________
________
________

________
________
________
________

M
N
F
Pl

imperfect

perfect

________
________
________
________

________
________
________
________

Using the verbs above, fill in the correct word:


Vladimir read the Book of Mormon for the first time last month: _____________
Elder Jackson wrote home every week of his mission: _____________
I have believed it my whole life: _____________
My mom read me bible stories when I was little: _____________
They believed the words that he spoke at the conference: _____________
Remember? You wrote that word in your notes this morning: _____________

Russian

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51

1.5 Verb overview: conjugation patterns in present tense


When describing an action in present tense, the verbs will change
(conjugate) to match whoever is performing the action.

Present tense
Conjugated Verb Patterns

ends in /

ends in

I know
I want
I can
I teach

I go
I read
I speak
I feel

ends in

you know
you want
you can
you teach

we know
we want
we can
we teach

ends in

you go
you read
you speak
you feel

you know
you want
you can
you teach

you go

you read

you speak
you feel

ends in /

ends in / , /

he knows
he wants
he can
he teaches

we go
we read
we speak
we feel

he goes
he reads
he speaks
he feels

they know
they want
they can
they teach

they go

they read

they speak
they feel

1) Fill in the pronoun that matches the verb conjugation


2) Write in the English translation
Ex:
you can
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
Russian

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

November 24, 2010

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
52

1.6 Verb overview: conjugation patterns in future tense


Future actions can be described using both Imperfect and Perfect versions of a verb

Imperfect

Perfect

Conjugate the verb (to be) and add + the


dictionary imperfect form of the verb:
to read
to pray
Ex:

Conjugate the perfect version of the verb:

to read
to pray
Ex:

= to be

(will when conjugated)

will

we

you

will

you

will

you

read

pray
they will

we

will read

will read

you

will read

will read

they

will read

she

she

he
will

he

will read

will

it

Ex:

will pray

it

you

Ex:

- you will read


- she will read
- I will pray

he

she

we


will pray

will pray

you

will pray

will pray

they

will pray

find and correct the mistakes:


we will read (impf)
________________
they will read (impf)
________________
you will pray (impf)
________________
I will pray (impf)
________________
Russian

it

find and correct the mistakes:


I will read (perf)
________________
- we will read (perf)
________________
You will pray (perf)
________________
He will pray (perf)
________________

November 24, 2010

53

1.7 Verb overview: review


There are only

5 ways you can describe an action using verbs:


VERB

(There is no perfect for present


tense because when the action is in
present tense, it is still happening,
and therefore cannot be a 1-time
completed action)

imperfect / perfect

past
imperfect
M
N
F
Pl

perfect

Example:

present

M
N
F
Pl

future

imperfect

-/

-
-

-/
-/
-

(see p.234 in the


blue book)

imperfect

+ impf. verb

perfect

-/

-
-

-/
-/
-

to write

past
imperfect
M
N
F
Pl

Russian

present
perfect

M
N
F
Pl

imperfect

future
imperfect
perfect

November 24, 2010

54


(ANSWERS)

Russian

November 24, 2010

55

1. Alphabet Answers

English words written with Russian letters


family
baptize
New York
Holy Ghost

church
spirit
resoration
conversion

temple
prophet
repentance
Bible

gospel
missionary
Atonement
charity

scriptures
preach
pioneer
service

pray
Book of Mormon
priesthood
revelation

Real Russian words


America
missionary
Mormon
literature
business man
Coca-cola

Utah
sister
guitar
contract
director
hot dog

Russia
student
music
institute
pilot
pizza

Ukraine
Moroni
telephone
class
doctor
ketchup

Canada
Jesus
baseball
theatre
secretary
mayonnaise

Germany
Christ
basketball
seminary
address
hamburger

California
Alma
document
conference
April
chocolate

The First Vision


It was on the morning of a beautiful, clear day, early in the spring of eighteen
hundred and twenty. It was the first time in my life that I had made such an attempt,
for amidst all my anxieties I had never as yet made the attempt to pray vocally
I saw a pillar of light directly over my head, above the brightness of the sun, which
descended gradually until it fell upon me when the light rested upon me I saw two
Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the
air. One of them spake unto me, calling me by name and said, pointing to the other This
is My Beloved Son. Hear Him!

Russian

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56

3. Basic Language Overview practice answers


1. First, underline all the nouns in the following paragraph from p. 1 of Preach My Gospel:
Then go through it again and underline all the pronouns.
You are surrounded by people. You pass them on the street, visit them in their homes, and travel
among them. All of them are children of God, your brothers and sisters. God loves them just as
He loves you. Many of these people are searching for purpose in life. They are concerned for
their families. They need the sense of belonging that comes from the knowledge that they are
children of God, members of His eternal family. They want to feel secure in a world of changing
values. They want peace in this world, and eternal life in the world to come (D&C 59:23), but
they are kept from the truth because they know not where to find it (D&C 123:12).

2. Underline the verbs in the following sentences from p. 32-33 of Preach My Gospel
Prophets learn the gospel of Jesus Christ by revelation. They in turn teach the gospel to others
and testify of Jesus Christ as the Savior and Redeemer Through the Atonement of Jesus Christ,
we can receive eternal life if we exercise faith in Jesus Christ, repent, are baptized by
immersion for the remission of sins, receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, and endure to the end.

3. Label the selected words as either adjectives (adj) or adverbs (adv) from p. 121 of Preach
My Gospel
Diligence is steady, consistent, earnest, and energetic effort in doing the Lords work.
adj

adj

adj

adj

The Lord expects you to work diligently persistently and with great effort and care. A
adv

adv

diligent missionary works effectively and efficiently.


adj

adv

adv

4. Underline the prepositions in the following sentences


After praying to God in the name of Christ with faith, we work on our goals diligently.

When Joseph read a verse in the Bible, he decided to pray about which church was true
on his knees in a grove of trees.

Russian

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57

5.

Label the selected words as a noun (N), pronoun (pN), adjective (adj), verb (V), adverb
(adv), preposition (Pp), conjunction (con), or article (a) from p. 89 of Preach My Gospel
Practice 5a)
God loves you and all His children.
N

pN

con

He is anxious to support you in your

pN

pN

Pp

practical and specific challenges. You have been promised inspiration to know what
adj

con

adj

pN

to do and have been given the power to do it (see D&C 43:15-16).


V

con

pN

Practice 5b)
He will help you as

you try to recognize and understand

the Spirit through

pN

pN

pN

con

con

diligent scripture study. He will guide


adj

adj

message

of

Pp

pN

you

pN

Pp

to people who will receive

pN

the Restoration. He will give


a

the

you power to deliver the

pN

message and to testify of Christ and His gospel. He will shower His blessings
N

con

Pp

con

pN

upon you through the gift of the Holy Ghost. He asks that you remain
Pp

pN

Pp

Pp

worthy of this gift and that


adj
Pp
N
con

adj

pN

con

pN

you ask, seek, and knock (see D&C 4:7; Matthew 7:7-8)
pN

6. Underline only the nouns/ pronouns and then label them as subject (S), direct object (DO),
indirect object (IO), or object of a preposition (OP) from p. 7 of Preach My Gospel

[prepositions are in italics]


God is our literal Father in Heaven. He loves us. Every person on earth is a child of God and a
S

OP

DO

OP

OP

member of Gods family. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is our Savior and Redeemer.
S

OP

OP

Our loving Father in Heaven reached out to His children throughout biblical history by
S

OP

IO

OP

revealing His gospel to prophets. Sadly many people rejected that gospel; even some of those
DO

IO

DO

OP

who accepted it changed gospel doctrines and ordinances and fell into unbelief and apostasy.
DO
Russian

DO
November 24, 2010

DO

OP

OP
58

7. Label the selected verbs as infinitive (In), past (Ps), present (P), future (F), or imperative (Im)
from p. 127 of Preach My Gospel
The Lord declared, Every man shall hear the fullness of the gospel in his own tongue and in his
PS

own language, through those who are ordained unto this power (D&C 90:11). Strengthen your
Im

personal testimony to bring converting power to your words. First study the doctrines and the
In

Im

lessons in your native language. That understanding will strengthen your testimony and your
F
capacity to teach and testify convincingly. You can then learn to express the message of
In
In
F
In
the Restoration in your mission language under the guidance of the Spirit.

Russian

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59

10.1 Asking about and expressing want: Answers


Underline what is wanted and then identify it as a verb, noun or phrase
The missionary wants to serve.

Verb Noun Set

God wants to bless us.

Verb Noun Set

We want you to come on Sunday.

Verb Noun Set

He wants a blessing.

Verb Noun Set

You will want to learn more about this message.

Verb Noun Set

That Elder wants a new tie to wear.

Verb Noun Set

The people wanted forgiveness.

Verb Noun Set

The prophets want us to obey the commandments.

Verb Noun Set

Joseph Smith wanted to find out which church was true.

Verb Noun Set

God wants us to listen to the Spirit.

Verb Noun Set

We want to return to God after we die.

Verb Noun Set

Do you want the branch president to call.

Verb Noun Set

They want the gift of tongues so they can communicate.

Verb Noun Set

They want you to share your testimony.

Verb Noun Set

Russian

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60

1.2 Case Overview practice answers


1. Joseph Smith grew up in New York(p). Preachers of many
churches(g) were in his town(p). He wanted to know the truth(a). He talked with
the preachers(i). He studied the Bible(a). He prayed, and he spoke with his
parents(i) often about the gospel(p). One day, he decided to pray in
a grove(p) of trees(g). When he prayed, Joseph saw Heavenly
Father(a) and Jesus Christ(a). They spoke with him(i) and told (to) him(d) that
none of the churches(g) on the earth(p) were true. They told (to) Joseph(d) that
they would soon restore the true church(a) of Christ(g).
2. Heavenly Father created the first family(a) when He gave Eve(a) to
Adam(d). He placed them(a) in the Garden(p) of Eden(g). He then gave
(to) them(d) commandments(a). One of these commandments(g) was that they
should multiply and replenish the earth(a). God also gave (to) them(d) another
commandment(a). God told (to) them(d) that they could not eat the fruit(a) of
the tree(g) of knowledge(g) of good(g) and (of) evil(g). Then Satan came to
them(d), spoke with them(i) and tempted them(a). He spoke with Adam(i) and
told (to) him(d) to eat the fruit(a) on the tree(p).
3. In the temple(p), we learn about the Plan(p) of Salvation(g). We want to
return to God(d) when we die. In order to do so, we make sacred covenants(a)
with Him(i). We promise to keep His commandments(a), and He promises (to)
us(d), that if we keep His commandments(a) and love others(a), He will bless
us(a) in this life(p) so we can accomplish the things(a) we promised to do.
Since we are not perfect, He will also forgive us(a) if we repent.
Repentance is possible thanks to the Atonement(d) of Jesus Christ(g). Christ is
our Savior , and it is with His name(i) that we make these Eternal
Covenants(a). Missionaries teach and invite others(a), so they can make these
covenants(a) as well. God's(g) work and glory (the work and glory of
God(g)) is to bring to pass the immortality(a) and eternal life(a) of man(g)(of)
every man(g).

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Verb Overview answers

1.2

circle:

write in the tense:


(past/ present/ future)

I = imperfect
P = perfect

1.3

past

I P

Joseph Smith studied the Bible as a young man.

present

I P

Missionaries are serving in every nation.

past

I P

Nikolai woke up to the sound of missionaries knocking on his door.

future

I P

All men will die.

future

I P

We are going to serve in Russia for a while.

past

I P

Christ atoned for our sins.

future

I P

Andrei will be an excellent home teacher.

past

I P

The reformers were preparing the way for the restoration.

present

I P

God loves His children.

future

I P

Christ will judge us at the last day.

past

I P

Elena had heard the missionary lessons several times before her baptism.

past

I P

The Standard of Truth has been erected.

future

I P

God will bless us every time we keep his commandments.

step 2:

step 1:

step 3:

English pronouns
singular

plural

singular

plural

singular

plural

I,
you

we,
you

we

(1 person),

(addressing an
audience),

you

you

they

he, she, it

they

, ,

he, she, it

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Russian pronouns

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Verb Overview answers


to believe

1.4

to write

past
M
N
F
Pl

past

imperfect

perfect

M
N
F
Pl

imperfect

perfect

Using the verbs above, fill in the correct word:


Vladimir read the Book of Mormon for the first time last month:
Elder Jackson wrote home every week of his mission:
I have believed it my whole life: ()
My mom read me bible stories when I was little:
They believed the words that he spoke at the conference:
Remember? You wrote that word in your notes this morning: ()/

1.5 1)

Fill in the pronoun that matches the verb conjugation


2) Write in the English translation
Ex:
you can

I eat
you work
,


,

Russian

he, she writes


we think
I write
he, she eats

he, she thinks


I work
I pray
we pray
you learn
you learn

we work
we write

he, she thinks


you write

you eat
they work

he, she works


you eat

they write

they think

you pray
,
you pray

I learn

he, she learns

we eat
you think

November 24, 2010

you write
you work

you think
they eat
he, she prays
they pray
they learn
we learn

63

Verb Overview answers

1.6
find and correct the mistakes:
we will read (impf)

find and correct the mistakes:


I will read (perf)

they will read (impf)


- we will read (perf)


you will pray (impf)


You will pray (perf)


I will pray (impf)


He will pray (perf)


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(Extra Documents)

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65