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Functions to be provided:
i)

ii)

iii)

## [1]. Create An AVL Tree Root function

An-AVL-Tree-Ptr := Create-an-AVL-Tree-Root (root-data-value);
{
/*
This functions creates (allocates space for) the root node of an AVL tree, initializes all the
parts of the root node (like the data-value, L-son-ptr, R-son-ptr, H, BF, P-ptr) and returns
the pointer to the just created AVL tree root;
*/
Structure AVL-node
{
pointer AVL-node parent-ptr;
int H, BF, data-value;
pointer AVL-node L-son-ptr, R-son-ptr;
}
pointer AVL-node Root-ptr;
Root-ptr := Allocate-space (AVL-node);
Root-ptr.parent-ptr := null;
Root-ptr.H := 0;
Root-ptr.BF := 0;
Root-ptr.data-value := root-data-value;
Root-ptr.L-son-ptr := null;
Root-ptr.R-son-ptr := null;
return (root-ptr);
} /* end of Create-an-AVL-Tree-Root

## [2]. Insert-a-Node function:

An-AVL-Tree-Ptr := Insert-a-new-node (new-data-value, An-AVL-Tree-Ptr);
{
/*
This function inserts a node into a given existing AVL tree; if the node already exists in
the AVL tree, this function returns a null value; otherwise, it (i) inserts the new node, (ii)
checks if any of its parents violate the AVL node property, (iii) then restores the balance,
(iv) updates the H & BF values of all the affected nodes and (v) then returns the pointer
to the root node of the re-balanced AVL tree (in some cases, this pointer can be different
from the previously existing root pointer);
*/
boolean node-is-found, violation-is-found = false;
pointer AVL-node q1, q2, q3;
(node-is-found, q1) := find (new-data-value, An-AVL-Tree-Ptr);
if (node-is-found)
then { print (new-data-value already exists; cannot insert node);
return (null);
}
q2 := allocate-space (AVL-node);
q2.data-value := new-data-value;
q2.L-son-ptr := null;
q2.R-son-ptr := null;
q2.H := 0;
q2.BF := 0;
q2.parent-ptr := q1;
if (q1.data-value > new-data-value)
then q1.L-son-ptr := q2;
else q1.R-son-ptr := q2;
previous-node-BF := q2.BF;
while (!violation-is-found) && (q1 != null) do
{
HL := q1.L-son-ptr.H
HR := q1.R-son-ptr.H;
q1.H := Max (HL, HR) + 1;
q1.BF := HL HR;
current-node-BF := q1.BF;

## if (current-node-BF == 2) OR (current-node-BF == -2)

then violation-is-found := true;
else { q1 := q1.parent-ptr;
previous-node-BF := current-node-BF;
}
} /* end of while loop */
if (!violation-is-found)
then return (An-AVL-Tree-Ptr);
if (violation-is-found)
then {
if (current-node-BF == 2) && (previous-node-BF == 1)
then q3 := single-right-rotation (q1);
else if (current-node-BF == -2) && (previous-node-BF == 11)
then q3 := single-left-rotation (q1);
else if (current-node-BF == 2) && (previous-node-BF == -1)
then q3 := double-left-right-rotation (q1);
else q3 := double-right-left-rotation (q1);
An-AVL-Node-Ptr := update-H-BF-of-parent-nodes (q3);
return (An-AVL-Tree-Ptr);
}
p := Single-Right-Rotation (n);
{
pointer AVL-node p;
p := n.L-son-ptr;
n.L-son-ptr := p.R-son-ptr;
p.R-son-ptr.parent-ptr := n;
p.R-son-ptr := n;
p.parent-ptr := n.parent-ptr;
if (p.parent-ptr.L-son-ptr == n)
then p.parent-ptr.L-son-ptr := p;
else p.parent-ptr.R-son-ptr := p;
n.parent-ptr := p;
n.H := Max (n.L-son-ptr.H, n.R-son-ptr.H) + 1;
n.BF := n.L-son-ptr.H n.R-son-ptr.H;
p.H := Max (p.L-son-ptr.H, p.R-son-ptr.H) + 1;

## p.BF := p.L-son-ptr.H p.R-son-ptr.H;

return (p);
}
p := Single-Left-Rotation (n);
{
pointer AVL-node p;
p := n.R-son-ptr;
n.R-son-ptr := p.L-son-ptr;
p.L-son-ptr.parent-ptr := n;
p.L-son-ptr := n;
p.parent-ptr := n.parent-ptr;
if (p.parent-ptr.L-son-ptr == n)
then p.parent-ptr.L-son-ptr := p;
else p.parent-ptr.R-son-ptr := p;
n.parent-ptr := p;
n.H := Max (n.L-son-ptr.H, n.R-son-ptr.H) + 1;
n.BF := n.L-son-ptr.H n.R-son-ptr.H;
p.H := Max (p.L-son-ptr.H, p.R-son-ptr.H) + 1;
p.BF := p.L-son-ptr.H p.R-son-ptr.H;
return (p);
}
p := Double-Left-Right-Rotation (n);
{
pointer AVL-node p;
p := Single-Left-Rotation (n.L-son-ptr);
p := Single-Right-Rotation (n);
return (p);
}
p := Double-Right-Left-Rotation (n);
{
pointer AVL-node p;
p := Single-Right-Rotation (n.R-son-ptr);
p := Single-Left-Rotation (n);
return (p);
}