Você está na página 1de 8

A Proposed Design of Ice Plant :

The plant can produce 30 tons of ice per day.


Capacity/day = tons of ice / mass of ice block
= 30000kg / 150kg/block
= 200 blocks/day
1. To determine the size of ice to be produced.
2. To be able to know the kind of refrigerant to be used.
3. To know the specifications of the important equipment to be used in the
design.
Significance of the Study
Methodology
The design will use the international standard size of ice can, 11 (28cm) Long,
22 (56cm) Wide, 48 (122cm) High.
The size of the ice block is approximately 330lbs (150kg).
ICE CUBE SPECIFICATION
BRINE TEMPERATURE
The brine temperature may be computed by using the equation
T=
Where:
T = brine temperature, F
a = thickness of ice block, inches
n = no. of ice can / ton of ice / day
W = mass of ice block, (lbs); use 330lbs
For the value of n
n = no. of ice can / ton of ice produced
# of ice can = 200 say 400 to maximize and avoid shortage
n = 400 blocks /30 tons
n = 13 ice block / ton of ice
For the value of T
T = [ 32 582.3(11) ]/(330)(13)
= 15.58 F or -9.12 C
FREEZING TEMPERATURE
From the book Refrigeration Engineering by Macintire and Hutchinson, p. 571
freezing time can be evaluated using the equation and from the book
Refrigeration by Chris Langley constant varying varies from 5.5 to 7:
t=
t = Freezing temperature
C = Constant varying from 5.5 7

T = Brine temperature
X = Thickness of ice
t=
t = 39.65 hrs
COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS:
Raw Water Temperature = 80.6F (27C)
Freezing Temperature = 32F (0C)
Brine Temperature = 15.58F (-9.12C)
Ice Temperature = 25.58F (-3.5667 C)

Q3 = raising the temperature of water from its freezing temperature to the brine
temperature
= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)
= (30,000 kg/day) (2.093 KJ/kg-k) (0-9.12) (1/24) (1/3600)
= 6.628 KW
QT = (39.253 KW + 123.264 KW + 6.628 KW)
= 169.145 KW
For typical ice plant there is 15% allowance, therefore
Qt = Qt + Qt (.15)
= 169.145 + 169.145(.15)
= 194.52 KW
COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS:
Raw Water Temperature = 80.6F (27C)
Freezing Temperature = 32F (0C)
Brine Temperature = 15.58F (-9.12C)
Ice Temperature = 25.58F (-3.5667 C)

Total heat load can be completed using


QT= Q1 + Q2 + Q3
Where:
Q1 = sensible heat required to lower temperature of water from its raw
temperature to its freezing temperature.
= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)
= (30,000 kg/day) (4.187 KJ/kg-k) (27-0) (1/24) (1/3600)
= 39.253 KW
Q2 = changing the latent heat of water at its freezing temperature from liquid to
solid
= (mass) (latent heat of water)
(30,000 kg/day) (355 KJ/kg) (1/24)(1/3600)
= 123.264 KW
NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:

Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1D is
6.89 ft2. In determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation
from the book Principles of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,
Q=AxUxD
where:
Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr
A = surface area of the condenser, ft2
D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the
condensing medium, F; use 10 F
U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-F
from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration
Engineering by Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,
the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300 Btu/hrft2-F. Use 200 Btu/hr-ft2-F

A=Q/UxD
= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-F/225(10F)
= 372.057 ft2
A = 372.057 + 15% allowance
= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)
= 427.867 ft2
no. of tubes = A / surface area of the tube used
m = Qr/ (h1 h3) = 245.277KW / 1443.9 kJ/kg 390.587 kJ/kg
m = .233 kg/s
Volume flow rate, f
F = m/of ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3
f = (0.233kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)
f = 3.415x10-4 m3/s

Pipe Size
Q = AV
(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION HANDBOOK, CHAPTER 9
PIPE SIZING, page 349.)
3.415x10-4 m3/s = [D2 (2 m/s)]/ 4
D = 0.0147 m
= 0.557 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)
use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf)
= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)
= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe
= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length
= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe
= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1 D
ENTHALPIES
The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two
temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the

Evaporating temperature (-15C) and the Condensing temperature (40C). The


refrigerant is ammonia; we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker
& Jones.
By
h1
h3
S1
h2
h4

interpolation:
= 1443.9 kJ / kg
= hf @ 40C = 390.587 kJ / kg
= S2 = Sg @ -15 C = 5.827 kJ/kg K
= h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1720 kJ/ kg
= h3

CONDENSER
Qr = mr ( h2 h3 )
where:
Qr = heat rejected
Qa = mr ( h1 h2 )
mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )
= 194.52 / (1443.9 390.587)
= .1845 kg/s
Qr = .1845 kg/s (1720 -390.587 )
= 245.277 KW
Mass of cooling water
Assuming:
Water outlet temperature = 30 - 32C
Water inlet temperature = 26 - 28C
mw = Qr / cp ( T )
= 245.277 / 4.187 kJ/kg K) ( 31 27)
= 14.65 kg/s
FLOW RATE
f = Mw/Pw
= 14.65 kg/s / 1000 kg/m3
= .0146 m3/s

Based on the specification of the Model HVU-VZ6AMT(HASEGAWA) is appropriate


in this design with a capacity of 217 kW and operates at a maximum speed of
1075 RPM. Other data from the manufacturers specification are listed below.
Capacity = 216.98 kW
No. of cylinder = 6
Cylinder: Bore mm) = 132
Stroke (mm) = 106
Speed = 1075 RPM
Piston Displacement = 561.38 m3/hr
Refrigerant Connection

Suction (mm) = 100


Discharge (mm) = 75
Standard Motor = 45 kW
COMPRESSOR
The compressor used in this design is a flanged motor compressor,
single stage and the refrigerant used is ammonia. The selection of the
compressor is based on the heat load.
Q = 194.52 kW
FOR TYPE OF BELT
Power transmitted = 60.35 hp (45 kW)
Speed of Motor = 1075 rpm
Design Power = power transmitted x normal torque
Normal torque = 1.2 from table 7.1 machine elements in
mechanical engineering by Robert L. Mott
Design Power = (60.35) (1.2)
= 72.42 hp
For sheave pulley
Most commercial available sheaves are cast iron,
which should be limited to 6500 ft/min Belt speed.
In this design use belt = 4000 ft/min
Vd = belt speed
Dd = Driver sheave
= 12 Vd/ n= 12(4000) / 3.1416(1075)
= 14.21

For length of V belt


From table 7-8 Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by
Robert L. Mott the center distance is ranging
D2 < C < 3 (D2 + D1)
D2 < C < 3 (21.1 + 13.9)
21.1 < C > 105
For the interest of conserving speed use C = 30
From the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott,
equation 7-3
L = 2C + /2 (D2 + D1) + ( D2 D1 )/ 4
= 2(30) + ( /2) (21.1 + 13.9) + (21.1 13.9/4(105))
= 136.04 inches
From table 7-2 Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott select
standard belt = 140 inches

For actual center distance


The center distance assumed earlier is just for the purpose of solving L,

now that we have L, we can calculate the actual center distance by the equation
7-4 and 7-5 from the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L.
Mott
C=
B = 4L 6.28 ( D2 + D1 )
= 4(136.04) 6.28 (21.1 + 13.9)
= 324.36
Solving for C
C=
= 40.38
Number of Belts
1 = 180 2 sin-1 [(D2 D1) / 2C]
= 180 2 sin-1 [(21.1 10.8) / 40.38]
= 154
Determine the correction factors from Figure 7-14 and Figure 7-15
Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott
For 1 = 154
C = 0.93; For L = 140 in; CL = 1.0
Corrected Power = C x L x CL
= (0.93) (27.69) (1.0)
= 25.75 hp
Number of Belts = 439.94 / 19.32
= 2.8 (use 3 belts)

LIQUID RECIEVER
The size of the liquid receiver is such that it
can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system.
From the compressor capacity
Compressor Capacity = m (h2 h3)
Compressor capacity = 194.52 kW
m = mass flow rate
m = 194.52 / (1720 390.5870)
m = .14632 kg/s
total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is
= .14632 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)
= 131.688 kg
= 290.322 lb
V = m / brine
brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones
V = 290.322 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3
ACCUMULATOR

Normally accumulator is should be less than 30% to 40% of


the total evaporator capacity. (use 35% allowance).
D = .062 ft
R = .031 ft
V = Volume of evaporator coil
V = (.031)2 (20) (203)
= 12.257 ft3 x (.35)
= 4.29 ft3
BRINE AGIGATOR
The brine agitator is installed in the end
portion of the brine tank because it is more convenient when removal is required
for repair. The brine agitator should have the capacity of 60 to 70
gallons/ton/min. (use 65gallons/ton/min).
P = Qb H
Qb = 65 gallons/ton/min (30 tons)
= 1950 gallons/min (1/60)
= 32.5 gal/s or .123 m3/s
P = (1.755)(9.81)(.123)(1)
= 2.117 kW or 2.84 hp
FREEZING TANK
Freezing tank or brine tank is provided with a race way,
which the evaporator coil is installed. In this design the coil race way has a width
of 39.37 inches.
Base = base of ice x 20 blocks/row + 39.37 + .5 inch gap between blocks x 20
blocks
= 269.27 inches or 7 meters
Length = length of ice x 20 blocks + 1 inch gap x 20 gaps
= 470 inches or 12 meters
PUSH TROLLEY AND ELECTRIC HOIST
Ice blocks are too heavy for human labor to remove it from
brine tank so an electric hoist is needed.
Weight of ice block = 150 kg
Number of ice can per row = 20
Total weight per row = 150 (20)
= 3000 kg
Add 15% for the additional load
= 3000 kg x 1.15
= 3450 kg
Therefore,
Use a 3.5 ton hoist
COOLING TOWER
The selection of cooling tower is based on the computed quantity of the
condensing medium, which is water.

Quantity of condensing medium = flow rate of water in condenser


= .014 m3/ s
= 50.4 m3/ hr
From AOSUA table of specification model AB-60 is selected with the following
specifications:
Nominal flow = 60 m3 / hr
Motor = 1.5kW (2hp)
Fan diameter = 990 mm
Water inlet diameter = 100 mm
Water outlet diameter = 100 mm
Net weight = 368 kg