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The definitive guide to massage




Massage is a wonderful therapy to share with partners, friends and

family. It can promote a strong feeling of wellbeing, reduce stress and
even relieve the symptoms of common ailments such as backache and
anxiety. This complete guide will teach you all the techniques you need
to give a full body massage and take you through a series of guided
step-by-step routines. The Massage Bible covers a variety of massage
styles, including Swedish, Chinese, Indian Head Massage and Shiatsu, as
well as some specialized treatments ranging from baby to sports massage.

ISBN 978 - 1-84181-325-7




9 781841 813257

WWw.octopusbooks.co.u k

Cover photography:
Octopus Publishing Group LimitedlRusseli Sadur


The definitive guide to massage

Susan Mumford



An Hachette UK Company
www. hachette.co.uk


First published in Great Britain in 2009 by

Godsfield. a division of Oaopus Publishing Group Ltd
2-4 Heron Quays. London EI4 4JP

Copyright Oaopus Publi shing Group Ltd 2009

Text copyrigh t Susan Mumford 2009


All rights reserved. No part of this work may be

reproduced or utilized in any fo rm or by any mea ns.

electronic or mechanical , including photocopying.

recording or by any information storage and
retrieval system. wi thout the prior written



perm ission of the publisher.

Susan Mumfo rd asserts the moral right to be
identified as the author of t his book.

ISBN-13, 978 - 1-84181-325-7

Holistic massage


Chi nese massage


A CIP catalogue record of this book is available

from the British library.

Printed and bound in China


20 0

Indian head massage


Massage for special situations


Common ail ments


Li festy le tips




1098765432 1
Massage should not be considered as a replacement for
professional medical treatment: a physician should be
consulted in all matters relating to health and especially in
relation to any symptoms that may require diagnosis or
medical attention. care should be taken during pregnancy.
particularly in the use of essential oils and pressure poin ts.
Essential oils should not be ingested and should be used
for babies and children only on professional advice.



Welcome to this guide, which is going to be a
fascinating journey through the world of massage.
Massage techniques have evolved over the centuries,
incorporating influences from both East and West. As
you explore different aspects of massage in this book from its unrecorded beginnings, through the various
techniques and styles, to a step- by-step, fu ll - body
massage - you may wish either to dip into certain
sections for reference or to follow it all the way
through . What will become apparent as you read is
how different approaches to massage can complement

each other and often overlap. Whi le practitio ners often

disagree about the best approach, this on ly serves to
keep the art of massage alive and vibrant.

What is massage?



Massage is basica lly touch - and touch is somethi ng we all do ever y day.
However. wh ile th is book will enable you to explore massage and discover
your own ta lent for it . please don't skip straight to th e chapter o n
techn iques! Understand ing . preparatio n and practice are equa lly impo rtant.
Techniques are usefu l to give structu re

Several different massage styles are

to a massage. but so are developing

included in this book. W it h any style o f

empathy and the quality of your touch.

massage there is one body being

It is a question o f Anding the rig ht

treated and two hands doing t he

balance between t hem. And once you

treating. which is why the techniques

have mastered the basics and developed

for varyi ng styles have been grouped

you r conAdence. you ca n begin

together loosely - the fundamental

adapting your massage to different

difference lies in t heir approach.

situatio ns and ca n even use it to ease

ever yday common ailments.

Techniques take time to master and

are best practised Arst o f all o n yo urself
Look at increasing your flexibility. your

Benef its and sty les

mental relaxation and your sensitivity as

A basic understanding of the body

a worthwhile investment of your time.

provides an insight into the therapeutic

All t he preparation wi ll Anally payoff

beneAts of touch. To develop and Ane-

when the process turns into dynamic

tune you r skills takes discipline and

interactio n wi th your partner. If you

practice. By fol lOWing each chapter. you

o nl y have a few minutes available For

will gain a basic understanding of t he

massage. try the quick Axes in each

subject and . with practice and feedback.

chapter or the self- massage when yo u

be able to give a relaxing massage to

are o n your own.

fami ly and friends. On ly a qualiAed

practitioner sho uld offer massage when

Even if you're shorr on cime, a qUick

there are medical problems; if you are in

shoulder rub can do wonders co release

any doubt. always seek medical advice.

scress and cension.

The history of massage






The or igins of massage are timeless. 'Rubbing ' when t hings hurt is a natural
instinct and is comforting, sooth ing and revita lizing. Therapeutic touch is

natural to all cultures, so it is difficult to pinpoint its exaa beginnings, although



vari o us references illustrate the role of massage From past to current times.

Eastern massage

o ils and herbs. Indian head massage,

In China . archeologica l Ands conArm

o r champissage (champi meaning

shampoo) . has been part of family
grooming for 1.000 years and is used to

Emperor's Treatise oftnternal Medicine,

promote healthy hair. Hieroglyphics

t he Arst comprehensive medica l text.

found in Egyptian tombs and dated to

compiled sometime between 2700 and

around 2300

o utlined treatment using herbs,




three thousand years ago. The Yellow



that massage was practised more than




depict practitioners

ru bbing hands and fee t with their hands.

acupuncture and massage. TuiNa.

meaning 'pushing and grasping'. sprang

Western massage

stretched in every direction '. Pliny the

from t he popular folk massage anmo ,

According to Hippocrates, the 'father of

Elder (23-79


was healed by a medica l

Th is albumen print from the 19th century,

depiCts a practitioner attending to a

which survives today. With roots in the

modern medicine' (c. 460-377

Shang Dynasty (starting in 1700



ph ysicians 'shou ld be practised in many

emerged in around 1368-1644


arts but parti cularly that of rubbing'.

for neuralgia. The Persian physician

During the First World War injured

lapan, an early form of massage known

And the Greek physician Asc lepiades of

Avicenna (980-1037), who was

soldiers were treated wit h massage,

as anma was introduced from China

Bithynia (c. 124-40

inAuenced by Galen, wrote of massage

whi le the Ca li forn ian bodywork

via Buddh ism in the 6th century

massage, diet , exercise and baths. In

and described various friction metho ds.

movement o f the 1960s combined




practitioner of massage, whi le Ju lius

BCE) ,


Caesar (100-44


Western medici ne dominated in t he

Greece, massage was used for digestive

early 19th century, but a century later

ailments and commonly before sport.

as ind\,J lgent, and medical references are

shiatsu emerged and now enjoys official

The Roman ph ysician Celsus (c. 25

sporadic un til the 15th century. In 1813,

recognition in Japan.


In India , Sanskri t texts dating from

around 1S00


forming t he basis o f

Ayurvedic medicine, refer to massage,


described frictions in detail,

patient in japan.

received massage

Massage later became frowned upon

massage wit h personal growth.

Each culture has its own traditions,
with massage wa lking a path between

Per Henrik Ling established the Swedish

pleasure, folk usage and professio nal

movement system, although Swedish

t herapy. It is now practised in its own

relief, while Galen (c. 130-201CE) wrote

ma ssage terminology was introduced at

right, altho ugh traditionally it formed

t hat 'all the muscle Abres sho uld be

a later date by Dutchman Jo hann Mezger.

part o f a therapeutic whole,


recommending massage for headache

The purpose of massage



Why do we massage, and why is it so popular? Is it done just because it

Feels nice? It certain ly does Feel good and a who le health industry has


grown up around it. but you cou ld say that the purpose of massage is

to beneAt both parties that are involved - on many different levels.



The healing power

of touch
Massage can also be meditative and
psychologically healing - for people
who may have had a negative
experience, massage gives them a


Only massage if you feel energetic

and comfortable, and if your
partner is in good health. The
following physical factOrs, or
contraindications, might make the

chance for positive touch. It is also an

use of massage inadvisable. Always

acceptable form of touch for those

consult your doctor if in doubt.

Stress relief

who may not have anyone close to

For the purposes of health and well -

them. It is a way of bonding with a

being, massage stimulates the

partner, and a wonderful way to bond

circu lation of the blood, increasing the

w ith a newborn baby. It is a marvellous

supply of oxygen to the tissues and

Don't massage if your partner has;


an infection

a temperature

heart problems

gift to share and a form of deep

high blood pressure

lowering blood pressure; it relaxes the

communication. It also provides a way

untreated cancer.

muscles and enhances the flexibility of

of caring and of building confidence

the joints. It also stimulates the

that is creative and fun.

nervous system. whether to relax or to

Because massage is a great tonic.

Don't massage over;


varicose veins
an undiagnosed swelling or lumps

increase alertness. Relaxation relieves

both physically and emotiona lly, it helps

skin problems

the effects of stress, wh ich at their

to improve our appearance. The


worst can cause myriad health

physical benefits of massage include

a rash.

problems. In this way massage can be

relaxing tense muscles, which can affect

used as a preventative before disease

our posture and facial expression; and

sets in. Stimu lation of certa in pressure

the boost to the body's circu lation

points increases the vita lity of the

improves t he co lour and vita li ty of our

Take care if your partner;


has asthma - always have their

is pregnant - pressure must be

medication to hand

internal organs and can relieve the

skin. Inner relaxation and feeling good

much lighter; avoid the abdomen

symptoms of common ai lments. Once

show outwardly in t he way we stand

during the first four months.

the body feels at ease, the mind can

and sm il e.

Don't massage if you;

relax - and switching off may be

something that we rarely get to do. The

have an infection

are unsure what you are doing.

here and now of massage can produce

"ffJe very best massage involves both body

remarkable effects where t he stresses of

and mind which produces a profound state

daily life are left beh ind.

of calm and well-being.

are tired



Th e ball-and -socket shoulder joint



A basic understanding of anatomy gives mea ning to massage. The



body functions as a whole , always working to maintain intern al

balance , a process known as homeostasis. It is impossible to work
o n one part of the body without affecting the whole.




Bones and joints






permi t movement,

whi le keeping them

firml y anchored.

The underlying structure of the

body is the skeleton, wh ich gives


the body its shape. It comprises the

There are 206 bones in the body,

axial skeleton (made up of the skull,

which may be long, short, fiat,

irregular or sesamoid (formed in a

ribs and spine) and the appendicular

tendon). The spine, for instance, is

skeleton (made up of two gird les:

made up of 33 vertebrae:

the pectoral girdle at the shoulders

.7 cervical

and the pelvic girdle at the hips).

Jo ints are the meeting
po int between two
bones. enabling us to
be Aexible. Tendo ns and
ligaments attached to
th e joint capsule
<shou lder or hip) or
directly to the bones
<knee and elbow)

12 thoracic

Cartilage lying between

th e bones. as well as
sacs of sinovial Auid .




- +--+

acts as a cushion to
preve nt friction.

The hinge knee jOint



- \ , - - -.......-\-- - Tendon

5 lumbar
Bones are made of living tissue. capab le
of regeneration. At each end of t he

. 5 sacral

bone is a protective cartilage sheath .

4 coccygeal.

+ +--- Patella

while in the central sha ft is the cell

producing bon e marrow. Each bone is
su pplied w ith blood via its covering of
Abrous tissue. Bones protect o ur vita l
organs and. in conjunction w ith t he
muscles. enable us to move.

~-I-+--- TIbi a





A guide to the su perAc ia l m uscles


Each muscl e is made up of bundles of fibres, which are bound together in a


protective sheath. When a muscl e contracts in response to a signa l from th e



bra in, the fibres slide over one another, shortening the muscle.
Sternocleidomastoid - - -r ,


-'-<;::------ Trapezius


The muscle bel ly is attached to the

circulatio n and the uptake o f nutrients.

skeleton by means of tendons at either

This in turn ca uses stiffness and an


end , which help to flex o r extend the

increase in resting to ne. Over time this




Skeletal muscles give our body its shape and provide the mea ns for movement.

joint. Th e points at which muscles

may result in the formation of fibrotiC

attach are known as the origin which is

ti ssue - commo nly referred to as 'kno ts'

the bone the muscle does not move,

- which feel hard and tight and restrict

and the insertio n which is the bone it

the no rmal range of movement.

+--- Deltoid

Peaoralis ---f-~~

, -- j - - - Teres majo r
1\ - ---1c--- Triceps

Brachioradial is

- H r -+ - - Latissimus

External --/--;;1--1o blique


does. Muscles work in pairs or groups.

--+--+-~- Gluteus

alternately relaxing and contracting to


produce movement. Skeletal muscles

are under our conscious control and
are known as voluntary muscles.
Involuntary or smooth mu scles, which
are not under o ur conscious control.



Massage helps the muscles by
stimulating normal body processes.

include th e heart and the various

are released from muscle fibres,

enabling the muscles to move more

In order to function properly, mu scles




freely. Combined with the benefits

of mental relaxation, the increases

The blood supplies them with glucose

in muscle tone are returned to an

and oxygen , after which it removes the

optimum level.

waste products of exertion in the fo rm

Quadriceps ------1,.femoris

Waste products such as lactic acid

organs of digestion .
require large quantities of nutrients.

- -=-_+_L:...

o f lactic acid and urea. Where mu scles

The superficial muscles. as t heir name suggests.

lie nearest to the surface. These muscles are

do not relax suffiCiently after working,

under o ur co nscious control and relax or contract

waste product s may remain, slowing the

to produce movement.

The nervous system

A gu ide to the n ervou s system





Optic nerve



and to our extern al surrou ndings, It is essentia lly o ur means of interacti on

Cervical plexus

with the outside world via stimu li whi ch determine o ur most appropriate

Spinal cord

Axillary nerve




course of action.



The nervou s system is our system of communication , both w ithin the body



Th e centra l ner vous system is made up

nerves supply t he body. wh ile those

of the bra in and t he spinal cord, and all

supplying t he head are known as

stimuli must pass through it. Ner ves

cranial ner ves. Sti muli pass t hrough t he

branch off in pairs along the length of

body via sensory receptors in t he skin .

the spine. supplyi ng bot h t he limbs and

soft t issue and muscles. Information is

organs. These nerves make up t he

relayed along sensor y nerve pathways

peripheral ner vous system. Spinal

to the brain via the spinal cord, whi le




Thoracic nerves

Ulnar nerve

Lumbar nerves

Median nerve

Radial nerve
Sacral nerves

impulses from t he brain travel back via

Lum bar plexus

t he motor nerves . enabling us to take


Massage stimulates the central
nervous system via the peripheral
nerves in the skin. Th is in turn

The autonomic ner vous system

co ncerned w ith the body's internal
processes and is subdivided into two
bran ches : the sympathetic ner vous

system. Where overstimulation

system, wh ich is conce rned with

of one particular system occurs,

speeding up responses . in creasing

the therapeutic effects of massage

heart rate and breathing; and th e

help redress th e internal balance,

parasympathetic nervo us system, wh ich

enabling the body to rest and

slows the body down for repa ir

take place.

Femoral nerve

is a com plete system in itselF. It is

stimulates the autonomic nervous

t he regenerative processes to

Sacral plexus

appropriate action .

processes, such as digestio n and rest.

The body is continually working to
maintain a healthy balance between
t hese two systems.

The central nervous system

includes the brain and spinal
cord and is responSible For
integrating all nervous activities.
The peripheral nervous system
comprises the sensory and
motor nerves. which pass
in Formation to and From th e
central nervous system.

Obturator nerve
Sciatic nerve

Tibial nerve

Common peroneal

The circulatory system


The blood is the body's transport system, supplying nutrients to the muscles
and o rgan s and transporting away metabolic waste. The hea rt is its majo r
organ; it is a muscle and acts like a pump to circulate blood thro ugho ut th e

body. It has Four chambers: two upper atriums and two lower ventricles.



Oxygenated blood is pumped out of the

transported back towards the heart via

heart via the left ventricle to supply the

the sma ller capillaries and veins. The


Major b lood vessels

Th e heart acts as a pump
fo r the circulatory system.
sending oxygenated blood
(shown in red) to the

I\---J-ll--/,'----- - -- - Internal

jugular vein

IIIH H'-.:::-- - - - - - Common

carotid arter y

muscles and o rgans.

1+---'. .Ilr-

Deoxygenated blo od
(shown in blue) is th en

--"r-- Ao rta


RI"'--- " k-----li---

returned back towards

the heart.

Superior vena cava




body through a network o f arteries and

vei ns in t he leg are supplied w ith va lves

smaller capillaries. which take nutrients

to aid the flow of blood. Entering the

to the tissues. Deoxygenated blood

right atrium. the blood is t hen circu lated

containing ca rbo n dioxide is then

via the right ventricle to the lungs,


=---f---HHlIIH--\- Inferio r vena


where it receives a Fresh oxyge n su pply.

It then returns to the heart via t he left

atrium to beg in the jou rn ey aga in.

Blood circulates round the body

28 times daily.



It is made up of blood cells (red,

white and platelets) and plasma
(nutrients and water).

Massage helps improve the

circulation through stimulation.
Waste products are transported

There are approximately five

million red blood cells per I ml
(0.035 fI oz) of blood.

from the muscles via capillaries and

veins, improving the transport of
nutrients to the muscles and organs

Red blood cells transport oxygen.

via the arteries and capillaries. The

Wh ite blood cells fight disease.

also have a beneficial effect on

Platelets clot the blood.

heart rate.

soothing effects of massage can

Femo ra l artery
(right leg)

- - ---.,1-I-U1I
~...-+---- - Femoral vein
<left leg)

The lymphatic system

Lymphatic system




The lymph system, arising out of the vascular (blood- vessell system is a means
of transport, draining tissues and cells and transporting waste back to t he heart

,n....IT-- - - - - -- -

via the thoracic and right lymph ducts. It has its own system o f vessels:
superAcial vessels drain the fuscia, wh ile deeper vessels drain t he organs.

Th o racic duct - - - -b?,if"..!,d--Y

.-h..-T'r--- - -



Lymph consists of a clear fluid made up

of plasma, futs that are not transported


Cer vical lymph nodes

Subclavian veins --------:r-=~!If~1Si

via the ve ins, protein s. malignant ce lls

and cell debris. Once it has been
collected. tiny va lves o pen and close to
transport the lymph . Wh ile t here is no



system is one of the means of

and deep brea thing assist the flow of

helping to keep the body hea lthy.

lymph. Th e network o f vessels initially

Excess fluid or the effects of injury

takes the lymph towards the nearest

are Altered via the lymph vessels

lymph nodes for Altration . Lymph nodes

and nodes, helping the body to

are located in clusters at va rio us sites

repair itself and recover from

t hrougho ut t he body. such as the

trauma more quickly.

waste is processed and sometimes

stored. bacteria and unwanted cells are
destroyed by immune- system cells
known as macrophages. and antibodies
are produced by whi te blood ce lls
kn own as lymphocytes. Th e Altered
lym ph is then returned to the heart.

71-- -+'\\-\+--- Spleen

of metaboliC wastes. The lymphatic

transporting t hese wastes. thus

general ly found close to veins. Here


Massage stimulates the removal

central mu scular pump. skeleta l activity

armpits. neck and groin . and are

Liver - --JH1fL1--

Axillar y lymph

Inguinal lymph nodes




Th e lymphatic system helps

to drai n tissues and celis of
Auid. Lymph is fi ltered in the
various lymph nodes before
being returned to the heart.


The major organs of the body


The majo r o rgans are made o f smooth muscle. protected by the ribs and

supplied with blood via the Circulato r y system and nerves that branch out

from the spina l cord. Their fun ctions are outside our conscious control and

are governed by the autonom ic nervous system (see page 18).


A g ui de to t h e major o rgans
o f t he body


The majo r organs of the to rso are

protected by the ribcage and governed










by the autonomic nervous system.










Pumps blood around

To t he left of centre of the


t he body

chest cavity. between t he two


lobes of the left lung



Oxygenate t he blood and

In t he chest cavity. protected by

excrete carbon dioxide

t he r ibs

Breaks down nu trients and

In t he abdomi nal cavity. over t he

cleanses t he blood

r ight dome of t he diaphragm.

protected by the rig ht lower ribs


Stores and breaks

down food

In t he abdom inal cavity. over the

-'-1-- - Stomach
Liver - - -H

left dome of t he diaphragm .


protected by t he left lower ribs

Kid neys

Maintain fluid balance

At the rear of the abdomi nal

and excrete waste



Absorbs water. vita mins and

Circles t he abdomi nal cavity.


mi nerals and eliminates waste

ly ing around t he small intestine


Brea ks down partia lly digested

Connects to the stomach and


food and absorbs nutrients

large intestin e

Larg e - --+intestine

'------I-- - Small
in testin e

The skin



The skin is the largest o rgan of t he body. providing o ur in terFace with the

world around us. It is an organ o f excretion . via sweat. which also regu lates

body temperature. Sensor y receptors provide us with immediate Feedback


Th e skin

about o ur ex terna l environment.


The skin is made up o f two major

layers: at t he base is the dermi s


(beneat h which lies a layer of





subcutaneous tissue t hat supplies

nutrients). which is a Abrous layer



Massage improves the skin by


increasing the local blood supply.

t hus helping to keep it healthy and

supplied wit h blood and lymph vessels.

improving its elasticity. The

nerves. hair fo llicles. sweat and

application of nourishing oils and

sebaceous glands: above t his lies the

t he friction of t he massage strokes

epidermis. wh ich itself consists of Ave

also helps to slough off dead

layers. Dividing cells are continually

surface cells and moisturize t he

being produced by the ba sa l layer. and

skin at a deeper level.

Dermis --

Sweat ---fl~

'if__..,,-- --lIIIII ..-!--- Ner ve

are gradually pu shed up towa rds the

o uter layer o f skin , or corneu m. As skin
cell s reach the surface they gradua lly
die, so t hat o n th e surface li e the dead

Blood vessels
Hair fo llicle (root) ----~..A..l.....,.

cell s t hat now contain kera tin, a Abrous

substance t hat gives the skin its
t hickness. The skin protects us from
bacteria , mi crorganisms and harmful

The skin consists of two mai n layers, the

influences. Vario us receptors

upper epidermis and the lower dermi s. Rich

communicate with th e centra l ner vous

system and are highly senSitive to
to uch , pressure. pain and change
in temperature.

in sensory nerve endings. the skin is

constantly processing information about

Our surroundings.




When you're giving a massage it is important to think about the

setting. The environment should be restful and inviting , and preparing
the room helps to focus your mind, both on the person receiving the
treatment and on the reason for massage.

Setting the environment


You will need a massage table or


su fficient floor space; lights that dim;

a warm room (the body cools down



qu ickly); peace and quiet , without

It is impo rta nt to allow enough time:

make sure that both you and your
partner have allocated plenty of time,
not only For the massage, but some
space either side o f it as we ll. Agreeing

interruptions; and possibly some

a length o f time beForehand means that

background music. A Ave- minute

you can both let go and ensure that

shoulder rub needs less space than a

the ma ssage period is all yours.

body massage and can take place

almost anywhere, but it is still good
to put some thought into it.
Start by creati ng a soothing

to your partner and being sensitive to

The massage environment should be

their needs and responses. As they

clean and uncluttered yet inviting. Have

Givin g and rece iv in g

respond to the strokes, you may need

everything to hand before you start.

Giving a massage is rea lly special. It's

to adjust your techn iques in order Fo r

something you invest time and energy

the massage to be a flowing and

in For someo ne else . without asking For

dynamic experience.

anything in return. It's a time when you

However, nothing much is going to

any o bligatio n in return - not as easy

as it may sound. As k your partner to
give you Feedback throughout and aFter

environment tha t makes both o f you

Focus you r attentio n who lly o n what

happen iF your partner is not open to

the massage. in a constructive. no n-

Feel comFortable and relaxed. Candles

you are doing - sometimes that may

receiving! The recipient should be

critica l way. remembering that t his is a

o r o ils in a diffuser (see pages 32-33)

mean communica tion without words.

encouraged to let you release their

learning experience For both o f you.

ca n add to the ambience For Friends

While you sho uld attend to yo ur own

tight muscles . rather t han ho lding on to

W hen both participants are Focused on

and fa mily. bu t Fo r someone who is

needs in terms of energy, postu re .

the tension. Th eir jo b is to Focus o n

the process ta king place. t hen t he

less close to you. a clea n , uncluttered

comFort. abilities and resou rces, you r

their body and the massage strokes and

magic of giving and receivi ng ca n be

atmosphere may be more suitable.

attentio n sho uld primarily be on giving

let you do something Fo r them, without

Fully appreciated.

Clothing and equipment



W hen you are prepa rin g fo r massage, it is good to have ready beforehand

ever ything you will need and make sure th at the massage table is adj usted

to your height correctly. That way you ca n concentrate your mind solely o n


t he massage strokes.











For massage you w ill need,

.. llssues


.. A massage table o r soft mat o n the

.. Music (optio nal)



floor (yo u can add some padding, if






.. A sheet or protective cover to go

over the massage surface
.. At least one large fluffy towel, plus
one smaller o ne for cover ing t he
chest area
.. Oils (see pages 32-33) wit hin easy
.. Supports for t he head, knees or
.. A glass of water for both giver and


.. Candles o r oils in a diffuser

Don't fo rget to,
.. Remove any jewellery before
starting (both giver and receiver )
.. Tie back long hair
.. Keep your nails short
.. Check for any contraindications
(see page 13)
.. Ensure t hat the room is
comfo rtably warm .

W hat you wear shou ld be loose and

Follow the preparation checklist and

comfortab le so t hat you ca n bend ,

adjust the table to a comfortable height

stretch and move freely. You may get o il

before you begin your massage.

o n yo ur clothes sometimes, so it is best

to choose somethi ng you can wash

massaged wi ll be covered by towels) ,

easily. For the receiver. clothing depends

bu t t his depends o n t he massage style,

o n w hat they are most comfor table

for ho listic massage they w ill have to

w it h, for an o il massage they w ill need

remove some clothin g . bu t for shiatsu

to remove at least some of thei r clothes

o r a head massage they ca n remai n

(a lt ho ugh the body areas not being

fu lly clothed.


and recipes







Grapeseed oil

A light oil for most skin types

Use as a base

or on its own


If yo u are pract ising a n o il massage , yo u w ill n eed to have so m e o il pre pared




in adva n ce. It s p urpo se is to he lp y o ur hand s g lide ove r t h e sk in w ithout



sli pping or sti c k in g. O il s t hat a r e u sed for m assage are u sua ll y veg etab le, nu t


or seed o ils. Co ld - pressed a nd organ ic o il s from a rep u table suppli er are best .

Massage also provides an o ppo rtu ni ty to





Almond 7 ml, Grapeseed 3 ml


no urish and mo isturize t he skin. Most

An all -purpose o il commonly used

Use as a base

(Pru nus dulcis)

for massage

or o n its own


A heavy, fatty oil that solidifies

Good used on its

(Cocos nucifera)

below room temperature; good for

own for Indian

darker skins; lo ng shelf life

head massage

o ils have a shelf life of o ne to two years

and should be stored in a cool. dark


A light, nou rishing oil, suitable

Use as a base

place w hen no t in use, to minimize

(Helianthus annuus)

for children and sensitive skin

or on its own

Soya bean

An alternative to nut oils, but beware

Use on its own

(G lycine max)

of any sensitivity to th is oil


oxidizatio n. New and exotic o ils are being

Almond 6 ml, Avocado 4 ml

introduced regularly. The best po licy is


Sweet almond






(Vitis vinifera)

Sunflower 7 ml, Macadamia 3 ml

to fam iliarize yourself with a small


number at first (such as t ho se given

Apricot kernel

A nour ishing oil, good for moistu rizing

Use as part of

Sunflower 6 ml, Apricot 2 ml,

o pposite) and then exper iment with

(Prunus armeniaca)

the skin, especially t he face

a blend

Jojoba 2 ml

others as you become mo re practised.


A rich oil for mature skins

Use as part of

(Persea americana)

a blend

Bl end reC ipes


To prepare an oil blend , make up 10 ml

Macadamia nut


(2 teaspoons) per massage in a glass

Sunflower 4 ml, Jojoba I ml

bottle or bow l; o r 5 ml (I teaspoon) fo r

(Macada mia

Avocado 4 ml, Macadamia I ml

Sunflower 3 ml, Rosehip I ml,

Apricot I ml

Use as part of
a blend

th e face. Allergic reactio ns are rare, bu t

Rosehip seed

A penetrating , strong - smelling o il,

Use sparingly as

to be safe . do a patch test o n the inside

(Rosa rubiginosa)

good for wrinkles and scar tissu e;

part of a blend

short shelf life

o f th e elbow and leave fo r 24 ho urs. Oi l


A nourish ing o il for mature skins

should always be spread ove r your own

hands. rather t han applied direct ly to
your partner's skin.


A silky vegetable wax. good for

Use as part of

(Sim mondsia
chinensis )

sensitive skin, especially t he face;

a blend

solidifies below room temperature




Posture is vita l when giving a massage. especially iFyou massage regular ly.

The natural temptatio n , especially at t he beginning . is to concentrate o n


gett ing t he strokes right and . in so do ing , compromise your own posture.




Remember that the massage sho uld be beneAcia l Fo r both o f you.

It is im portant to use yo ur body weight
and make sure t hat while the massage
may come th rough your hands. the


movements are not coming solely from


your sho ulders. Below are t he three


main massage postures.


Worki n g at a ta ble

W o rkin g on t h e Floor

Working o n t he h ead

Make sure bo th feet are planted

Make sure that you are balanced.

Stand behind your part ner, feet

sho ulder- width o n t he floor. either side

keeping your knees. ankles and hi ps

sho ulder-widt h apart and shou lders

by side or wit h o ne foot in front of th e

flexible (some padding o n t he floor is

re laxed. Movement sho uld come from

o ther. Keep your spine as straight as

a good idea). You r spine sho uld be

t he floor to you r sho ulders, and

possible. bending your knees slightly so

straight. To apply pressure. lean forwa rd

t hrough to your arms and hands.

that t he movement comes from your

so that t he weight comes t hroug h your

Make sure that you do not hunch

hips. As you lean for wa rd , your who le

hi ps. spin e and sho ulders to your

your shou lders o r lean into your

body sho uld move wit hout any strain

hands. wit h t he sho ulders remaining

partner. To apply pressure. move o ne

o n your neck. Lean your body weight

relaxed. Apply pressure even ly witho ut

foot backwards. lea n forward t hrough

into your hands as you apply pressure.

overstretching. so that you can rega in

your hips and use your body weight.

keeping your sho ulders relaxed.

your o riginal positio n.



Before even starting to massage. it is worth experim enting with th e power


t hat natura lly comes From your hands. You may be surprised - we all sense


our environment and the people in it . often without rea lizing it. We may


brush th ese Feelings aside or be too busy or distracted to listen to them.


Try t hese simple exercises to get a


sense of the energy comi ng From your


hands. Suspend any preconceptio ns

and experiment to see what you Feel.




Estab lishing a con nection

Extending the connectio n

Holding an invisible ball

Experiment with a partner. Both of you

With yo ur partner lying Face down in

Relax. and rub your hands together

should hold your hands up. pa lms

Front of you. ho ld your hands slightly

unti l they Feel wa rm. Slowly draw your

Facing each other. Keeping a distance

above their back. Find the distance

hands apart. then move them back

between yo ur hands. And the

where you Feel t hat connection witho ut

towards each other. Do this several

connection between them. Then move

actually touching then. Then see iF yo u

ca n get a sense o f your partner simply

times and make a note o f any

your hands to different positions - up.

sensations that you Feel - you may Feel

down . backwa rds and Forwards-

through your hands. Move t hem over

a ting ling . wa rmth or that your hands

mirroring each o ther. Notice iF the

different areas of the back. again

are being drawn towards each other.

connection changes. and when it Feels

without touching . and see iF t he

Try moving yo ur hands around the

stronger or wea ker. Do all th is witho ut

sensa tions change. Th en compare

space as iF you are holding an invisible

actually touching. Notice any

impressions wit h your partner.

bal l. whi le still keeping a connectio n

sensations o r impressio ns that come

between t hem.

through your hands.


Wh en you give a massage it is important that yo u Feel relaxed , supple and
alert, so a Few exercises to loosen up Arst are really useFul. Wear loose,
comFortable clothing and reser ve a Few minutes For thi s, so that you ca n

concentrate Fully o n what you are doing.





Close yo ur eyes. With your shoulders

Lower your chin to your chest and let

relaxed, take a breath in t hrough your

your head hang. Then slowly roll your

nose. Feel it going righ t down to your

head to the left in a big circle, imagining



Head roll






abdomen. As you breathe out, imagine

it to be rea ll y heavy. When you reach

that you are breathing out all t he stress

yo ur chest again . circle it the other

and tension from your body. Repeat

way. Really feel every muscle in your

several times until everything feels

neck moving as you do this. It will help

looser and you feel calmer menta lly.

to release any tension.

Backward head tilt

Sideways head til t

With chin once again on chest, slowly

Ti lt your head as far as you ca n towards

lift your head and continue the

one shoulder, give an extra stretch and

movement until you have tilted it back

then bring your shoulder up to touch

as far as is comfortable. Relax your jaw.

your ea r. Bring you r head back to a

Then slowly bring you r head up again

central position and t hen repeat on

and take it back once again onto your

the other side.

chest. Then lift it once more, until your

head is in the upright position.





















Shoul der roll

Spine roll

Shaking out

Hip ci rcle

To complete the relaxa tio n o f t he

Keeping your Feet on the ground . flo p

Now's t he ti me to shake everything o ut!

W ith your Feet sho ulder- width apart.

knees slightl y bent and hands on your

sho ulders. give a huge shrug and bring

Fo r ward wit h your knees . neck and

First . stretch yo ur arms as Far as you

your sho ulders up to your ears. Lower

sho ulders relaxed. Let your arm s and

ca n to th e ceiling . relax th em. t hen

hips. slowly circle your hi ps to the leFt.

t he sho ulders. t hen roll t hem Fo r wa rd in

head hang down loosely. Then slowly

shake o ne arm. Fo llowed by the o ther.

Make an exaggerated circle with them

an exaggerated circle. up to your ears.

roll up th rough the spine. straightening

Al l your jo ints sho uld Feel nice and

un til you come back to yo ur starting

back and then down . Repeat in th e

Arst From yo ur hips. Feel each vertebra

loose. Stand o n o ne leg . and shake

pOSitio n. Then make an other generous

o ther directio n. The muscles sho uld

as you go. leaving your sho ulders and

the other leg in turn . Concentrate o n

circle to t he right. This helps to loosen

now Feel well stretched. relaxed and

head until last. Once in an uprigh t

releasing all t he stiffness and tension

the pelvis and lower back.

much looser.

positio n . let your head And it s na t ura l

From your jo ints.

position of balance.

Face scrunch

Inward focus

To loosen t he facia l muscles. scrunch

With neck and sho ulders relaxed. feet

your face as tig htly as you ca n. Ho ld

planted shou lder - width apart and knees

rea lly tensely fo r a few seconds. then

sligh t ly bent . focus inwards for a few

release suddenl y. open ing your eyes and

minutes. Concentrate o n acquiring a

jaw as wide as possible and sticki ng

relaxed breath . body and mind. Feel any




your tongue righ t out! This is rea lly

tensio n slowly sinking down your body

good for waking up yo ur whole system

and through the soles of your feet into


and making you more alert.






the ground. You should feel both

energized and relaxed .





Stretching and wanning up are

important to energize your own
body before working on someone
else. They help to keep you flexible
and in tune with your body. and
improve your posture and ease of
movement. Focus on stretching
every muscle. while making sure
that you feel relaxed on the inside

Finger stretch

too. Your concentration should be

To relax your hands. Arst make rea lly

fully on each exercise in turn. After

tight Asts - as tense as you ca n - with

stretching. make sure you relax

your Angers tucked right into your

every muscle. The more at ease you

palms. Then suddenl y release them.

are with your own body. the more

straightening the Angers and stretching

t hem as far apart as you can. Repeat
energetica lly severa l times to exercise
the muscles and joints.

your partner will be able to relax.





Wh en you learn to massage , yo u can put your sensi t ivity to good use. Yo ur

hands - t he main po in t o f con tact between you and your partn er - are no t





o n ly t he means o f perfo r ming massage techniques , th ey also become


tran sm itters: a means o f comm unicatio n betwee n yo u and yo ur partner.






Th e palms of your hands are especially

important, and relaxed hands and


fingers are something yo u may need to

work on, especial ly when tr ying out


new techniques. Before beginning a

massage it is a good idea to sensitize



your hands, becau se t his ensures t hat

you r attention is flowing in the right
direction. So t ry t he following exercises.

Feeling t he breath
Sta nd relaxed, with your arm s by your
sides, feet planted firm ly shoulder- width
apart on the ground . Take a deep.
re laxed breath in and imagine that you
are breathing in th ro ugh the soles o f
your feet. Feel the brea t h t rave lli ng up

Energizing t he hands

and you may feel ting ling sensation s in

t hrough t he centre o f your body to

As you breathe into your hands (see

your palms. Repeat t he exercise a few

your shoulders. As you exhale. feel the

opposite), br ing your forearms up to

times. If you do no t feel much at first ,

the level o f your elbows, wit h t he palms

don't worry - all t hese t hings take a

facing up. Yo ur hands will feel energized

little bit o f practice.

brea th t ravell ing down your arms to

your hands.



Reading the body




If you are in any doubt, refrain from


The more massage you do, the m ore you wi ll s t art to notice and unde rstand


abo ut your partn e r. Th e body gives clues a s to w h at is n ecessary, a nd you

treatment and ask the recipient to

wil l gain conAd e n ce as yo u learn whic h areas n eed atte ntion. You might

consult their doctor. Anyone w ith

start to take m ore notice of the way your partner moves an d sta nds.

health problems or existing medica l

conditions shou ld always check


w ith their doctor first.


Do you see any pattern s, or notice

the neck , sho ulders and lower back.

any tension? Does anything look

And. once you begin to massage, your


uncomfortable or awkward? There are

hands w ill be feeling for mo re

no judgements involved here , just

information. However. when your


obser va tion s, w hich gradual ly bui ld up

partner is ly ing down just before t he

a better picture of how you ca n help.



Your partner w ill no doubt poi nt out

ma ssage beg in s, you ca n take in a great

deal of know ledge about them . Here are

areas o f tension, w hic h are commonly

a few basic pointers to begin w ith.

1 Neck. Does the head turn easi ly to the side?

If not, th is could indicate stiffness.

ioints are painful. massage above and around

rather than over them.

2 Shoulders. Are they relaxed and lying fuirly

flat 7 If not. this cou ld also indicate stiffness.

7 Legs. Are there any varicose vei ns? They

indicate ci rculatory problems. You should not
massage over the veins themselves.

3 Upper back. Does this look relaxed and fuirly

flat. or are the shoulder blades very prominent?
This may mea n that you need to treat the
upper back so that the shoulders can relax.
4 Lower back. Is this very arched? It could be
placing a strai n on the lower back. so th is may
be an area that you should try and relax.
5 Hips. Are they level? If not. this may indicate
lower back or hip problems and an area that
could benefit from being relaxed.
6 Hands. Are the hands closed or formed into
fists? This may be an area to focus on and a
sign that your partner isn't relaxed. If the

8 Skin . Does it feel smooth or gritty? Are there

any dry patches? This may indicate a lack of
hydration and the need to choose a nourishing
massage oil.
9 Ankles. Are they puffy? This cou ld mean
problems with the circulation or sluggish
lymph. Work above, but not over. puffy areas
to help drainage.
10 Feet. Is there any redness. or are there any
foot problems? Cou ld this be due to wearing
tight shoes 7 Cramped toes real ly benefit from
massage. but do be careful if there are signs of
an infection.






Massage techn iques can be broadly divided into light,
medium and deep, trad itionally classiAed as effleurage,
petrissage and friction . For ease of reference the
techniques are grouped together here, according to
the amount of pressure that is used. Light strokes are
used for preparing or closing a sequence ; medium
strokes help to release muscu lar tension; and the
deeper strokes provide a more focused re lease. Some
techniques are used often , others only from time
to time. It helps to fami liarize yourself with a few
techniques before starting the massage sequences
on your partner, and there's no better way than
trying them out on yourself

How, when and why



Techniques are som ething we all w ant to learn straight away ! However,






massage simply stimu lates the bo dy to selF- healing , and an under standing o f


(and interest in) the body a nd o f your partner sho u ld co me first. Techniques

a re essentia l, though: they prov ide structure and sequen ce t o th e massage,

Gettin g the basic techniques right fro m

something to practise, Yo u need to

t he star t helps to build confidence in

balance your techniqu es and st ro kes

yo ur massage ability and gives you

wit h o ther factors - a massage based




Massage should flow, Make sure

area you are working on and the

condition you are trying to relieve.

techn iques stead ily and evenly,

Use relaxing strokes before and

Start gently, then apply greater

afterwards so that you do not stop


Apply the pressure evenly over

pressure points, so t hat you release
it just as gradually as you apply it.

Do not massage over the spine or

on techniques alo ne would be a rather

Techniques give structure to your massage

empty. clinica l affair. So as you practise

sequence. Familiarity comes with practice,

Do not try to cure any condition

the techniques, you also need to

giving you a repertoire at your fing ertips.

with massage techniques.

develo p a sense o f knowing why you

bony areas of the body.


pressure as you see how your

partner responds. Ease the pressure

Use techn iques appropriate to the

muscle groups you are massaging.

after a particular technique to keep

the rhythm going.

Apply techn iques appropriate to the

(see pages 34-35) and physica lly

balanced, so that you can apply the

that you are in the correct position

are doing what yo u are do ing.

w ill gradually learn which techniques

partner's age (less pressure for

Techniques are part o f your toolkit. At

are successful in which situatio ns.

Developing thi s ability comes down to

Use techniques appropriate to your

someone older and less vigorous

the o utset you will probably fo llow th e

stretches than for, say, a young

routin e you have been taught ver y

practi ce and experience. The way in

person in their twenties ).

closely. However. as yo ur knowledge

w hich you apply a technique w ill have

and experience grow, you can be mo re

an influence o n its effect. so bear in

selective. Yo u do n't have to practise

mind the balance t hat you need to

ever y technique ever y time. and you

achieve ever y time you massage.



Different massage strokes require different pressures. There are light. flowing ,


introductor y movements over the surfuce of the skin: medium - pressure.

more stimulating movements that may stretch. kn ead or roll th e ti ssues: and





movements that require deep, very precise pressure over a small surfuce area.
Gauging pressure is something that you
learn by practice and experience and .

Examples of different
pressure types

impo rtantly. through partner feedback.

People have ver y different levels of
sensitivity and tolerance to pressure.
Some good advice is always to start off
li ghtl y and increase t he pressure as
necessary: va r ying the pressure gives
rhy thm and interest to your massage.


There needs to be a balance: too li ght



ca n feel ineffectual and even irri tating:

More robust strokes. applying

Precise pressure into a cer ta in pOint.

too heavy ca n be painful and make the

stimulating pressure to the

using the Angers or thumb.

body tense.

muscles. using principally t he Angers


and thumbs.

With different techniques and

pressures come different contact poi nts
of your hands. Some strokes require
full - hand contact: oth ers Angers o r


th umbs: and others just the heels of

t he hands. These are all part of your

Always ask for constructive

feedback from your partner

Use your body weight, to avoid

strain on your shoulders

Increase the pressure by leaning

into your hands

Only use as much pressure as you

are comfortable w ith.

massage vocabu lary and the fascinating

language to be learned.

Lo ng. flowing strokes w ith soft
pressure, using the flat of the hands.



Light-pressure techniques shou ld be a soft, comforting introduction


to a particular sequence or muscle group. They can be used at any


time for reassurance or familiarity during the massage and are



important at its close. You can repeat the strokes as often as you like.





Effleurage on the back



whole hand

Effleurage on the legs

Position yourse lF at your partner's head.

Position yourselF at your partner's Feet.

Spread some oil over your hands and

Spread some oil over your hands and

place them at t he upper back, just

place them above the ankle. Keep your

above the level of the shoulder blades.

hands moulded to the shape of the leg

Effleurage is a soft, gliding stroke

How to do it

Glide towards the lower back as Far as

as you glide up the back of the ca lf.

that is often used to spread oil at

Rub a li ttle o il over your hands. Then,

you can reach. Keep Full contact

over the knee and back of the thigh, as

placing your hands flat on your

between your hands and your partner's

far as you can comfortably reach.

partner's body at the point nearest to

body. Separate your hands, reduce the

Separate your hands and sweep lightly

the beginning of a massage. It is an

introduction to your partner's body.

you, and with your hands together,

pressure and sweep back up the ribs as

down the outside of the leg to your

The flowing rhythm relaxes the

Follow the contours of the muscles.

you return to your starting position.

starting position. The pressure should

receiver's body and provides an

Glide as Far as you can. then separate

be reduced over the knee. Avoid any

opportunity for the giver to pick up

your hands and sweep them back lightly

pressure over varicose veins.

information through their hands.

Pressure shou ld be greater when

towards you. Keep your movements

smooth . reassuring and relaxing.

Effleurage on the abdomen

you stroke towards the heart. and

Place yourself at your partner's side.

lighter on the return.

Spread some oil over your hands and

place both hands flat over t he abdomen.
Then lightly circle them clockwise
around the navel. one hand after the
other. Keep the pressure fairly light.


CO NTACf Angertips

Fea t hering is a closing stroke to a massage sequence. It stim ulates t he surface



Feathering t he toes
Cup o ne hand under yo ur pa rtner's heel

of t he skin and feels reassuring , relax ing and good. It can draw attention

for support , and place t he o ther hand


from o ne area of t he body to ano th er, and is a signa l that a particular

sequence has come to an end. It is most ly used o n the back and li mbs.

Angertips from t he ankle to the toes.

Repeat several t imes. Use Armer pressure

to avoid t he possibility o f tic klin g.


Feath ering t h e back

Standing at yo ur partner's side, place
bo th hands at the to p o f t he spin e (thi s

How to do it

is one t ime when yo u ca n work over

Place your Angertips o n your partner's

the spine beca use t he pressure is so

bo dy. Now draw yo ur Angers ligh t ly

ligh t). W ith gent le, alternating

down t he bo dy, a litt le like stro king a

movements, li ghtl y brush and stroke

cat. Use your hands in an alternating

down the spin e, working yo ur way

rhythm so t hat the movements feel

down to t he lower back.

pleasant and smooth. On ly o ne hand

is in contact with t he bo dy at a t ime.
Graduall y lighten and slow your
movements down as yo u nea r the
end of th e sequence.

Feathering the arms

Place your Angertips at the top of your
partn er 's arm. Then soft ly stroke the
lengt h o f t he arm down to the hand.
Use a gentle flowin g rh ythm , o ne hand
after t he o ther. Yo u ca n repeat t he
st rokes a num ber o f t imes and end by
li ghtly st roking over the An gertips.


at the an kle. Lightly st ro ke w it h your






Rocki ng the arm


If your partner's arm is supported. you





the arm lying flat. Otherwise, lift and



place bo th hands around t he upper

arm. Without letting go. rock down to

Rocking is a good re leasing stroke,

the elbow. Bend your partner's arm at

helping th e body to let go of

the elbow. lowering it to the surface fo r

tension. It is helpfu l as a Ana l

support. and then continue the





release at the end of a sequence.

movements to the wrist.

o r to relax your partner before the

sequence begins. It is a prompt to
let go. Rock the limbs or torso w ith
your partner on their back.

How to do it
Place your hands, with the wrists
relaxed and the hands flat . on either
side of your partner's body. Push gently
in towards the body with o ne hand.
then repeat wit h your other hand o n

Rocki ng t he leg

t he opposite side, so that you generate

Place your hands on either side of you r

a soft , rocking movement. Change the

partner's thigh , Facing up t he leg.

Place one hand at your partner's chest

position of your hands as you rock, so

Gently rock the length of the leg, right

and the other at the hips. Begin the

that you move as much of th e body as

down to the ankle. using alternate

rocking movement with your upper

possible. The movements should be

movements with your hands. Repeat

hand and follow with the lower.

gentle and not too Fast.


can perform rocking movements with

whole hand

Rocking t he front of t he body

back up to the th igh . and end once

Without disturbing your rhythm.

again at t he ankle. making sure that al l

gradual ly change the positio n of your

the joints relax under you r hands.

hands so that your top hand moves to

the hip and your botto m hand moves
to the chest.






li ght


Angertips and thumbs



Plucking is a light, pleasant ,


stimu lating stroke. Movements


altern ate between the hands. with


the actio n being staccato and th e

touch kept light. It is ver y good for


working over th e head. o r ca n be



substi t uted fo r feathering at th e end

o f a body sequence.

How to do it
Pl ace t he Angertips o f both hands o n
your partner's body. Pull o ne hand
away. lightly plucking the surface of
the skin as you do so. Repea t the
movement wit h t he ot her hand .
alternating yo ur movements to cover

Plucking the sca lp

Pluckin g the legs

Plucking t he back

t he whole area. Keep the movements

Stand behind your part ner. Place your

Position yourself at your partner's knee.

At yo ur part ner's side. place your hands

quick and light.

Angertips o n the scalp. t hen lightly

Place bo th hands over the thigh and

at the top of the spin e. Lightl y pluck

draw one hand away from the head,

begin the plucking movements away

with your An gertips and t humbs all t he

lightly plucking at the hair as yo u do

from th e body. Wo rk up and down the

way down to the lower back. o ne hand

so. Repeat the movement with your

leg. alternating yo ur hands as you do

after t he other. Thi s stimu lates the

o ther hand. altern atin g with a quick

so. End t he sequence at the ankle.

rhythm until you have covered the

entire scalp.

surface o f the skin and draws the

attentio n down the spin e.



Medium - pressure techniques help to release tensio n From the muscles.


and are used aFter o il has been applied with effl eurage. Begin the


techniques gently; aFter Feedbac k . you can then increase t he pressure


until you Feel the muscles relax. Appl y these to muscular. fl eshy areas.





Kneading the thighs

Kneading the buttocks


Positio n yourself at your pa rt ner's side.

Positio n you rself at you r partner's lower


Press in to the mu scles with your

back. Leaning over your partner. begin



fingers and thumbs. whole hand

thumb . rolling back again over t he

kn eading the opposite buttoc k, Arst

muscles w it h yo ur Angers. Begin a

w ith o ne hand and t hen the other. un til

How to do it

similar movement wit h your other hand .

you have established a rhythm. Massage

Pl ace your th umbs and Anger tips in

altern atin g the strokes up and down

over t he fleshy areas to release any

position. Press with th e thumb . pushi ng

the thigh. Keep to t he fleshy mu scles.

tension. Yo u can use reasonable

away from yo u over the muscles; then.

avoiding pressure over the back of t he

pressure, but remember t hat these

the muscles. kn eading (as its name

wit ho ut lOSing contact. grasp t he

kn ee and inner t high.

muscles ca n often be quite tender.

suggests) works repetitively over

muscles w ith your Angers and roll back

Kneading is one of the more

stimulating techniques. PerFormed
aFter effl eurage with oil to prepare

them to relax. release tension and

towards you r thum b. As you end t he

Kneading th e back

reduce muscle tone. It is used over

movement. begin kn eading again in a

Positio n yourself at your partner's back,

larger. fl eshy areas. such as the

slight ly di ffe rent positio n w ith your

Lean over and begin kneading t he large

other hand . so th at you work in a

muscle bands o n t he o pposite side of

thighs. bu ttocks and the muscles

continuo us alternating rh ythm. Once

t he spine, Wor king at least 2.5 cm (I in )

on either side of the spine. bu t is

yo u have got used to th e kneading

o ut from t he spine. push yo ur thum bs

unsuitable For delicate areas or For

movements. bring yo ur palm s into

away from you , t hen roll yo ur Angers

working over bone.

contact too. fo r greater effective ness.

back towards your t humbs. You ca n

work up and down t he spin e from the
lower back to t he shou lders, as long as
yo u do no t knead over the spine itself



whole hand



Squeezing is used upwards over the


limbs, appl y ing pressure towards the

heart. Used after effleurage, it helps


to release tension from th e muscles

as well as stimu late th e circulatio n.


The thumbs and forefingers circle


the limb w hile pressure is applied

w it h th e w ho le hand. Squeezing is
also good for feeling o ut 'knots'.

How to do it
Place your thumb and foreAnger over
your partner's limb just above t he jOint.
forming a V shape with your hand.
Slowly squeeze up t he limb, applying

Squeez ing the forearm

Squeezing the th igh

Squeezing t h e calf

pressure with whole- hand contact. As

Supportin g your partn er's arm at t he

Place both hands flat aga inst you r

Positioning you rself at your partner's

you move further along the limb.

wrist. place your thumb and foreAnger

partner's thigh , starting just above

feet. place both hands just above the

pressure may be applied separately with

just above t he wrist and squeeze up

the knee. W ith one hand following t he

ankle, in a V shape cupping around

t he hands. spreading them wide to

over the muscles towards the elbow.

other, apply pressure up over the

the leg. Squeeze up towards the knee,

accommodate t he body area . wi thout

Contact should now be made with the

muscles towards the hip. Pressure needs

applying greatest pressure over the ca lf

reducing th e pressure.

whole hand. Apply fa irly Arm pressure,

to be fa irly Arm and the stroke ca n be

muscles. Avoid working over va ricose

releasing it just below th e elbow.

repeated severa l times. Avoid t he inner

veins, and release the pressure just

th igh, instead fan ning out over the hips.

below the knee.

Thumb - rolling

Thum b - roll ing the hand



Suppo rting you r partner's hand with


your Angers, use you r thumbs to roll




over th e palm for a good tensio n

release. Ro ll away fro m you Arst wit h

Use t humb- ro ll ing to relax muscles, feel out 'kn ots' and connect strokes

one thum b and then the other, so t hat

from one area to another. Use alongside t he spine, or over smaller areas li ke

you cover as much o f t he palm as

t he hands, using t he Angers for support. Movements alternate between the


t humbs so that you get a continuo us rolli ng effect.




possible. Firm pressure can be effective,


but always check the comfo rt level wit h

your part ner.




How to do it
Place o ne thumb o n your part ner's
body and slowly slide it away From you
over the muscles. using medium
pressure. As you reach the end of your
st roke, lightly liFt your t humb o ff t he
body to reach your next positio n. As
you do so, begin rolling with the other
thumb, so t hat th e strokes alternate
and t heir posi tio ns overlap.

Thumb-rollin g the spine

Thumb-roll in g t h e n ose

Positio n yourselF at your partner's head.

This is a softer versio n fo r working over

Leaning Fo r ward , begin ro lling wit h o ne

delicate areas. W hile working o n your

thumb over th e mu scles to o ne side of

partner's face, you can use very gentle

the spine. Altern ate wit h your other

thumb - rolling to stro ke t he length of

t humb, lifting your hands between

th e nose from the bridge to t he tip. Use

strokes, right down to the lower back.

tiny ro lling movements, which Feel really

Repea t several tim es.

comfo rting , to cover the area.



whole hand



Wringing is an end - stroke, after working muscles, and may complete a


sequence. A good muscle release, it is best used for the limbs or back. It
involves a squeezing movement between the hands, but care is needed to
oil the muscles adequately so that your hands slide over the skin.

How to do it

constant contact with them. At the

Place one hand o n the side of your

same time slide the other hand in the

partner's body nearest to you, and the

opposite direction back towards you -

other on the opposite side. Your hands

your hands should meet mid - stroke.

should be flat against the body and

Continue until your hands have

relaxed. Now glide one hand away From

changed position, then repeat

you over the muscles, keeping it in

continuously to cover the whole area.

Wringing the upper arm

Wringing the calf

Wringing the back

Cup both hands around your partner's

AFter working over the leg, cup your

Position yourselF square on to your

upper arm. Then slowly wring over the

hands on either side of your partner's

partner's ribs. Mould your nearest hand

arm towards the wrist, alternating the

ca lF, starting just below the knee. Pull

to your partner's ribcage just below the

position of your hands. Keep Full

one hand towards you over the

armpit and, stretching over, place the

contact with your partner's muscles

muscles , while sliding the other hand

other hand on the opposite side. Now

to ach ieve the wringing effect. Your

away. Wring down the calF to the ankle.

slide your hands towards each other

pressure on the arm should be slightly

Where the ca lF muscles are well toned

right over the back, so that they end

lighter than elsewhere.

you can use greater pressure, but

up on opposite sides. Repeat the

remember to use plenty of o il.

movement Fairly Armly down to the

lower back.



whole hand or thumbs



Circling is for delicate or vulnerabl e

areas and joints. It is a good way to
help your partner to relax. Done




slowly and rhyth mically, with just

the right pressure, circling comforts
and soothes. Perform whole- hand
circles in an anticlockwise directio n
over the back of t he body, and
clockwise o n the front.

How to do it
Place both hands flat on you r partner's
body. Keeping fu ll hand contact, circle
over the muscles, with o ne hand
fo llowing the o ther. As you complete

Circling the abdomen

Circling the lower back

Circling the knee

the circle wit h o ne hand, lift it off

Position you rself at your partner's side.

Positio n yourself at your partner's lower

Place one thumb just above your

gently, making sure the o ther hand

Place o ne hand over t he abdomen and

back. Place one hand over the sacrum,

partner's kneecap. and begi n circl ing

stays in contact with the body. This

begin circling clockwise around the

the bony area at t he base of the spine.

clockwise arou nd the jOint. Joi n in with

sho uld be done slowly several times.

navel. Place your o ther hand on the

With medium pressure. slowly circle

your other th umb, circling from the

When using t he thumbs on ly. the

abdomen to continue the circl ing

your hand anticlockwise, so that it

opposite direction. Circle around t he

principle remains the same, making sure

movements, lifting one hand lightly

glides over the skin. Use your other

jo int several times. li fting your t humbs

t hat o ne thumb always remain s in

when they cross. Use pressure

hand for suppo rt. The more even your

as necessary. This stroke helps t he knee

contact wit h the body.

sensitively, and always ensure one

pressure, the better it will feel. Repeat

jo int to relax.

hand rema ins in body contact.

several times to ease the lower back.

Palm pressure

Palm pressure on the ca lf


Place a su pport underneath the ankles.


partner and place both your hands over

the ca lf muscles. Lean into the ca lf with

Pa lm pressure is ver y effective when

used correctly, with your body

and limbs, w ith or without oil. but




t hen lean in with your other hand.

knee and repeat, but do not press over

Pressure is applied over the back

your lower hand, release t he pressure,

Move both hands further towa rds the

weight coming t hrough your hands,



Positio n yourself square o n to your

whole hand

t he jOint.

is unsuitable for delicate areas. It

stimulates energy circu lation as well
as stretching t he tissues.

How to do it
Make sure your posture is ba lanced ,
then place yo ur hands o n your
partner's body. Keepi ng your hands flat
and relaxed, lea n in towards your
partner, using your own weight to
provide the pressure. Apply even

Palm pressure on the thigh

Palm pressure on the back

pressure as you perform t he movement.

Positio n yourself square on to your

Once your partner's back has been

and again as yo u release. Let the body

partn er and place both palms over the

massaged, place both hands over the

respond before changing the positio n

thigh. Use your upper hand as a

lower back muscles on the opposite

of your hands.

support. Lean forward with your weight,

side of t he spine. Lean into your hands

and apply pressure to the muscles with

and slide forward , using your body

your lower hand. Continue until you

weight. Follow the shape of t he body

feel resistance, then release your

until yo ur hands are curved round

pressure slowly and evenly. Pause

the hips. This helps to relax the lower

before repeating furt her up t he thigh.

back muscles.





CONTACT thumb and fingertips



Rotating stimu lates the circulation by applying pressure on the spot over


the skin. It is a good releasing and relaxing stroke. working into th e muscles
as the Angers press. It is not invasive - pressure is distributed evenly by

spreading the Angers w ide. It is mostly used over the sca lp.




How to do it


Place your fingertips on your partner's

body. wh ile raising your wrist and hand.
Begin rotating the thumb and fingertips
on the spot. applying downward
pressure. Keep your fingers in the same
position without sliding them over th e
skin . The movement comes from
applying friction to the muscles. After
several rotations change position. to
cover t he whole area.

Rotati ng over the palm

Rotating over the forearm

Support your partner's hand from

Su pporting you r partner's arm. place

underneath and place the fingertips of

your fingertips on the forea rm. Rotate

Rotating over t he head

your other hand over the palm. Keeping

o n the spot over the muscles in several

Standing beh ind your partn er and.

your wrist and palm raised, rotate in

positions. The skin should move while

suppo rting th e head with one hand.

tiny circles over the palm , using th e

your finger contact and pressure

remain constant.

place the fingertips of your other hand

fingertips only. Work over the whole

o n the sca lp. Spreading your fingers

area. applying downward pressure over

wide. rotate on the spot and apply

the muscles.

pressure towards the scalp. Repeat

several times to cover the who le head.



CONTACT various




Percussion strokes stimulate the circulati on through a succession of

staccato movements. They should be done quickly over areas of muscl e.

keeping the Angers and wrists relaxed. They keep body and mind alert and


sho uld be used towards th e end of a massage sequence.




How to do it
Keeping the hands. Angers and w ri sts

relaxed. place both your hands on your

partner's body. Apply the percussion
movements quickly and lightl y over
the muscles. alternating the st rokes
between your hands. Cover each area
several times. applying pressure more
intensely over any tight muscles.




IF applied more light ly. percussio n ca n

Stand behind your partner. and close

Stand square o n to your partner's side.

be done o n t he scalp. Stand behind

your fi ngers to Fo rm loose fists. Place

Place both of your hands over th e back

your partner. Place both hands faci ng

both hands over o ne sho ulder. making

muscles. wit h the heels and fingers

each other o n the sca lp - contact is

contact with t he fleshy o uter side of

touching. bu t leaving space under your

made wit h t he little fingers. Now cho p

the hands. Lightly pummel over the

pa lms. Now rai se and lower your hands

your hands alternately up and down.

sho ulder. moving From the neck o ut

alternately in quick successio n . which

covering the scalp with quick. light

towa rds the arm . Repea t o n t he

sho uld produce a ho llow 'cupping'

movements. The secret is to keep t he

o pposite sho ulder. t hen continue up

sound. Work up and down the back.

fingers and wri sts loose and relaxed.

and down o n either side of t he spine.

then lean over and repeat o n the

The mo re relaxed your wri sts. t he easier

o pposite side of the spine.

it is to achieve a rhythm .



whole hand



Rubbing was the name originally

given to massage. This is not a
precise stroke, but is used to relax


the muscles by vigorous pressure.

Rubbing is performed briskly,


typically over the scalp or back.




Pressure can be applied with the

Angers , heel and palm. It is best
applied when the skin is not too oily.
How to do it
Place one hand over your partner's
muscles and begin to rub quite
vigorously over a smal l area. Increase
the stroke to cover the whole muscle
group, applying greater pressure where

Rubbing the back

Rubbing the scalp

Rubbing the thigh

the muscles Feel tight. Keep your hand

Stand behind your partner. With your

Stand behind your partner and begin

Place your hand over your partner's

flat, your wrist loose and perForm the

hand flat, rub vigorously over the back,

rubbing lightly over the scalp with one

thigh muscles and rub vigorously where

movements From side to side.

avoiding the spine and applying more

hand, flicking the hair as you do so.

they Feel tight. Thi s may help at the

intense pressure where you Feel any

Cover the whole scalp with quick, light

beginning of a sequence. Rub with side-

tension. The movements should be

movements, keeping your wrist and

to-side movements until you can Feel

quick, and both your partner's body

Angers relaxed.

some tingling in your palm, helping to

and your hands should tingle with the

increase in circulation.

prepare t he muscles For deeper strokes.

Stretching with the forearms


Diagonal stretch ing over

the back



Lean over your partner and place your



forearms diagonally facing each other



on opposite sides of the spine. Slowly

Forearm stretches are a great way

draw your arms apart , applying

to relieve tension, providing

downward pressure and sliding over

the muscles, until one arm reaches t he

pressure with a won derFul sweep.

shoulder and the other the opposite

Applied over muscu lar areas with o il ,

hip. At the same time, rotate your arms

they give a great slide without any

so that the fists and forearms lie flat.


discomFort. Use them as a finishing










stroke, or apply on the spot to

Further relax any muscles that
remain tight.
How to do it
Making sure you r posture is balanced
and that you are positioned square on,
lean over your partner and place your
forearms together over the body. Your

Stretching over the back

Stretching over the thigh

hands shou ld be in loose fists and you r

Lean over your partner. with your

Position yourself square on to your

wrists relaxed. Now slowly slide your

forearms facing each other. on the

partner's thigh. Place your forearms

forearms apart, applying pressure down

muscles on the opposite side of the

facing each other over the muscles.

towards the body as you do so. Use

spine. Apply pressure over the muscles

Slowly draw your arms apart, rotating

your body weigh t to relax the muscles

and, as you do so, slowly rotate your

them as you perform the stroke , until

and repeat several times, making sure

forearms so that they lie flat against the

your arms lie flat. Repeat over the thigh

that no pressure is app lied directly over

body. This is a contained movement and

muscles , making sure that you complete

the bones.

should be done without too much sliding.

the movement before reaching the knee

Repeat wherever the muscles are tense.

or hip. Apply plenty of oil and avoid the

inner thigh.


Th umb pressure on the sole

support your partner's foot in one
hand. Locate the point in the cent re of

from specific areas. They need to be applied carefu lly to prevent

the foot and hold yo ur thumb over it.


Press inwards towards the sole. hold for


any discomfort. They are intended to be used once or twice, with

feedback , and the surrounding area soothed afterwards.

a few mo ments, then release slowly. Rub

very gen tly over the spot to relax the
area and complete the technique.





Deep- pressure techniques are more focused and release tension

Thumb pressure
Th umb pressure on the ankle

ball of thumb

Supporting your partner's foot, press

right around the joint with your thumb.
Press slowly and even ly in towards the

This is a friction technique whereby

How to do it

pressure is applied precisely over

Locate the point where you are going

slowly. This helps to stimulate the

to apply pressure. Place the ball of your

circulation and increase mobi lity. These

a specific location, typica lly over a

jOint. and release the pressure equally

thumb on the surface of your partn er's

pressure point. This stimulates

movements can be followed by passive

skin. then apply pressure slowly and

exercise of the joint.

muscular release, as well as

evenly in towards the body. Focus yo ur

balancing the energy in a particu lar

attention on the point of contact. Hold

meridian. Pressure or trigger points

are located throug hout the body.
The movement must be performed
with even pressure as well as even

for a few moments and then release.

Th umb pressure on the face

Where you feel resistance. relax your

Place both thumbs over your partner's

pressu re. then try again.

lower eye sockets. the bony ridge just

below the eyes. Starting by the bridge
of the nose. press in lightly with the

release, and must be held for a few

thumbs. then rel ease. Continue pressing

moments. The technique is applied .

and releasing at regular interva ls, using

after the body has been relaxed.

both hands Simul taneously. working

along the ridge to the outer corn er of
the eyes. This helps to refresh the eyes.




Finger pressure

Finger pressure on the hip




After working over the thigh muscles,


locate your partner's hip joint with



your fingertips. Then press into the

CONTACT balls of the fingers


muscles around the joint with the balls







which may sometimes be more


appropriate. Pressure is applied with


comfortable and even. but effective.


precise pressure over a larger area.

again, making sure that your pressure is

two Fingers together. It provides less



if you feel any resistance, then try

technique. usually perFormed with


of your fingers. Start gently and release

Finger pressure is another Friction


the ba lls of the Angers.

How to do it
Place your fingertips over the point you
are going to stimulate, then press
even ly in towards your partner's body
with both fingers. Release the pressure
slowly. As pressure is distributed
between the two digits, the trick is to

Finger pressure on the head

make sure that you apply the technique

Cup your partner's head in one hand .

evenly between both.

turning it sl igh tly so that you can reach

Locate the soft depressions to the side

under the skull. Press in w ith the middle

of your partner's nostrils. With steady

and fourth fingers just beneath the

hands place the middle fingers of both

Finger pressure on the nose

base of the sku ll , making sure you do

hands over these points. then press

not dig in. The muscles there can be

gently w ith your fingertips to stimulate

quite tight, so this makes a good

them. The direction is at a sl ight

release. Repeat in several positions.

diagonal in towards the nose. The

pressure should be steady. but not
too firm.


CONTACf balls of the fingers or thumb

Vibration is an extension of thumb and Anger pressure. It is used to

stimulate speciAc points with penetration, so shou ld be used w ith care.
Avoid the chest or abdomen when working on the front of the body, the
heart area on the back or any painful areas.
How to do it
Place your Angers or thumb over the
point you are going to stimulate. Press
in towards your partner's body, but as
you slowly begin to press. vibrate your
thumb or Angers at the same time. This
intensiAes the stimulation and you wil l
And that you can use less pressure.
After a few moments, stop the vibration
and release the pressure as normal.

Vibration on the back

Vibration on the forearm

Vibration on the face

Place your middle and fourth Angers

Place your middle Angers in the bony

over the muscles of your partner's

hollows by your partner's eyebrows.

Locate the relevant point over the

forearm. making sure that you are

Very, very gently vibrate your Angers

muscles next to your partner's spine.

pressing muscle rather than bone.

on the spot, using hardly any pressure.

Place your thumb on the body and

As you press. begin the vibrating

This technique really helps to energize

the eyes and face.

begin pressing into the point , vibrating

movement with both Angers to increase

your thumb quickly as you do so.

the penetration. Pause, then release

The vibration should be on the spot,

the pressure slowly and even ly.

without moving the skin . Release the

pressure slowly w ithout any vibration.

Heel pressure

H eel press ure o n t h e hi p


After massaging the lower back and


buttocks. press into the muscles around

heel of hand

your partner's hip with the heel of your

hand and massage around the jOint.

App ly ing pressu re with t he heel

of your han d allows you to give


greater depth and pressure to a

stroke. Use it over muscu lar areas,


putting your body we ight behind


hand. Apply pressure Arm ly into the

re lease o f tension.

the stroke to make it more effective.

Th is is a robust movement and is
not for delicate or painful areas.

H o w to d o it
Place your hand on your partner's body
after you have relaxed all t he muscles in
that area. Supporting t he body against
your pressure with one hand. raise the
palms and Angers of the other hand so

H eel pressu re on the h ead

that the only massage contact is with

Use lighter pressure on the head. Stand

the heel of your hand. Press downward

Heel pressure o n t h e t hig h

and work over the muscles. repeating

Standing at your partner's side, place

behind your partner. Supporting the

head with one hand, place the heel of

the movements several times.

t he heels of both hands over the thig h

your other hand at the base of the

muscles. Press in towards the body and

skull. Press in towards t he muscles,

t hen stroke upwa rds to the hip. with

circling and vibrating slightly to increase

one hand following the other. You ca n

t he stimu lation and release. Massage

use reasonable pressure as long as it is

over as much of the area as possible.

comfortable. Repeat in several positions,

then complete the treatment by

but avoid the inner th igh.

changing hands.


Support t he body with your other

muscles. circl ing on t he spot for greater





Knuckle pressure





Using t he knuc kles is another way o f va r y ing th e pressure o f yo ur strokes.



It sho uld o nl y be done w here th e muscles provide some c ushio ning. It



inc reases pressure w hile reduc ing t he stress o n yo ur An gers and t humbs.




How to do it
Placing o ne hand o n yo ur partner's
body for support , make a Ast with
your other hand and place it over
t he muscles. Gradually increase t he
pressure, using yo ur knuckles as th e
contact poin t. Work over t he muscles
in several positio ns, circl ing over any
tense areas to release t hem. Varying
the pressure increases your partn er's
to lerance to th e stroke.

Knuckl e pressure on the palm

Knuckl e pressure on t he sale

Suppo rting your part ner's hand, gently

Suppo rting your par tner's foot, pl ace

knuckle over the palm , circli ng in

yo ur kn uckles over t he ball of the foot

Knuckl e pressure o n t he hips

vario us positions to relax the mu scles.

and massage over t he soft padding, and

After massaging the buttocks, pl ace

Wo rk all around the base of t he Angers

t hen around the base of t he toes.

Cupping your hand underneath

your Ast over your partner's muscles

and t hum b, witho ut pressing in to t he

and gradually increase t he pressure in

actual jo ints. Pressure in thi s way ca n

provides resistance against your

towards t he body. Circle o n t he spot as

be surprisingly precise and an effective

pressure. Work in small circles o n t he

you press, to increase t he stimulatio n

way of relaXing t he hand.

spot and continue up the o uter side of

and encourage the muscles to relax.

the foot to the heel. Make sure t hat

Work in several positions, and mo re

you avoid putting any pressure over

gently around th e hip joint, but avoid

t he instep.

any direct pressure o n the bones.

Elbow pressure


Elbow pressure on th e
shoulder blade


Stand behind your partner. Locate t he







Using th e elbow gives you precise

o utline of the sho ulder blade w ith o ne

control over your movements, so

hand , then press aro und t he sho ulder


blade with your elbow. Guide t he


that you can apply pressure

movement w ith your Angers to give

effectively over a muscle o r po in t.

precisio n, and ensure t hat you do n't

Using your body weight , pressure

press directly onto the ribs. Your

is achieved witho ut strain or

movements sho uld be small and even.

compromising your posture. Use

w ith pressure at a slight diagonal in

towards the body.

your oth er hand to steady the

application. Perfo rm carefu lly,
avoiding delicate areas and bone.
How to do it
Make sure that yo ur positio n is
balanced and steady. Positio n your

Elbow pressure on the hip

elbow to uching the part of the body

Positio n yourself at your partner's hip.

Elbow pressure on the

upper back

t hat you are going to stimula te. Slowly

W ith your feet planted Arm ly o n the

After massaging t he back. place o ne

press in to the po int with your elbow.

floor to steady you. locate t he relevant

Anger as a guide over t he muscles to

bein g very sensitive to any resistance.

point in the buttock and place your

t he side o f your par t ner's spine. Press

If your partner resists, ease your

elbow o n the surface o f th e skin. Slowly

gently into t he muscles w ith your

pressure and begin again. Apply the

lean into the po int w ith your elbow.

elbow, at in terva ls corresponding to

tec hnique evenly and slowly to help

bending your knees to provide balance

the depressions between t he ver te brae.

the body relax.

and an even pressure. Reinforce the

Press o nce on ly each time. to t he

movement with your other hand.

bottom o f th e ribcage. The pressure

leaning in slowly and evenly. Release

sho uld be fairl y light and. as always,

with equal care.

kept away from the spin e.




fingers and thumb



Sawing achieves depth o f movement

and penetratio n o f th e muscl es. Due

to its effectiveness, it needs ca reful




applicatio n and sho uld o nl y be do ne

over sma ll areas th at are a source
o f tensio n , but no t pain . Sawing is
par t of yo ur reperto ire to appl y
after t he muscl es have relaxed. Use
it selectively.

How t o d o it
Place your first two fi ngers or thum b
on your partner's body. Press down into
the muscle and , as you do so, saw
backwards and forwa rds with the

Sawing th e thigh

Sawing th e s houlde r blade

Sawing t h e spin e

fingers or t humb to intensify t he

Place your fingers leng thways over yo ur

After massaging around t he shoulder

Stand square on to yo ur partner. If you

pressure of you r technique. Yo ur fingers

partner's thigh muscles. Press down

blade. begin gently sawing wit h two

have already massaged the back, you

should no t slide. You ca n saw along the

into th em, sawing backwards and

fingers wherever yo ur part ner's muscles

ca n focus more attention on particular

length of t he muscle or alternatively

forwards with your fi ngers to increase

still feel tight. Do thi s two or three

muscles by appl ying the sawing

across t he muscle belly.

the penetration. Repeat several times

tim es onl y, over each spot , before

technique. Use both hands to saw on

and th en release. Ensure the muscles

moving on to t he nex t. Continue t he

t he spot over t he muscles to the side of

are well oiled to prevent uncomfortable

movements right around the shou lder

t he spi ne. Repeat in several positions

friction with t he skin .

blade, but check t he comfort levels with

your pa rtner.

over t he muscles . but avoid using the

tec hnique over t he ribs or spine.


Pu ll ing the leg

Techniques for the joints increase the range of movement and

ankle. Cup one hand over the top of

POSition yoursel f at your partner's




the foot. and the other under the heel.

flexibi lity and are used once muscles have relaxed. Work with in your

Once your hold is secure. lift the leg


partner's range of movement, then extend this slightly by repeating

slightly and slowly pull the limb towards


each technique. Feedback from your partner is essential.

you. Pu ll sensitively to the point of


resistance, t hen lower t he leg and



remove your hands.




pullin g the neck




Pulling is another name For

stretching, and it is great to do aFter

How to do it

Stand at you r partner's head. Cup your

Place both hands around your partner's

hands under the base of the skull and

limb or neck. cupping your hands so

li ft the head very slightly. Then pull

that the hold feels comfortable. Slowly

your hands back gently towards yo u

relax the joints. increases mobil ity

pull the body part towards you. so that

and release. You should notice

and completes the body sequence.

you feel a slight stretch. then slowly

movement in t he upper back. This

Pulling is a technique For the limbs,

release it again. As you pull, li ft the

stretch is very gentle and shou ld last

body only as much as is necessary to

only a few moments, but is very good

perform the movement. When you feel

for helping to relax the neck.

massaging the muscles. It helps to

but can include the Angers. toes

and neck. Your own position is

resistance yo u have reached the limit.

vital. as is your sensitivity to any

and you should never try and continue

resista nce. The movements should

beyond that point.

Feel liberating , but shou ld never

ca use discomFort or pain.

Pullin g t h e Angers
Support your partner's hand and grasp
the tip of one Anger between your
thu mb on the one side and your index
and middle Anger on the other. Pull
towards you to give a good stretch.
Repeat with each Anger in turn.




Passive rotation


Rotating is another way of increasing the flexibility of the joints. A body





massage without work on th e joints feels incomplete! Encourage and extend


the range of movement by applying a little pressure and stretch ing at the




same time. Th is provides a circulation boost.










How to do it
Grip with one hand, using the other to
steady your partner's body. Now slowly
rotate in as big a circle as the jo in t will
permit, applying pressure so that the
range of movement increases. Take care
that the technique does not ca use any
pain. Reverse the direction and repeat
severa l times until movement becomes
much easier.

Passive rotatio n of the ankle

Passive rotation of t he fi ngers

Support yo ur partner's leg at the ankle,

Supporting your partner's hand , grasp

Place one hand flat over the sole of the

one finger between your own fingers,

Passive rotation of the wrist

foot, gripping the ball with your fingers.

pull slightly and gradually rotate it in a

Supporting your partner's arm at

Slowly rotate the ankle, pressing the

big circle. Keep your hands relaxed, and

the elbow, grip their hand securely in

foot to extend the movement. Then

circle each finger in turn , not forgetting

you r own. Keeping the arm steady,

reverse the direction. The slower you

the thumb. This small seq uence rea lly

begin making a clockwise circle, Make

go, t he more your partn er can simply

helps to release tension from the joints

the movement as large as you ca n,

relax without any resistance.

by stimulating the circulation.

as well as slow and steady. When you

have completed the circle, repeat in
the opposite direction.

Energy - sensing

Energy- sensing t he face


After massaging the face , ho ld both

10 1

Th is is not strict ly a massage technique because t here is no body contact ,

yo ur hands together over your



but energy - sensing can be used with massage to complete th e physical

partner's eyes so that t hey are shaded


work or to relax beforehand. Your hands should be held in a relaxed posit ion

from an y light, bu t avoid coming too





a little away from the body. This technique can be performed over any area.

close as t his ca n feel uncomfo rtabl e.

thro ugh t he pa lms o f your hands.


Energy-sensing the lower back

Slowly ta ke your hands away after

After you have massaged th e back area,

a few minu tes.

hands. Now ho ld them abo ut S- 8 cm

ho ld o ne hand over your part ner's

(2-3 in) away fro m your part ner's body.

lower back , a li ttle away from the spine.

If you feel t heir body hea t , you are

Experiment with the distance unti l it

'feels' right. Keep your palm relaxed and
just focus your mind o n t he energy

breathing o ut t hrough your hands. Be

flowing o ut through your hand. Remain

aware of any sensations o r 'feedback'

in this position for a few minutes. It will

that you get from yo ur partner.

help your partn er to relax.


Breathe into your palms and relax your

position and imagine that you are


Imagine t hat you are breathing o ut

How to do it

getting too close. Ho ld th e same


Energy - sensing t he abdomen
After massaging the abdom en , hold
bo th hands still fo r a moment over it,
o n eit her side o f t he navel. Th is helps
your partner to cent re. Breathe out
t hrough your hands. Wait fo r yo ur
partner to take three fu ll breat hs, then
gent ly take your hands away.

Holistic massage
The following holistic massage sequence is a mixture
of the techniques that you have just learned (see
pages 48-101). Ho listic massage is based on classic
Swedish massage movements, stretches and a sensitive
interaction with your partner. The rhythm should be
slow and the aim is to relax. The massage combines
gliding movements to spread the oi l, firmer strokes to
relax the muscles, and deeper movements to help
release local spots of tension . The massage shou ld feel
like a dance, progressing seamlessly to relax the whole
body. Keep your hands in contact with your partner
wherever possible , and empty your mind of busy
thoughts. Your focus shou ld be on the massage.



This ho listic massage sequence uses techniques t hat yo u are now familiar



w ith , in a head- to- toe routine. Th e massage beg ins on the back. one of




the most impo rtant areas for relaxa tion , offering yo u a chance to gain
co nAdence w ith sweeping effleurage strokes.



The massage should move smoothly

some tec hniques are too difficult for

from one part of t he body to the nex t.

you. come back to t hem another time,

following the self-contained routines.

bu t remember to try and keep your

The aim is to learn in an inte ractive

hands moving. Everything gets easier

process with your partner. rather t han

wit h practice. The massage ends at th e

give the perfect massage straight off! If

feet in order to ground you r partn er.

Techniques: The main strokes are

Equipment: You need a firm surface

effieurage, kneading, squeezing,

such as a massage table or soft mat

thumb and finger pressure and

on the floor; towels to cover the body

stretching, plus some feel-good

areas you are not working on;

strokes such as feathering and

supports for the head, knees or ankles;

rocking (see pages 48- 101).

and some oil (see pages 30- 33),

Movements: These shou ld be slow

Feedback: Make a note of any problem

and reassuring , moving easily from

areas before you start and always ask

one stroke to the next. To keep the

your partner for feedback.

rhythm, repeat the strokes several

times and apply effieurage rather
than stopping.

Timing: A body massage takes about

45 minutes; a back massage about
20 minutes.

Explore the massage sequence with your

partner as part of a dynamic learning
process. Keep movements [lowing.

The back


This is the beginning of your massage , so make sure that you have to hand

everything you w ill need and centre yourself Arst. Then enjoy the lo ng,

sweeping stokes down the length of the back and the chance to massage

some large muscle groups.






first to uch

Position yourself at your

partner's head (see Posture on pages

effl eurage Rub a

li ttle oil between

effleurage As you

reach the end o f

your hands. Lean forward. placing your

your downward stroke, spread your

t humb- rolling

Place both thumbs

on t he muscles to the side of the spine,

34-35). Check that your partner is

palms together fl at on the upper back.

fing ers and separate your hands so

in the triangle between the neck and

co mfortable. Empty your mind. breathe

Sweep as far down towards the lower

that they return up either side o f the

the shoulder blade. Roll with the balls

of your thumbs in continuous

slowly and relax. Focus on your body.

back as you can. Your hands should lie

ribcage. Pressure should be lighter on

and imagine that you are breathing in

fl at aga inst your partner's body in

the upward stroke. Come back to your

movements down the side of the spine.

through your feet and slowly out

continuous contact and should mo uld

starting pOSition and repeat the

The pressure shou ld be enough to

through your hands. As you exhale.

t hemselves to your partner's muscles.

movements several times. Your hands

relax the muscles, but not painful.

place your hands fl at o n your partner's

Effleurage spreads t he o il, relaxes your

should glide and feel reassuring,

Check the pressure with your part ner

back and relax for a few mo ments. This

partner and is an opportunity to feel

without using too much pressure.

before repeating.

sets t he tone for the massage.

for any tension.



palm pressure Support the

heel pressure Still supporting the


shoulder w ith one hand underneath.


and place the palm of the other hand

over the shoulder blade itself Apply

flat on your partner's upper back. with

pressure as you move diagonally over

shou lder. place the heel of your hand


the fingers cu rled over t he top of the

the muscles. releasing it as you


shoulder. Draw your hand around t he

massage towards the arm. Press and

out line of t he shoulder blade. applying

circle with your heel where the muscles


pressure down towards the body.

feel tight. with your other hand

Repeat several times to relax the

providing cushioned resistance.

muscles. pressing as close in to the

shoulder blade as you can.


feath ering To end the sequence.

thumb pressu re Sti ll supporting

lightly feather with both fingertips

w ith the lower hand. press in w ith your

down the length of your partner's arm.

thumb around the shou lder blade.

Brush lightly. drawing t he focus away

pressing between (but not directly on)

from the back to the hand. Repeat

the ribs. Press even ly w ith the ball of

several times. then move back to the

your thumb. hold for a moment each

head and begin the entire sequence on

time and then release. This stim ulates

t he other side. Always work with t he

the muscles between the ribs. as well

head turned away from the shou lder

as helping t he shou lder to relax.

t hat you are massaging.
















Move to your partner's

10 circling Position yourself square


palm pressure

Place your hands

together on the lower back muscles on



Leaning over, beg in

kneading the buttock. Press into the

lower back and rub some oil between

on to your partner. Place your hands

your hands. Place your palms together

flat over the sacrum, with one on

t he opposite side of the spine. Apply

muscles and roll the flesh back towards

over the sacrum, the triangle of bone

top of the other to steady the

pressure with the palms of your hands,

your thumbs with your flngers, so

at the base of the spine. Spread your

movement. Apply a little pressure

as you roll away From you over the

that you achieve a rhythm ic roll ing

flngers and separate your hands so

w ith your upper hand and begin

muscles and sweep around the hip

movement. Your hands should

t hat they sweep up and out over the

making an anticlockwise circle. Repeat

to t he buttock. The contact should

alternate. Continue massaging w ith

a fairly flrm pressure on the muscles
on ly until they feel relaxed.

lower back and hips. Return to the

very slowly and evenly to relax the

become lighter and change to the

starting position and repeat with

lower back w ithout any discomfort,

flngertips as you complete the stroke.

pressure on the outward sweep.

keeping your hands flexible and

mou lded to the body.





Continue the movement by






Beg inning

between t he shoulder blades, place

kneading the muscles on the opposite


t humb press ure

side of your partner's spine, pressing in

both t humbs over t he muscles on

with your thumbs and rolling back

either side of the spine. Press in

towards you with your fingers. Avoid

simu ltaneously w ith t he ba lls of the

working over the spine itself - allow

thumbs, pressing at interva ls para llel

roughly 2.5 cm (I in) either side of it.

to each vertebra. Press firm ly but

Massage up to the shoulder and back

sensitively: never press into t he bon e.

down again, then change position and

Move quickly and even ly down to the

repeat the lower back sequence on the

lower back.

other side.


palm pressure Place the

heels of

your hands !acing away from each

other at either side of the lower back.



To end the back

Slide your hands in opposite directions

sequence, place your fing ertips once

out towards the ribcage, using full

aga in at the top of t he spine and li ghtly

hand contact towards the end of the

feather down to t he lower back. Repeat

stroke. Repeat at intervals until you

in alternating, rolling strokes to draw

reach the shoulders, where you should

awareness down the body. Rest both

just apply pressure between the

hands on the lower back for a moment,

shoulder blades.

then lightly withdraw your touch.


Back of the legs and feet


11 5

Positio n yourself where you ca n massage th e length of the legs and

heel pressure Continue t he


complete each sequence o n o ne side of the body befo re beginn ing o n

squeezing stroke up the t high, t hen

t he other side. Aim to use simi lar pressure o n both sides. This is a grea t

use t he heels o f your hands fo r mo re


pressure. These muscles tend to be


o pportunity to work o n t he jo ints after relax ing t he muscles.


Position yourself at your


body w eight. Avo id t he inner t high.

K.eep your hands at an angle so t ha t


partner 's feet. Spread some oil over

t he leg just below the calf Create a

there is no contact Wit h your fin gers

V shape between your t humbs and

o r palms.

forefin gers and grip li ghtly w it h your

fin gers. Squeeze up over the calf

t he pressure at the knee and

towards t he knee, w here you should

continuing t he stroke to t he hip.

lighten t he pressure and end the

Separate your hands at th e top of the

stroke. Repeat, but do not massage

t high and return more li ght ly down

over any va ricose veins.


quite toned, so you can safely use your

your hands and place them together

hands together over t he ca lf. reducing



W rap your hands around

just above t he ankle. Glide w it h your

the o utside o f t he leg to the ankle.

Anger pressure Use t he balls o f

your fin gers to press around the hip
joint. Once you have located the join t ,
press in around it wit h your midd le and
fourt h fin gers, applying pressure evenly
in and releasing evenly out again.
Check w it h your partner because t his
area can be sensitive, but the muscul ar
release feels ver y good.





11 7



Adjust your position to

7 rotating Bend the lower leg back and

stand square o n to your partner. Place

support it at the ankle w ith one hand.







your hands over the t high muscles and

while the other hand grasps t he sole of

knead. pressing in w ith o ne t humb and

the foot. Your fin gers shou ld be over




rolling your fing ers back towards you,

the ball. with the pa lm firm ly over the

as you do so beg inning t he stroke wit h

sol e. Beg in slowly rotating t he ankle,

the other hand. K.nead over t he muscles

taking it through its fu ll range of


to relax them. avoiding pressure on t he

movement. Repeat t he movement in the

inn er t hi gh and knee.

opposite direction, then slowly lower






the leg back down.


Place your hands at either

side of t he lower leg, just below the

pulli ng

Place one hand underneath

the ankle, and t he other just above the

knee. Wring over t he leg with bot h

heel. Lift t he leg sli ghtly with your

hands - one sliding towards and the

lower hand and pu ll it gently towards

other away from you. Continue quickly

you. You may notice the effect in the

and lightly towards the ankle. keeping

hip. Your partner sho uld relax the leg

fu ll hand contact. Make sure that you

Without trying to straighten it o r help.

slide. rather than pulling t he skin, and

Release your hold gently and stroke

apply more oil if necessary.

over the foot.






















thumb - rolling

Massag ing the feet

ends the leg sequence and makes it feel


thumb pressure To further relax

the foot. press over the sole w ith your


knuckle pressure Cushioning


foot from underneath. press down over


featherin g

Brush w ith your

fingertips from the hip to the toes with

complete. Support your partner's foot

thumb. making tiny circles on the spot.

the sole with your knuckles. making

long. light. flowing movements. Keep

from underneath and use your thumbs

Keep the movements continuous and

small circles on t he spot. Keep t he

eno ugh hand contact to avoid tickling.

to roll over t he soles of the feet.

pay particular attention to pressing in

pressure comfortab le and avoid

Relaxed. loose wrists wi ll help your

Pressure should come from the balls of

around the base of t he toes and over

working over the instep. Check for

movements. drawing your partner's

your thumbs. Beg in movements in the

the ball of the foot. Your pressure can

comfort and any tenderness as you

focus right down to the feet. Slow your

middle of the foot and sli de towards

be quite firm. but be aware of any spots

work. Gently lower t he foot and stroke

strokes as you end. then change

the sides. Cover the whole area.

that might be tender to the touch .

over it with your fingertips.

excluding the instep. several times with

alternating. rolling movements.

position and repeat the entire seq uence

on t he other leg.

The neck and scalp

12 1

12 0

Work o n the Front of th e body sho uld be a li ttle more gentle t han that o n

the back. Most people have neck tension and And it hard to let go , so work


within your partner's li mits. Stretches provide great release. The more

conAdent your touch , th e better your movements will Feel.










Rub the smallest quantity


o f oil over your fing ers. Positio ned at

your partner's head, place your hands
on either shoulder, then sw eep round
over the shoulders until your hands
meet at t he back of the neck. Draw
your hands up slowly to the base of
the sku ll and release. Repeat several
times to give your partner confidence
and to aid relaxation.


This is a very slow, gentle,


Place your hands together

Anger pressure Turn

the head by

sensit ive movement designed to relax

under the neck, and cup t he base o f

cupping your fingers around your

partner's ears and supporting it w ith

the neck. Place one hand on one side

the sku ll. Lift t he head sli ghtly and pull

of your partner's neck, just below t he

it very gently towards you , then release

bo th hands. Rest the head on one hand

skull. Full contact shou ld be made w ith

and lower the head slowly. Th is gives a

w hil e you reach under the opposite

shou lder w ith t he other. Draw up your

your palm. Gently rock to one side,

good stretch, but must be avoided if

gUiding t he movement w ith your hand.

t here are any neck problems. This

fingers along t he muscles to the side of

As t he head turns to the side, beg in a

techn iqu e takes practice and is best

the spine, pressing towards the body

second rocking movement w ith the

done w ith your partner's feedback to

until you reach t he base of the sku ll.

other palm, so that the head turns back

help yo u.

the other way. Repeat several times.



5 Anger pressure Press around the



From the base of the skull,

base of your partner's skull with your

move your Angertips just above the


Angers, starting to th e side of the spine

hairline and beg in sma ll rotations on


and moving towards the ear. The

the spot over the sca lp, covering as

pressure shou ld be right beneath the

much of the head as you can reach.

skull, but not too deep as th is area can


Th" pressure can be Rlirly Arm, but take

be very sensitive. Press slowly and

care not to tug the ha ir. Then change




even ly for the best resu lts.

hands and repeat the neck sequence

on the other side.

palm pressure Place

the palm of

your hand over the top of your

partner's shou lder. Maintain fu ll contact

rotat ing

With the head back in the

and slowly draw it over the muscles,

centra l position, place both your hands

sweeping up towards neck. End the

over the front of the scalp and rotate

movement at the base of the skull.

on the spot, a bit like shampooing the

Keep your hand moulded to the body

hair. Then draw your Angers through

for a luxurious, relaxing stroke. Repeat

the hair to end the movements and

several times.

thoroughly relax your partner.







The face


Face massage Feels blissFul. The skin o n t he Face is delicate , so you need to


keep your hands steady, your movements precise and your strokes soFt,


especially around the eye area. Pressure can be Arm er when working on



male skin , especially around t he jaw.

t humb pressure

Place the tips of

your thumbs on each eyebrow, just

beside the bridge of the nose. Draw
them out over t he eyebrows towards
the temples, t hen release. You can



apply a reasonabl e amount of pressure.

Contact should be made with the sides

of your thumbs. Repeat severa l times to

relax the brow and eyes.

finger and t humb pressure

Place t he tips of your index Angers just

effleurage Rub

a small quantity of oil

thumb pressure Place

the length

below the eyebrows on the bony r idges

between your Angers. Light ly spread it

of your thumbs together in the middle

of the eye sockets. Using both hands

over your partner's skin by applying

of the forehead. Slowly draw them

sim ultaneously, press li ghtly at even

t hree sweeping strokes outwards over

outwards to the temples in a sweepin g

intervals towards t he outer corner of

t he face, covering t he forehead, cheeks

stroke. Repeat in roughly t hree lines

t he eyes. To work along t he lower

and chin. Lift your hands to avoid t he

until you have covered the area, the

r idge, change to pressure with your

eyes, and only apply sufficient oil to

last stroke being just above the

thumbs, repeating t he small movements

eyebrows. This is good for mental as

along the sockets back towards the

well as physical relaxation.

bridge of the nose.

enabl e your Angers to glide.



7 heel pressure Now repeat the

stroke, starting at t he chi n and

sweeping o ut over t he lower jaw. Keep




your hands mou lded to the shape of


the jaw and sweep up towards the


ears. Li ft your hands gently at the end

of the stroke and repeat several times.



You can also make use of your Angers

and palms.

thumb-rolli ng

Place both t humbs

heel pressure

Place both hands at

just below the bridge of your partner's

a sli ght diagonal above t he face, with

nose and then apply small, li ght, rolli ng

the heels of the hands on eit her side of

movements down to the tip. Work with

the nose. When you have got the r ight

your thumbs at a slight angle and keep

position, make contaa and sweep out


Place both your

hands sli ghtly above your partner's

your Angers raised so that they don't

over the cheekbones with your heels.

face, with the palms rough ly covering

brush the face or, more especia lly, make

Some pressure over the cheeks feels

the eyes. Just rest and ca lm your mind.

contact w ith the eyes. Use the strokes

Ane, but gradually reduce it as you

Focus your attention on your hands

alternately to bring your hands into

reach t he ears. Repeat several ti mes,

and any sensations that you feel,

making sure that you have enough o il

w ithout chang ing your positio n. Then

not to stretch the skin.

focus on your partner's face and again

position to massage over the cheeks.

note any sensations. Lift your hands

away gently to comp lete the sequence.

The arms and hands



Thi s sequence provides a chance to release t he shoulder area and massage




the hands, which always feels wonderful. Massage o ne side of the body Arst ,


th en the other, and use similar pressure on each arm. The inner arms ca n be

quite sensitive, so less pressure is needed here.











Rub some o il between

your hands and positio n yourself at

your partner's side. Place both hands
just above t he wrist and sweep up over
the arm towards the sho ulder. At the
shoulder your hands should separate
and brush back down more lightly to
t he wrist. This stroke helps you to
apply the o il and prepares the arm
for massage.



Change the position of


After completing the above

your supporting hand to accommodate

techniques, lower the arm so that you

one hand, place your fingers and

the squeezing technique over the

can adjust your grip. With o ne hand at

t humb just above the wrist and

muscles to the armpit. Pressure should

t he wrist and the other at the elbow,

sq ueeze up over the forearm towards

be applied with the w eb of the hand

lift the arm to stretch it above your

the elbow. Apply pressure with the web

once more, and should mould to the

partner's head. Support it just above

of your hand between the thumb and

shape of the arm. Beg in the stroke just

the elbow jo in t and stretch the arm up

index finger. Ease the pressure towa rd s

above the el bow and end iust below

until you feel resistance. Lower the arm,

the elbow and repeat, moving your

the armpit, where you should reduce

at the same time protecting the elbow,

hand to a slightly different position

the pressure to avoid sensitivity.

and lie it flat.


each time.

Supporting the arm with




squeez ing

This is a variation of the

squeezing technique. using w ho le- hand





thumb pressure Supporting


elbow from underneath with your

contact. Place one hand as far as

Angers. place your thu mbs together

possible under your partner's shou lder

lengthways and draw them outwards


blade and t he other on the chest. just

over the elbow crease. Reduce your





below the collarbone. Now apply

pressure as you complete the stroke.

pressure with both hands and squeeze

Though simple. this feels wonderfully

out towards the arm. This releases the

relaxing and means that the elbow joint

shoulder blade and enables it to li e

does not get left out.

flatter on the massage surface.


wring ing

Lower the arm and place

your hands around the forearm. just

below the elbow. Now wring with both
hands down the arm to the wrist. Keep
your hands mo ulded to the shape of
the arm. and apply more o il if
necessary. so that t he stroke feels
comfortable over the surface of the
skin. Repeat several times.


This stroke can be a littl e

tricky and you will need to contain

your movements. With the arm lying
flat. lean across and knead with your
Angers over the upper arm muscles.
Your movements should be simply over
the muscles. and contact shou ld be
mostly with the Angers and thumbs.
Repeat up and down over t he area
several times.






thumb pressure Supporting




Turning the hand again,

par t ner 's hand from underneath with

place your thumbs and index Angers as


your Angers, place your thumbs

high as you can reach o n either side of


together over the back of the hand.

the hand. Draw them slowly down

Draw both thumbs outwards over the

between the tendons and bo nes until


hand, applying pressure and then

you reach the Angers. Work steadily


releas ing it as your thumbs curl

over the hand until you have completed

towards the palm to complete t he

the movement in each of the four



stroke. Apply in three different

positio ns. As long as you sli de

overlapping positions to relax the hand.

comfortably over the skin, the pressure

can be reasonably Arm.



Supporting the

hand from underneath, press into the



Now place your thumb and

palm with the balls of your thumbs,

Angers at the base of your partn er's

making small circles on the spot. Cover

hand and pull each Anger in turn. Wo rk

the entire palm, including the base of

thorough ly over the jOints and give the

the Angers and the fleshy area around

tip of each Anger a squeeze before

t he thumb. The hands get quite tense,

completing t he movement. Light

so you can spend some time o n these

feathering or rocking is also an option

movements, although care is needed

before repeating the sequence on the

around any painful joints.

other arm.







The chest




Massage on th e chest ca n use broad strokes for a man , but needs to be

thumb pressure

Place t he balls of


adapted for a fema le partner. For men , use additional oi l where there is body

both thumbs beneath t he collarbone

hair. For women, have a small towel ready to cover th e breasts, and always

at either side of t he sternum


(breastbone>. Press down and fOllow


avoid working over the delicate breast ti ssue.

the line of the ribs out towards the



shou lder. Repeat below t he next rib,


without applying pressure over the

bones. This helps to relax t he muscles
between t he r ibs.


Position yourself at your

effleurage Separate your hands at

partner's head. Rub some oil between

t he base of t he ribcage, then sw eep

your fin gers. Place both hands together

back up the sides of t he bo dy to the

fl at at the top of your partner 's chest.

armpi ts. Keep your hands moulded to

over the chest, it is important to avoid

Sweep down the centre of the chest to

t he ribs, at the same time reducing

the nipples and breasts. Therefore, in

t he botto m of the r ibcage, avoiding any

your pressure. Repeat t he effleurage

the middle of the chest, you can adapt

contact w ith the breasts. In order to

strokes several times so that they form

the strokes by simple t humb pressure

preserve modesty, you ca n adapt the

one continuo us flowing movement.

between the ribs. Press down with the

thumb pressure

When working

strokes and use a small towel over t he

balls of bot h thumbs simultaneously,

chest instead.

then release the pressure evenly and

slowly. Repeat in three to four positions
down t he centre of t he ribcage.





13 7

5 finger pressure Place your hands

finger pressure

Reach down to the

over your partner's r ibcage, w ith t he

low er r ibs on one side o f the bo dy.


heels on either side o f t he sternum .

Place your fingers between the r ibs and


Glide out over t he ribs using your heels

pull them back over t he ribcage, one

and palms, following the line o f t he

hand after the o t her. Sweep both




ribs. Then pull back up t he sides of t he

hands up t he centre o f the chest and

ribcage, w ith splayed fin gers pressing

end th e stroke by lightly feather ing

between t he bones. Repeat severa l

diagonally over th e opposite shoulder.

times in one continuo us movement to

From the sa me position, repeat on the

relax t he chest.

o ther side.

heel pressure As you return

to t he

top of t he chest. place the heels of

heel pressure To

end the sequence,

your hands on eit her side o f the

place both hands over t he tops of the

sternum , just beneath the collarbone.

sho ulders. Press away from you w ith

Applying pressure with your heels.

the heels o f yo ur hands so t hat your

draw your hands out towards the

partner's sho ulders visibly relax.

shoulders. Repeat under the collarbone

Repeat, t hen keep your hands still for

several t imes, easing yo ur pressure as

a moment, and close t he sequence by

you complete each stroke.

stroking over the sho ulders.







The abdomen


Massage over the abdomen is very important because it beneAts the




internal organs as well as helping the body to relax. This area can be

emotiona lly charged and sensitive, so adapt the strokes to your partner's





needs and be extra gentle during menstruation. Avoid during pregnancy.





Position yourself at a

slight diagonal to your partner. Rub

some o il between your fingers,
warming it before the first stroke. Place
your hands fiat over the abdomen and
circle around the navel in a clockwise
direction. The pressure shou ld be fairly
li ght as th is area can be particularly
sensitive - the main aim is to spread
the oil.


Now a little more pressure is


Follow the circling round


Continue the wide, slow

until you reach the point where your

circles with one hand to keep the

hands cross. Lift your first hand, cross

abdomen relaxed, then introduce

applied to relax the abdomen. One

it over the other, then place it down

smaller fingertip circles with the other.

hand shou ld follow the other so that

just in front to continue the strokes.

The Circles shou ld slide over the skin

you circle in a series of fiowing

Your second hand should remain in

without digging in, and the second

movements. Work in a clockwise

contact. In t hat way your circling is

hand shou ld follow the first,

direction around the navel. Keep whol e-

continuous and the strokes will feel

maintaining the long, slow, relaxing

hand contact with a relaxed, even

smooth and even.

strokes. Work all the way round the

pressure to make it feel safe and

reassuring. Strokes remain slow.

navel once.





Place your hands over your

partner's hips, one on either side of the



body. Slowly draw your hands towards



each other over the abdomen, to reach


the opposite side. The main focus is


sliding and moulding your hands to the



hips, with little pressure over the

abdomen. Apply more oil if necessary.


To Anish the

sequence, rest both hands flat over the

abdomen, on either side of the navel.
Breathe calmly and focus your attention
Arst on your hands, then on your
partner's breathing, which should have
become deeper and more relaxed. Keep
your hands still for a few moments.

palm pressure This movement can


Using only your Angers, circle

be incorporated into your circling

lightly over the solar plexus (the pit of

strokes. As your hands reach your

the stomach). This area can get very

partner's ribcage, place one hand flat

tense, but is also highly sensitive. Circle

on one side of the body just below the

in a clockwise direction with flat

ribs. Press down slowly and evenly,

Angers, with the Angers of your other

then release your pressure. Continue

hand on top to guide the movements if

the circle to the other side of the body,

necessary. Concentrate on creating a

then repeat below the ribs. Be very

feeling of relaxation, with warmth

sensitive to your partner's level of

radiating out from your hands.

comfort, too little pressure is better

than too much.

This will feel comforting and relaxing.





Front of the legs and feet



This o ffers the chance to complete your massage by relax ing the muscles.




proViding a stretch and working right down to the feet. Complete the



sequence o n each side of the body in turn . using similar pressure. Ending


at the feet helps to centre the massage.



Carryon the sq ueezin g


movement up over the th igh. beginn ing

just above the knee. Lean in w ith your


bo dy weight to increase the pressure.


Work over the t high towards the hip




several times. avoiding the inner thigh .



effl eurage

Position yourself at your


Place both hands one


Spread your thumbs and fin gers as


partner's foo t. Spread some o il over

behind the other. just above the ankle.

wide as you ca n to accommodate the

your hands and sweep up the front o f

Gripping with your thumbs and index

muscles and increase the effectiveness

the leg. hands together. to the t high.

fing ers. squeeze up over the leg

of the technique.


As you reach the hip. your hands

towards the knee. Apply pressure to

should separate and return down t he

the muscles w ith the webs between

sides of t he leg. with the fingers spread

the fingers and thumbs. relaxing your

and the pressure reduced. Return to

palms so that you reduce t he pressure

the pOSition just above t he ankle and

directly over t he bone. Stop just below

repeat severa l times.

the knee and repeat .



heel pressure Change your contact

to t he heels of your hands to give more

pressure over the muscles. One hand
sho uld fo llow t he other. As you reach
the hip. you can work around the jo int
using the heel of one hand. Work in
circu lar movements on the spot.
applying pressure in towards the hip.









7 wringing

Position yourself sq uare

Wring down the leg to


the ankle. beginning your movements

on to your partner. Beg in kneading


movements over the thigh muscles. but

below the knee. Keep your hands


avoid the inner thigh. Press in to the

relaxed and moulded to t he shape of

muscles with your thumbs. pushing

the leg. The wringing movement wi ll

slightly away from you. then bring your

feel best when the hands cross right

fingers back towards your thumbs in

next to each other. Apply mo re oil as


alternate rhythmic. rolling movements.

necessary to prevent pu lling t he skin.




Work up and down the th igh. ending


your strokes above the knee.



Slide your fing ers under the

pu lling

Place both hands around the

knee. and cup the back o f the knee

ankl e. with one hand over t he top and

with both hands. With the leg slight ly

the other underneath. cupped around

bent. rock the joint from side to side

t he heel. Lift t he leg slight ly. then pu ll

whi le sti ll supporting it with your

back gently towards you to give a good

hands. The leg should be relaxed

stretch. Only go as fur as you can

enough for you to rock without your

without resistance. Lower t he leg

part ner controlling the movement.

carefully afterwards.

14 6

14 7


















thumb pressure Cup your

10 squeezing Reach as far up between



Carryon t he squeezing



Moving to t he t hig h, place

the toes as you can, pressing w it h your

movements with your Anger and thumb

your hands o n either side of it. Rock

Angers underneath and your thumbs

t hum b and middle Anger. Squeeze

over each toe in turn. You can rotate

w ith one hand in towards the body,

on top. Place t he thumbs side by side

gently as you draw your hand towards

t he toes and wring t he skin slight ly

t hen rock the other way w it h the other

lengthways in t he centre of t he foot.

you, until you come to t he base of

with one hand. The other hand

hand. Rock all the way down to t he

then slowly draw them apart. sliding

t he toes. Repeat in each of t he four

supports the foot. cupp ing around the

foot and th<; whole body should

outwards over the foot. Press with

positions to relax th e foot. Use the

heel. Continue t he movement about

respond. Cup your hands over the toes

your Angers underneath at t he same

balls of your Anger and thumb to avoid

2.5 cm (1 in) beyond the toes, and

to complete the sequence, then repeat

time so that the foot is slightly arched.

pinching or tickli ng.

Anally place the foot down carefully.

all the movements on the other leg.

partner's foot in your hand, with your

Repeat just above t he toes.

Holistic quick fix



If you o nly have a few mo ments for massage , here are four effective steps




as in a whole - body massage for a fu lly therapeutic experience. Keep to the

basic principles and a few ca reful movements can work wonders.



to help re lax th e body. Each o ne shou ld be given as much care and attention








thumb pressure on the back

Effleurage over your partner's back to

spread the o il. Then press with the balls
of your thumbs over the muscles o n
eit her side of the spine, going from t he
upper back all the way down to the
lower back. Yo ur pressure and pace
should be even from start to fin ish,
w ith your fingers providing suppo rt.
Remember not to press over the spine.

circling the sacrum

Place o ne

pulling the neck Ask your partner

pulling the feet Move to

the feet.

to turn over. Slide your hands under

Grasp o ne foot with both hands: o ne

the neck, then cup both hands at the

over the top and the other supporting

hand over the other on the sacrum

base of t he skull, raise the head slightly

it underneath at the heel. Ra ise the leg

(the triang le of bone at the base of the

and carefully pu ll it back towards you.

sli ghtly, then pu ll back towards you.

spine) and beg in slow, anticlockwise

Stop when you feel your partn er 's

Watch the movement in the lower back

circles. Yo ur hands shou ld move evenly

resistance. Low er the head and rest

and hips. When you feel resistance,

over t he skin and remain mo ulded to

your hands for a few moments over

relax the stretch and lower the leg

t he low er back. Focus on the relaxatio n

your partner's eyes.

again. Repeat on the other leg.

process, t hen rest your hands, with

o ne over your partner's lower back and
the other between the shoulder blades.



With a little ingenu ity. you ca n apply selF- massage to almost any part of

thumb pressure on the neck

Place your hands beh ind your neck.

your body and experi ence the beneAts that you usually offer to other

with your t humbs on the

people. SelF- massage also gives you the chance to And points that it may

mus c ~es


either side of t he spine. Make small

be difficu lt to locate on a partner without experience.

Circl es on the spot over t he muscles.






using your fingertips to provide

support. Work slowly up t he neck
without using too much pressure. until
you reach the base of the skull. You
should feel your neck relax. If not.
repeat the movements.

kneading the shoulders Sitting

cupping the shoulders

This is a

upright . pl ace one hand over the

good way of livening up t he muscles.

opposite shou lder and locate the

Place one hand over the opposite

muscle crest along the top. Knead with

sho ulder. with the palm directly above

Place both hands at' the base of your

one hand from the neck out towards

t he muscles. Now cup backwards and

sku ll to eit her side of t he spine. Press in

the arm and back again. Simply

forwards from t he neck to t he arm. to

under t he skull w it h your middl e and

massage the muscles. rather t han

make the distinctive cuppin g sound.

fourth fing ers. w it h t he hands movin g

working over t he bone. Press in with

Keep your hand relaxed with t he palm

o ut towards t he ears simultaneously.

Anger pressure on the skull

your t humb and knead with your

raised. making contact w it h t he heel

Press in slowly and release eq ually

fingers until t he area feels relaxed.

of your hand and your fing ers. The

steadily. usin g a pressure that feels

Repeat on t he other shoulder.

movements shou ld be fairly fast. Repeat

right. Press at equal distances and stop

on t he other shou lder.

just behind t he ears.

15 3



fi nger pressure under the

cheekbones Use t he balls of your


middle fingers to press outwards under




the cheekbones. Beg in just besi'cle t he

nostrils and press in as close to t he


bone as you can. The movement should

be at a sli ght diagonal upwards, under

t he cheekbones. Press at even
distances o ut towards t he jaw. Where
the muscles feel tight, circle on the
spot to relax them.

rotating over the scalp


the fingertips of both hands over your

finger pressure on the eye

sockets Use the balls of your middle

resting the eyes

Place your cupped

scalp, t hen press down and rotate on

fingers to press along t he lower eye -

the spot w ith your fingers and th umbs,

socket r idge. Begin at the bridge of

using t he thumbs as anchors to keep

t he nose and work out towards the

them. The heels sho uld rest over the

the fingers steady. Try and get as much

temples. Use as much pressure as feels

cheekbones, the palms shou ld be ra ised

movement as possible. Work right over

good to relieve any tension around the

an d the fingers sho uld rest o n the

the scalp to release any tension, not

eyes. Press steadily at even distances,

forehead. Th is is a great relaxation

forgetting the back of the head and

keeping the movements li ght and fa irly

technique as well as an energy boost.

arou nd t he ears.

quick. Avoid pulling the skin.

No pressure shou ld be exerted over t he

hands over t he eyes to actively rest

eyes, wh ich shou ld be closed for t he

best resul ts.







squeezin g the arms

It is perfectly


squeezing the legs

For t his


possible to perform this technique o n

movement you need to be fl exibl e


yourself Place your hand just above t he

enough to reach your calf Bend your


elbow of the opposite arm. with the

leg and cup your hands arou nd t he ca lf

Angers on o ne side and the t humb on

muscles . with t he Angers at the front


the other. Now squeeze up over the

and the thumbs behind. Now use your

muscles towards t he armpit. applying

thumbs to squeeze up over the calf

pressure w ith t he w eb between the

towards t he knee. where no pressure

index Anger and thumb. Repeat several

shou ld be app lied. Yo ur Angers sho uld

dmes. then repeat o n t he opposite arm .

act as a suppo rt to steady the

movement. Repeat o n the other leg.


thumb pressure on the feet

Here you need to be fl exible enough to


pummelling the hips

Form your

reach the sole o f your foot. Bend your '

hands into loose Asts and use them to

leg and place t he balls of your thumbs

pummel over your buttocks and hips.

on th e sole of your foot. with the

This is an invigorating movemen t

Angers supporting it over the top.

designed to stimulate circulation in an

Work over the sole us ing small circular

area where the muscles and jo ints can

movements. w ith your thumbs w o rking

get quite tight. Use as much pressure

alternately. Avoid t he instep and

as you need. keeping t he movements

concentrate on the ball o f the foot

lively. Use your hands alternately to

and base of the toes. Repeat o n t he

establish a good rhythm.

other foot.





Chinese massage
Chinese massage is a combination of techniques

improve the Aow of energy (chi) within the

body and increase vitality. In this Chinese massage

sequence. strokes to relax the muscles and stimulate
the meridians (energy channels) combine with
acupressure over the points. The aim is to balance
and energize your partner. The quality of your touch
and movements is more important than exact point
location. which takes time. requires feedback and
becomes easier with practice and experience. So
work with an open mind.



Chinese massage, or TuiNa , is based on an orienta l approach to the body

and health. It is a comprehensive, holistic approach, which takes into
account not o nly the individual. but also interactio n between the individual

and the environment. All elements are impo rtant in diagnosis.


Traditional Ch inese medicine incl udes

world is composed of the interplay

a number of complex systems. and the

between o pposites. known as yin and

relationships between its va rio us

yang (see also page 202); and an

elements are o f great importance.

imbalance of yin and yang within th e

The meridians

o r deAciency of chi.

body ca n be seen as either an excess

According to Chinese principles. there

Each of the meridians is governed

are various channels of energy, o r

by a particular body organ and has

meridians, throughout the bo dy. Th ey

particular characteristics. The two

number 12 pairs o n either side of two

central meridians. which are of special

central channels. making a tota l o f

importance. are known as the

14 meridians. In addition, t here are a

Conceptio n Vessel (CV. which runs

further six extraordinary meridians. All

up the Front of t he body and is

these channels circulate chi (interna l

predo minantly yin in character) and

vita l energy), and good healt h depends

the Governor Vessel (GY. wh ich run s up

on a harmonious balance of chi

t he back and is predo minantly yang ).

between the different meridians.

Harmony not o nly needs to exist
within t he body. but also in the
interchange between the individual and
the external world. Exchanges of energy
are constant ly taking place. and o nce

This 18th-century Chinese illustration

again balance is the key. According to

shows the position of the points along the

traditio nal Chinese philosophy, t he

Governor Vessel channel.



~ 10<>
~ ~~




-'" ~
~E. df>



Acupressure points

M<ll~t_----------------- Yintang

St I ---------------------!~

~~------------------- Co20

An almost bewildering number of acupressure points are located within th e


body. Each lies o n a particular meridian . but th e 14 meridians are of va r ying

lengths and so have different numbers of points. Each point is known by t he





Lu 2------------~or

meridian o n wh ich it is located and by its num ber in the sequence.

Wh ile some meridians (such as the

address medica l problems. Chinese

ga ll - bladder meridian) begin in the

massage is a great way to aid relaxation

upper bo dy. others begin in the

and maintain good healt h. Knowledge

extremities and work upwa rds. For

of a few principal points (see pages

example. KI - t he Arst point along the

16\-1 63) is a good way to begin. and

kidney meridian - is located in the foot.

locatio n of the points is achieved by

The bladder meridian is the longest.

measuring in Anger- wid ths relative to

with 67 po ints alo ng its length.

the person you are massaging. o r wit h

Chi flows from one meridian to

another. as wel l as between t he po ints.
Stimulation of the points may be do ne

the thumb. Each thumb measurement

r---r-t"'+"'--7-t----------- CV 17

0 ~--

Lu 10----o


00 .

: .

~'<::_---- P6

o .

is known as one cun.



by needles (as in acupuncture) or by

Angers and thumbs (as in TuiNa) . W hile
pressure via the hands may be less
accurate. the principles remain the
same. The aim is to relieve blockages of
energy within the channels and to


assist the flow of chi. Thi s in turn will

affect the functio ning o f the organs and
will help return t he body to hea lth .
A full assessment normally precedes

massage. including oriental pulse and

tongue diagnosis. Wh ile it takes the
tra ining o f a skilled practitio ner to

0. , ; 0

L- H 7


.0 . ~~t~0~~~--~~~-------CV6

e 000 .

0 0


. ...r



,= ...
Spl $p 1----------------'.........g. :



. 6: ~
. 0. ' , 0

.0 0. ,






Lu 10 ----..+--"--~


P 6-----I-----'



~ o~o ~ ~1 -.: ..



GV 14

~. : ~ ~" :'\.~~ ...~.~~



, 0
I 0

' 0

: .:

' ''






0 0

. 0

~ ~~O ; O :

o ~

-0 0


00 ;





: ~

!o 0:::"

. 0

i~,oO :'


ci 0


, 0,

~O ~I l;-~l~1~:,------:;--'~'~+';..---_~1


o! :0

\ ~/

BL 31-34

Co 4


GB 30 --------------~--~~


0 0

OBoOO ; 0





\ 0


St 36


. . . ..

Sp 6



~ 0


~ O~.,'t.::-::..

:' 0'" :

, 0

Li 3 _ _ _ _ /

BI 67

' ,.

BI 60




00 ~

~O :

Lu 2






Co 4


H 7----"

GB 20



,4 '

i )


... ::~~:..~..~~

BI 60
BI 67


16 5

Chinese medicine refers to two t ypes o f chi within the body: the chi you are


born with (known as 'before-heaven chi'), which is stored in the kidneys and


may be weak or become depleted in some people and is difficult to restore;


and 'after-heaven chi', which Aows throughout the body.






Chi ca n be inA uenced by, For example,

swell ing o r inAammation . Stimulating

diet, Fresh air or liFestyle; it shou ld

the Aow of energy and dispersing the

Aow Freely through the meridians,

build - up of chi helps to increase vitality

nourishing and supporting the body.

and return the body to balan ce and

Blockage of this Aow can resu lt in an

good health.

excess, defiCiency or stagnation of chi,

whose effects may be Felt as pain ,

Traditionally, Chinese massage was

perFormed cloth ed, through a sheet to

Techniques: The main techniques are

on the Aoor: towels to cover the area

effleurage, elbow pressure, thumb-

you are not working on: supports for

rolling, thumb and finger pressure,

the head, knees or ankles: and some

preserve the recipient's modesty.

In Chinese massage, thumbs, fingers and

stretching and rocking.

oil (see pages 30-33).

However, o il can be used so that the

elbows are used to stimulate energy flow

Movements: These vary between

Feedback: Make a note of any problems

strokes relax the muscles as well as

and promote the flow of chi.

Aowing, stimulating and pressure

before starting, and ask your partner

working along the meridians. Pressure

movements, and shou ld follow on

for feedback about the location and

to stimu late the points is done mainly

be either quick and light or deeper and

from each other to give the massage

especially any tenderness associated

With the thumbs and fingers. For deeper

slower. When giving a massage. try to

shape and form.

with the acupressure points.

movemen t s the balls of the thumbs and

stay in tune wi th your own body and

Equipment: You need a firm surface,

such as a massage table or soft mat

TIming: A whole- body TuiNa massage

shou ld take about 45 minutes.

elbows may be used, and For lighter,

this wi ll be conveyed to your partner.

vibrating stimulatio n t he fingertips are

Being correctly positioned (see pages

excellent. Care shou ld be taken to li sten

34-35) wi ll enable you to Focus o n

to the body and use pressure that is

se nsitivity. Massage around, rather than

appropriate. Movements may need to

over, painFul areas to di sperse energy.

The back


Position yourself so that you can reach the back comfo rtably, with

Return to the head. Place

your thumbs over GB 2 1, which is

everything you need to hand. Centre yourself Arst, then begin massage



located in the depression midway

o n the back, wh ich will have an effect on the whole body. The techn iques

between C7 and the shoulder. Position

include both massage and the use of pressure points.

your Fingers over your partner's

shoulders and squeeze severa l times.


effleurage Spread

This helps to relax the shoulders. If the

some oil over

your hands. Position yourself at your

point is sore, massage around it w ith

partner 's head and glide your hands

the thumbs to disperse excess chi.

together down to the lower back. You

can apply relatively Firm pressure with


your palms. The aim is to wake up t he

meridians. Spread your Fingers at the

Do not use point GB 21

lower back and draw them back up

during preg nancy.

either side of the ribs to t he shou lders.

Repeat briskly several tim es.


Move to the side. Place your

thumbs on either side of the spine and

thumb - rolling

Place both your

thumbs on the r idge of muscles to one

circle over the muscles by the

side of the spine. Roll w ith the thumbs,

prom inent vertebra (Cll at the base of

alternating your strokes down to the

the neck. This point is known as GV 14

lower back. Th is relaxes the bladder

and the circling movements help to

meridian, wh ich lies on either side of

relax the neck. As you circle, imag ine

the spine. Your strokes can be fairly

any tension releasing out towards the

brisk. Repeat severa l times, then rep eat

shou lders. Repeat slowly severa l times.

on the other side.





5 palm

pressure Move to your


partner's lower back and apply a little


oil. Place one hand flat over the sacrum


<the triangle of bone at the base of the


spine) and the other across the lower




back. Cup your upper hand slightly so

that there is no pressure over the

spine. Anchoring with the upper hand.
carefully stretch over the muscles with
the other palm to relax the lower back.
Repeat with sensitivity.

palm pressure

Repeat the

movement. this time over the lower

elbow pressure Move to one of

thumb pressure

Return your

your partner's hips. locate GB 30 with

hands to the lower back. Place both

your Angers. one-third of the way

thumbs roughly 4 em (I';' in) away

down the buttock and two-thirds

from the spine on either side of the

towards the hip. Guide your elbow

sacrum. Press BI 31-34 with both

to the point with your Angers. then

thumbs simu ltaneously. locating the

slowly press in towards the hip.

litt le depressions in the bone. Press

back muscles on either side of the

keeping your elbow rounded. Release

each point gently once. then release

spine. lean over your partner and cup

and then repeat. This area can be tight

and move on to the next point.

both hands over the muscles. avoiding

and extremely sensitive. but stimulation

any pressure on the spine. Then stretch

is good for relaxing the hip. Your

with one hand towards the shoulders

partner should breathe calm ly to relax.

and the other to the hip. This relaxes

Repeat the last two movements on

the powerful muscles along the bladder

the other side.

meridian and helps to ease the lower

back. Repeat several times.

Do not use points BI 31-34
during pregnancy.



thumb pressure Use t he balls o f

your t hum bs to press in to t he muscles
either side of the spine. Pressing
between the shoulder blades, stim ulate



BI 15. This sho uld be nice and relaxed, so

circle around t he po ints on both sides
undl you feel a redumon in muscle tone.
Return to the point o nce more and press
in evenly again with your thumbs.


firm stroking

To finish t he back

sequence, place bot h hands flat against

the sides of your partner's body. Draw
your hands down to the hips. Repeat
twice more, fairly vigorously, to draw


Place both hands on either

side of your partner's ribs. Gently rock



Positio n yourself at the

shoulders. Place your t hum bs at o ne

t he body away from you, then rock

side of the muscles to the side o f the

back aga in the other w ay with your

spine, with your fing ers in t he same

other hand. Continue with alternate

position on t he other side. Sq ueeze

movements down to the hips. Repeat

into the muscles wi t h your fingers and

toward s the armpits and back o ne final

thumbs, and squeeze towards the

time to the hips. This helps to relax the

spin e. Move alo ng the muscles from the

entire back.

upper to th e lower back, making sure

that your fing ers do not di g in. Repeat
on the o pposite side o f the spine.

yang energy down t he back.


Back of the legs and feet



This sequence continues massage over the meridian s, combined w ith speciAc


pressure points For the legs and Feet, Complete working o n one side of the


body beFo re beginning the sequence on the other. Yo ur pressure and pace


sho uld be similar For each leg.










thumb - rollin g

Rub some oil

t humb pressure

Squeeze BI 60,

thumb - rolling

Move to t he outer


Move to t he foot and grasp

th igh and repeat the rolling movements

your partner's leg, with one hand

ankle jOint. Apply pressure with your

down the leg, again avoiding pressure

underneath and the other above the

thumb for a few moments and release.

over the back o f the knee. Follow the

heel. Lift the leg carefully and pull it

gall-bladder meridian fairly briskly

gently towards you. Rock the leg

the bladder meridian, which lies along

down to the ankle joint. Massage as if

slightly as you put it down, to stimulate

the middle of the thigh and ends just

you are rolling energy down the leg.

the flow of energy.

between your hands and effleurage

which is level w ith and just behind the

over your partner's leg. This helps the

massage movements. Then roll your
thumbs from thigh to ankle, following

behind the ankle bone. Do not use

pressure over the back of the knee.
Repeat, alternating the thumb rolls
several times.


Repeat the movements several times.

Do not use point BI 60
during pregnancy.

17 5

5 t humb -circling Suppor t your


partner 's feet with both hands and


place your thumbs over KI in t he middle,






just under the ball o f the foot. Th is is



good for boosting energy. Circle on the

spot w it h both t humbs simultaneously,



increasing t he pressure as you do so.


Circling rather than pressing spreads


t he pressure over a wider area.


Do no t use points KI or BI 67
during pregnancy.

7 s qu eez ing s upport t he foot w it h

6 s queez ing Pick up your partner's

8 rubb in g Pick up the foot and rub

your hand, squeezing along t he outside

the ball o f it between your hands. Pay

with the t humb and fing ers. Use fair ly

particularly attention to the KI point,

firm pressure. Squeeze and pinch from

w hich you massaged befo re (see

t he heel along t he fl eshy part o f the

Step S). You can rub quite vigorously.

foot and place your hands on eit her

foot to t he little toe. Repeat several

Place the fo ot down. t hen pull t he toes

side. Squeeze it between t he fin gers

times, t hen squeeze BI 67 at t he corner

one by o ne to release t he chi and

and thumbs. Now squeeze one side

of t he lit t le toe nail bed and pu ll your

repeat the whole sequence on t he

of the foot towards you. wh ile

fing ers aw ay quickly with a li ttle snap.

other leg.

squeezing the o t her side aw ay. This

helps to release tension in t he foot.
Squeeze up and down until t he muscles
feel looser.

Front of the legs and feet


The massage sequence continues upwards From the Feet and legs, Following

the directio n of the meridians. The work is on the acupressure channels and


points, some of which are stimulated specifica lly. Massage each side of the



body in turn , keeping the pressure similar and consistent.

thumb - rolling


Rub some oil over

your hands. Roll up the inside of your

partner's leg with your thumbs,




beg inning your movements just above

the ankle. Apply reasonably firm
pressure at a fairly vigorous pace.
Carefully work around the fl eshy inner
side of the knee, then stop just above.
Repeat several times. but check the
comfort levels w ith your partner
because these points can be sensitive.

thumb pressure Return

to the

ankle and locate Spl 6. three fingerwidths up from the ankle joint, just
behind the bone. Proceed cautiously
as this point can be extremely tender,
especially for women. Press gently and.
if the po int is sore, circle on the spot
to disperse the chi.

Do not use point Spl 6
during preg nancy.

thumb pressure Cross

to the


Stroke down t he length

other side of t he leg and find St 36.

of t he outer leg at the end of this

which lies at the outer edge of the

seq uence to bring the chi to the feet.

shinbone, t hree fing er -widths below

Use the fl ats of your hands and

the knee. Press with your thumb,

fingertips fairly briskly, stroking down

starting gently and then increasing

to t he ankle joint. Repeat t he

the pressure. Hold for a few moments

movements severa l times, t hen position

and then release. This is a good

yourself at your partner's feet.

digestive tonic.




















Grasp the sole o f your


Support the foot

thumb pressure Move

to the big

rock ing Stand at the

feet and slide

from underneath and locate Li 3, which

toe. Ho lding it with one hand to

supporting underneath the leg w ith the

lies in the depression between the big

provide resistance, press at the outer

partner's ankles. Lift the legs slightly

other. Rotate the ankle joint several

and Arst toes. Roll your thumbs in small

corner of the nail with the side of your

and gently rock, pu lling towards you as

partner's foot with one hand wh ile

your hands under both of your

times in both directions, then press the

alternating movements over the pOint,

thumb. This stimulates Sp I, wh ich is

you do so. Keep your shoulders relaxed.

entire foot directly back towards the

stroking up towards the ankle. Repeat

good for nourishing energy. Press into

Th is aligns the body and helps the Aow

body as fur as your partner 's Aexibi lity

several times. This should feel quite

the point and release. Then repeat all

of energy. Place the legs back down

will allow. Th is helps to release stiffness

relaxing, and is a good tonic pOint.

t he movements on the other leg.

and pause for a moment before

in the ankle.

breaking contact w ith your partner.

The arms and hands



Position yourself so that you ca n comfo rtably massage th e length of the



thumb pressure Support t he arm


arms. Bear in mind the directions of t he meridians at both the front and

with o ne hand. P6 is located between

back of the arms. Work o n the hands and Angers is importa nt in helping

t he tendo ns. two and a half finger-

widths above the wrist. Place your


to release excess chi.

thumb over the pOint. pressing gently

with t he ba ll. and continue t he


Rub some o il over your

pressure unti l your partner feels t he

connectio n. Hold for a few mo men ts

of your partner's arm . fo llowing t he

and t hen release slowly. Th is is good

lung meridian from the chest

for regu lating the circulation.

shoulder. Stroke down t he arm severa l

times. returning up t he back of the
arm. Repeat using greater pressure o n
the downward stroke.

thumb pressure Move your t humb

to t he little- finger side of t he wrist.


cup your hands under t he

sho ulder and. suppo r t ing the arm . rock

In a line down from the inside of the

little finger you wi ll find a depression

gently down the arm to the hand. Both

just by the bon e. which is H7. Pl ace

hands shou ld remain in contact for t he

your thumb over the poin t and press

length of t he stroke. This helps to relax

carefully with t he t ip. close in to the

the arm muscles and sho ulder joint.

bo ne. Continue wi t h t he pressure until

Repeat t he movement several t imes.

you connect w ith the point. t hen

t hen squeeze firm ly down to t he hand.



hands and effleurage down t he inside

downwards over the ball of the


release the pressure even ly.



18 2



Ho ld your partner's hand by



the little fing er and t humb, then lift the


forearm slightly and rock gently from



side to side, to relax both t he wrist and


fin ger jOints. Low er t he arm , let your

partn er relax, t hen try again. Th is time





the hand sho uld feel much looser.


thumb pressure Place your thumb

over the w eb o f yo ur partner's hand
betw een t he t humb and index finger,
supporting it from underneath. Locate
t he soft depression and press in gently
to Co 4 wit h t he tip o f your t humb.

thumb pressure Turn

t he hand


Suppor ting the hand,

Increase the pressure slowly because

over and lo cate Lu 10, w hich lies

t his can be a sensitive point. It is goo d

halfway down t he fl eshy part of t he

fin ger and the t humb in turn . Use your

for t he digestion and headaches.

thum b. Press wit h t he tip o f your

t humb. index and middle fing ers for a

thumb diago nally in tow ards t he bo ne.

good grip. Th is relaxes t he joints,

You can apply reasonable pressure over

stimu lates t he meridians and points in

Do not use poin t Co 4
during preg nancy.

squeeze and twist t he length o f each

this point. Ho ld for a few moments,

t he hand, and releases chi from t he

then release.

body. Then repeat all t he movements

on t he other arm .

The chest


Appl y sensitivity when massaging the chest because this area ca n be quite
emotio nally charged. For a female partner you may need a towel to cover
the breasts. wh ich should not be worked o n directly. As a genera l rul e. apply

less pressure over vulnerable areas of t he body.

t humb pressure

Ro ll up t he centre

of t he abdo men again. this time


separating your t humbs under the

ribcage. Locate 1<.22. w hich lies two



finger-widths o ut from the cent re of

the chest. just beneath the breasts. Use


both thumbs to circle over t he points.

t hen release.

fi nger pressure

Roll with your

thumbs up to your partner's chest. and

thumb-roll ing

Continu e by rollin g

with both thumbs up the centre of t he

locate CY 17. which is on the

chest. working towards t he collarbo ne.

breastbone. at t he midpo int between

Separate your thumbs so that they Fan

t he nipples. Place your middle finger

o ut over t he ribs as Far as Lu 2. wh ich

sides of t he body and lie t he palms fl at

over t he po int and press gently. slowly

is located abo ut o ne finger- width

aga inst either side of the ribcage. Draw

increasing t he pressure towards t he

below the collarbone and six fin ger-

your hands down to the hips. fing ers

chest. Ho ld for a mo ment. t hen release.

w idths from the centre of t he chest.

sp layed. applying slight pressure as you

Th is is good to reg ulate t he emotions.

Repeat t he Fann ing movements

do so. Repeat several times to draw chi

as well as for the general constitution.

between the ribs several times.

towards t he feet.


Fan your hands o ut to the

The abdomen
18 7


Work o n t he abdo men sho uld sooth e and centre your pa rt ner. Positio n

yourselF so t hat you are relaxed and comFo rtable beFore you begin t he


sequence. Be sensitive during your partner's menstruation , when you might



only wa nt to use Step 4. During pregnancy only use Step 4.




Rub some o il between


Cont inue circling wi t h t he

your hands and effl eurage over your

hands fl at against t he abdo men, but

partn er' s abdo men in a clockwise

t his time circle over each part several

directio n . This spreads t he o il, but is

t imes to f ully relax it. The hand circles

also an o ppo r tunity to help t he

sho uld be full and generou s and the

abdo men relax. Keep t he hands sof t

movements con t inuo us. This technique

and fl at and mo ulded to your par t ner's

is known as mota and involves lots of

bo dy. How ever, if your partner is

ci rcles around t he abdo men to activate

sufferin g from diarrhoea, circl e

t he large intestine.

an t iclockw ise.

thumb pressure

Locate CY 6,


Rest your hand over t he Tan

which is t he po int approximately two

Den point - t his is located roughly

fing er- widt hs below t he navel, lying in

5 cm (2 in) below t he navel and o ne -

the cent ral line of t he body. Ho ld your

third o f t he way tow ards the spine, in

t humb over the pOint, t hen star t

Chinese philosophy it is a ver y

pressing it gently. Check t hat the

impo r tant energy po in t for cen t rin g the

pressure feels okay wi t h your par t ner.

bo dy. Focus your attentio n o n the palm

Ho ld fo r a mo ment , then release

o f your hand. Breathe calmly and

steadily and evenly. This sho uld be

o bserve the rise and fu ll o f yo ur

do ne wit h care o n w o men.

par tner's breath. The w armt h o f your

hand will provide comfor t and focus
your partner 's attentio n o n t his very

Do not use po in t CY 6
during pregnancy.

impo r tan t central po in t .

The neck and scalp

18 8


Work with slow, steady, supportive movements to help your partner relax.


Relaxing t he neck is very impo rta nt, bu t most people And it hard to let go.

Repeat the movements over the muscles as necessa ry until you feel a

change in muscl e tone.







Move to your partner's head.


Slide your hands under t he neck, cup

your hands at t he base of t he skull and
lift t he head slight ly. Gently rock from
side to side to relax t he neck. If your
partner has difficulty relaxing, low er
t he head gently, w ait for a moment and
then tr y again. Stop if you feel any
resistance or t here is any pain.

finger pressure Cupping

t he head

in your hands, carefu lly turn it to o ne

finger pressure

Turn the head

squeezing Still suppo rting your

towards t he shoulder a little more and

partner's head wit h your hand, squeeze

locate GB 20, wh ich is a furt her two

along t he neck muscles, using yo ur

fin ger - wid t hs ou t from the spine, in

fin gers and the heel o f your hand.

the depressio n at t he base of the skull.

Wo rk from t he shoulders up to the

Press with t he balls of your index and

base o f the sku ll. You can squeeze

middle fin gers. keeping t he pressure

reasonably firm ly as you work along

side. This movement sho uld be smooth

steady and even. Th is relieves tension

t he top o f t he shoulder. Then repeat all

and reassuring. Locate BI 10. which is in

around the head and neck.

t he movements by turning t he head

t he depression just below t he base o f

t he skull, rough ly two finger - widt hs
out from t he spine. Press wit h t he balls
o f your index and middle fingers once,
t hen release.

and w orking on t he opposite side.




Squeeze both of your

Anger pressure Turn

your palms to


part n er's ears between your fingers

face the back of your partn er' s head


and thumbs, Follow the shape of the

and rake the balls of your fing ers


ears, working round the outside to

through t he hai r. Work over t he scalp


the lobes three times. Repeat the

in several lines until you have covered

movements a furth er three times in a

as much of the head as you can

second line arou nd t he inside of the

reasonably reach.





ea rs. Your movements should be a

series of light simultaneous pinches.

thumb pressure

Press with both

thu mbs in a line up from the inner

brow to the hairline and continue over

Anger pressure

Return to t he

forehead and locate the Yintang point,

t he back of the h ead. The pressure

which li es between t he brows. Hold

should be quick and li ght. using the

your middle finger in place, then press

balls of both thumbs at the same t ime.

li gh t ly to relax and calm the mind. Th is

Take care to hold your fing ers away

shou ld be done slowly and sensitively,

from the face. Repeat several times to

Ho ld for a few seconds and breathe

clear any congestion.

calmly yourself. then release it.

The face


Finishing the sequence o n t he face makes a ca lming end to the massage.

The pressure ca n be reasonably Arm as the aim is stimulation of the
meridians and pressure points; and it ca n be even Armer on a man 's skin.



By the end of th e massage you sho uld both feel more energized.


fing er pressure Place

t humb-rolling

Rub a little o il over


Place your t humbs

your fing ers and roll your thumbs in a

at the o uter corners of t he lips and roll

diagonally w ith t he sides of your

thumb pressure Place your thumbs

diagona l line from t he nostril s out

of your fin gers over your partner's

just below the side of each nostril and

towa rds the jaw. The strokes shou ld be

t humbs to the jawline. Use both

temples, then locate the small

locate the depression where Co 20 li es.

made with both thumbs at once o n

t humbs at once. Repeat severa l times,

depressions approximately o ne finger-

It sho uld be quite easy to find. Press in

either side of t he face. Repeat several

and end t he strokes by gently cupping

width away from t he eye sockets.

a slight diago nal towards t he nose,

times with enough pressure so that

your hands under t he jaw.

Carefu lly press GB I with the dps of

using t he sides of your thumbs. This is

you can see your partner's skin move.

your middle fing ers. Beg in slowly until

good for the sinus. Hold for a moment,

you feel the energy of each point, ho ld

t hen release your pressure.

the balls

for a mo ment and then release.


Chinese massage quick fi x



The following are some important points to work on, for a mini Chinese

thumb-rolling the feet Cup your

massage that will not take long to complete and that offers good tension

fingers under the foot for support and

release. Focus as you would o n a whole body massage. The po ints selected

locate Li 3 between the big and first



both relax and provide a tonic to the system .


circling the back Rub

a little oil

toes. Roll both thumbs over the point

effleurage in fanning movements over

your partner 's upper back. Find the
prominent vertebra just below the level


be small. Repeat a number of times,


then repeat the last two movements on

muscles at either side o f GV 14, in the

any neck tension o ut towards the

shoulders, then continue effl eurage
down t he back.

thumb pressure on the arms

Once your partner has turned over,

Locate P6, which is in the centre of the

locate St 36 by runn ing your hand up

arm between the tendons, two and a

the shinbone until you feel the

half finger-widths above the wrist.

depression three fing er -widths below

Supporting the wrist from underneath ,

the knee. Press gently with the ball of

press with the ball of your thumb,

your thumb, and circle on the spot to

starting gently and increasing the

relax the area, before increasing your

pressure slowly. Hold for a few

then release.


repetitive, and the thumb rolls should

central line of the body. Try and release

pressure. Ho ld for a few moments,


in the direction o f the ankle. The

the other leg.

t humb pressure on the legs



of the shoulders and circle over the


alternately to disperse the chi, stroking

movements should be quite gentle and

between your fingers, and t hen


moments, t hen release and repeat

on t he other arm.




Self- massage is a great way of locating points th at ca n be difficu lt to And on

oth er people without a bit of practice. The po ints may feel a little tender.

back, wich che fing ercips over che lower

and you will feel the energy resonate when you have fo und the r ight spot.

finger pressure o n the lower

back Place your hands behind your
back muscles on eicher side of che

The more you practise. the more natural it becomes.

spine. Push your fing ers down che

muscles and over che sacrum, che bony

criang le ac che base of che spine. This

sCimulaces che bladder meridian and is a
good way of relaxing che low er back.

Do noc use poin cs GY 14, GB 21 or
GB 30 during pregnancy.

squeezing the shoulders


over your shoulder and squeeze che

muscles becween your fingers and che

finger-circling the shou lders

heel of your hand. Squeeze cowards

The neck and shoulders always gec

che neck, and locace GB 21, which is in

finger pressure on the

buttocks Locace GB 30, which

cense, so chis is a good way co relax.

a line wi ch GY 14. You will feel a cender

is cwo - ch irds of che way over che

Reach over your shoulders and locace

depression. Circle on che spoc wich

buccocks coward che hip and abouc

che muscles on eicher side of GY 14.

your fin gercips, chen press direcrly a

one-chird o f che way down . Press

Ci rcle wich your fingercips as firmly as

liccle harder. Repeac che movemems on

in and circle wich che Cips of your

feels comforcable, in o rder co relax

che ocher sho ulder.

fing ers. Alchough ic is hard co achieve

chem. Fan chem ouc across che back

che same pressure on yourself as o n

cowards che arms co disperse any

a parcner, you can scill relax che hip

build - up of chi.

area quice well.













squeezing the eyebrows Pinch

across t he line o f the eyebrows w it h

thumb pressure Suppo r t

o ne hand

in the o ther and massage over t he

squeezing the legs Pinch and

thumb pressure on the toes

sq ueeze down t he o utside o f both legs

Suppo r ting t he foot from underneath ,

place o ne thumb over t he o pposite

your t humbs and index fingers,

fl eshy part o f the t hum b. Yo ur fing ers

from t he tops o f t he th ighs to t he

moving from the bridge o f the nose

provide resistance from underneath.

ankles. App ly pressure between your

foot in t he w eb between the fi rst and

o ut towards t he temples. Pinch and lift

Locate Lu 10, which is halfway down

t hum bs and fingers, and make your

big toes. Locate Li 3 and press it w it h

as you do so, w o rking yo ur w ay over

t he fl eshy part o f t he t humb. Circle and

movements brisk and vigo rou s. Avoid

t he tip o f your t humb. This po int can

to GB I. Yo u can feel th is depressio n

t hen press in gently w it h t he tip of

any pressure over the knees. Repeat

be quite sensitive, so you can Circl e o n

in a li ne leading o ut from the eye

your active thumb, pressing toward s

several times to draw the energy to

t he spot to disperse t he pressure, t hen

socket. Pressing and circl ing here is

t he bo ne. Hold fo r a mo ment , t hen

t he ground.

t r y pressing it direct ly again. Repeat o n

great for relieving tensio n and waking

release and repeat o n t he other hand.

up ti red eyes.

t he other side.

A Japanese therapy based on Chinese origins , the term

shiatsu means simply 'Anger pressure'. The following

shiatsu sequence is based on relaxing the body and
promoting the Aow of energy (ki) and provides a
general constitutional tonic. Applying the movements
with sensitivity is better than using a checklist of
techniques. The focus is on pressure and stretching to
balance the meridians. The massage should be balanced
and thoughtful and the mind calm , with a sense of
connection between both partners. Where you feel
any tension, try to ease it gently according to shiatsu
principles or work on another related area.


The meridians (front)



Develo ping as it has done from Ch inese theory and principles of medicine.
shiatsu shows numerous similarities with TuiNa. The application of sh iatsu also


Large intestine meridian - - - - - - -40-r


depends on the flow of energy (kil through channels known as meridians.

altho ugh th ere are some differences from t he Chinese acupressure model.


Stomach meridian --~~c';.:;r



\ - - - - - Bladder meridian

The meridians

male and hot) ca n also absorb and

There are 12 pairs o f meridians governed

change in to one another.

by. and retaining the characteristics of.

i \ - - - - Lung meridian

Originally practised as a ho me

the organs o f the body. in additio n to

remedy instead of acupuncture. shiatsu

two central channels that are not

aims to promote the free flow of ki

related to speciAc organ s. These two

alo ng the channels and to balance the

channels are known as the Governor

vario us elements within t he body.

and Conception Vessels (or Du and

When they are o ut of balance. we are

Ren). and are located at t he back and

not on ly more vul nerable to disease.

front o f the body respective ly. yang

but disease is seen as a symptom of

energy descends at t he back and yin

that lack of balance.

'''':''':-!r--- Heart proteaor meridian

':"':"':4-- Hear t meridian

Triple heater meridian

Smallincestine meridian

energy rises up the front of th e body.

Th e balance of energy between the
meridians and the relationship between
individual and environment are of
signiAca nce. As in Chinese philosophy.

Kidney meridia n -----'-en

t he Ave elements of water. Are. wood.

metal and earth are attributed to all
aspects of life. and the balance between
t hem produces conditions that ca n
affect o ur state of health. The interplay
between yin and yang is also crucial to

i-ff---- Liver mer idian

achieving good health: yin (wh ich is

dark. female and cool) and yang (light.

\ : - - - - Gall bladder meridian

The tsuhos

Th e

tsubos (Fron t)

20 4


Vario us pressure po ints are lo cated alo ng t he merid ians and a re know n
in shiatsu as

tsuhos. Th ere

are 365 of them w ithin th e bo dy; t hey are li ke

commun icatio n centres and are genera ll y lo ca ted in w ea ker areas o f th e

bo dy or actual physica l depressio ns.
Ren (CV) 17

Im ba lances may be signiAed by changes

symptoms may be linked to t he in ternal

in t he surrounding muscle o r skin. By

environment. incl uding constitutio nal

applying pressure to the tsubos it is

energy and emotio na l factors. o r to

possible to correct imbalances within

external influences t hat are depleting

a meridian.

t he individual.

At any point alo ng a meridian t here

of a po in t by work ing o n ano ther point

W here there is an excess. t he energy is

further alo ng t he meridian in questio n :

described as jitsu. The area around t his

and to influence t he energy o f the

po int may feel tense o r hard. and

meri dian as a who le simply by wo rking

is o ften preceded by ham (abdo men)

t here is a deAciency of ki . the condition

diagnosis (made by to uching t he

kyo. The area aro und

general o bserva tio ns that will determ ine

pressure here may be more li ke an ache

t he shiatsu sequence. Ski ll in feeling

or can even be quite pleasura ble: th e

these diffe ring states o f energy comes

conditio n is usually chronic.

with practice and experience. alo ng wit h

functio n o f an o rgan. rath er t han

5 1 5---~:; 1

L1 4 - -----I:fH-I

Lu 9
HP 7
~'-.+..,--- Ht 7
~-Lu l1






abdo men wit h the hand) together with

th is po int may feel soft o r ho llow. and

Meridians are associated wit h t he

HP 6
TH 4

alo ng its length. Professional treatment

t he condi tio n may be acute. W here

is descri bed as

L1 11 - - - - - - - - - - :.)f

It is possible to influence t he energy

may be an excess or deAciency of ki.

pressure here may be sharp o r painful :

- --+I-+--rl'!+!--!+-':.+-.

1 ~-r------5p9

5t 36

an understanding of how and where to

apply pressure.

simply wit h t he o rgan itself Treatment

o f any constrictio n takes th e underlying
ca use into account . which may be due
to a va riety of factors. Physica l

Li I ----------. .
Sp l ---

r-- - - - - - GB 40

-------5P I Li l

The tsubos (back)

Du (GV)20

The tsubos (head)


Du (GV) 15
5t 8








Du (GV) 14




BI 2

GB 19

5t I
L1 20

GB 20

5t 4
St 6

TH 17

Ren (ev) 24

BI 36

The tsubos (feet)

. \ ' 7 \ - - - BI 40

GB 34 - - - - i

..:,.:.),-- - K I


2 08


Shiatsu is traditionally applied fully clothed. with no crea ms or o il . with the


receiver lying on the fl oor. altho ugh in Japan t reatments are now often
given o n a massage ta ble. The giver uses his or her body weight to apply


pressure wit h t he hands. as well as the elbows. forear ms. knees and feet.

Pressure should be slow and steady. the

posture balanced and energy coming
from t he abdo men or ham. This
provides physical as well as emo t iona l
stabi lity. One hand. know n as the

Techniques, The main strokes
are pressure wit h the Angers.
t humbs. whole hand. elbows and

'mother ' hand. remain s on th e bo dy fo r

feet. with some rocking . rubbing

suppo rt. The limbs may be stretched o r

and stretches.

moved into va rio us positio ns to provide

mo re effective access to. and pressure
on. the meridian s. However. you must
always take your own and your

Movements, These should be

slow and reassurin g. balanced
and focused. using your whole
body weight.

partn er 's flexibility into account.

Both giver and receiver sho uld wea r
loose. comfortable clothing wit h
adequate body support. Taking t ime to

Equipment, You need a mat on the

floor; and suppor ts for the head.
knees or ankles.

And comfortable po si tion s is important.

Feedback, Check for any healt h

The giver needs to feel balanced . both

probl ems Arst, and ask your partner

physica lly and mentally. in order to lean

for feedback.

correct imbalances. Keep ever ything as

Shiatsu treatments are traditionally given

in with t heir weigh t and give a good

Timing, A w hole-body shiatsu

simple as possible. In time you will learn

on the floor. Th e giver then uses their body

massage. Full. commi tted contact wit h

t reatment should take about

how to detect a deAciency or excess

weight as they apply the movements.

each movement is vita l. as is feedback

45 minutes.

of ki and the best way to go abo ut

fro m receiver to giver.

At t he beginning. getting a sense o f a
person's energy is better than trying to

applying a remedy. Yo u will also begin to

shiatsu. each person and their health

see beyond pa r t icular sympto ms and

is viewed as un ique. so treatment is

take t he bigger picture into acco unt. In

individua l rat her t han fo rm ulaic.

The back

Centre yourself both emotio nally and ph ysically before beginning work on

stretching with the forearms

the back. You will need to be balanced and have eno ugh room in order to

Place your forearms together at a

appl y th e techniques. The back provides you with a good opportunity for

diagonal in the middle of the back.

exploring the use of your bo dy weight.

Your hands should form loose fists.

Slowly stretch one arm over the back
towards the shoulder. and the other
towards the hip. Maintain full contact
with your forearms so that your
partner feels a good stretch. Without
chang ing POSition. you can then repeat
all the movements on the other Side of
the spine.

palm pressure Kneel to

one side


Positioned square on to

of your partner. Take a breath. lean

your partner. place both hands over

forward and place both palms on the

the muscl es on the opposite side of

opposite side of the spine. 'Walk' your

the spine. over the bladder meridian.

hands up and down from the lower

Rock the bo dy away from you using

back to the shoulders. avoid ing

the heels of your hands. Work several

pressure on the spine. Lean your

times up and down t he meridian from

weight into your hands. but remain

lower back to shoulders. to relax the

well balanced at all times. Repeat

whole o f the back.

several times to relax your partner

and increase your confidence.

stretching with the palms

Kneel at the lower back. Cross your
arms and place one hand over the
sacrum (the bony triangle at the base
of the spine) and the other further up
the back. Without sliding t hem. push
your hands away from each other to
proVide a stretch for t he lower back.
Check for resistance. then try again.
this time stretching a li ttle further.



2 13

2 12







palm pressure Position yourself

palm pressure Position yourself

thumb pressure Return to the

thumb pressure Place both

at your partner's upper back, w ith

facing up the spine. Place your hands

upper back. Place both thumbs over

enoug h balance to lean across your

Aat at either side of the lower back,

the muscles on either side of t he spine,

thumbs at the lower back, about t hree

finger-widths o ut from the spine.

partner. Centre yourself at t he ham.

w ith the heels facing inwards and the

with t he fingers provid ing support.

Locate the bands of muscle that

Place your palms Aat on either side

fingers towards t he hips. Press with the

Press with your thumbs alo ng the

become much broader here. Press in

of the spine, w ith the heels on the

palms of both hands, using your body

bladder meridian down to the lower

with your thumbs in t hree places to the

sides of t hese muscles, along the outer

muscles and your fingers pointing

weight to exert pressure carefu lly.

back. Press roughly in a line with t he

towards t he ribs. Lean in towards t he

Check t hat this feels okay w ith your

depressions between the vertebrae,

bladder meridian. Press in, hold, then

body and exert comfortable pressure.

partner. Release the pressure evenly

always avoiding t he spine. Use your

slowly release your pressure.

Work down to the lower back.

and lift your hands away.

body weight as necessary to slowly

increase t he pressure.

2 15




Move to your partner 's lower

elbow pressure

back. Place both hands, one o n top of

for support over the lower back, lean

the other, over the sacrum. Circle on

in to position with your elbow over

the spot in an anticlockwise direction

your partner's buttock. Relax the angle

to relax the lower back and hips; th is

of your elbow and let your hand flop

also helps to warm t he kidneys. Repeat

at the wrist. Begin ha lfway across the

slowly and sensitively severa l times,

buttock, and lean into the muscles w it h

mould ing your hands to the shape of

your elbow, then release. Work down

t he bl adder channel to just above t he

t he body.

buttock crease.

10 rubbing Maintaining body contact

Using one hand

elbow pressure

Locate GB 30,

two-thirds of the way across the

w ith one hand, rub vigorously along

buttocks and one-th ird of the way

the bladder meridian using the flats of

down. Using your other hand for

your fingers. Rub from the shoulders

support. place your elbow - keeping it

down to the lower back along t he

rounded - over the area and Circle into

inner meridian. Rub down t he muscles

the point. This is usually a tense but

of one side first, then repeat on the

fl eshy area, so you ca n use reasonab le

other side of the spine. End by placing

pressure. Keep continuous contact

one hand over the lower back, and rest

w ithout sl iding. Leaning across, repeat

for a few moments.

both movements on the opposite side.



Back of the legs and feet


2 17

Make su re that you are in a good position as you follow the leg sequence.


The position of your partner 's legs is also impo rtant as you apply pressure


to t he meridians. Carefu l pressure should be used over the jo ints. Make sure
that you use similar pressure o n both legs.






thum b circl ing

Move to your

partner's foot. Support it in your hands

palm pressure

Position yourself at


With the leg in a central


Knead over the ball o f

the foot with your knuckles, working

and circle both thumbs around the

around KI. Keep your hand as relaxed

ankle bone to relax the joint. Work in

as possible to avoid digging in, w ith

as close to t he ankle as possible and

your other hand cradling un derneath

repeat several times. Press in with t he

for resistance and support, You can

balls of your thumbs and app ly small

extend t he movements over the whole

your partn er 's hips. Placing one hand

position, slide one hand under the

circl es o n the spot to release blocked

foot, but make sure t hat you avoid

on the body for support, 'walk' down

ankle and bend the leg back towards

energy and stim ulate the bloodflow

massaging over the instep.

to t he feet.

the back of the leg along the bladder

the buttock, with one hand resting

meridian with the palm of t he o ther

on the sacrum , at the base of t he

hand. Begin just below the buttocks

spine, for support. Being sensitive to

and end above the ankle, with less

your partner's fl exibility, try and touch

pressure over the back of t he knee.

the heel to the buttock, but stop when

POSition your hand, apply pressure,

you feel resistance. Release the stretch,

ho ld, then release gradually each time,

relax and try again.

Do not use point KI
during pregnancy.

5 pulling Use your thumb, index and

foot pressure Place your heels

midd le fingers to pu ll each of the toes

over the balls of your partn er's feet,

in turn. Squeeze down the outside of

your toes resting on the floor. Apply

each toe, pu ll and give a little press,

pressure by gently 'walking' up and



before ending contact. Extend the

down with your feet. Adjust your

movement about 2.5 cm (I in) from the

weight if necessary so that you apply



ends of the toes. Then lower the foot

pressure comfortably and evenly on the

2 18


and repeat all the previous movements

spot. Be careful to avoid any pressure

on the other leg .

over the instep.

2 19






Kneel at your partner's feet.

Slide both hands under the ankles, lift

them slightly, then pu ll them towards
you to provide a stretch. Take care not

to overstrain yourself if your body


weight is significantly less than your

partner's. Repeat twice to release
blocked energy from the joints.

palm pressure Ask your partner

to turn on their side, upper leg bent
towards the floor to expose the gall
bladder mer idian. Use a cushion for
support under the knee. WIth one
hand on the body for support, 'walk'
down the outside of the leg to the
ankle, avoiding pressure at the knee.
Contact is with the whole hand,
pressure with the palm. Position, press,
hold and release, then repeat on the
other leg.

The abdomen

22 1

Shiatsu over the ham or abdomen is sometimes given as a complete massage


and is very impo rtant in professional diag nosis. Relaxatio n is key here.. Use

sensitivity. especially during menstruatio n when you might prefer to simply


use the Arst step. Hara massage should be avoided during pregnancy.



Place one hand under t he

back fo r support and the other fl at

o n the abdomen. just belo w the navel.
Keep your hands in contact as your
partner breathes in and o ut. allowing
your hands to rise and fall w ith the
breath. Breathe ca lm ly yourself. relax
and put any thoughts to o ne side.

palm pressure Circle

both hands

over the abdo men to relax your

heel pressure

Place your hands

over your partner's hips. heels inwards.

partner. The directio n should be

fing ers po inting to the floor. Ver y

clockwise around the navel. once

gently and slowly lean your weight into

t he abdomen for suppo rt. slowly apply

again paying attention to any tense

your palms. hold. then release the

pressure over the abdo men moving

areas. Make sure o ne hand rema ins in

pressure. The movement shou ld come

in a clockwise circle around t he navel.

contact with the body at all times for

from your ham . This helps to relax and

Yo ur hand should feel relaxing and

continuity and reassurance. and repeat

open up the pelvic area. but great care

reassuring. Be aware of any areas of

the movements several times.

sho uld be taken not to press too hard.

palm pressure With

o ne hand o n

tension . The pressure wi ll have an effect

o n t he inner organs and create a feeling
of relaxation and well - being.

The chest



Work from a balanced positio n over the chest, so that you can easily

fing er pressure Place both


facing each other just below t he

regulate your pressure. Avoid applying any pressure directly on the breasts.

collarbone, about 2.5 cm


in ) either

side of the sternum. Apply pressure



partner's body until you once again return to t he chest.

over the ribs, working down the centre

of the body towards the diaphragm.
This is a simple way to avoid heavy

over your

partner, but retain control of your

pressure as well as any pressure over

balance. Place t he heels of both hands

t he breasts.

over t he ribcage, just beneath the balls

of the shoulders, with your fin gers
facing towards the arms. Lean into your
hands and apply pressure evenly with
your palms. Lean back again as you
release the pressure.

From here the sequence continues in a clockwise direction around your

palm pressure Lean


palm pressure Move your hands so

passive rotation

Bring your

that the palms are over the ribcage on

partner 's arm out to the side. With one

either side of the sternum. just above

hand steadying the arm at the elbow,

t he breasts. The heels of your hands

grasp the hand in your own and lift t he

should be facing each other, wit h the

forearm. From here slowly rotate the

fing ers pointing away. Lean into your

arm at the elbow in both directions.

hands to apply steady pressure, hold

This helps to relax the jo ints and

for a moment, t hen lean back as you

improve the flow of energy t hrough

release. This stimulates LU 2.

the meridians.

The arms and hands



Begin the sequence on the arm nearest to you, including a stretch, and

work right down to the tips of the Angers for a Anal release of energy. From

here t he seq uence continues around th e body so you will complete work on



the o pposite arm when you have reached the other side.



palm pressure Position

yourself at

thumb pressure


Locate HP 6,

your partn er 's side. Place the arm, palm

wh ich is in the middl e of t he forearm,

facing upwards, at a right angle to t he

about two and a half Anger- widths up

body. With one hand resting o n t he

from the wrist. Keep contact with your

sho ulder fo r suppo rt. apply pressure

partner's arm w ith one hand and place

with your other palm along t he inner

your t humb over t he po int. Press in

arm , working from the sho ulder to t he

slowly and steadily w ith t he ball of

wrist. Check your balance, position

your thumb, then release equally

your palm, lean in with your w eight

steadily. This is a good po int for stress

and t hen release evenly and steadily.

relief. Repeat several times.



pulling Grasp your partner's


heel pressure With

one hand o n

securely, lift the arm and pull back

the shoulder for support, use the heel

towards you to give a stretch. Your

of your other hand to press along the

position should be balanced so that

inner arm, following the lung meridian.

you can use your body weight and

Place your hand, press, hold and release

imagine the movement com ing from

at regular intervals working your way

your ham . The stretch helps to release

to the hand. Press over the thumb and

any energy around the joints.

squeeze the tip for a Anal release.


22 6











thumb pressure Locate

LI 4, w hich


Place your th ird fin ger

thumb pressure Turn

t he hand so


Grasp your part ner 's

thumb between your own thumb and

lies in the w eb of t he hand between

and thumb in t he web of your partner's

that t he palm faces upwards, in terlace

the index fin ger and thumb. Place your

hand between their index fin ger and

your li ttle fing ers and support from

fing ers and squeeze down to t he tip.

t humb in position, circle over t he spot,

t humb. Reach as high as you can, t hen

underneath . Th is stretches out t he

Twist along the side of t he thumb,

t hen press it between your fing er and

squeeze as you pull between t he

fingers and helps to open up t he palm.

pressing quite firmly, squeeze at t he

t he tip o f your t humb. Hold for a few

tendons and bones to the fin gers. As

Then press fair ly firmly over t he surface

nailbed, t hen pu ll o ff t he thumb wit h

moments, t hen release your pressure.

you do so, jiggle between t he t humb

wit h both thumbs to stimulate as much

a fl ick. Repeat the movements over

of the hand as possible.

each fin ger in turn. This helps to both

For a more subt le effect, simply circle

and fin ger so t hat you get a zigzag

on t he spo t w it h t he ball o f your

effect. Repeat betw een t he tendo ns


across t he back of t he hand.

Do no t use point LI 4
during preg nancy.

stimu late and release energy.

Front of the legs and feet



The sequence now works up the front of the body following the meridians.
Take care as you move the legs into positio n to keep with in your partner's
comfo r t zone. The pressure you use sho uld be similar for both legs, with
gentle pressure applied to the jo ints,

thumb pressure Locate St 36


running your thumb along the line of


the shinbone until you come to the


curve of t he bone just below the knee.

Hold your thumb in position, then


press slow ly w ith the ball of the thumb.


Check the pressure with your partner



because this po int can often be

sensitive. St 36 is a good tonic point



for the digestive system.


passive rotation

Move to your

palm pressure

Position yourself at

palm pressure Place your hands

underneath the knee and the foot.
Bend the leg and bring it out to the

partner 's foot. Slip one hand under t he

your partner's thigh . Keep contact with

ankle and the other under the knee

one hand on the abdomen, and use the

side. Keeping contact with the

and carefully raise the leg. Use your

other hand to 'walk' down the side of

abdomen, 'walk' down the inside

body w eight to gently rotate t he leg

the thigh to the knee to stimulate the

o f the leg with the palm of t he other

at the hip, your own leg providing

stomach meridian. Position, press, hold

hand. Th is stimu lates the liver meridian.

support where necessary. Rotate

and release. Continue carefully over the

Adjust your movements to your

several times in both directions to relax

knee and down the side of the lower

partner's flexibility and use a cushio n

the hip then carefully lower the leg to

leg. Uft your hand when you reach the

for support if necessary. Apply a

t he floor.

ankle and repeat several ti mes.

gentler pressure over the knee. Repeat

several times.


23 1


With your feet shoulder

widt h apart, knees bent and in a



balanced position, lift both your


partner's legs at once and place the


soles of the feet against your thighs.


Lean forwards and push aga inst your

partner, as if you were trying to push


them away from you. Using the


resistance of their body weight, t his



movement helps to relax and balance


the body.


Making sure your own

palm pressure Cradling

t he ankle

passive ro tatio n

From this

position is steady, slide one hand under

in one hand for support, place your

t he ankle and the other over the top of

palm over the ball of your partner's

below your partner's knees and bend

the foot. Raise the leg sligh t ly t hen pull

foot. Press the foot back towards your

the legs towards t he chest, using your

pOSitio n lea n furth er forwards, reach

back towards you to provide a stretch.

partner, helping to release the ankle

body weight to increase the stretch.

Relax then try again. This is good for

jo int. The range of movement will

You can then rotate bo th legs at once

releasing energy from the joints and

depend on your partner's fl exibility, but

in both directions to relax the lower

helping t he flow of energy to and from

repeat several times, each time pushing

back. Lower the legs carefully then

the feet.

a litt le further to provide a stretch at

repeat the preceding sequences on the

the back of the leg.

other leg.


The neck and scalp



Before beginning work on the neck and sca lp you need to complete the

shiatsu sequence on your partner's other arm. W ith the body now relaxed

the neck massage should be easier for your partner. Encourage their trust


by crad ling their head with conAdence. Th is wi ll help them to really let go.


pu lling

Having completed the arm


sequence on pages 224-227, position

yourself at your partner's head. Lean
forwards, grasp both arms at the wrist
t hen lean back with your body weight
to provide a stretch to the arms and
torso. Hold for several moments,
checking comfort levels with your
partner, then slowly release and guide
the arms back down to the floor.

foot pressure Sitting

behind your

pulling Slide both

hands under the


Cradling the base of your

neck and positio n them at the base of

partner's skull in your hands, gently

your heels over the tops o f your

the skull, so that the head is cradled in

turn the head from side to side. This

partner's shoulders. Place your hands

your hands. Lift the head slightly and

relaxes the neck muscles. Start slowly,

behind you on the floor to steady you,

give a stretch by pull ing it towards you,

then as your partner relaxes you can

then push each shoulder away from

Sitting back on your heels as you do

use a gentle rocking movement.

you in turn. Repeat gently several times

so. Keeping your arms outstretched

Encourage your partner to let go so

to relax the shoulders and spine. Yo ur

enables you to remain well balanced.

that you perform the movements

partner should relax so their bo dy

Slide your hands right under the sku ll

without either their resistance or help.

rocks with the movement.

and lower the head again gently.

partner, knees slightly bent, place both





finger pressure Usin g t he tip


together at the hairline. Apply pressure

you reach

your middle fing er as a guide. run it

t he midpoint. in a line up from the

up t he spine until you locate the

middle of the ears. you will be able to

depression just below the base of your

feel a slight depression. At t his po int

partner's skull. Once in position. press

press in very slowly towards Du

gently in towards GY 15 with the ball of

(GY) 20 with the ball of your thumb.

your finger. hold for a moment and

Circle minutely on the spot. This is very

then release. This is very good for

good for li fting the spirits and generally

promoting calm.

releasing tension.

thumb pressure Cup your hands

around the head. w ith your thumbs

thumb pressure When


For scalp stimulation.

press down on the scalp with t he

w ith the balls of both thumbs together.

fing ers and thumbs of both hands.

working back in a central line over the

then remove them suddenly so that

scalp. Follow the r hythm o f locati ng.

your fingers almost bounce o ff the

pressing. holding and releasing. so that

scalp. Use the balls of your fing ers and

your movements and pressure are

keep your movements quick and light.

applied evenly and smooth ly.

End by tugg ing the hair gently.






The face



This face massage needs to be precise , both in o rder to feel good and fo r



effective point stimulatio n, It is an uplift ing way to end the massage, at o nce
both deeply relaxing and energizing. The Anal resting st ro ke provides balance
and alignment before the massage ends.

thumb pressure

Place both

t humb pressure

Press w it h t he

fi nger pressure

Press wit h the


Cradle your hand under t he

t humbs on your part ner's eyebrows,

balls of your t humbs in a line up from

tips o f your fin gers in a line under

just beside t he bridge of t he nose.

t he inner line of the eyebrows to t he

t he cheekbones, w orking o ut towards

t he other over t he forehead. Pull very

Locate BI 2 by finding the small

hairline. This movement sho uld be slow,

t he angle of the jaw. Press close to,

slight ly towards yo u to align t he head

depressio ns in the bone. Press wit h t he

steady and relaxing and should follow

and slight ly upwards under, the bone,

then simply rest. Empty any t ho ughts

sides of t he tips o f your thumbs, as t his

the bladder meridian. Repeat the lines

keeping your pressure and t he

from your mind and breathe calmly.

point needs to be precise. Ho ld for a

over the forehead several times.

movements light.

This provides a quiet moment before

base of your partner 's skull and place

few moments. then release. Press

t he massage ends and tells your

sensitively because t hese points are

partner the sequence is complete.

often tender.

Shiatsu quick fix


palm pressure on the

abdomen Place one hand on


This shortened version of the sh iatsu massage conta ins some of the most

body for support while you press

important steps. Perform each one with equa l attention and focus, for t he

arou nd the navel in a clockwise

best effect. In keeping with the fu ll length massage , keep changes in body

direction w it h the other. Keep your

palm flat and feel for any areas of

position to a minimum .

tension . Doing t his in a regulated,





palm pressure on the back

release wh ich w ill in turn lead to


Posit ion the heels of both hands

deeper, fu ller breathing.

blades, on either side of the spine.

Your fingers should point towards the
sides of the body. Lean into your hands
to apply pressure on the muscles and
stimu late the bladder merid ian. Work
at an even pace right down to the
lower back.

elbow pressure on the hips

Round your elbow, place it on the



relaxed way encourages tension

between your partner's shoulder


pulling the neck Sit

at the head.

buttock and locate GB 30, two-th irds

Sli de your hands under the neck until

of the way across and one-third of the

you can crad le t he base of the sku ll

way down. Apply reasonable pressure

in your hands. Make sure that your

towards the body. Continue pressing

parmer is relaxed before you lean back

over and around the hip. Repeat on the

with your body weight, pu ll ing gently

other side or, if you feel confident, try

towards you to provide a stretch. Sli de

pressing both elbows into the buttocks

your hands right under the back of the

at once.

head to lower it again.

2 41

During the fo llowing self- massage th e techniques th at yo u have applied to a

partner can be used fo r massage o n yourself Yo u ca n eit her t r y th em while
sitting o n the Aoor. o r on a chair if t hat feels mo re comfo rtable. Set aside a

few minutes when you can concentrate fully o n your own body and mind.



percussio n o n t he upper back

fin ger pressure on the neck

Make a loose fist . then pummel up and

Reach behind your head and locate

down t he muscles along the top o f

GV 15. which li es in a cent ral positio n

your opposite shoulder. Wo rk from the

just beneath the base o f your skull.

neck towards the arm and back again

Press with your fingers. pressing up

several times. Your movements should

and under t he skull . Hold for a few

be stimulating and over t he fl eshy

moments. You will know when you

muscle. rather t han bo ne. This will

have got the right point because you

stimulate the bladder and gall - bladder

will feel t he energy resonate. which

meridians. Repeat over your opposite

produces a physical reaction. This point

sho ulder.

is good fo r relaxation.

pulling the fingers

Grasp th e

fin gers of one hand by bending t he

index and middle fin gers o f t he o ther.
This way you ca n grasp. squeeze and
pull each fi nger and t he t humb in t urn.

rubbing the arms

Wit h t he fl at o f

Beg in at the base of t he fin gers and

your hand. reach over and rub briskly

pull firmly down to t he tips. This

up t he o utside of your arm from wrist

releases energy t hrough t he hand.

to shoulder. rubbing in severa l lines.

Repeat on your other hand.

Th en tu rn t he palm over and rub down

t he inner arm to stimulate the
circulation. This w ill help if you have
cold hands. Repeat o n the other arm .



5 finger pressure on the face



Place your mi ddle fing ers just by t he




inner line of your eyebrows. You w ill



feel a small depression in the bone.


Press direaly into the point w ith the

tips o f t he fingers - it may feel a little

sensit ive. This is BI 2 and is very good
for sinus headaches. Hold for a few
moments. then release.

knuckle pressure on the back

Form your hands into loose fists and

elbow pressure on the legs

Sitting cross- legged on t he flo or. round

reach up behind your back. Place your

your elbow and press along the inside

hands on t he muscl e bands to the sides

of your thigh at regular intervals to

of your spine in line w ith your kidneys.

stimulate both the liver and spleen

palm pressure on the

abdomen Breathe calmly. cent re

Slowly circle your knuckles over the

mer idians. With the leg bent out the

muscles. the direaion is in towards

meridians are exposed but t his can also

yourself and place both hands fl at

your spine. Th is stimulates the kidneys

be done sitti ng on a chair. Press and

on t he abdomen. Circle gently in a

wh ile relaxing the lower back.

release at an even pace over both legs.

clockwise direction around the navel.

pausing at intervals to press your
abdomen w ith your pa lms. Th is helps
to stimulate t he intesti nes. Repeat
slowly several times.

Indian head
Indian head massage is an energizing upper body
treatment. While stimulating techniques are used, it
needs to be performed with sensitivity over the neck
and head. The massage relaxes the muscles using a
number of swift percussion movements , and ends by
stimulating the scalp, with the option of using
nourishing oils over the hair. The giver needs to
maintain a balanced posture and concentrate on
keeping a straight spine. The energy exchange
between both participants is a vital ingredient of
this form of massage.



The term Ayurveda comes from the Sanskrit word meaning 'science of life' and


is the complex ancient system of philosophy and medicine in which Indian

head massage has its roots. Ayurveda considers balance and moderation to


be essential for health, wit h body and mind being inextricably linked.


Th e seven chakras are located

at various points along the
spine. Energy should Aow
freely through these points to
maintain the health of mind.
body and spirit.

"1IIi~~~------- Crown





According to Ayurvedic thought. the

The chakras

universe is made up of Ave elements -

The vita l energy that moves t hrough

ether. air, earth. Are and water - and

the body is referred to as prana. There

human beings are made up of a

are seven main energy circles, or

combination of these elements.

Th e doshas

chakras. located along the spine

through wh ich prana flows. These
chakras generate energy that is

In addition, there are believed to be

transm itted to smaller centres within

three doshas, or energies. that exist in

the body. The Arst six chakras are

all matter. These are ca lled yaw. pitta

located in the genital. sacral. solar -

and kapha. Most people have one

plexus, heart. neck and forehead areas;

dominant dosha. and an Ayurvedic

the seventh is located at the top of

treatment will take t his into

the head. When t he energy flowing

consideration. Vata is the air energy.

through the chakras becomes blocked ,

and these types tend to be thin,

this results in mental and physical

restless, anxio us, creative and have dry

disorders. Ayu rvedic massage

skin. Pitta is a mixture of Are and water

encourages t he free flow of energy

energy. and these types are active.

and as a result promotes good health.

decisive. with a good appetite. th in hair

and smooth skin; they also sweat easily.

Kapha is a mixture of water and earth

energy, and these types tend to be
overweight, move slowly, sleep a lot
and have thick hair and o ily skin.

(Vishuddha )

Solar plexus





Marma points

The marma points



-;;;: ...

Th e chakras are thought to correspond to the marmas, to which t hey





in the head, heart and bladder wh ich are vital to o ur hea lth and surviva l.

The body's vital force can be influenced by massaging marma po ints.


transmit vital energy or prana. There are three main marma centres, located






Marma points are points o f energy

restores the body to health. Marma

distributed throughout the body, and

massage uses a variety of o il s that

there are 107 of them (including the Ave

contain different qualities: they may

reg ions of t he skull). Th ey contribute

be ca lmin g, cooling o r burning and

to our health by stimulating organ

are related to t he three dash as (see

function and maintaining equilibrium.

pages 246-247). The o il that is used

The marma points are areas of

w ill depend on the dasha type of the

concentrated energy. referred to as

receiver and the imbalance that is

secret o r hidden , and they provide a

being treated. Essential o ils may also

con nection between o ur physical and

sometimes be used on the points by

subtle energies. They are mostly located

a ski ll ed practitioner.

at the meeting point between body

systems and in areas such as the

Indian head massage stimulates the

marma points of the upper body, face

arteries. vein s, tendons and jo in ts. Each

and head and helps to balance the

point corresponds to a particu lar dasha

energy in the higher chakras.

(see pages 246- 247) and has a related

physical symptom. W hen these po in ts
are blocked we become ill.
The free flow of energy through the

chakras can be Facilitated by gentle

massage of the marma points - or
marmapuncture, which is similar to
acupuncture. Thi s massage unblocks
energy, helps eliminate illness and



Indian head massage ta kes place sea ted . th rough clothes. First t he upper

25 1


back is relaxed - w hic h is w here most people store a lo t o f tensio n - beFo re


working over th e neck and head. Th e strokes are Fairly bri sk and vigo ro us .


stimu lating the ner vous system as well as energy po ints a nd channels.







Indian head massage is also known as

champissage. from which the word


'shampoo' is derived. It has been

practised in famili es in Asia fo r mo re
than a tho usand years and fo rms part


Techniques, The main strokes are

percussion. rotating. rubbing. finger
pressure and sawing.

of a grooming and beauty ri tual. Indian

head massage helps to relax the
muscles. improves the circulation
(particularly to t he scalp. where it can
promote healthy hair growth) and
promotes lymph flow. It can help to
relieve tensio n headaches. sinus
problems. eyestrain and even jaw
problems related to tension. The
massage works o n the three upper

chakras and ca n induce calmness and

mental relaxation . Oil s may (but need
not be) used over t he scalp. and should
be left o n the hair fo r several hours
afterwards; t hey should o nly be used in
the last phase o f t he massage. The

Movements, These are vigorous and

energizing. yet sensitive to energy.
maintaining a good balanced
posture and using the body weight.
Equipment, You need a seat with a
low back; a small cushion or towel
for support; and some oil for the
hair if you choose to use this.
Feedback, Check for any health
problems first (particularly any neck
problems) and ask your partner for
feedback. because the techniques
are relatively vigorous.
Timing, An Indian head massage
should take about 30 minutes.

The beau ty of Indian head massage

is that it can be perfo rmed almost
anywhere and is completed in about

energizes the upper body. relieves tension

and promotes a health y heart.

two - thirds t he time o f a full body

posture of the receiver sho uld be

massage. While it is stimu lating . the

upright. but relaxed. and a seat with

effect is a co mplete sense of well - being .

a low back is ideal.

A traditional Indian head massage

balance and ca lm. However. be

especially careful where there are any

neck problems and . if in do ubt. seek
professio na l advice.

The upper back


25 3

The massage begins on the upper back and prog ressively relaxes t he body


as you move up towa rds t he head. Keep an eye on your own posture and


make your movements brisk and dynamic. Once th e back is relaxed. half

your work is done!







first touch

Stand behind your

partner and suggest some relaxed. slow


Rub briskly over your

partner's back w it h t he flats o f your


Place your thumbs on either

side of t he spine. with your fin gers

heel pressu re Stand

to o ne side

and place t he heel o f your hand

breaths. Breathe deeply yourself and

hands. one on either side o f t he spine.

resting over the tops o f t he sho ulders.

between t he shoulder blade and t he

make sure that your posture is w ell

Begin just by the shoulders. then

Locate t he prominent vertebra. C7. at

spi ne. Use your other hand to suppor t

balanced. w ith both feet planted evenly

spread out and fun up and down t he

the top of the spine and Circle around

the body. Rub briskly over t he muscles

on t he ground. Take a breath in and.

sides o f t he spine. Th is helps to

the area wit h your t humbs. Avo id any

and apply as much pressure as feels

as you breathe out. place your hands

stimulate the muscles and prepares the

pressure on the spine itself. You ca n


slowly on t he crown o f your partner's

back for massage. Contact at t his stage

use fu irly firm pressu re here as long as

are tense. t hey can be quite sensitive.

head. Relax. hold for a few moments.

is on t he surfuce rather t han deep.

it feels comfortable.

Repeat on t he other side.

t hen w it hdraw your hands.

ote that w hen t hese muscles



7 percussio n Stand behind your


partner. Keeping both hands relaxed.



place your palms facing each other


over one shoulder. Hack over the top





of the shou lder from the neck towards


the arm and back several t imes. The


movements shou ld be like chopping

alternately with your hands. and need

to be light. sharp and quick. Repeat on
the other shou lder.

elbow pressure Stand

to one side

thumb pressure Keeping

one hand

of your partner. Locate the vertebra in

on the body for support. locate the

line with the top of the shou lder blade.

outline of the shoulder blade. Press

Using your finger as a gUide. support

between the ribs with the ball of your

and modifier of pressure. relax your

thumb. beginning level with the top of

the tops of the shoulders. with your

elbow and press between the ribs.

the blade. Press in four equal spaces

thumbs !acing the spine and your

working about 2.5 cm

around the shoulder. Keep the

fingers curled over the collarbone. Feel

the spine. Keep your elbow rounded so

movements close in to the bone and

the line of fleshy muscle along the top

that the movement does not jab. and

repeat the sequence on the other side.

of the shoulders. Lift and squeeze


in) out from


Place both hands over

continue until you are level with the

between the thumbs and fingers. Take

bottom of the blade. Repeat on the

care that the movements do not pinch.

other side.

and work out towards the arms from

the neck.




Knead and squeeze along


stretching with the forearms

Stand to one side. Lean forward with

rolling over the muscles with your

your spine straight, and place your

fingers and thumbs. Press in with your

forearm over the muscles at the top of



thumbs and squeeze the muscles as

the shou lder. Lean your weight forward


you roll your fingers back towards you.

again and apply pressure with your

Work across the shou lders with both

forearm, pressing w ith your other hand


hands at once, from the neck towards

at t he wrist to guide the movement.

the arms, then back again.

Press in three equal spaces between


the neck and shoulder, then repeat on

the other side.



Form both hands into


the tops of your partner's shoulders,


stretching w it h t he forearms

loose fists and begin pummelling over

Lean with the backs of your forearms

one shoulder. Work from the arm

over the shou lder muscles, applying

towards the neck, then down one side

pressure and drawing them out across

of the spine to the lower back. Your

the shoulders towards the arms. This

movements should be brisk and quick,

helps to relax the upper back as well as

pummelling with the fists alternately.

connect to the next sequence. Do this

Work up and down the muscles

several times, ending by rolling your

alongside the spine several times, then

forearms to continue the movement

cross to the other shoulder and repeat.

down the upper arms.





The arms


Work on the arms Follows on From the shoulder sequence and helps to

relax the upper body. Ensure that you can move around your partner easily,

and bend your knees so that you can reach comFortably rather than having

to stoop over them.





With your partner's arms

relaxed, stroke down the upper arms.


Repeat the same movem ents

down the outer arms with a brisk

This is an effleurage stroke done

rubbing movement, using the flats of

without oil. Mould your hands to the

your hands. Rub down the arms to t he

shape of the arms and stroke as fur as

elbows, as before. Your spine should

the elbows. Repeat several times, then

remain as straight as possible, and you

repeat over the back of the arms to

shou ld bend at the knees rather than

help relax the muscles.

leaning over your partner. Repeat

briskly several times.


Reach forward and cradle your


Curl your fingers around

partner's elbows in your hands so that

the upper arms, using full hand contact

the arms feel secure. Raise both elbows

with the heels and the palms. Squeeze

at the same time so that the shoulders

the muscles between your fingers and

hunch, but do not force or strain them.

heels, being careful not to pinch the

Keep your hands close to the body to

skin. Squeeze down the arms at equal

protect the elbows. Hold for a few

distances from shoulder to elbow, then

moments, then release and your

repeat several times.

partner's shoulders shou ld relax and

drop down.

The neck

26 1

A lot of tension tends to centre in the neck. Encourage relaxation there by


repetitive movements. and as you work on the neck reduce your pressure

and speed. Support your partner's body as you massage so that the head


does not drop Forward.






Use your index and middle


Place both thumbs on the

fingers together for this movement.

muscles at the base of the neck. about

Place them on the crest of the muscles

2.5 cm


in) out from the spine on

squ eezing

Place your hand at the

back of the neck. with your thumb over

sawi ng

Place your index and middle

fingers together. Begin sawing li ghtly

the muscles on one side of the spine

over the muscles at the base of the

and your fingers over the muscles on

sku ll. moving towards the spine. Check

at the top of your partner's shoulder.

either side. With your fingers sitting on

Begin a sawing movement back and

the shoulders for support. begin

the other side. Draw your hand back

that the pressure is okay with your

forth over the muscles to relax them.

circling over the muscles with your

towards you. squeezing between

partner. as the movements should be

Check the pressure with your partner.

thumbs. The circles should be like

fingers and thumb. Squeeze in several

quite brisk. Stop 2.5 cm

Continue sawing at equal distances

spirals travelling up to the base of the

positions as fur as the base of the

from t he spine. then repeat on the

along the shoulder and carefully up the

sku ll. Repeat several times.

skull. Change hands as you repeat

other side.

neck. Repeat on the other side.

t he movement.


in) away

The head





techniques given below and repeat them as often as you like. Smooth the
hair each time after ruffling it, and keep the head supported so that your


partner can relax more easily.


hand should follow the other, working

over the head. As you pluck, lift the


hair away from the scalp. The accent is

the energy around the head.



on lifting and pulling away. This lightens


Place your thumbs and

with light plucking movements. One

Working over the head is what makes this massage stand out. Use the




fingertips on the scalp, then pull away

rubbing Supporting

your partner's

head with one hand, rub over one side

of the scalp with your other hand. Keep
it flat and rub briskly over the hair. The
movements should be quick and light
and should cover as much of the head
as possible. Change hands and repeat
so that you cover the whole head with
sufficient pressure to stimulate the
scalp and boost the circulation.

Anger pressure Supporting


head with one hand, rake the fingers of


Smooth the hair and then,

supporting the head with one hand,

your other hand through the hair. Use

rub over the hairline with the other.

your fingertips to stimulate the scalp

Your fingers should point downwards

and to comb the hair away from the

and move lightly over the scalp,

face. Make wave-like movements

creating a windscreen-wiper effect.

through the hair and over the scalp,

Begin at the forehead and work to the

always working towards the back of

back of the head, flicking the hair as

the head. Change hands to cover the

much as possible. Change hands to

whole scalp.

cover the rest of the head.

thumb circling

Place both thumbs


Place both hands, palms


in t he centre of t he scalp, with your

facing each other, in position over the

fingers cupped around your partner's

scalp. K.eeping your hands relaxed, hack

head. With the fl ats of your thumbs,

up and down over the head. The



Circle in continuous spirals in a line to

chopping movements sho uld be quick



t he back of the head. Change position

and light. As your little fingers make





to work back in a line a little furth er

brief contact w ith t he scalp, you should

out, then repeat so that you cover as

create t he typical snapping sound. The

much of the head as possible. Make

more relaxed your wrists are, the better

sure that you reach t he back of the

your movements will be.

ears and circle around the hairline.

thumb pressure

Hold the head

firmly, then place your thumb and


Place both hands, palms

fl at, just above t he ears. Your fingers

fing ers on top of the head and rotate

sho uld face to the front, with t he palms

over t he scalp with your t humb. Work

cupped around the head. Gently

back in lines from t he forehead,

squeeze your hands together and lift

app lying pressure on t he spot each

sli ghtly so that you move the scalp.

time. Cover as much of the scalp as

Relax your hands without losing

you can, paying equal attention to the

contact or changing position. Repeat

sides and back of t he head.

the movement slowly twice more.

The face

26 7

These strokes help to relax key poin ts on t he face to complete the relaxation


process. Place the towel so that your partner feels secure - you should then

be able to reach the points quite easily. Take extra care to keep your Angers



finger pressure Place

t he tips o f

your middle fin gers just below t he

bridge of the nose. Press in light ly close
to t he bone. Repeat in four places,

away From the eyes.

ending just below t he nostrils. Yo u can

press a li ttle more firm ly here and hold

for a little longer. Make sure you keep


to the sides o f t he nostrils and do not

obstruct your partner's breath ing. End
by stroking the length of the nose.

finger pressure Ask your partner

ci rcling

Place your fingertips over the

squeezing Massage

the ears by

to lean back against a small cushion or

temples. Gently circl e over t he temples.

towel. Place your fing ertips together in

rotating back towards you. The skin

and t humbs. Work from the tops o f the

t he centre o f t he forehead and slow ly

should move under your fin gers. This

ears right round to the lobes, t hen

draw your hands apar t. It is best to

helps to relax the mind and is good for

again along the inner line of the ear.

press with t he flats o f your fing ers.

relieving headaches. How ever, take

Ret urn to the lobes and squeeze and

Imag ine that you are drawing all t he

great care not to press too firm ly, and

massage them t horoughly. End t he

tension away from the fo rehead. Repeat

check with your partner that the level

sequence by gent ly pu lling at the

severa l times.

o f pressure feels comforta ble.

earlobes, t hen slide your fin gers away.

squeezing them between yo ur fingers


The hair and scalp



These strokes shou ld be performed with o il after the Face sequence. Using oi l



feels luxurious and is good for the hair. If you choose not to use o il, these


steps can follow on directly from t he previous sequence on t he head. In either

case, the resting technique (Step 4) is the final contact for the whole massage.






finger pressure

If you are going to


Hold your partner's head


Supporting t he head w ith


To end, breathe calmly and

with one hand, and place the tips of

one hand, reach under the hair and

place your hands just above the crown

some oil into your hands and apply it

your Angers and thumb over t he scalp.

grasp Armly at the roots. This prevents

of your partner's head. Hold for a few

to your partner's hair, rubbing it in and

Spread your Angers and maintain that

the technique from being painful. Tug

moments, then gradually lower your

massaging t hrough to the ends. If you

position. Rotate on the spot with your

fairly Arm ly without sliding, and work

hands so that they rest on top of the

are not using oil, perform th is sequence

Angertips so that the scalp moves

over the scalp tugg ing small handfuls

head. Breathe calm ly once more, ho ld

before working on the face. Begin

under your hand each time. Change

of hair. This feels particularly good at

for a few moments, then slide your

shampooing movements over the scalp,

hands so t hat you cover as much of

the back of the head. Change hands to

hands down over your partner's

applying pressure w ith the tips of your

the head as you can.

work over the remainder of the scalp.

shoulders to end the massage.

use oil, this is the time to apply it: pour

Angers for wonderfu l relaxation.

Indian head massage quick fix





27 1

If you o nly have a few moments in wh ich to do Indian head massage, try


the following sequence, which sho uld ease tension in the neck and


sho ulders and stimulate the sca lp. This can be done almost anywhere



and provides a great energy boost.




squeezing the shoulders Stand


behind your partner. Place your hands


over t he muscles along the tops of


the shoulders. Lift: and squeeze them



between your fingers and thumbs.

Grasp the muscles firmly to avoid
pinching, li ft and briefly hold. Work
from the neck out towards the arms.


circling the neck Resting


rotating the scalp Supporting

fing ers over the shoulders. place your

your partner 's head with o ne hand,

spread your other fingers w ide and

percussion on the back Form

thumbs at the base of the neck, about

your hands in to loose fists and pummel

2.5 cm (J in) away from the spine. Circl e

place the fingertips and thumb o n the

along t he top of one shoulder towards

over the neck muscles up to the base

scalp. Rotate on the spot to create as

t he neck and back. Pummel lightly by

of t he skull. As you circle, the skin

much movement as you can. Fairly firm

the neck, then continue over the

should also move under your thumbs.

pressure is usually good. Move to

muscles down to the lower back.

Repeat the movements several times to

different positions, then change hands

Repeat several times, then repeat o n

relax t he neck.

to stimulate the remainder of t he scalp.

t he other side of the spine. Keep your

wrists relaxed in o rder to make the
slightly dull, pummelling sound.



squeezing the neck Reach o ne

hand behind your neck. with your


The Fo llowing steps comprise Indian head- massage techniques to perfo rm

Fingers to one side of t he spine and

o n yourself so t hat you ca n get t he Full beneAts too. They are excellent

your heel to t he other. Keep your


knuckles raised over t he spine itself.





when you Feel stressed o r headachy and are also ver y good to promote

lust ro us and healt hy hair.

Starting at t he base of t he neck.

squeeze and knead t he muscl es.

w o rking up to the base of t he skull.


percussion on the arms Cup

Repeat w it h your other hand to even

over your shoulder with t he opposite

your hand around yo ur upper arm . with

t he pressure.

hand. Keeping your hand fl at. rub

your knuckl es raised. making contact

v igorously across t he top of the

wi t h t he Fingers and t he heel of your

rubbing the upper back Reach

sho ulder. The pressure sho uld be fast.

hand. Cup quickly up and down t he

w ith eno ugh fri ction to create warm t h.

outer arm . working as far as the w rist

Rub back and fort h between the neck

to stimulate the circulation. Your

and arm. then repeat t he movement

movements sho uld be quick. and

keeping your w r ist relaxed w ill produce

over the o ther shoulder.

the hollow cupping sound. Repeat over

the other arm.


sawing the neck Using your index

and middle Fingers together. reach
round to t he base of t he skull. Saw
quickly and li ght ly over the muscles.
working out towards t he ea r. Work
backwa rds and for wards severa l tim es
to relax t he muscles. then repeat on
the opposite side of the spine.




2 74

thumb pressure on the neck

rubbing the head

Use the fl at of

Place your thumbs at the back o f your

your hand to rub vigorously over the

head, with the fing ers on the scalp for

scalp. Your movements should be sharp

support. Yo ur thumbs sho uld be about

and brisk to stimulate the scalp and



2.5 cm (I in) away from the spine and

hair roots. Work over half the scalp


just under the base of the skull. Circle

with one hand, then change hands to


over t he muscles with the ba lls o f your

cover the remainder of the head. Flick

thumbs, massag ing towards the ears.

the ends of your hair as you rub so

This is great for reducing tension.

that it becomes quite ruffled.






rotating over t he head


both hands over the scalp, knuckles

Anger pressure on the face

Place the tips of the fingers together in

raised and fing ers spread. Rotate on the

the middl e of your fo rehead. Slowly

spot wh ile applying pressure, workin g

draw your hands towards the temples,

over the scalp w ith both hands at

dragging your fingers slightly as you do

once. Th is feels particularly good

so. This helps to relieve tension. Repeat

around the ears, temples and back of

in several lines across the forehead. It

t he head. Pressure should come from

may help the relaxation process to keep

the balls of the fingers and th umbs.

your eyes closed.

Massage for
special situations
When you massage . your partner might have particular
needs (such as deep- tissue or sports massage). or you
may wish to alter the focus of your techniques (say. to
give massage to a pregnant woman or couple massage).
On the following pages are some suggestions to
incorporate into your massage or to be used on their
own . If you use them on their own . remember to follow
the principles of relaxing the muscles beforehand and
using light strokes to close. Familiarize yourself with the
techniques (see pages 48-101) before you begin. and
ask your partner for feedback. That way you can build
up your range and experience. Baby massage is
presented as a self-contained full-body sequence for
you and your baby to enjoy.

Baby massage



Baby massage is a wonderful way of bonding with your baby. If you



experienced massage through pregnancy, your baby will recognize the gentle


rhythm of the movements. If not, massage is a great boost to the start of


a baby's life. You can quite easily adapt techniques to suit your baby.



Babies thrive o n touch. Massage

Your movements must be gentle and

stimulates their responses and increases

pleasurable, wit h lots of effleurage

the natural mother-baby connection.

and very little pressure. Wh ile gentle



stimulatio n of the mu scles and jo ints

Baby massage just requires a mother's

is good For a baby's development. the

instinct and a little knowledge about the

movements need to be intuitive, you r

strokes and suitable oils.

approach to massage flexible. and

nothing should ever be Forced -

Use only the purest of oils to moisturize

especially iF your baby does not Feel like

the skin which can be very delicate. For

keeping still. However. by developing a

essential oils, consult an aromatherapist.

relaXing routine. massage can help to

ca lm your baby. Massage o nly when

of oi l: nothing strong-smelling or heavy.

you Feel ca lm you rse lF, and take time to

and nothing t hat may cause sensitivity.

create a nurturing environment. Avoid

Use o il s with a beneAcial. moisturizing

massage immediately aFter Feeding.

effect. Sunflower oil mixed w ith a li ttle

jojoba oi l is perFect. or even some

Suitable oils

ca lendula o il. Use organ ic oi ls wherever

A baby's skin is extremely sensitive. and

possible. Essential oils shou ld on ly be

care should be taken wit h your cho ice

used in a pre - blended mix.


28 1

Baby massage is beneAcial to both mother and baby and is a special quiet

time when you can bond. The strokes suggested in the massage sequence


are fo r you to pick and choose from . as it is impo rtant not to tire or

overstimulate you r baby.


Make massage part of your dail y routine

from the outset. and continue fo r as
lo ng as you r baby enjoys it. If you need
guidance. it may help to attend baby
massage classes. Oils should be kept

Techniques: The main strokes to use
are gentle fingertip pressure.
effleurage and light wringing.

si mple. o rganic and unfragranced (see

page 279). Massage before rather than
after a feed. Baby massage is about
nurturing . to uch and increasin g
sensor y stimu lation. and shou ld above
all be playful. enjoyable and fun.
Prepare ever ything you need
beforehand. so have within reach oi ls
(if you are usi ng them l. some t iss ues.
wi pes. nappies and a blanket o r towel.
It o ften helps to build massage into

Movements: These should be gentle.

sensitive. soothing and reassuring.
with no heavy pressure and no fast
or sudden strokes.
Equipment: You need somewhere
comfortable where your back is
supported: blankets. towels and
nappies. tissues and w ipes to hand:
soothing music to create a restfu l
environment: pure vegetable oil.

prefer. using less pressure to avoid any

Make baby massage part of your daily

frictio n over the skin . It can even be

routine. It should be lOVing and fun with

done t hrough clothes.

as much body contact as possible.

You ca n ei ther sit o n a chair w ith a

your daily routi ne. for example before

Feedback: Your baby will give you

back suppo rt or o n the floor agai nst

a bath. at bedtime. before a feed o r

instant feedback.

the wa ll. The baby ca n either be o n

nap. If you are using oi l. do a patch test

TIming: A baby massage should take

special padding o n a table (but do bear

o n the in side of your baby's elbow 24

5-10 minutes. depending on your

safety in mind) o r o n a blanket o n t he

ho urs befo rehand to test for sensitivity.

baby's age.

floor in front of you. W hen your baby

as a baby's skin is ver y delicate and

is very small. he or she is probably best

may react. The massage ca n also be

on you r knees o r lap - it's a personal

perfo rmed as a 'dry massage' if you

preference. but body contact is ideal.

Movements of the join ts should not
be attempted until after the first
two months.

Front of the body



Beginning on the Front of the body is reassuring because you can keep eye


Repeat the effl eurage


contact with your baby which helps your baby to relax. Your strokes shou ld


be sweeping and Flow one into another. Work intu itively and adapt or


shorten the sequence as Feels best.

strokes, th is time sweeping up over

the abdomen and continuing down
the length of the arms. Squeeze the


stroke. Repeat several times in different


positions to spread the oi l. Repeat in


continuous, repetitive strokes.








muscles very gently as part of the


first contact Beg in massage on




Beg in the massage with

front so that you can maintain eye

light sweeping strokes from the

contact while your baby gets used to

abdomen, up over the shoulders and


As you complete the

effleurage routine, continue over the

the movements. Find a position that

down the r ibcage to your starting

hands and circle with your thumbs.

works for you. Rub a little oil over your

position. Repeat several times to relax

Depending on your baby's position,

fingers, then position your hands on

and reassure your baby. Mould your

you can either circle over the palms

the abdomen, with your fingertips just

hands to the muscles and keep your

or the backs of the hands. The

below the navel. Pause for a few

movements gentle and rhythmic. Use

emphasis should be on relaxing the

moments and simply observe.

very little pressure as you return on

hand and open ing out the fingers.

the downward stroke.

Repeat several times.

























Gently squeeze each o f

palm pressure Stroke with a little

your baby's fing ers in turn. using the

mo re pressure over each arm. using


Use your fing ertips in a


Supporting the wrist from

series of light feathering strokes down

underneath. make little circles with

li ghtest o f pressures to work down

your hands alternately in a series of

the arm. Work from shou lder to wrist.

your thumbs. Beg in with both thumbs

each fin ger to the tip. Either do this on

short sweeps. Beg in at the wrist and

This is a li ght. playful stroke. but also

together in the centre of the wrist.

both hands simultaneously or o ne at a

massage right over t he sho ulder.

serves to stimulate t he skin and

then circle outwards in spi rals over the

time. 'Bicycl ing ' the fingers is another

cupping your hands around the jOint.

increase sensatio n. Keep your wrists

joint. Pressure should be quite li ght

favourite. Gently move the wrists as

Pressure should come from the palms

raised and your hands relaxed so that

with the balls of the thumbs. and your

well . so that the whole arm is invo lved

of the hands. Alternatively. use one

the movement becomes like a ser ies

strokes sho uld glide over the skin.

in the strokes.

hand for support and the other to

of waves.

massage upwards over t he arm.




thumb circling

Continue the



Still suppo rting t he hand,

circling strokes over t he back o f your


baby's hand. Support it w it h your

back of t he hand and then turn it over.


fin gers underneath, and circle outwards

Continue feathering wi t h your


use light feathering strokes over the

over t he hands using t he balls o f your

fing ertips over the palm, and then

t humbs. The movements should be like

feather the length o f each fing er in

spirals, with the strokes sliding over

turn . The strokes wi ll provide enjoyable

t he skin . Repeat in several lines over

sensations and skin stimulation for

the back o f your baby's hand.

your baby. Then repeat all the

movements on the other arm .

10 thumb


Turn your baby's

hand over, with the palm facing



Return to the chest , repeat

the effl eurage stroke, t hen w ring light ly

upwards. Yo ur fing ers sho uld support

over the torso on the downward

it from underneath. Wi t h t he fl ats o f

stroke. With t he baby in a secure

your thum bs make small circles over

position, cross your hands to opposite

th e pa lm o f t he hand, so t hat yo u

sides o f the ribs, wi th your hands

massage as much o f the palm as

mo ulded around t he chest. Slowly sli de

possible. Your fin gers underneath

your hands towards each other and

provide resistance. Squeeze t he hand

across to t he other side. Repeat the

gently as you fini sh.

movements to t he low er abdomen.








effl eurage Use more

oil if necessary.


palm pressure With

your pa lms

t hen effl eurage outward over your

flat. massage over one leg. beginn ing


baby's abdomen and t his time down

just above the ankle and ending over

t he legs. Squeeze gently to stimu late

the hip. Then stroke. using slightly


t he muscles as part of t he stroke. and

more pressure w ith the palms. in a

wrin g and twist light ly over the skin.

ser ies of short movements. Massage



Repeat in several positions to spread

up t he leg and over the hip. curving


t he o il over as much of the skin as

your hands around the join t. Repeat

you can.

severa l more times to cover t he whole





thigh thorough ly.




squeezing When

you have


cup your hands around

the outside of t he thigh. w ith your

completed the effl eurage seq uence.

Angers pointing inwards. Gently slide

squeeze both feet between your hands.

both hands towards the centre of the

with your Angers on top and thumbs

leg. and then cross to t he opposite

underneath. Massage t he soles of the

side. Wring lightly over the thigh.

feet with your thumbs. or one foot at

continuing down the leg as far as you

a time if th is feels easier. Sli de your

can. Yo u can apply a little pressure with

hands. still gently squeezing. across

th is movement. as long as your hands

the foot and over the toes.

glide rather than stick on the skin.





2 91

17 thumb circling Support your baby's
foot in your hand. then make small

19 stretching cup t he heel in your

hand and place your fingers aga inst t he
sole of t he foot. Gent ly press t he foot

The Circles should spiral under t he foot.

dow nwards but aim to stop before you


You can press gently at t he base o f the

feel resistance. Passive exercise is good


toes. Work over as much of t he sole as

for strengthening t he jo in ts. How ever.

you can. but do not apply pressure on

beca use a baby's joints can be very

the instep. If in doubt . simply massage

mo bile. it is best to do this gently.

20stretching Support t he leg by

holding it under t he heel and at th e
knee. Gently push back towards t he
body to give a stretch at the hip. Do
this several times. Your grip must be
very light so you can relax befo re t here
is any resistance. Try again wi t h t he leg
to t he side. Li ght ly feather to the ankle
and repeat on t he o ther leg.

underneath t he foot . w ith your fin gers

over t he top. Wring backward and
fo r ward over the foot. forming a
complete movement with each hand.
Continue to the toes and repeat several
times. wit h your t humbs underneath
providing resistance. This is good for
relaxing t he muscles.

circles over the sole w it h your t humbs.

t he ball and over the heel.

18 wringing Place your thumbs











Return to the abdomen and

23 finger pressure

Reach around t he

back o f your baby's neck w it h your

t hen separate your hands and slide

fing ertips. index fin gers cradling the

back down the sides of t he ribs. f rom

baby 's sku ll. Place your middle and


here make large circles over the rib s.

fourt h fingers on the muscles to the


sliding up the side of the bo dy and

sides o f t he spine. Ver y. ver y gently.


circling back down again. Repeat

press the muscles with your fingertips

several times with your fin gers splayed

and massage upwards to t he base of

wide and your hands relaxed. sliding

t he sku ll.






effl eurage as far as t he baby 's chest.





over t he skin.




22 effleurage Place your thumbs

Wi t h your hands still

cradling t he head. stroke the cheeks

together in t he centre of t he chest.

w ith your thumbs in a circular mo tion

just beneath t he collarbone. Apply a

back towards the ears. Then gently

lit t le more oil. if you need to. Slow ly

squeeze the earlobes between your

st roke out over t he top o f the chest

t humbs and index fingers. and stroke

to the shoulders w ith t he balls of your

around and behind t he ears. These are

thumbs. Round your hands over t he

intended to be small. pleasurabl e and

shoulders and repeat several times.

reassuring movements.

The face


Massage over the baby's face and sca lp shou ld be extremely ligh t. avoiding




any o il near t he eyes. Make it playful so t hat the whole massage experience

is enjoyable and something you both look Fo rward to. Thi s is a time For


sharing eye contact, encouraging no ises and smiles.




effl eurage Move your t humbs to

t he chin, crookin g your index Angers
underneath and placing the balls of
your thumbs in the centre. Slowly draw
your hands out along the line o f the
jaw. Repeat several times and, on the
last stroke, give the earlobes a few
gentle sq ueezes.

effl eurage With

the baby's head

effleurage Place your t humbs over

supported once more, very gently

the cheeks and repeat t he effl eurage

stroke over the foreh ead with t he

strokes, w orking over t he cheekbones

effleurage Place both

palms just

above t he hairline, with your Angers

ba lls of your t humbs. Start with your

towards the ears. Your thumbs should

thumbs together in the centre of the

glide smoothly over t he skin. Give t he

liKing the centre of t he head. Gently

forehead and t hen slowly draw them

apples of the cheeks a little pinch to

stroke over your baby's hair towards

apart. Repeat several times, keeping

keep your baby smiling. Repeat in

t he back of t he head. Use your hands

severa l lines over the fuce.

alternately for a soft, relaxing rh ythm.

your movements w ell away from t he

eyes. Yo u may need to use a li ttle more

This is a great time for lots of eye

oil so your thumbs gli de over t he skin.

contaa and soothing sounds.

Back of the body


29 7

Once relaxed, your baby sho uld be happy to have massage on t he back.


Make sure th e bo dy is Fully suppor ted. Keep your st rokes sweeping, short

and light, wit h one Aowing into another, and sho rten the sequence iF you


Place your hands just

under t he armpits on opposite sides

of the r ibs. Slowly draw t hem towards
each other so that they cross to t he




o r your baby tires. Adapt th e st ro kes to suit your baby's positio n.





position for massage so t hat your

t he skin w it hout pu lling. Repeat over

baby is supported. Rub a little oil over

t he back severa l times.

your fingers and effl eurage over t he

back. Begin w it h your fin gers together



and your movements should slide over

by the lower back, glide up over t he

shoulders, then back down t he sides
o f the body. The st rokes should be
soothing, w ith your hands mo ulded to
t he shape of the muscles.


Repeat the effl eurage stroke

and, as your hands divide, circle out



low er back. Your touch sho uld be li ght




other side. Lightly wring down to the


Find a comfortable


circling As you

return to the low er

back, circle out over the top o f the

across the shoulders w it h your t humbs.

buttocks using large, broad circles w it h

The circl es should be cont inuo us

your thumbs. Begin 2.5 cm (I in ) away

spirals, with your thumbs gliding over

from t he spine and spiral across the

the skin. Repeat t he circling movements

skin . By using t he sides of your t humbs

several times. Start 2.5 cm (I in) o ut

you can ensure that the pressure

from the spine and massage towards

remains even and does not dig in.

t he arm s.

Repeat several times.




effleurage Apply

a little more o il to


your hands and effl eurage over t he



Place your hands around

the upper arm. Gently rock the muscles

Support your baby's

hand, then roll your thumbs over the



baby's back once more, t his time

back of the hand towards the fing ers,

sweeping down t he backs o f the arms

spreading t hem wide as you do so.

to the hands. Slide over the hands and

Thumb - roll in several lines, using the

the fingers in one broad, continuous

sides o f the thumbs for softer

movement. Repeat severa l times to

movements. Circle very gent ly between

sufficiently oil and stimulate the skin.

the tendons and around the knuckles.




Squeeze the fingers

gently between your index finger and

between your hands, w o rking down to

thumb. Massage each one in turn,

the wrist. Keep your hands moulded to

w o rking down the finger and over

the muscles, and relax your movements

the tip. Yo u can also rub and roll t he

at t he elbow. Adjust your hands to

fingers between your own . Feather

accommo date your baby's position,

down the arm from shoulder to

and simply rock as much of the arm

fingertips, then repeat all t he

as you can.

movements over the o ther arm .








Rub a litt le oil over your




Place your hands o n either

fingers if you need to. and place your

side o f the t high. fingers facing


fingertips together at your baby's

inwards. Slowly slide your hands past

lower back. Glide upwards w ith your

each other to reach the opposite side

fing ers together. then separate your

of the leg. Continue wringing up and

hands to sw eep over the buttocks and

down the th igh as far as t he knee.

down the legs. Repeat the strokes

Keep your wrists relaxed and your


severa l times. working right down to

hands mo ulded around the muscles.


and over the feet.











thumb pressure To massage over

t he back of the knee. change your

10 squeezing After your last effl eurage

strokes to movements wi t h your

stroke. squeeze over the soles of the

thumbs. Support the knee from

feet. with your fingers supporting them

underneath if necessary and smooth

underneath and your thumbs on the

outwards over the crease with the

sole. Gently squeeze the feet between

sides of your thumbs. Curl your thumbs

your fingers and thumbs. and especially

around the sides of the knee before

squeeze over the fleshy part of the

repeating the strokes. Then continue

soles. Remember to avoid the insteps.

wringing down the calf to the ankle.


3 03


Cradle t he foot in one hand

and gently pu ll each toe in turn . Wiggle

down from the base of each toe to t he
tip. Give little presses and squeezes





between your fin gers and thumb to

make the movements fun . Squeeze and
hold the ball o f each toe before sliding
over t he tip.



Supporting the leg w it h

one hand, feather alo ng its lengt h w it h

t he o ther hand in light movements to
stimulate t he skin. Short st rokes wit h
the tips of t he fin gers feel best , and are
relaxing and reassuring. Repeat several
times over the foot. Then repeat all t he
movements o n the other leg.



Cradle the baby's foot


t humb pressure Still


in your hands, w it h your fing ers

the foot in your hands, gently circl e

underneat h and your thu mbs over the

and press under the base of t he toes.

sole. W ring backwards and for wards

Use the tip of your thumb to press

across t he foot w ith both hands at t he

li ghtly between and around the jo ints

same time. Then slide to t he centre and

and to circle over t he pads o f t he toes.

back again . Yo ur movements sho uld

This is a nice movement to relax t he

glide over the skin whi le your fin gers

feet. Remember to keep t he pressure

remain mo ulded around t he foot.

gent le and soothing.






This is a sligh t variation on

the plucking stroke. Support your baby


under the shou lder. Place your thumb

and index fing er at the back of the


neck. on the muscles to either side of

the spine. Gently ra ise your hand and




slide your fing ers over the skin as you





'pluck' into the air. This must be very


gentle. without squeezing or pinching .


Repeat twice more to relax the neck.








lightly feather down the

spine with your fingertips. working

from the shoulders to the lower back.
Keep your wrists relaxed in a ser ies of
flowing strokes. using your hands
alternately. These movements should
be calming. relaxing and nurturing.
20 resting To end the massage. rest
your hands lightly on the back and


Gently tap w ith the

balls of your fingers. using small. light

movements like raindrops. the length
the back. Avoid tapping over the spine
itself. Wo rk from the shoulders down
to the lower back in a series of playful
movements. Repeat severa l times.

pause for a few mo ments. One hand

should be between t he shoulder blades
and the other over the sacrum . the
bony triangle at the base of t he spine.
Breathe calmly for a few moments and
focus on the contact between your
hands and your baby 'S skin. Then turn
the baby back over to face you.






Couple massage


Massage ca n be a lot of fun . It is great fo r helping couples to de -stress and


get physically and emotionally closer. The basic techniques remain , but


adding sensual movements and nuances can turn a massage into a romantic


dance. Sensual strokes are playfu l. light, lingering and come from the heart.









blowing on the skin

Th is is a

romantic touch for the end of any

sequence. After massaging the muscles
gently, blow over the surface of the
skin . The closer you are to the body, the
warmer your breath will be. Th is is great
as a relaxing techn ique or to stimulate
your partner's skin. Try it over the
limbs, back or nape of the neck.

flicking the hair Use th is at the

end of any massage sequence. The
longer your hair, the easier it is, but

feathering the skin

Feathering - a

nails to stroke gently over your

you can still be inventive. Use the ends

connecting stroke - can become a caress.

partner's body. The lighter the touch .

to brush and fli ck over your partner's

We often take our partners for granted,

the more it stimu lates the skin. Take

skin. Th is feels great over broad areas

so here is a chance to rediscover their

time to explore the outline of muscles

li ke the back. Long brush ing strokes

skin. Use your fingers, fingertips and

and joints in an affirming, caring way.

work best.




kneading the neck Be creative

w ith your massage. Use closeness and






scalp feels great, and so does tugging

gently at the hair roots. Make t he

moments, as a way of expressing

strokes playful. Stroke from the roots


tenderness and appreciation. It is hard

to the very tips, threading the hair

to feel loving when you are tense.

between your fingers. Curl the ends,

Knead the nape of your partner's neck

pull very gently and ruffle your

between fingers and thumb - as

partner's hair.


5 Anger pressure on the face

7 effleurage on the back

Massaging the face feels fantastic, but

Be inventive with techniques that you

adding soft, caressing strokes makes it

already know. Try different ways of

special. Use the balls and tips of your

effleuraging over the back, varying

fingers to draw softly across the

your pressure, pOSition and tempo.

features of your partner's face. Work

Hands and fingertips are fami liar, so

outwards from the centre with slow,

why not try the forearms or feet? Keep

languid strokes. Take time to trace

full contact with the muscle contours

around the eyes, nose and mouth.

for the best results.

Trace softlY over the eyelids and lips.


over the spine.



intimacy to massage at unexpected

always, avoid ing any direct movements

pulling the hair Massaging

Pregnancy massage


Massage is great during pregnancy. It helps to relieve backache, neck


tension , swollen ankles, tired legs and painful breasts, and you ca n


contribute to your partner's well - being. At the same time the baby w ill start


to respond to the fam iliar sensations and routines.












Pressure needs to be much

lighter during pregnancy to


avoid overstimulation. Avoid

putting pressure over the lower

back or abdomen during t he
first four months.

circling the lower back The

lower back can get very uncomfortable

squeezing the arms

Rub some oil

thumb pressure on the feet

during pregnancy. Try this wh ile your

over your hands. With your partner

The feet are another part of the body

t hat get really tired, especially towards

partner lies on her side, supporting her

supported, you can then squeeze over

with pillOWS for comfort. Place o ne

the arm. Squeeze w it h both hands

the end of the preg nancy. With t he

hand on the body for support and the

cupped around the forearm. Release the

legs resting, you can massage over the

other hand flat in t he hollow of the

pressure at the elbow and continue

feet, circl ing around the jOints and

back. Circle slowly anticlockwise so

towards the shou lder. Repeat t he

sq ueezing between the tendons. Use

t hat your hand slides over the skin,

strokes slowly so that they feel nicely

your thumbs to Circle the ankles as

using a little oil to help. Use broad ,

sooth ing. Repeat on the other side.

relaxing strokes, but avoid any firm or

uneven pressure.

well. Apply a li ttle pressure over the ball

of t he foot, but avoid oversti mulation.

3 12

squeezing the legs With


partner's legs resting, apply some oil

3 13

to your hands and squeeze up over the


calf muscles, circle around the knee




and continue squeezing up over the



th igh. This helps to relieve tiredness


in the legs. You might need to change

your position when working over the



th igh. If your partner has varicose




veins, simply brush lightly over the

skin instead.









5 finger pressure on t he back

kneading t he neck With


effl eurage on t he abdo men

You may be doing th is massage already.

position, you can knead the neck

If not, try spreading some oi l over your

muscles w ith one hand and keep body

Angers and make big, slow clockwise

contact with the other. Knead on either

circles over the abdomen. Use t he flats

side of the spine w ith your thumb and

of your hands and mou ld them to your

Angers, keeping your knuckles raised to

partner's belly. Over t ime you w ill be

avoid the spine itself Knead ing slowly

able to see or feel the baby respond.

'vVith your partner on her side and

is best; there shou ld be no heavy

supported, use your Angers to slide

pressure around th is area.

away from the muscles at the side of

partner supported in a comfortable


the sp ine. Splay your Angers and slide

between the r ibs, sliding over the
muscles in a raking movement. Your
partner w ill need to turn over so you
can repeat this on the other side.

Only attempt this massage

step after t he Arst four mont hs
of preg nancy.

Deep-tissue massage


This involves specialized techn iques over muscle and conneaive tissue. Wh ile



the increased pressure can be deeply satisfying , you need to apply cautio n


when using it. The techniques can release deep-seated tension and address




postural problems. The suggestions below give a Aavour of this massage style.

elbow pressure on the back

Apply oil over your partner's back.

Supporting the body, lean over and

place a rounded elbow on the muscles

on the opposite side of the spine. Apply



pressure upwards over the muscles as

fur as t he upper back, and round the
movement over the shoulder using
your forearm. Avoid too sharp an angle
at the elbow, so that the pressure feels
firm rather than digging in.

2 finger pressure on the

shoulders Use a double

finger press

to work around your partner's

shoulder blade. Begin w it h one hand
over t he top of the shou lder, and place
your other hand on top to increase the

knuckle pressure on the

buttocks Use both hands to work

your other hand on top to increase

pressure. Slide your hands right around

the out line of the shoulder blade as

into fleshy muscular areas, such as t he

weight and circle, knead and press over

the pressure. Lean in with your body

you press to relax the muscles and

buttocks. Form your hand into a fist

the muscles. Take great care not to

stimulate the circulation.

and press with your knuckles, placing

exert pressure over bony areas.
























fin ger pressure on t he back

5 thumb-rolling the calves

vibration over the forearms

thumb pressure on the thighs

Place the fingertips of both hands over

Support the leg at the ankle and place

Locate the muscular area between the

Place your thumb on the thigh. roughly

the muscles to the side of the spine.

your thumbs just above the ankle bone

bones of the forearm. Place the balls of

5 cm (2 in) above the kneecap. Slide

Press down into the muscles. at the

and to either side of the tendons. Roll

your fingers over the muscles. press

over the crest of the muscles and.

same time rolling your fingers over the

up towards the calf muscles. applying

down and vibrate on the spot. This

using the ball of your thumb. apply

muscle bands. This is done as a slow.

pressure with the balls of your thum bs.

increases the penetration of any

pressure in the direction of the hip. The

deep movement. avoiding pressure over

Repeat in several movements. applying

pressure. so it must on ly be done over

movement should follow the line of the

the spine itself. The stroke works best

firm. but not painful pressure. Press

fleshy muscles. Movements last for a

muscles and end at least 5 cm (2 in)

where there is increased muscle tone.

just behind and close into the bone for

few moments before you release them.

below the hip. Always start with light

the best results.

Work over the forearm then repeat the

pressure. and check any increase with

movements on the other side.

your partner. Repeat on the other leg.

Sports massage

Many ath letes use sports massage to keep At. It helps prevent injury through

muscle relaxation and passive exercise of the joints and is also excellent after

sport to help rid the body of excess lactic-acid. It is specialized, but the



following movements will give you some basic techniques.

rotating the hips Bend your

partner's leg back towards the body by
lifting it below the ankle and the knee.



Press against the lower leg and bring


the knee towards the chest until you



feel resistance. At this pOint, rotate the

leg at t he hip so that you provide a
stretch. Explore your partner's range
of movement and repeat, gradually
increasing the range of t he rotations.

Anger pressure on the knees

Press around the kneecap with the
balls of your fingers, working around
its outline by pressing and circling on

rotating the wrists

Support your

partner's arm at the elbow. Grasp the

the spot. Your other hand shou ld

hand securely and use your palm to

provide guidance and resistance. Ensure

apply pressure. This is good for passive

that you do not work over the kneecap

exercise of the joint. You can then

itself. This is a good technique for

slowly rotate the hand at the wrist in

increasing stimulation of the joint, but

both directions, while applying pressure

it is not suitable where there are any

to increase the mobility of the jOint.

known knee problems.








squeezing the legs Calf muscles

can get very tight. so you can help to

palm pressure on the

shoulders Bend your partner's


increase t he circulation by adapting t he

behind t he back to expose the sho ulder

fumili ar squeezing technique. Your

blade. Support under the sho ulder w ith

partner should rest their ankl e over

o ne hand. t hen spread your t humb and

your shoulder. giving yo u freedom to

index fin ger and slide your other hand


use both hands. Squeeze over the calf

as fur under t he blade as feels


muscl es towards the back of t he knee.

comfo rtable. Apply pressure w it h t he


using full hand contact. Simply be

palm o f your hand and t he web

careful no t to exert undu e pressure

between your index finger and t humb.

on t he knee.

This is great for relaxing t he sho ulder.




squeezing the feet








Place both

hands on either side of the foot.

Squeeze tightly between the fin gers

rubbing t he shou lders


both hands over the ball o f the

and the heels of your hands. Then

shoulder. o ne on top and t he o ther

stretch the tendons by pulling down

underneath. Rub vigorously between

o n o ne side o f t he foot. while pushing

your hands to increase t he circulation.

upwards on the o ther side. Try to get

Rub around t he joint and over t he

as much movement as you can. t hen

upper arm in a series of brisk

reverse the direction o f your hands.

movements. Contact shoul d be w it h t he

Repeat until t he muscles relax and

palms of t he hands. This is ver y good

become more pliabl e.

as a warm - up before physica l activity.

Beauty massage


The aesthetic beneAts of massage are numerous. Relaxed muscl es freed from

metabo lic waste improve t he appearance of the face. while increased


circulatio n and t he use of no ur ishing oils make the skin glow. Feeling good







in turn makes you look good, producing that priceless glow from within .



circling the temples

Place the

tips o f your fin gers over both your

partner 's temples. Apply a li tt le
pressure and Circle back towards you,
so t hat you lift t he features and stretch
t he skin . It is important always to
stroke so that you lift away from t he
face and encourage t he features to
appear more relaxed and open. Work
in half-circles so that you avoid any
pressure towards the face.

squeezing t he eyebrows


your t humbs and index fin gers on t he

r idge of the eyebrows. Working from

squeezing the jaw

This helps to

increase jaw defin ition. Apply a litt le oil

t he inner line o f the brow s, li ft and

to your fin gers, if necessary, and place

pinch at regular inter vals o ut towards

your fing ertips under the jawline, with

t he temples. Th is increases circulation

yo ur thumbs to gether in the centre o f

to t he muscles, but also helps to relax

the chin. Squeeze the jawbone as you

t he fo rehead and eyes. Repeat several

sli de your hands o utwards along t he

times over t he brow line, keeping your

line o f t he jaw. As you do so, you

fing ers steady. Remember to work well

gently stretch t he skin and stimulate

aw ay from t he eyes.

the muscles.




circling the jaw

Place your

Angertips over the muscles at the ang le


of your partner's jaw. These muscles





are very often tense and give the face

a rather cross, determined look. Apply
pressure with the balls of your Angers
and stroke in big, broad circles over


the muscles, wh il e encourag ing your


partner to relax the jaw. Press with

your Angertips wherever you feel any

particularly tight spots.




5 effleurage on the eyelids With

circling the cheeks

balls of your Angers over the cheeks.

percussion on the cheeks and

jaw Lightly tap over the cheeks and

Massage in small, spiralling circl es over

jaw like drops of fa lling rain. Use the

Place the

your partner's eyes closed, place the

the cheeks from the nose towards the

balls of your Angers to keep the

balls of your middle Angers very lightly

ears. This shou ld stimulate the muscles

movements soft. Keep your hands

over the eyelids, close to the bridge of

and improve the circu lation without

steady, with your wrists raised. Your

the nose. Steadily and gently draw your

dragging the skin. Repeat in three

movements shou ld be rapid and light.

Angers over the lids, taking care not to

horizontal lines, always ending on a

This stimulates the skin, improves the

press down on the eyes. Make sure

positive, upward stroke.

circulation and imparts a beautiful,

that you have enough oil on your

Angertips not to drag the skin - but
not so much that you irritate the eyes.

healthy glow.

Energy-field massage

The aura


All massage treating the who le person is l:Jea ling. A holistic approach takes


into account t he body, mind, emotions and spiritua l dimensions of each



person. Working on one pa rticu lar aspect ca n affect t he balance of the





who le, and hea ling is all about achieving ba lance.








En ergy ce ntres and fi elds


As we have seen chakras are

commun ication points of energy

sensitivity is the first step, as well as

(see pages 246-247). Each of the seven

empathy with and respect for your

major energy centres is believed to have

massage partner. Empty your mind,

Energy-field techn iques work both


o n and above the body. Developing






a particula r location, is associated with

focus on your hands and note any

certai n physica l aspects and has a

sensatio ns that you feel. Be objective

different colour and sound vibration. In

and simply observe. Try the following

addition. there are various energy fields

techn iques after massaging the

surround ing each individual. known as

muscles, or beforehand, to help your

auras. Some people can see or read

partner relax. With practice you will

auras and the colo urs within t hem.

gain confidence and be able to refine

The energy field closest to the body is

your technique.

known as the etheric body, and you

may be able to feel t his by ho lding you r
hand about 15-23 cm (6-9 in) above
t he skin. It is believed that energy
imbalances affect o ur physica l well being and may even be a cause of
illness. Balancing energy ca n help us
regain health, and t here are some
healers who work solely on energy
fields. By developing a heali ng touch
you can enhance your massage.

The energy fields that

surround the body are
colleaively known as
the aura.

resting on the back After

32 8

massaging the back, end the sequence


by placing one hand between your


partner 's shoulder blades and t he other


over t he sacrum, t he bony triangle at





the base o f t he spine. Breathe calmly,




empty your mind and focus on the

sensations in your hands. Imagine



positive energy fl owing out through




your palms. This feels comforting and




helps to connect upper and lower back.




resting the eyes This is good after

massaging t he Face and feels deeply

resting over the abdomen

Try t his after massag ing t he abdomen.

relaxing. Cup your hands and place

It is particularl y good if your part ner

them abo ut 15 cm (6 in ) above the eyes,

is experiencing any sensitivity, and is

shading t hem from the light . Breathe

a very centring technique. Ho ld your

energy-sensing on the back

calmly and imag ine positive energy

hands just above t he abdomen. Note

Place your hand fl at on your partner 's

flowing t hrough your palms. Keep your

any sensations t hat you pick up.

sacrum. Slowly raise your hand about

hands steady and your mind still. Your

Gradually lower your hands so that

10-15 cm (4-6 in ) above t he body. Circle

partner may notice the wa rm t h from

t hey rest flat o n eit her side of the

anticlockwise above t he sacrum and

your hand s.

navel. Breathe o ut posit ive energy

note any sensations in your palm.

Gradually lower your hand so t hat it
rest s over t he sacrum again. Th is
relaxes t he lower back.

t hrough your palms.


33 1

resting at the head This is good

energy-sens ing over the head

for headaches or mental tension. Rest

Stand behind your partner. Place your


your hands on either side of your

hands together roughly 30 cm (12 in)

partner's head, with your palms facing

above the crown of the head. Relax


inwards. let them simply relax. Note

your palms and note any sensatio ns

any sensations that you feel and

that you feel. Gradually lower both



imag ine positive energy flowing out

hands so t hat t hey cup t he crown.

t hrough your palms. Move your hands

Note t he change in sensation as you

slight ly further away from the head and

get closer to the body. Imag ine positive

repeat, gradually getting further away

energy flowing through your hands.

each time.






resting at t he feet This helps to

centre or ground your partner after a
massage by drawing attention down
to t he feet. After you have massaged
them, place your hands in a relaxed








res ting over the front o f the

bo dy Place one hand flat against the
chest and the other over the abdomen.
Simply rest. Note the rise and fall of the
breath, and keep your own breathing

pOSition over t he soles. Relax the palms

calm and steady. Note any changes to

of your hands and feel the contact w ith

your partner's breathing and

your partner's feet. Focus your

attention simply on the points of
contact between you.

concentrate on the warmth of your

hands. This is very helpfUl and balancing
if your partner is emotionally upset.

Massage has been used as a home remedy for years.
On the fo llowing pages are some common ailments
and suggestions for massage techniques to help them .
At the very least . massage provides comfort from pain.
and the reduction in stress often helps alleviate
symptoms. The most useful techniques have been
included . regard less of their tradition . In the case of
acupressure points and meridians . you can choose
whether a Chinese massage (see pages 156-199) or
clothed shiatsu (see pages 200-243) approach is more
convenient. These suggestions are not a substitute
for medical help. particularly important in ailments
affecting a baby or young child.

Tension headaches

thumb pressure on the neck

Lying face down can be uncomfortable


Headaches are very common and can be caused by eyestra in , posture, diet

w ith a headache. so try relieving neck

and stress. Massage can be extremely beneAcial for tension headaches.

tension - the cause of many headaches -




However, t hey ca n have more serious causes and medical attention shou ld



always be sought for prolonged or serious headaches.


with your partner Sitting up. Place you r

thumbs over the muscles on eit her side of

the feeling of tightness, place your hand

finger pressure on the eye

sockets Locate GB 1, which is roughly

in position over your partner's scalp.

one finger-width out from the eye

Contaa shou ld be made with the balls

sockets. Find the small depressions in the


of the fingers and thumbs. Circle on the

bone and circle gently with the tips of

spot and get as much movement of the

your middle fingers. Any pressure shou ld


the spine and circl e up towards the base

of the skull. Press under the skull,

rotating over the scalp To


massaging tense spots, and work out




towards the ears.

scalp as possible. Repeat in several

be back towards the hairline, away from

thumb pressure on the hands

positions to increase the circulation, using

the face. Slowly press into the points,

This spot can relieve headaches, especially

your other hand to provide support. Start

hold for a few moments and release.

if they have digestive origins. Place your

lightly and increase your pressure as the

Continue Circling until the tension eases.

thumb over the web between your

tension eases.

This is a favourite shiatsu remedy.

partners index finger and thumb, with

your middle finger underneath. Locate the
small depression sign ifying U 4. Press and
circle over the spot with the tip of your
thumb, applying resistance with your
finger. Check the pressure and repeat on
the other hand.

Do not use point U 4
during pregnancy.

Blocked sinus


A blocked sinus ca n range from fee ling slight ly stuffy to ver y intense pain .



Pressure po ints work best to try and ease th e congesti on. Begin gently un til


you see some results. Yo u may need to repea t t he movements over several


days for your pa rtn er to feel relief







Work up t he bladder meridian in a line

thumb pressure on the eye

sockets Press along t he lower

Press Co 20, w hich lies in t he depression

fi nger over t he Yin tang po int. w hich is

from t he eyebrow s to t he hairline and

eye-socket ridge using t he sides o f

o n eit her side of t he nostrils. Use the

located between your par t ner's brows.

over t he back of t he head. Press wit h the

your t hum bs at even in tervals. About

balls of your thu mbs to press downwards

Posit ion your fin ger, press gently, ho ld

fi ats of both t humbs in a steady rh y th m,

o ne-third of the way along you w ill feel

and slight ly in towards t he nostrils. This

and then release. Repeat several times,

posit io n, press, ho ld, release. This helps

a slight depression in t he bone. This is

offers good sin us reli ef. alt ho ugh make

pressing and releasing slowly and evenly

to clear the sinuses. To reli eve discomfort,

the lo cation of St I. Press in and hold

sure your pressure does not restrict your

until some relief is felt. This also helps to

press in several ver tical lines working

fo r a few mo ments to cl ear t he sinuses.

par tner's breathing. Press and ho ld for a

calm the system.

upwards over t he fo rehead.

Continue working o ut steadily towards

few mo ments, then release.

finger pressure between the

brows Place the tip o f your middle

thumb pressure on the head

t he temples.

thumb pressure by the nostrils

Dark circles


Dark circles under t he eyes can be due to lack of exercise, poor diet, late

thumb circling under the eyes





nights or too many hours spent at a computer. They can also signi fy mo re

Lack o f circulation is one ca use of dark

serio us heal t h issues, which sho uld receive medica l attentio n. Tr y th ese

circles. Place your thumbs over t he lower


eye - socket ridge, just by the bridge of

massage techniques to rest th e eyes and improve circulation.

yo ur partner's nose. Circl e outwards in





small spirals towards t he temples, taking

resting over the eyes

This is great

care no t to drag delicate skin . Repeat in

for relaxing the eyes. Rub your hands

several lines outwards under t he eyes to

together Vigorously until t hey feel warm.

stimulate circulation to t he muscles.

Cup your hands over your par tner's eyes

so that your heels rest on the forehead
and your fing ers over t he cheeks. Bend
your wrists to lift your palms away from
t he eyes. Simply rest. The warmt h from
your hands will help rejuvenate t he eyes.

circling the temples

Place your

fin gertips over t he temples. Make a fu irly

large half-circl e back towards t he hairline

squeezing the browline Squeeze

so t hat you lift t he skin . This stimulates

along t he browline, t racing the arc o f t he

t he circulation round the eye area and is

eyebrow s around to the temples. Beg in by

psycholog ically uplifting too. Repeat in

t he nose and pinch firmly between your

severa l places over the temples, li fting

index fi ngers and thumbs. Repeat several

your fingers at t he end of each movement

times for tired eyes. This is great fo r

so as not to drag the skin.

relieving tension and brightening t he eyes.

Lower backache

bending the legs


With one hand on

the body for support, slide your other

Aches in the lower back can be due to poor posture and a sedentary

hand under the ankle. Lift the lower leg

li festyle and contribute to shoulder and neck tension. Try these techniques

and rotate, then slowly bend back and

to relax the muscles and im prove overall posture. Always apply some general

away from you towards the oppos ite hip.





This strengthens the kidney meridian and

relax ing massage strokes Arst.

is good for sciatica.








palm pressure on t he lower

back Place one hand, palm flat, over
your partner's sacrum, the bony triang le
at the base of the spine. Place the other
hand over the muscles at the lower back,
cupping your hand to avoid pressure on
the spine. Stretch your pa lms away from
each other without sliding over the skin.
This gives the lower back muscles a good
stretch. Repeat severa l times.

fo rearm pressure on t he lower

back Place your forearms facing each

elbow pressure on the buttocks

other diagonally over t he lower back.

th irds of the way across the buttocks and

Gradually slide over the muscles whi le

one-third down. Press into the point with

applying pressure, so that one arm ends

a rounded elbow, circling and knead ing

Locate GB 30, which is the poin t two-

by the ribcage, and the other over the

the muscles. If this is painful. circle

hip. This provides another good muscle

around rather than over the point itself.

stretch. Repeat the stroke by swapping

Repeat on the other hip to stimulate

the direction of your arms.

energy Circu lation and for sciatica relief.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)


Premenstrual syndrome can make yo u feel awfu l, rang ing fro m emotio nally
irritable to having severe pain over th e lower back and abdomen. Diet can

help, but try th ese massage techn iques too. Work gently, over a few days ,
to relieve pain and tensio n and promote blood flow.



ci rclin g t he low er back Spread


some warm ed oil over yo ur hands and


effl eurage your partner's lower back w ith

long, slow, comfor ting strokes. Then circle
over t he lower back in an anticlockwise
direction w ith one hand on top o f the
o t her. Use t he pressure that feels best for
your partner. The strokes w ill warm and
relax t he lower back muscles.

th umb pressure on the feet


Li 3, which lies between t he base of t he

thumb pressure on the hands

Place your t humb over LI 4, wh ich lies in

big and firs t toes. Rub and circle over the

the web between t he index fin ger and

point first if it feels tender, and then press

t humb. Reach up un til you lo cate t he

pOin t, pressin g gent ly at first, and rub on

t humb pressure on t he ankles

in mo re deeply with your t humb. Begin

Slide your t humb up the inner leg, about

slo wly and increase your pressure, t hen

the spot until it feels less tender. Then

t hree fing er - w idt hs up from t he ankle

hold for a few moments. This is a good

press in w it h your t humb, w ith your

joint. Press behind t he bone to find Sp 6,

point to stimulate t he w eek before PMS

middle fin ger providing support from

wh ich may be ver y tender. If so, circl e

may o ccur.

underneath. Hold for a few mo ments and

around t he spot to ease t he blood fl ow.

t hen release. Repeat all t he movements on

Hold for a few mo ments, t hen release and

t he other side.

circle again to relieve any tenderness.

Aching feet


Feet have to work hard bearing our weight. IF you are standing up all day

o r wear high heels, your Feet may rea lly ache. A good massage at t he end of



the day with some peppermint Foot cream should help, and is a lovely t reat



to give your partner. Firm pressure avoids any tickling.



circl ing t he ankles Circle

the ankl e

jo int with your t humb to stimulate t he

circul atio n and restore movement. Big.
broad circles feel best; you can press and
circle close in to the jOint afterwards.
Encourage passive ankle movement w hile
you are massag ing, to help release any

circling the soles of the feet

squeezing the feet

With your partner's legs raised, use your

on either side o f the foot and squeeze.

t humbs to circle over t he soles of t heir

Then push one side of t he foot upwards

t hum bs are over the top. Place them

feet. Circl e, knead and press over t he foot

wh il e pu lling down on t he other side.

lengthways side by side and t hen sli de

w it h t he balls of your t humbs. Avoid

Change direction several times to

them o utwards. App ly resi stance w it h

pressure over t he instep as this can be

stimulate t he circulation and get

your flngers underneath. Repeat t he

uncomfortable. but otherwise massage

movement into the foot. This red uces

movement in several li nes. sq ueezing your

thoroug hly until the feet feel softer.

stiffness and counteracts the effects of

partner's feet to relax the muscles.

Place your hands

being o n your feet for ho urs.

th umb pressure on the feet c up

stiffness. Repeat all t he movements on t he

your hands around the foot so that your

other side.

Stiff neck


Fo r most people the area where th ey usually feel tension is in the neck and

pulling t he neck With

sho ulders. A stiff neck can be the result of poor posture and a sedenta r y

lying face upward, slide both hands under

li festyle and can lead to headaches , so try t hese massage techn iques to

the neck and then crad le the base of


the skull. Lift the head slight ly and gently

re lieve tension and relax the muscles.

pull it back towards you so that you give



your partner

the neck a stretch. This helps to ease

circling the neck Place your thumbs

neck tension and gives the feeling of

along the top of your partner's shoulders,

knead ing the shou lders

on the muscles to the side of the spine.

lengthen ing the spine. Lower t he head

beg innin g at t he neck and working

beSide t he prominent vertebra (Cll at

again very gently.

o utwards. Your fingers should rest over

the base of the neck. With your fingers


the shoulders wh ile your t humbs knead

resting over the shoulders. Circle and

t he muscles. Press and circle over the

press to relax the muscles, wh ich in turn

muscles, paying attention to any tense

w ill relax the neck. This particular poin t

spots. Where t he muscl es feel tender,

is known as GV 14.

reduce t he amo unt o f pressure and

increase the breadth of your strokes.

rocking t he head Slide your hands

under the neck and cradle t he base of
t he skull. Turn the head to o ne side by
pressing your hand fl at against the neck,
then turn it the other way with your
other hand. Gently rock the head from
side to side to enco urage the neck and
sho ulder muscles to relax.




Thinning hair


These massage techniques may help where ha ir growth is dim inishing due




to lack of circ ulation o r stress. Massage increases the blood fl ow over the


sca lp and stimulates the hair follicles. In a hea lthy person , massage shou ld


stimulate hair growth over a period of weeks.




Anger pressure on the scalp

rotating over the scalp

Place the ba lls o f your Angers and t humbs

Angers o f one hand on t he sca lp, and the

over the head wit h t he Aat of your hand,

Supporting t he head with one hand, circle

on your partner's scalp and make

other hand on the head to provide

placing your other hand on the head for

over the scalp with your other hand. Use

shampooin g movements over t he entire

support. Rotate over t he scalp w it h the

support. Your movements shou ld provide

sma ll spiralling movements w ith the tip of

head. Work r ight through to t he ends of

balls of your An gers and t humb. Spread

fri ction over the sca lp as you rub back

your thumb to stimulate the scalp. Work

the hair. Gentle tugging at the roots is

your Angers so that your hand maintains

and forth. Work small areas at a time very

gently but thorough ly over thin ning

helpful. too. Your Angers should slide over

t he sa me shape throug hout. Rotate and

thoroughly and yo u should feel some

areas, and especially where t he hairline is

t he sca lp, applying Arm pressure and

circle on th e spot w it hout sliding over the

warmth beneath your hand. Wo rk

receding. Applyin g some no urishing hair

encourag ing movement of the hair. Be

skin, to stimulate circulation.

sensitively where the hair is t hinning.

o il may also help.

careful not to actually pull out any hair

over thinning areas.

Place t he

rubbing t he scalp

Rub vigorously

t humb circling t he sca lp



What is commo nly known as cellulite, or orange- peel skin. usua lly involves



Auid retention and congestio n of the tissues. Along with massage . diet and
exerci se play important ro les. Massage sensitively as these area s are often


ten der. Repeat o n a da ily basis.



knead ing t he t highs and

buttocks Kneading is good for


congestio n, but be careful because the

pressure can be painful. Work over your
partner's t high and buttock area, pressing
into the muscles with your thumbs and
rolling back w ith your Angers. The hands
should work alternately and establish
rhythmiC movements. The addition of
cleansing essential oils may help.

knuckle pressure on the

bu ttocks and legs Form your
heel pressure on t he t highs

percussion on the thig hs Use


your hands to hack up and down the

into a loose Ast and massage congested

thigh to increase Circulation. Your wrists

areas w ith your knuckles. This can be

shou ld be kept loose and body contact

Massage along t he thigh muscles w ith the

quite effective. but be careful where there

made with your little Angers. Yo ur

heels of your hands, working up to the

is a lack of muscle tone. Circle and knead

movements need to be sharp and light to

hip. Apply enough pressure to be effective.

on the spot to increase the Circulation.

achieve t he traditional hacking sound. Yo u

but not painful. Work up over t he thigh

but keep to fl eshy areas. AVOid massage

can also use other percussion movements,

with both hands using long, alternate

directly over the bones or inner t hi gh.

such as pummelling and cupping, to

strokes, or use both hands together for

stimulate the local circu lation. Repeat all

greater pressure. Avoid any massage over

the movements on the other leg.

the inn er thigh.

Colds and flu



Colds ca n be a sign t hat your immunity is low, and flu deAnitely requires


bed rest and medica l advice. To ease the symptoms of an ordinar y cold , try


th ese massage techniques. At the same time reduce your stress levels and



follow a healt hy diet.



thumb pressure on the hands

Place your t humb over the web between
your partner's index fing er and thumb.
Locate LI 4, which li es just between t he

thumb pressure on the wrists

Anger pressure on the chest

bones, and press w ith the tip of your

Locate P6, which lies centrally between

Locate CV 17, which is on the breastbone,

thumb. At the same time squeeze

the tendons, two and a half finger-widths

midpo int between the nipples. Press t he

underneath w it h your middle finger to

above th e wrist. Press w ith the tip of your

point w it h the ball of your finger, hold for

provide some resistance. The spot may be

thumb, ho lding the forearm underneath

a few moments, then Circle on t he spot.

painful, so approach it gently. Hold for a

for resistance, for a general ton ic or to

This is very good to help ease breathing

few moments, and repeat over severa l

reduce heat. Press and hold t he point For

and relax emotional tension in the chest.

days to help reduce excess heat.

a few moments, then release and repeat

Repeat over several days to improve the

t he actions on t he other wrist.


circling the head

The symptoms of

stressed muscles and t hose of flu can

sometimes become confused. Instead of
curling up (a natura l instinct when you
feel ill ), try massag ing arou nd the

Do not use poin t LI 4
during preg nancy.

fo rehead, scalp and neck with sma ll

fing ertip Circles. Th is ca n often help t he
body to return to normal and give you
the opportun ity for recovery before
illness strikes.

Digestive problems


Problems with digestio n can be ca used by poor diet and lifestyle, lack of

effleurage on the abdomen

exercise and stress. Chronic problems need qualiAed attention , but try th ese

A relaxed abdomen can aid digestion.

massage techniques to relieve general discomfort. Also, review your eating

habits and set aside time for proper mea ls.




Rub a li ttle o il between your hands and



circle in a clockwise direction over your


partner's abdomen. The strokes should


be made w ith the flats of your hands,

palm pressure on t he legs Your



avoiding too much pressure. The aim is

partner should lie on the floor, legs

to relax and soothe so that the natural

turned sli ghtly inwards. With one hand on

digestive processes can take place.



t heir body for support , 'walk' down the

side of the crest of the muscles, following
the stomach mer idian. Press w it h your
palm, release and continue pressing
steadily and evenly the length of the leg.
Avoid any pressure over the knee.

th umb pressure on t he legs

Locate 5t 36, wh ich lies in the depression

palm pressure on the abdomen

by the shinbone, three Anger - widths

Place the flat of your hand just beneath

below the knee. Massage and circle over

the ribcage and the other hand on top to

t he point with the ball of your thumb to

provide support. Press very gently as your

improve digestion. Then press the point

pa rtner breathes out. Relax your pressure

directly, hold for a few moments and

and try again, each time coordinating as

release. This is a good constitutional poi nt

to massage from time to time. Repeat the
movements on t he other leg.

your partner exhales. Repeat on t he other

side to encourage relaxation, but make
sure the pressure causes no discomfort.



Anxiety ca n prevent people from funa io ning properly. Chronic cases need


specialized suppo rt, but for temporary sit uatio ns, try some relaxing

and covered for comfort, breathe calmly,






Wi t h your partner lying face up

empty your mind and place one hand on

techniques to reduce mental agitatio n. Fears are usually abo ut what might

t he low er abdomen and t he other over

happen , so use massage to stay in t he present moment.

t he chest . Let yo ur hands r ise and fa ll


w it h your partner's breath. Th is ca lms

t he emotions and encourages relaxed

breathing , wh ich becomes shallow w hen

w e are stressed.

thumb pressure on the wrist

thumb pressure on t he wrist

effleurage o n t he back

Support your partner's arm w it h one

Find t he depression in a line down from

warmed oil over your hands and

hand, and locate P6 between t he tendo ns,

t he inside of the little fin ger, just below

effl eurage over t he back w ith broad,

two and a half fing er - widths above t he

t he w rist. This poin t is H7. Place your

sweeping strokes. Wo rk from the low er

wrist. Place your t humb over t he po int

t humb close in to the bone and press it

back up to t he shoulders, where your

and press gent ly w ith the ball. hold for

with the tip. Hold for a few moments,

hands should separate and return down

a few moments and then release. Used

t hen release to provide support and

the sides of t he ribs. Repeat slowly to

toget her w it h the fo llowing point , t his is

reduce anxiety. Use t his in conjunction

reassure your partner, then end by

very useful w henever your partner feels

w it h the point described above. Repeat

effl euraging over the low er back and legs,

anxio us o r stressed.

t he actions on the other wrist.

fin ishing at t he feet.

Rub some






This can be a distressing condition in the Arst few months of a baby's life,



which can leave you feeling helpless. Try the following movements between



episodes to help calm your baby. Staying calm yourself stops your baby


from picking up on your anxiety.

circl ing t he back Just the gentle

reassurance of your touch can help. With

your baby in an upright position to help
ease any wind , make broad, comforting
Circles over the back. Massage especially
to help ease the abdomen. The circles
should be anticlockwise with whole - hand
contact. Simply the warmth of your hand
will help,

effleurage on the legs

Rub a little

effleurage on the abdomen


oil over your fingers and gently stroke up

a little oil over your fingers and effleurage

the legs from ankles to thighs, avoiding

gently over the abdomen. Follow the

any pressure over the knees. Massage on

direction of the large intestine, and circle

the thighs is good for the circulation and

clockwise in soothing strokes. This is best

towards the chest. Do not overstretch or

may help to ease the discomfort of colic.

done on a regular basis to help keep the

exert any pressure. This helps to ease

Stroke towards the abdomen, then brush

abdomen relaxed, Use light strokes with

pressure on the abdomen. Repeat the

lightly down the legs, keeping to a

the fiats of your fingers.

movement several times with each leg,

soothing rhythm.

bending t he legs Gently bend


leg at the knee and bring the thigh slowly

and stop as soon as you feel any

resistance. This is best done when your
baby is feeling comfortable.



Teething is a painFul time and is hard to watch when your baby is in distress.

circling the jaw Circle very gently

Some gentle massage over the gums can help improve the local circulation.

around the angle of the jaw. to increase

Massage is not only soothing in itselF. but can provide a welcome

distraction. Massage on a regular basis.

the circulation. Use your Angertips in

soothing movements. using slightly more
pressure as you circle back towards the


ears. Keep your Angertips flat so that they

do not dig in. and lift the skin slightly as

you stroke.

circling the gums

Massage very

circling the mouth

Try circling

gently and with care over your baby's

movements over the gums. this time

squeezing the jaw Use

gums. Using the tip of your little Anger.

working gently on the face. Press and

your Angers and thumbs to lightly

make very small circles and massage as

circle gently with the tip of your little

squeeze around the angle of the jaw. As

high up the gums as you can. Each

Anger to stimulate the circulation and

you squeeze. lift the muscles slightly so

movement over the upper gums should

drainage. Work around the mouth.

that it becomes almost a soft. pinching

end in an upward direaion; downwards

pressing gently against the gums. The

movement. lifting rather than pressing

for the lower gums. Do not massage

strokes should end in an upward direction

helps to ease the pressure and stimulates

where there is inflammation.

over the upper gums. and downward over

the local circulation. It can also be made

the lower gums.

into a little game.

the tips of

Repetitive strain injury (RSI)

36 :


Working o n computer keyboards, or at any activity where you constantly





your Angers and hands supple th rough daily massage and exercise to

provide a variet y of movement for your muscles.


repeat small movements, can result in severe sympto ms over time. Keep








squeezing the wrists

Place your

rotating the wrists

Grasp t he

squeezing the hands Spread a little

circling the palms Supporting

oil over your hands and reach up between

hand from underneath fo r resistance,

Circle and press over the palm with your

t he

t humbs together in the centre o f your

hand and rotate at the wrist to maintain

partner's forearm, with your fing ers

joint mobility. As long as there is no

your partner's fingers, with your t humb

cupped around the wrist. Apply pressure

discomfort, try to achieve as great a

o n top and middle finger underneath.

thumb. Use firm pressure as you circle and

with the leng th of your thumbs and

range o f movement as possible. St rain

Squeeze firmly between fing er and thumb

squeeze over the muscles and jOints.

slowly draw them out to your fing ers.

arises from repeating t he same

as you draw down between the tendo ns.

Remember to massage t he fl eshy pads at

This w orks best without oil so that you

movements over and over again, so

Repeat t his over both hands, pressing and

the thumb and side of the hand. Circle

can squeeze the muscles more tight ly.

maintaining fl exibili ty is very important.

circling to release any tension.

carefully around t he base o f the fing er

Increasing t he circulation and improving

drainage are vital to minimizing strain.

joints until the muscles star t to relax.

Painful joints

thumb pressu re on t he Angers


Use your thumbs to press around (but

It is very importa nt to maintain mo bility by stimulating the circ ulation.

not directly over o r under) t he fing er

Massage sho uld no t be done when th e joi nts are inflamed, and great care

jo int. Stop if there is any pain. Press and

should be taken not to cause pain. Diet is an impo rtant factor in preventing

the build up of waste produas which may irritate the body.


bo nes. Bend t he fin ger as you massage,

circulatio n and encourage mo bility. Gentle

squeezing t he t highs To


circling the shoulders As

long as


circle gently, workin g close in to the

if th is is comfortabl e, to increase the



passive exercise is always helpful.

the circu lation and drainage, work above

the joint is not currently inflamed, cup

but not over your partner's jo ints. Apply a

your fin gers around the ball o f your

litt le o il to your hands, then squeeze over

partner's shoulder and circle around

rotating t he Angers Do

t he thigh muscles, draining towards t he

(but not over) t he jo int with your

if t he jo ints are not inflamed. Grasp a

t his only

hips. Make sure there is no pressure o n

thumbs. Use broad circles, sweeping

finger, pull gently and rotate. Try to get

t he knee jo int, and use a support if

away from the jo int. Some w arming o il

as much movement as possibl e. Rotate

necessar y. Squeeze using whole- hand

may also be helpful to soothe and

t he fing er in wide circles and t hen t r y a

contact to cover the leng t h of the th igh.

stimulate the circulation.

bicycling motion. A few minutes' daily

passive exercise of t he joints helps to
reduce stiffness over dme. Repeat all t he
movements o n both hands.






Earache ca n have a variet y of ca uses. It ca n be ver y painful and in acute

fing er pressure o n the jaw Ask

o r prolonged episodes may require medical attentio n. However, fo r mild

your partner to relax or drop their jaw.





complaints these decongestive massage techniques may help. Repeat the

o f t he jaw, t hen continue massag ing

strokes as often as necessa ry.

around t he area. w o rking towards t he


Press your fin gertips close in to t he angle

thickening o f the entrance to t he ear

circling the ears Use t he tips of

canal. Knead and press gently around t he

your fin gers to gent ly massage the area

area until your partner feels some relief.

behind your partner 's ears. Start your

Keep checking t he jaw is released.

circles at t he hairline and gradually move

tow ards t he ears. O f particular benefit is
t he area closest in. The direction of the
circles. however, is away from the ear
itself Check t hat t he pressure is no t
causing discomfort and continue gent ly
for several minutes.

squ eezing th e ears Li ghtly


along t he inside o f t he ears wit h your

circling over the neck

Place the

fin gertips o f both hands fl at over the

t humbs and index fin gers, squeezing in

neck muscles. just below t he earlo bes.

severa l lines as the movements follow

Make slow half-Circles back towa rds t he

t he shape o f the ears. As you reach the

spine, moving th e skin as you do so.

entrance to t he ear ca nal, lift t he ea rlobes

The area may feel a little puffy or tender.

and gently tug them. Gradually w ork in

Wo rk slowly and repetitively fo r several

closer to t he ear canal. squeezing and

minutes to increase drainage. This sho uld

kneading all t he time.

help t he feeling o f being 'blocked'.



Poor circulation


Thi s may result in cold hands and feet and can generally be helped by a little

rubbing t he arms

exercise and some massage techniques to promote circu lation and increase

your hand to rub down the heart

meridian on the little- fing er side of the

energy flow throughout the body. Poor circulation has different ca uses and


Use t he fl at of

inner arm. Work from the armpit down

more seriou s conditions require medical advice.

to the little fing er. Then firm ly pinch and


squeeze the length of the arm and

squ eeze the finger. End by pulling over

t he fingertip quickly with a little snap.

This helps to promote t he circulation.

thumb pressure o n t he legs

Locate Sp 6, wh ich is the point three
fing er- widths above the ankle joint, just
behind the bone. This is good for t he
circulation and for proVid ing a general
ton ic. Begin gently since this point can be
qui te tender. Press w ith the ba ll of your

circulation is poor, the skin may be cooler

palm pressure on t he arm s or

legs Position yourself at your partner's

to the touch or a different colour from

side, hold one hand on the body for

around the point as a softer alternative.

the surrounding body area. Knead firmly

support and use the other palm to 'walk'

Repeat all movements on the other side.

to increase the circulation over muscular

over the arms or legs, depending on

areas, particu larly the th ighs and

where the problem lies. Position your

buttocks. Press in with your thumbs and

hand, press, hold and release, working in

roll with your fingers until you notice a

lines along the meridians. Work more

visible difference.

gently over any join ts and repeat several

kneading the legs Where

t he

times. Stretching and pulling wi ll also help

to improve energy fl ow.

thumb, hold and then release. Circle

Do not use point Sp 6
during pregnancy.






Lifestyle tips
Massage forms just part of the framework of keeping
body and mind healthy. The tips that follow are
tasters of some of the other ways in which you can
take responsibility for your own well - being. As you try
them out. you may feel drawn to exploring some of
the approaches in greater depth. Some work well in
certain situations or for certain personalities. while at
other times or for other people another method may
appeal. Any or all of these approaches complement
massage. Feeling helpless makes any problem worse ,
whereas making a choice for a positive lifestyle is
actually more interesting and a lot more fun!



Th e most common reacti o n to massage is a Feeling o f intense relaxatio n . and

thi s simple word cove rs a multitude of ben eAts. However. an absence of



relaxatio n. or the presence of prol o nged stress. ca n have a negative im pact




on o ur health . self- esteem and qua li ty o f li fe.


The 'Fight or Flight'


W hen we are constantly stimulated and

A certain amoun t o f stress is good. It

on the alert . our resources become

cha llenges and mo tivates us to be

depleted. More hormones are released

creative. Acute stress stimulates the

t han t he body can deal with . resu lting

serious consequences for our health.

sym patheti c nervo us system. and the

in both physical and mental exhaustion.

adrenal glands secrete chemicals that

Switching o ff becomes difficult . and it is

speed up t he metabolic processes.

this consta nt low - level stress that is

provid ing the energy to respond to

dangerous and needs to be addressed.

danger; this is popularly known as the

'Aght or Aight' response. Short-term
responses are an increase in heart ra te

Reversing stress through


and respiration . dilated pupil s and

Responses to stress are individual, and

sweating. The increase in energy

so is to lerance. W hat may be exciting

promotes muscular activity and enables

for one person is stressful for another.

us to take appropriate physica l action.

Sensitive individuals may be much more

Resources are temporari ly diverted from

susceptible. However, our modern

functions less useful for cri sis

lifestyles wit h t heir accent on

to deal wi th stress. the damage ca n be

our quality

situations. such as reproduction .

achievement and material va lues.

reversed. Massage is a fantastic tool ,

great tool for reducing its effects.

Fortuna tely. once you actually start

Stress can have a debilitating impact on

of life. Massage provides a

digestion and sleep. These reactions to

overstimu lation , poor diet, lack o f

with its physica l beneAts of speeding up

sti muli are natura l responses, which our

exercise and poor sleep quality play

t he elimination of metabo lic wastes,

con Adence and well- being. And once

bodies are well able to deal with.

a large part in our abi li ty to cope. It

such as the hormones produced by

yo u have experienced true. deep

is all too easy to lose that natural

stress. Of equal beneAt is its ability to

relaxation. t he pursuit of a positive .

healthy balance.

relax the mind , inducing a sense of

balanced lifest yle becomes a way of life.

It is the effects of prolonged, chronic

stress that can be debilitating and have


3 75


~ Reduce the usual props, such as


Here are some tips for dealing with


stress in the short term. How ever,

caffeine, alcohol, cigarettes or

a long -term approach is going to

drugs. They make you feel worse

require a little work to achieve

in the long term.


permanent change.

Find new healt hy props to give you

energy, such as fresh foods, a
makeover, good music or a relaxing

~ Change what you can. Do not let

bath with essential oils.

situatio ns become chronic. There

are external factors that yo u can

~ Prioritize. Deal wit h one stressful

situation at a time.

alter and you should do t his as

soon as possible.

uplifting people.

For external factors that you

cannot change you need to alter

Surround yourself with positive,

Learn from your mistakes.

Take time out fo r your needs,

your reaction.

Take a deep breath before reacting

without feeling guilty about it.

to a situation. You may find t hat

you come out with a different more

Do everything in moderation to

a positive thing to do.


healthy and makes problems seem

snacks and food.

easier to overcome.

and body healthy and to reduce the

negative effects of stress.

routine and stick to it.


Express your emotions in a positive

way. Bottling them up inside can

Have more fun - laughter keeps us

Cut down o n salty and sugary

Regular exercise helps to keep mind

positive. See the best in people.

make up a daily self- massage

Make getting an early night a

problems when you are tired.

air. A healt hy bo dy deals better

Make your relationships more

~ If yo u cannot get regular massage,

reg ular feature. You canno t solve

~ Get plenty of exercise in t he fresh

wit h stress.

~ Get help if you cannot cope. This is

reduce the roll ercoaster ext remes

o f hi ghs and lows.

Help someone else. It will put your

own problems into perspective.

measured response.

lead to disaster.

Be your own best fri end. Give

yourself credi t when you do w ell.
or simply for t rying, if t hings don 't

Listen to your heart rather t han

work o ut. A mental pat on the back

your head.

works wonders.



relax. Let go of ever yday problems and

Some people ca n visuali ze easily,

breathe ca lmly. Imagine yo urse lF

Relaxa tion is the way th e body recovers From exertion , whether ph ysica l

although it is no t For everyone.

somewhere pleasant, such as a country

or mental. These processes are governed by th e parasympathetic ner vous

Visua li zation is a wa y of channelling

Aeld. Experience all the sights, sounds,

mental energy into something positive:

smell s and colo urs. Then start wa lking

yo u create an idea l situatio n in your

to the top o f a nearby hill , sit down ,

mind. Incl ude as much sensory

look around and remember that Feeling.


system (see page 18) and help to maintain in ternal ba lance. Relaxation is
an active rath er than passive state.

inFormati o n as possible so that it

It ca n include recreatio n. but often we

becomes a rea l experience , and reca ll


rela x o ur bodies while continuing to

the image or Feeli ngs that you

Good - quality sleep is vital For the body

stimulate ou r minds. True relaxatio n

experienced whenever you need to.

to repair itselF aFter the day 's exertions.

reFreshes t he w ho le o f us and gives us

Visualizations may be guided by

Too oFten we experience broken sleep,

a new perspective on liFe. There are

someone else, so that you ca n let go

or have difficu lty switching oFF mentally.

different techniques to su it different

and put ever ything into the experience.

people. which may require some

practice at Arst.

How to do progressive relaxation

People vary in the amount of sleep they

need, and worrying about lack of sleep

How to do a v isualization

on ly increases anxiety. Establi shing a

Find a quiet place where you are

win d- down routin e ca n help, or try the

comFortable. Some music may help you

occasio nal catnap to catc h up.

Lie o r sit in a comFortable posit ion . Take

note of any areas of your body that
Feel tense or uncomFortable. Then


physically tense and relax each part of

you in turn. beginning at the Feet and
working up to the head. Relax Fo r a Few

Avoid caffeine or a heavy meal just

before going to bed.

in turn unti l you reach the Feet.

Have a warm bath or shower a few

hours before bed and apply some
relaxing oils.

True relaxation reqUires practice and a

Let go of the day's problems, which

you can do nothing about now and
w ill deal with tomorrow.

minu tes and breath e ca lmly. Th en work

back down the bo dy. moving each part

little effort, but experiment with different

techniques to find a method to suit you.

Make your bedroom a relaxation

zone with soft lighting and
soothing music.
Put a drop of essential oil under
your pillow.
Th ink of someone or somethin g
nice. Relax.






Meditation, oils and herbs

Essential oils and herbs can aid relaxation.

Make choosin9 them and their preparation


Meditatio n ca lms t he mind and emotio ns. Techniques are often linked to a


spiritua l tradition . but can be practised on their own. It is a good idea to get


some gu idance from an experienced teacher. Techniques var y from emptying

The use of herbs goes back to early

t he mind to focusing o n the breath or an object or sou nd.

civilizatio ns and in many t raditio ns

fo rm ed part of t he system of medica l

How to medi ta te

t hat come into your mind and do no t

treatment. Fo r therapeutic use you

Find a comfortable positio n where you

get emotionally involved. Try t his for

must fi nd a quali fied herbalist . but some

can be quiet. Breat he calmly and relax

ten minutes every day. Eventually you

herbs are safe to use o n their own.

your body. Focus your attentio n o n

will find t hat you are ca lmer.

Teas ca n be made fro m fresh or dried

but do not try and breathe in any

Oil s

Contain ing no caffeine. herba l teas are

special way. Let go of any tho ughts

Essential o ils ca n be used to help

excellent to ta ke during t he day. after a

herbs and used to help relaxatio n.

yo ur breath as yo u breath e in and out.

relaxatio n. Th ey ca n be applied in a

meal or to help you wind down in the

body lotio n. a bath o il or used to

evening before sleep.

fragrance a room. Use o nl y natural o ils

How to make a herbal infusion

and avoid synthetic preparations.

Prepare a wa rmed po t. To make an

Essential- o il mo lecules can trigger a


part of the therapeutic process.

process whereby electrica l impulses are

How to fragrance a room

relayed to t he brain . having a positive

Place some o ils in a diffuser. Use a few

hea ped teaspoonful o f dried herbs such

effect on mood. Choose t herapeutic oils

drops of your favo urite essential oil o r

as chamomile. lemo n balm or li me ', .

infusio n to aid relaxatio n . add o ne

th at you like (see pages 388-389). Put

try equal numbers of drops o f up to

flowers (if using fresh herbs. double

a drop or two o n a tissue for

t hree o ils. The scent sho uld fragrance

t he amo unt). Add bo iling water and

emergencies. but never use t hem neat

the room. Do not leave t he diffuser

allow to steep fo r about ten minu tes.

o n the skin. Try bergamot . lavender o r

unattended. Oi ls can also be added to a

Yo u ca n add a spoonful of honey

geran ium to li ft your mood.

base o f water in a candle burn er. wh ich

accord ing to taste. if you wish. To aid

sho uld be placed o n an even surface

digestio n . prepare a po t o f pepperm int

Most meditation techniques involve sittin9

and not left unattended. Air t he room

tea and drink after yo ur meal ; for

in a meditative posture. With practice you

afterwards to avoid sa tu ra tio n . and do

improved concentration and mental

can achieve peace of mind.

no t use around chi ldren o r pets.

focus. t ry a pot o f rosemary tea.






Positive attitude

38 1

Stress is an individua l respo nse to a situation t hat you mayor may not be
able to do anyt hi ng about. IF you can , do someth ing to resolve the problem,
which wi ll instantly make you Feel better. IFyou can 't , try to change
something about your respo nse, wh ich wi ll alleviate the pressure.
For example. if you normally get very

Learnin g o pportuni ty

emotio nal o r flu stered, ta ke a deep

W hen you encounter a problem or

breath and co unt to ten before

difficulty in a relationship. take a step

responding: you may come o ut with

back and ask yourself what you need to

so meth ing different. Rath er t han getting

learn from t he situation. Try to be as

into a confrontation, remove you rself

objective as possible. Then try find ing

physically from the situatio n un til

an alternative solution based o n what

t hings are ca lmer. and do something

you observe. It o nly needs one person

else. Don' t be a doormat. If you

to change their respo nse to turn a

normally bottle up your emotions. let

situation around.

t hem out in a positive way and do

something constructive. If you like to

Seeing t he best

be in contro l, ease off a little. If you

If you find something or someone

prefer to go with the flow. take charge

difficult to deal With, try listing their

for a change.

good qua li ties for a change. Look

Once you become stressed. it is easy

t hrough rose- tinted spectacles and you

to become anxio us about the next

may be surprised by what you find . Try

trigger. so try to stay positive and

and connect with the positive points.

simply enjoy the present mo ment. Look

Th en try the same exercise on yourself

surprised at how negative language can

at problems as opportunities to use

We are often hardest of all on ourselves.

affect your thoughts and reactions and

co siWarions. Forget fam iliar patterns and

stop you from trying something new.

you may be surprised by the results.

your ingenuity. or to develop hidden

qualities within yourself Focusing on

Positive lan g uage

Nega tive conno ta tions stick. Try and

t he here and now is a great way o f

Practise being positive by o nly using

approach every thi ng and everyone

changing your usual respo nse.

positive language for a day. You may be

afresh. with an open mind.

Srress can be eased by how we respond



Th e body is tru ly ama zing and ca rri es out t issue and ce ll repair o n a daily

ba sis. Every ce ll needs proper nourishmen t and a healthy environment to

thrive - and that part is up to us. When we are busy, a balanced diet is


o Ften comprom ised and we end up running on empty.


Lack of decent nutrition adds to our

And make time not only to enjoy your

stress levels and affects our ability to

food. but for proper digestion too. Eating

cope and think clearly. It also shows up

late at night ca n ca use sleeplessness , so

in skin problems. lacklustre hair and

eat earlier or have lighter meals.

nails, chronic low- level aches and pains

or a susceptibility to infection.
To keep healthy, do a li ttle research

We generally know what we should

be ea ting, so what does it take to
change? Try the fo llowing suggestions.

to find out what good nutrition really

involves . and keep a close eye on the


ingredients in the food you eat. Try

A good inner cleanser for the day is a cup

Drink this first thing and see how much

Good nutrition helps our bodies to function

cutting down on stimulan ts such as

of plain boiled water with a fresh slice of

fresher you feel. Then try substitu ting

properly. Eat healthy snacks through the

caffeine and alcohol. which ultimately

lemon. Add a little honey if yo u need to.

at least one regular tea or coffee every

day to maintain high energy levels.

deplete your energy. Reduce your intake

day for a cup of herbal or green tea.

of salty foods, because sa lt promo tes

water retention in the tissues. And try

Natural foods


cutting down on sugar, which provides

Too much salty food is unhealth y. so

Too much acidity ca n cause problem s

a breeding ground for viruses and

try ea ting foods t hat have a good

for the body, and in particular may

unhealthy ce lls. Processed foods lack

natural sodium and potassium balance.

contribute to joint pain. Try and

nutritional va lue, so spend a little time

One of the best is celery, so chop up

balance your diet wi th alkaline foods,

crea ting healthy snacks of your own.

some organic ce lery as a snack.

which means plenty of fresh vegetables.

Almonds are also grea t , and an excellent

Growing your own on a small scale is

Small changes can yield big results. Try

food for th e brain (but t hey ca n be

fun . Try bean sprouts in glass jars. or

increasing the amount of water you drink

toxic if eaten in excess); eat just a few

salad herbs in a windowbox. That way

and see how much better you feel.

on a regular basis.

your food is vibrant and fresh.


becomes even better once you see the


resu lts. If you are out of shape. get a

Exercise is good for the body. It im proves t he circulation. w hich mea ns that
t he cells are well supplied w ith nutrients and the muscles with oxygen . It
keeps the heart healthy and lowers blood pressure. It also improves dra inage
of the tissues throug h the remova l of metabo lic waste.


hea lth check Arst and always get Arstclass instruction. Try the following



exercise suggestions.




Mind and b o dy exercise

Use exercise to promote the mind-body

The lymph system. which helps to

balance by taking up a discipline t hat

transport waste products. is stimulated

addresses all aspects. Yoga or martial

by muscular activity. Through

arts are idea l. not on ly for promoting

movement the joints are kept flexible.

physical health. but for ca lming the

injuries heal faster and a com bination

mind and emotions. With continued

of fresh air and exercise produces

study. th ey will increase your self-

clearer t hinking and glowing skin .

knowledge and independence.

Moderate exposure to sunlight

sti mulates the production of vitamin D.

Informal exercise

which is important for maintaining

Exercise can be anyth ing that gets you

moving. Try wa lking briskly home from

good eyesight.
Finding time to exercise is vital,

work for a change. with you r arms

especially wit h increasing hours spent

swinging to help yo ur lungs. Be more

in sedentary pursuits. Exercise can be

active when you exercise yo ur pet. Do

yoga is perfe ct for bUilding strength and

creative or formal, social or soli ta ry. or

some bold planting in the ga rden. Take

flexibility and improving posture. It can also

help you develop a more positive outlook.

simply part of another activity. As with

up danci ng. Exercise can be something

all t hings. moderation is the key. and

that yo u do as part of another activity.

exercise should be enjoyable rather

and then it feels more like fun.

t han a chore. BeneAcial exercise uses

up and down. The more you do. the

easier it gets. Stretches are good.

as many muscle groups as possible.

Stationary exercise

Yawning gets oxygen to the lungs.

without pu tti ng undue stress on the

If yo u are not mobile for some reason.

This is equally important if you are

join ts. Swimming is a great example.

Fresh air and exercise are a great

exercise is still important. Move as much

recovering from injury. The more you

Regu lar daily exercise that you enjoy is

combination. Th e more effort you put into

as you ca n either sitting or lying down.

do to help your body. t he more beneAts

something you wi ll stick to. and

it the greater the benefits you will feel.

Rotate your joints or pump yo ur limbs

yo u will feel.

The after-effects of massage


So what can you expect from massage? W hat happens afterwards? The
physica l effects of massage are improved circu lation and dra inage, increased
flexibil ity of the joints, stimu lation of the ce ntra l nervous system and of t he

communication that involves more than

with in yo ur limits and do not

giving and acceptance . o fferi ng the

overstretch your current reserves.

reCipient a wonderfu l opportun ity

allowing yourself some personal time

si mply to rest and recharge.

to rebalance afterwards.

Giving massage is ca lming. soothing

organs via the reflex points.

develop such a t herapeutic gift. Keep

words. It is an unconditio nal form of


Massage is positive, fascinating and

and improves relationships. As yo ur

an idea l way to spend quality time: an

techn iques get better, so will your

open-ended journey leading to

confidence. and it feels wonderfu l to

unexpected destinations.

The skin general ly improves as a resu lt

to wait. rollover and get up slowly. The

of the boost to peripheral circulatio n.

recipient may feel rea lly tired. again due

And the immune system benefits due to


increased drainage. The centra l nervous

the best option is to rest qUietly for


system is general ly ca lmed. which

about an hour afterwards and drink


produces a reduction in mental tension,

plenty of water.

soothes th e emotions and generates

positive well - being. Self-esteem is

the body processes taking place, so

Once massage becomes a regu lar

feature. the cumulative benefits include

en hanced , together with an improved

better overall health. less stiffness and

body image. Energy flow is stimu lated.

greater flex ibil ity. with an improved

which results in better hea lth. Thinking

ability to dea l with everyday situations.

and perspective are enhanced and.

There also seems to be a more positive

through the focus on the senses, the

outlook on li fe.

mind and body feel better connected.

Immedi ate and lo ng-term


Th e benefits o f givin g
and rece ivin g
The benefits of any shared experience

These processes ca n be quite

or activity bring two people closer.

pronounced t he first time round. The

Massage is do ubly rewarding because it

muscles may ache a little afterwards

concerns a special kind of emotional

due to stimula tio n . or the recipient may

feel a bit light- headed. This is usually

Massage on a regular basis provides real

due to changes in the blood pressure

benefits, such as increased circulation,

after lying down. so the best solutio n is

flex ibility, self-estee m and mental calm.



Essential oil guide




Tea tree

leaves, Fruit a nd fl owe rs of pl a nts a nd t r ees. Th eir scen ts are t h era p e utic a nd

(Melaleuca altemifolia)

have diffe ring effects o n the bo dy, mind and em o tio n s. The o ils are con centrated




(Eucalyptus radiata)
Essen t ia l o il s a re arom a tic vo la til e o il s extract ed From the root s, bark , sta lks,



and sho uld always b e diluted a nd never a pplied directly to th e s kin .

For massage . add up to Fo ur drops of

around children and animals. Essen t ial

essen t ial o il to 10 ml (2 teaspoons) of

o ils are used in many bath and cosmetic

vegeta ble o il (see pages 32-33) . Choose

preparatio ns. Fo r ho me use . t hey are

natural essential o ils o f therapeutic

great as roo m Frag ran cers (see pages

grade From a reputable suppli er. Due to

378-379) or ca n be added in mild

dilutio ns to massage o il.

environmental concerns, t hey sho uld be






Good for oily skin, fatigue (Note: do not

(Citrus limon)

use on skin exposed to direct sunlight)


(Citrus paradisiJ


Good for congested skin,

nervous exhaustion


(Citrus bergamia)

Good for spots, depression (Note: do not

use on skin exposed to direct sunlight)


A luxury

Good for wrinkles, anxi ety, shock

(Citrus aurantium
var. amara)

oil; uplifting

(Note: do not use on skin exposed to

direct sunlight; use sparingly)

Use as a room fragrancer for infections,

colds and flu


Good for allergies, nervous tension







(Mentha piperita)

Good for foot massage, headaches

(Note: too strong for a general body oil)





Good for sensitive skin , insomnia


Good for greasy skin, mental fatigue

CAnthemis nobilis)

(Rosmarinus olficinalis)

(Note: do not use in pregnancy, with

epilepsy or high blood pressure)

ethica lly so urced.



respiratory problems

(Lavandula angustifolia)

Great ca re sho uld be taken w it h t hem

Use as a room fragrancer for

Geranium (Pelargonium


Ylang-ylang (Cananga
odorata var. genuina)


Jasmine (Iasminum

A luxury oil;

Good for dry skin , depression



(Note: use sparingly)


A luxury oil;

Good for dry skin , depression, grief

(Rosa damascena)


(Note: use sparingly)



Good for male skincare, stress

Good for mature skin , stress

(Note: use sparingly)
Good for skin care, nervous tenSion,
frustration (Note: use sparingly)

(Cedrus atlantica)

(Note: do not use in pregnancy)



Good for mature skin , stress,

(Boswe/lia carteriJ


mental tension



Good for male skincare,

(Pogostemon cablin)

nervous exhaustion


39 1



How ofren can one have a massage?

Every day, if you want to. Provided there are no health issues,

Is massage all right when you are older?

it is a matter of choice. Regular massage works best, so try to

Massage can be very helpful for o lder people. whose

leave it no lo nger than once a month.

circulation may be poorer, joints stiffer or who may have less






social contact. Do not use too much pressure. A simple hand

How do I know ifl'm using the right pressure?

massage ca n make someone feel real ly special.

Feedback from you r partner is essential. Pressure is a matter

starting gently to begin with and then adjusting. The massage

I haven't got time for a full massage. so how can I make it part
of my day?

shou ld be Arm enough to stimu late the mu scles, but if it is

Simpli fying massage - or picking and choosing techniques - is

of preference, so use the pressure that you feel is right,

painful , the pressure is too hard.

Ane. Work on the area that needs most attention. Even Ave
minutes of your time !:an make a difference.

How can I be sure I'm doing it right?

experience, and it is okay not to get it right at Arst. Your

I don't like following a formal routine - can I make up my

own strokes?

partner wi ll help you. Follow the principle of massaging

Massage strokes follow certain principles, and a routine

Ask your partner how the massage feels. Learning is a joint

towards the heart and use stroking movements in between

proVides structu re to begin with. Once you have gained a litt le

techniques to maintain the rhythm.

experience, it is Ane to experiment. Your partner wi ll tell you

how it feels.

The massage doesn't feel right - how do I avoid hurting my

partner's feelings when telling them?
You will not hurt your partner's feel ings if yo u give

I still don't feel very confident, though my partner tells me my

massage feels all right. What can I do about this?

constructive feedback. Your comments and suggestions can

ConAdence grows with practice. But why not have a

improve your partner's massage technique.

professional massage you rself, to give you some inspiratio n?

How do I know if it's safe to massage?

Check with your partner for any contraindicatio ns (see page
13), If you are in any do ubt, say no and seek medical advice
before conti nuing.


ceda rwood oi I 389



on back 71. 110. 166. 194.
214. 253. 271
during pregnancy 310
on cheeks 325
on face 266
on hands 132
on jaw 324
on knee 71
on neck 260
on sacrum 148
on shoulders,
self-massage 196
technique 70-1
on temples 322
see a/50 Anger circling,
t humb circling

central nervous system 18. 19


front of body 283. 285.

cellulite 350-1


Chinese massage sequence

186- 7

wringing 68
auras 326. 327
autonomic nervous system 18

palm pressure on 72. 238

plucking 61

chakras 246-7. 248. 250. 326

chamomile oil 389
champissage 10. 250

pregnancy massage 310. 312


circling 70

Ayurveda 246

pummelling 77
rubbing 78

self- massage 153


effleurage 55
energy - Aeld massage 329

Ayurvedic medicine 10

shiatsu massage sequence

beauty massage 325


210- 15
stretching over 80-1
elbow pressure on 93
Indian head massage
sequence 252- 7

energy-sensing 101
holistic massage sequence
138- 41
pregnancy massage 313
shiatsu massage sequence

aching feet 344-5
acupressure points 160-3
anatomy 14- 27
passive rotation 99

colic 358-9
newborn 13
teething 360-1


on front of body 282-93

beauty massage 322-5

bergamot oil 388


oils For 279. 280

techniques 280

feather ing 56

quick fix 194

sequence 166- 71

squeezing 64
vibration on 87
holistic massage sequence

128- 31
Indian head massage
sequence 258-9
pregnancy massage 311
rocking 59
self- massage 154
shiatsu massage sequence

in lower back 340-1

blocked sinus 336-7

circu lation 20- 1
blood pressure,

Chinese massage,

deep- tissue massage 317
rotating over 75

see also spine

on back of body 296- 305

on face 294- 5
massage sequence 282- 305
movements 280

sequence 180

wringing 69

application 280-1

thumb pressure on 83
anxiety 356-7
Chinese massage:
quick Ax 195

vibration on 86

baby massage 278- 305

lowering 384
blood vessels 21
breath ing,

cupping 76
deep- tissue massage 314. 316
effleurage 55

feeling breath 44
for war ming up 38

energy- field massage 328

deep-tissue massage 315

feathering 56
holistic massage,

self- massage 197

kneading 63

quick Ax 148
sequence 104-13
kneading 63

circling 71


energy-sensing 100

palm pressure 72
squeezing 65

self- massage 197

wr inging 69

Chinese massage sequence

184- 5
energy- Aeld massage 331
hol istic massage sequence

134- 7
shiatsu massage sequence
222- 3
chi 157. 160
stimu lating Aow 164
types 164
Chinese massage 157-99
for abdomen 186- 7
acupressure points 160-3
application 164-5
for arms and hands 180- 3
for back 166-71
for chest 184- 5
equipment 164
for face 192- 3
for legs and feet 172- 9
movements 164
for neck and scalp 188- 91
principles 158
qu ick Ax 194- 5
self-massage 196-9
sequence 166-93
techniques 164
o n abdomen 70, 138. 139. 140.
on baby,
back of body 296, 297


boosting 13
improving 384
problems ,
poor 368-9
circulatory system 20- 1
inner 382- 3
clothing 30-1
colds 352-3
colic 358-9
Conception Vessel (CV) 158. 202

earache 366-7
Eastern massage 10
effleurage 49
on abdomen 55. 138. 186
during pregnancy 313

on arms 128. 180. 258

on baby,


back of body 296. 298.

face 294-5
front of body 282. 283.
on back 55. 106-7. 110. 166.

on chest 134
on eyelids 325
on face 124
o n legs 55. 114. 142
on neck 120
technique 54-5
elbow pressure,
on back 93. 169, 215. 254
deep- t issue massage 314
on hips 93. 238
on legs,
self- massage 243
on neck 232
on shoulder blades 93

contraindications 13

technique 92-3
energies (doshas) 246

couple massage 306-9


cupping 76
on shoulders,
sel f-massage 150

balancing 326
blockages 160

chakras 246-7
deAciency of 204


excess of 204
Aow of 157. 246

dark circles 338- 9

points o f 248- 9

deep- t issue massage 314-17

stimulating 164

diet 382- 3

energy centres 326

digestive problems 354-5

energy fields 326. 327

doshas 246. 248

energy- field massage 326-31


energy- sensing:


vibration on 87

o n back 100. 328

on Face 101. 127

see also cheeks, eyebrows,

on head 330

technique 100-1



t humb pressure on 83

on abdomen 101. 141

setting 28- 9
epidermis 26. 277
equipment 30
essen tial oils see oils
etheric body 326
eucalyptus oil 389
exercise 384-5
warm - up 38--43
eyebrows .
selF- massage 198
beauty massage 324
dark circles under 338- 9
energy-Aeld massage 329
Anger pressure on:
self- massage 152
resting 153
eyest ra in 250

eyelids, jaw
FAQs 390-1
Feathering .
on arms 56
on baby,
back of body 303 . 305
Front of body 285. 287
on back 57. 109. 113
on Feet 119
on skin 306
technique 56- 7
on toes 57
aching 344- 5
Chinese massage:
quick Ax 195
sequence for 176. 178- 9
energy-Aeld massage 330
holistic massage,
qu ick Ax 149
sequence 117-19. 142.145- 7
knuckle pressure on sole 91
pregnancy massage 311
selF- massage 155
shiatsu massage sequence
217-19.230- 1

baby massage 294- 5
beauty massage 322-5
Chinese massage sequence

sports massage 320

thumb pressure on sole 83
Anger circl ing .
on shoulders.
selF- massage 196
Anger pressure:

energy - sensing 101

on baby 293. 302

holistic massage sequence

124- 7

on back.
deep- tissue massage 316

Indian head massage

sequence 266-7
oil blends For 32
shiatsu massage sequence

236- 7

on eyes:
selF- massage 152
on Face 125. 192. 237. 266.

selF- massage 242. 275
on head 84. 262
on hips 85
on knees 318
on legs 115
on neck 121. 188- 9
selF-massage 240
on nose 85
on sca lp 122. 199. 234-5. 268
on shoulders .
deep-tissue massage 314
technique 84-5
under cheekbones.
selF- massage 153
passive rotation 99
pulling 97
Arm stroking .
on back 171
nicking hair 307
Foot pressure .
on feet 219
forearm stretches:
on back 80-1. 211. 257
techn ique 80- 1
on thighs 81
deep- tissue massage 317
rotating over 75
squeezing 64
vibration on 87
Friction 49

on Face 126-7

hacking 77

on head 89
on hips 89

Indian head massage

sequence 268-9

on legs 115. 143

technique 88-9

pulling 309

on thighs 6

thinning 348-9
hair nicking.
on skin 307
Chinese massage sequence

energizing 45
holistic massage sequence

128. 132-3
knuckle pressure on palms
rotating over palms 75
self- massage 198
sensitizing 44
shiatsu massage sequence
t humb- rolling 66

Hippocrates 10

movements 250
For neck 260- 1
principles 246-7
quick Ax 270-1
selF-massage 272- 5
techniques 250
timing 250
inFusions. herbal 379

elbow pressure on 92. 238

Anger pressure on 85
heel pressure on 89
knuckle pressure on 90
selF-massage 154

jasmine oil 389

beauty massage 323-4

sports massage 318

history 10- 11
holistic massage .
For abdomen 138--41

problems 250

Jitsu 204
joints 14-15

For arms and hands 128- 33

fo r back 106-13

ball - and- socket 15

for chest 134-7

equipment 104

massage techniques for


for Face 124-7

painFul 364-5

hinge 15

feedback 104
For legs and Feet 114-19. 142-7

energy-Aeld massage 330.

massage sequence 103-55

Anger pressure on 8 4
hacking 77
heel pressure on 89
Indian head massage
sequence 262-5
plucking 60
rotating over 74

movements 104

kapha 246
keratin 26
ki 202

rubbing 79
selF- massage 152

for neck and scalp 120-3

quick Ax 148-9
selF- massage 150-1
techniques 104

deAciency of 204
excess of 204
kidneys 24
kneading .
on arms 130

Indian head massage 10. 245-75

o n back 63. III. 112.256

application 250-1

on buttocks 63

headaches 250. 334-5

For arms 258- 9

For back 252-7

o n Feet 217
on legs 116. 144

heart 20. 24
heel pressure.

equ ipment 250

For Face 266-7

o n neck 308
on shoulders.
selF- massage 150

working on 35

during pregnancy 312

lower. selF-massage 197

geranium o il 389
Governor Vessel (GV) 158. 202

on abdomen 221

Feedback 250

on arms 225

For hair and scalp 268-9

grapeFruit o il 388

on back 109. 253

marma points 248-9

technique 62-3

on chest 136. 137

massage sequence 252-75

on thighs 63

on buttocks.
selF- massage 197
o n chest 136. 137 . 184. 223


during pregnancy 313


li fting,

circling 71


sports massage 318

knuckle pressure,
on back,

for arms 259



ligaments 15

Chinese massage sequence

lymphatic system 22-3. 384


lymphocytes 22

holi stic massage sequence

self- massage 243

120-3. 149

on buttocks,

Indian head massage

on arms 129. 225.232

rosemary oil 389

rotating over 75

on baby 303


parasympathetic nervous
system 18

on feet 117. 145. 218. 230

on arm 75

on fingers 97

on head 74

self-massage 24 1

passive rotation:

on hands 133

on palm 75
on scalp 123. 268. 271

on arms 223

on legs 97. 173. 218

macrophages 22

pregnancy massage 313

of feet 117. 178

on neck 97. 121. 239

on hips 90

manna points 246-7

pulling 97

of fingers 99

on scalp 233

on palm 91

martial arts 385

self- massage 151

of hips 318

on sole 91


shiatsu massage sequence

on legs 228. 231

technique 90-1

sequence 260-1

aesthetic benefits 322


aFter-effects 386-7

stiffness 346-7

of Feet 117. 178

on hips,

of fingers 99

patchouli oil 389

lattic acid 16

environment For 28-9


pectoral girdle 14

lavender oil 389

FAQs 390-1

finger pressure on 85

pelvic girdle 14


history 10- 11

thumb - ro lling 66

peppermint oi l 389

prepa ri ng for 28-47

purpose of 12-13

oils 32-3

holistic massage sequence
shiatsu massage sequence
216. 218. 219
Chinese massage quick fix
deep-tissue massage 316

shiatsu massage sequence


on arms 258

blend recipes 32

on back 255. 270

resting 187

essential 378-9

on head 79. 262. 263

on cheeks 325

on baby 305

on head 265

on back 328

on scalp 235

on chest 331

technique 76-7

medium pressure 62-81

painful joints 364-5

in Chinese massage 157.

158- 9.160

palm pressure,
on abdomen 140. 220-1. 239
selF- massage 242

on eyes 329

technique 78-9

on face 237

on thighs 79

pitta 246

on feet 330

on baby 304

imbalances wit hin 204

on baby 284. 289

on back 61

pressure points on 204-7

on back 73. 111. 168.210. 212.

on head 60. 263

in shiatsu 202-3

o n calf 73

muscles 16- 17

self- massage 275

on shoulders 321

petrissage 49

on arms 224

Mezger. Johann 10

self-massage 272
on Feet 175

for joints 96-101

on back 78. 214. 252

on abdomen 220. 329

deep pressure 82-95

light pressure 54-61

selF- massage 241

relaxation 12. 372. 376-7

techniques 49-101


142-5 .147


styles 8

Front of

holistic massage sequence

of wrists 98. 319

repetitive strain injury 362-3

self - massage 240

technique 98-9

on legs and Feet 231

on baby 304

meditation 378-9

sequence 176-7

self- massage 272

on legs 228. 231


for baby massage 279

effieurage 55
Chinese massage

on arms:

of hips 318

selF-massage 154


as shared experience 386-7

of arms 223

of wrists 98. 319

nervous system 18- 19

pressure types 52-3

of ankles 99

technique 96-7
pummelling 77
on back 256

benefits 8. 12-13

back of 173-5

techn ique 74-5

rotation. passive:

technique 98-9

Chinese massage sequence

self- massage 152. 274

of ankles 99

on feet 119

deep- tissue massage 315

rose o il 389

knuckle pressure on 91

on hair and scalp 269

on head 330


on arms 59. 180

o n legs 61

on baby 298

technique 60-1

on back 170. 210

circling 148
on neck 260. 261
self- massage 273

on chest 222

PM534 2-3

on feet 179

on shoulder blades 95

pregnancy massage 312

effect of massage 16

on Feet 230

posture 34-5

on Front of body 59

on spine 95

pulling 97

involuntary (smooth) 16

on legs 216. 219. 228.229

prana 246

on hands 182

tec hnique 94-5

rocking 58

relaxing 13

on scalp 122

pregnancy massage 310-13

on legs 58. 144. 147

on thighs 95

selF-massage 155. 199

superficial 17

on sho ulders 321

premenstrual syndrome 342-3

on neck 120. 188

sports massage 320

voluntary 16

technique 72-3

pressure points,

on scalp 233

plucking 61

see also calves: knees: thighs

on thighs 72

stimulation 12

technique 58-9

Chinese massage sequence





hacking 77
holistic massage sequence
Indian head massage
sequence 268-9
shiatsu massage sequence
Chinese massage 196-9
holistic massage 150-5
Indian head massage 272-5
shiatsu massage 240-3
sensing 36-7
sensi tivity 44-5
shiatsu 10. 201-43
for abdomen 220-1
application 208-9
for arms and hands 224-7
For back 210-15
For chest 222-3
diagnosis for 204
equipment 208
for Face 236-7
for legs and feet 216-19.
massage sequence 210-37
movements 208
for neck and scalp 232-5
principles 202
quick fix 238-9
self massage 240-3
techniques 208
shoulder blades,
el bow pressu re on 93
sawing 95
deep- tissue massage 314
pummelling 77
self-massage 150. 196
sports massage 321
blocked 336-7
problems 250

skeleton 14
skin 26-7
sleep 377
tips for 377
knuckle pressure o n 9 1
thumb pressure on 83
pummelling 77
sawing 95
t humb- rolling 66
spine ro ll,
for warming up 40
sports massage 318-21
on arms 64. 128-9. 130. 259
on baby,
o n back of body 299. 300
on fron t of body 284.
on back 167. 170. 255
on calves 65
on eyebrows 322
self- massage 198
on face 267
o n feet 146-7. 175
sports massage 320
on forearms 64
on hands 133. 183. 226. 227
on head 265
on jaw 323
on legs 65 . 114. 142- 3. 174
pregnancy massage 312
self- massage 155. 199
sports massage 320
on neck 189. 261
self-massage 273
on scalp 190
on sho ulders 270
selF-massage 196
technique 64-5
on thigh 65
stiff neck 346-7

stress 372-5
positive attitude to 380-1
tips for dealing with 374-5
stretching 43
on baby 291
wit h forearms,
on back 80-1. 211. 257
technique 80-1
on t highs 81
on back 171
on chest 185
on legs 177
sympathetic nervous system 18

working at 34
tea tree oil 389
techniques 49-101
checklist 50
deep pressure 82-95
for joints 96-10 1
ligh t pressure 54-61
medium pressure 62-81
selecting 50-1
teething 360-1
tendons 15. 16
tensio n headaches 250. 334- 5
heel pressure o n 88
kneading 63
palm pressure 72
pregnancy massage 317
rubbing 79
sawing 94
squeezing 65
stretchi ng over 8 1
thinning hair 348-9
thumb circling,
on baby 286. 290
on feet 217

on hands 132
on head 264
on legs 174
t humb pressure,
on abdomen 187
o n arms 131. 195. 224
on baby 301
on back 108. 112. 169. 171. 213.
o n chest 135. 185
o n Face 83. 124- 5 . 192. 236
o n feet 83. 146 . 179
during pregna ncy 311
self-massage 155
on hands 132. 181. 182. 183.
self-massage 198
on head 264
on legs 172. 176-7. 194. 229

tsubos 204-7
TuiNa 10. 158


vata 246
on back 86
on Face 87
on Forearms 87. 317
technique 86- 7
visualization 377

warm-ups 38-43
Western massage 10-11
wrin ging,
on abdomen 141
o n arms 68
on baby,

on neck:

self- massage 151. 274

on scalp 190. 234
on sales 83
technique 82-3
on thighs ,
deep-tissue massage 317

on back of body 297. 301.

on Front of body 287. 289.
on back 69
on calf 69
on legs 116. 145
technique 68-9

on toes:
self- massage 199
on baby 299
on back 107. 108. 113. 167
on chest 184
on Face 126. 193
on feet 118. 178. 195
on hand 67
on legs 172. 173. 176
deep- tissue massage 316
on nose 67
on spine 66
technique 66- 7

feathering 56
self- massage 199


passive rotation 98
sports massage 319

yang 158. 202
yin 158. 202
ylang-ylang o il 389
yoga 385



Health titles in the Godsfield Bible series include:







Author's acknowledgements

Executive Editor: jessica Cowie

A huge thank you to everyone who contributed

so enthusiastically to this project. Special
thanks to jessica Cowie, executive editor at
Octopus, Chorlotle Macey, senior editor,
Penny Stock, executive ort edi tor and Mondy
Greenfield, copy editor, for their hord work
and encouragement. Thanks once again to
Russell Sadur for the great photographs,
photographic assistant Henry Trumble and
models Carlo Collins, Olivia Gorson, Fleur
Roose and Bailee Roup. Thanks also to Sorah
Rode, our pregnancy model , and to Sorah
Bryon and baby Georgie May Bradshaw for
the ba by massage .

Senior Editor: Chorlotle Macey

My thanks to everyone who helped with the text,

once again to W. Llewellyn McKone D.O.,
M.R.O. , lecturer in osteopathic sports medicine,
for advice on anatomy, physiology and
massage; Morgane Pairain, BSc (Hons), licAc,
MBAcC , licTuiNa , for her contribution to the
Chinese massage sequence and to Yasuko
Nomuro for her help with the shiatsu techniques
and her input to the shiatsu photos.

Executive A rt Ed itor: Penny Stock

Desig ner: Peter Gerrish
Photographer: Russell Sadur


Productio n Controller: linda Porry

Spec ia l photogra phy : Octopus Publishing
Group l td/Russell Sadur
O th er photogra phy :
Alamy Chris Rout 372 ; Image Source Block
251 , ImageRite 165; Bridgeman Art librory
Museo di Storia della Fotogrofia Fratelli Alinori,
Florence 11; Getly Images Noah Clayton 384;
Octopus Publishing Group 247, 385 ; Frazer
Cunningham 327; Russell Sadur 306-309;
Shullerstock Kristian Sekulic 375; Valenlyn
Volkov 383 ; Wellcome librory, london 159

ISBN 978-1-8418 1-376-9

ISBN 978-1-84181-372-1


ISBN 978-1-84181-374-5




ISBN 978-1-84181-325-7

ISBN 978-1-84181-366-0


ISBN 978-1-84181-321-9

Finally thanks to the many teachers over the

yeors whose ideas have inspired me and helped
shope this book, especially Sora Thomas, PJ
Cousin, Dolot Piran i and Chris jormey.
You con contact Susan Mumford at
email :susan@susanmumford.co.uk



ISBN 978-1-8418 1-368-4

To see the complete list of Godsfield Bibles, visit www.octopusbooks.co.ukJgodsfieldbibles