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Reviewer for Licensure Examination for Teachers

Subject: General Mathematics


1. When evaluating mathematical expressions, always be guided by the order of
operations:
a. Simplify all operations inside the parentheses
b. Simplify all exponents
c. Perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
d. Perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.
Remember the mnemonic P-E-M-D-A-S (Parenthesis Exponents
Multiplication/Division Addition/Subtraction)
2. Numbers may be classified as prime, composite, natural, or denominate
a. A prime number is a positive number which may only be divided by 1 or
itself.
b. A composite number is a positive number which has a positive divisor other
than 1 or itself. All even numbers are composite except the number 2.
c. A natural number like 0 or 1 is neither prime nor composite.
d. A denominate number is a number with an attached unit of measurement
3. Prime Factorization is the process of finding which prime numbers you need to
multiply together to get the original number. There are 2 methods of prime
factorization
a. In the factor tree method, we use a pictorial method of finding factors, where
the number to be factorized is placed at the top and all its factors branch out
one by one till we get all prime factors, just like a tree.
b. In the continuous division method, we perform repeated divisions using
prime factors as divisors until the last dividend becomes 1.
4. The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest multiple that 2 numbers have in
common. The greatest common factor (GCF) is the largest multiple that can
exactly divide 2 numbers. To obtain LCM or the GCF, perform prime factorization of
the 2 numbers and compare their prime factors.
a. For LCM, after you list down the prime factors, mark similar prime factors as
one pair. After you have done so, multiply together the paired and unpaired
prime factors.
b. For GCF, after you list down the prime factors, mark similar prime factors as
one pair. After you have done so, multiply together the paired prime factors
ONLY.
5. Please be guided by the following divisibility rules:

6. Recall the concepts of ratio and proportion.


a. A ratio is an expression of the relative size of two quantities; it is usually
expressed as the quotient of one number divided by the other. The ratio 1 to
2 is written 1:2 or
b. A proportion is a statement of equality between two ratios. The ratio 1:2 to
3:6 forms the proportion 1:2 = 3:6 or = 3/6.
7. Recall the concepts of percentage, base, and rate.
a. The percentage is the fraction of the original number that is obtained by
multiplying the rate and the base. In problems, it is the number that comes
before the word is.
b. The base is the number or quantity which represents the original number. It
also represents the total. It is obtained by dividing the percentage by the
rate. In problems, it is the number that comes after the word of.
c. The rate is the number that represents the percent. It is obtained by dividing
the percentage by the base. In problems, it is the number attached to the
word percent or % sign.
d. To facilitate recall of the formulae for percentage, base and rate, recall the
following: P = B x R
8. Measurement is the process or the result of determining the magnitude of a
quantity.
a. Perimeter is the total distance around any 2 dimensional shape. The
formulae for perimeter are as follows:
i. Perimeter of a Triangle = a + b + c, where a, b, and c, represent
lengths or the 3 sides of the triangle.
ii. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2l + 2w, where l and w represent the length
and the width respectively.
iii. Perimeter of a square = 4s where s represents the length of one side of
the square
iv. Perimeter of a circle = 2 r , where represents the constant
3.1416 and r represents the radius of the circle.
b. Area is the total amount of space that a 2 dimensional object occupies. Its is
measured in square units (i.e. square meters, square centimeters).

i. Area of triangle = x b x h, where b represents the base and h


represents the perpendicular height.
ii. Area of rectangle = l x w, where l and w represent the length and the
width respectively.
iii. Area of a square = s2, where s represents the length of one side of the
square
iv. Area of a circle = r 2 , where represents the constant equal to
3.1416 and r represents the radius of the circle.
v. Area of an isosceles trapezoid = x (b1 + b2) x h, where b1 and b2
represent the length of the 2 parallel bases and h is the perpendicular
height.
c. Volume is the total amount of space occupied by a 3-dimensional object. It is
measured in cubic units (ie. Cubic meters, cubic centimeters)
i. Volume of a Cube = s3, where s is the length of the one side of the
cube.
ii. Volume of a rectangular prism = l x w x h, where l is the length, w is
the width, and h is the height
iii. Volume of a cylinder = r 2 h , where represent the constant
equal to 3.1416, r represents the radius of the circular base and h
represents the height of the cylinder.
iv. Volume of a cone = (1/3) x r 2 h , where represents the constant
equal to 3.1416, r is the radius of the circular base, and h is the height
of the cone.
v. Volume of a pyramid = (1/3) x B x h, where B is the area of the base
and h is the height.
vi. Volume of a sphere = (4/3) x r 3 , where represents the constant
equal to 3.1416 and r represents the radius.
d. Capacity is the amount of fluid that a 3-dimensional container can hold. It is
used hand-in-hand with volume and is calculated using the same formulae.
e. Weight is the measure of amount of gravitational pull exerted on a mass.
Beyond the realm of physics, weight and mass are used interchangeably.
Conventional units include kilograms and pounds.
9. A standard system of measurement in the present day is the metric or SI system.
The alternative system used in European countries is the English system.
a. Conversion of units in the SI system requires awareness of various key
prefixes signifying the powers of 10.
Name
Symbol
Factor

deca
da
1

Prefixes for Multiples


kilo
Mega
Giga
K
M
G
3
6
9

Tera
T
12

Prefixes for fractions


Nan
Milli Micro
Pico
o

m
n
p

Femt
o
f

hecto
H
2

Name

Deci

Centi

Symb

Peta
P
15

Atto
a

Exa
E
18
Zept
o
z

Zetta
Z
21

yocto
y

ol
Factor

-1

-2

-3

-6

-9

-12

-15

-18

-21

-24

b. Conversion of units from the English system to the SI system requires


memorization of conversion factors.
i. 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds (lbs)
ii. 2.54 centimeters = 1 inch
iii. 12 inches = 1 foot
iv. 1 meter = 3.28 feet
v. 3 feet = 1 yard
vi. 1 mile = 5,280 feet
vii. 1 kilometer = 0.62 mile
10.

Recall the following concepts in plane geometry:


a. A line is a series of points that extends in two opposite directions without
end. Two endpoints are needed to define a line. It has no fixed length or
width. It is considered infinitely long.
i. The point of intersection is the point where two lines meet or come
together
ii. Perpendicular lines form right angles at their point of intersection
iii. Parallel lines are lies that do not have any point of intersection. They
will never intersect each other.
b. A curved line is a line that represents a mathematical equation. It may be
two dimensional or three dimensional.
c. An angle is a figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called
the vertex of an angle. Angles are measured in degrees.
i. A right angle is an angle whose measure is exactly 90 degrees
ii. An acute angle is an angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees
iii. An obtuse angle is an angle whose measure is more than 90 degrees
iv. A straight angle is an angle whose measure is exactly 180 degrees
v. A reflex angle is an angle whose measure is more than 180 degrees
but less than 360 degrees.
vi. Two angles are complementary if their sum is 90 degrees
vii. Two angles are supplementary of their sum is 180 degrees.
d. A triangle is a plane geometric figure with three vertices and three sides. The
sum of the three internal angles of the triangle is always 180 degrees.
i. Triangles may be classified based on the length of sides:
1. An equilateral triangle has three sides of equal length. It is also
called an equiangular triangle because all the three angles
measure exactly 60 degrees.
2. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length. The two
angles opposite the two equal sides are also equal in measure.
3. A scalene triangle has three sides of unequal length. All three
angles are also of unequal measure.
ii. Triangles may also be classified based on the measure of internal
angles:
1. A right triangle has exactly one right angle among its internal
angles.
2. An acute triangle is composed of three acute internal angles

3. An obtuse triangle has exactly one obtuse angle among its


internal angles.
iii. Special triangles have properties that allow us to compute algebraically
the lengths of the corresponding sides.
1. The dimensions of a right triangle follow the Pythagorean
Theorem.
a. The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse
b. Two other sides are called legs
c. For any right triangle, a2 + b2 = c2
2. For a 45-45-90 right triangle
a. The length of the hypotenuse is equal to the length of one
of the legs multiplied by 2
3. For 30-60-90 right triangle
a. The length of the hypotenuse is two times the length of the
shorter leg.
b. The length of the longer leg is equal to the length of the
shorter leg multiplied by 3
4. For equilateral triangle
a. The height is defined by the following formula:
3
height=a( )
2

b. The area is defined by the following formula:

3
height=a2 ( )
4
5. Herons theorem may be used to calculate the area of any
triangle given the length of the 3 sides.
a. First, calculate the semi-perimeter
b. Use the semi-perimeter to calculate the area using the
Herons formula:
area= s ( sa )( sb ) ( sc )
e. A quadrilateral is a plane geometric figure with exactly four sides and four
vertices. The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is
exactly 360 degrees.
i. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides
1. The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal in measure
2. The adjacent angles of a parallelogram are supplementary
3. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
ii. A rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right internal angles
1. The diagonals are equal in length and bisect each other
iii. A square is a quadrilateral with four equal sides and four right internal
angles.
1. The diagonals of a square bisect each other and meet at 90
degrees
2. The diagonals of a square bisect its angles
3. The diagonals of a square are perpendicular
iv. A rhombus is a quadrilateral with four equal sides.
1. Opposite angles of a rhombus are equal
2. The two diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular

3. The area of the rhombus is equal to the product of its


diagonals.
f. A polygon is a plane figure bounded by a closed path or circuit, composed of
a finite sequence of straight line segments.
i. The segments are called sides, and the points where two edges meet
are the polygons vertices.
ii. A regular polygon has equal length of all sides and equal measure of all
interior angles.
iii. The sum of all interior angle of a regular polygon is equal to (n -2) x
180.
iv. The measure of each interior angle of a regular polygon is equal to (n2) x 180 divided by the number of sides.
11.

Recall the following basic concepts in elementary algebra:


a. An algebraic expression is a mathematical expression made up of the signs
and symbols of algebra. These symbols include Arabic numerals, literal
numbers, the signs of operation, and so forth.
b. The components of an algebraic expression are called terms. Based on the
number of terms, special designations are given to algebraic expressions:
i. An expression containing one term is called monomial
ii. A binomial contains two terms
iii. A trinomial consists of three terms
iv. Any expression containing two or more terms may also be called by the
general name, Polynomial.

12.

A polynomial expression is a monomial or a sum of monomials.


a. The degree of a polynomial expression with one variable is the value of the
largest exponent of the variable that appears in any term.
b. A functional relationship between quantities that can be described by an
equation where y equals a polynomial expression of x is a polynomial
function.
i. Linear function is a polynomial function with a degree equal to 1
1. The graph of a linear function is a straight line
ii. Quadratic Function is a polynomial function with degree equal to 2.
1. The graph of a quadratic function is a parabola
iii. Cubic Function is a polynomial function with degree equal to 3.
1. The graph of a cubic function is a curve.

13.

Recall the Principles in evaluation of polynomial expressions:


a. Group like terms using the commutative and associative properties
b. Combine like terms using the distributive property
c. Simplifying powers can also help you multiply monomials
i. Multiplying powers with like bases: am x an = am+n
ii. Raising a power to a power: (am)n = amn
iii. Raising a product to a power: (ab)n = an x bn
iv. Zero Power: a0 = 1

14.

Factoring Polynomial means writing it as a product of 2 or more monomials.


a. Common Monomial Factor
b. Grouping
c. Square of Binomial / Perfect Square Trinomial

d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Difference of two squares


Completing the Square
Sum of two cubes
Difference of two cubes
Quadratic formula

15.
Linear equation is an algebraic equation which each term is either constant
or the product of a constant and a single variable. These may be expressed in the
following forms:
a. Standard Form: Ax + By + C = 0
b. Slope Intercept Form : y = mx + b
y y
c. Two-point form: y y 1= 2 1
x 2x 1
d. Point-slope form: y y1 = m (x x1)
16.
A linear inequality is an inequality which involves linear function. The
solution to a linear inequality is obtained by shading the corresponding half-space
in the Cartesian plane after graphing the expression as a linear function.
17.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Recall the various Counting Techniques.


Fundamental Principle of Counting in a sequence of events, the total
possible number of ways all events can be performed is the product of the
possible number of ways each individual event can be performed.
Factorial
Permutation is an arrangement of objects without repetition where order is
important. A permutation of n objects, arranged in groups of size r, without
repetition, and order being important is: nPr = n! / (n-r)!
Combination is an arrangement of objects without repetition where order is
not important. A combination of n objects, arranged in groups of size r
without repetition, and order not being important is nCr = n! / (n r)! r!

e.
18.
Probability is a measure of certainty or uncertainty that an event will happen.
It ranges from zero (0) to one (1).
a. The probability of an impossible event (an event that will never occur) is 0.
b. The probability of a certain event (an event that will surely happen) is 1.
c. The probability (P) of an event (E) is expressed mathematically as:
P(E) = number of wanted outcomes / number of possible outcomes
19.
Measures of Central Tendency are numerical descriptive measures which
indicate or locate the center of distribution or data set.
a. The mean of a set of values or measurements is the sum of all the
measurements divided by the number of measurements in the set.
b. The median is the middle value of a given set of measurements, provided
that the values or measurements are arranged in an array. An array is an
arrangement of values in increasing or decreasing values.
c. The mode is the value which occurs most frequently in a set of
measurements or values.
Prepared by:
Marco Rhonel M. Eusebio