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ALCORCON ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER


Manila: 4th FIr,

Anadeta Bidg. 891 Galicia St. cor:Espana AVe.

Sampaloc Mli!nila (leI. 742-5fS..OO)

'Cebu: 4TH FIr. Vlllacam~a-Capuras Bldg., Sanciangco St. Cabu City (Tel # 254-33-84)

MACHiNE ELEMENTS
RqlUng Cylinders
1. Cylinders Rolling in opposite direction:

. Tangential speed

Vi "" Va :::: 11: 01 Nt ::::


'";&

1t

Dz N2

"Relatioflof diameter and speed


01 N1 :: D:.! N2

$peedRatlo:::' SpeedofDIi?l~r
. eM)
SpeedoftbeDnven

"

CenierDistance '" R1 + Rz = o!+ 2


2

;&

Tangential speed

V1 ::: V:;: := 11: 01 Nl

..
:= 11:

D:iNz

(;; Relation of diameter and speed

D1 N1 :::: DzN2
". Spee d R81.0=
t'
..,.,

Speed .of Driver


Speed .of the Driven

G Center Distance :::: R; _ R2 "" 0 1 - D2


2

STRESSES
DEFINITIONS:

.Force 1'-1':;:
?
:;:
1. Stress (S):::: - - . .., In , kgfcm-, KN/m
.
Area
Stress::: a total resistance that a material .offers to an applied load.

2. Ultimate stress (Su) -

is the s~ess tMt

would cause failure

3. Yieldstress(Sy) - maximum stress without causing deformation


4. Allowable stress(Sall) ::: Ultimate stress/Factor of SafetY

Types 'of. Stresses


A. Tensile Stress

CSt)

S, Compressive Stress(Sc)

Fe ,
A

D .

:;,>-"

'.

, F
-

\..

JI'

t~'",
t

o
A ::: n D ~ (fof'punching a hole)

flo

D. Bearing Stress(Sb)

where: A::: DL
E. Factor of ~fety(FS)

A Based on yield strength:

FS:::: - Y
San

B. Based on ultimate strength:

where:

Sail ::: allowable stress

S...::: ultimate stress

Sy ::: yield stress

F. Torsional Shear stress(Ss)

s.. : :

Tc
J

where:

=:

16T'

7tD3

T :: torque
J.:: polar moment of inertia
1I:D4

32 (for sofid shaft)

J :::

c :: r (for circular cross section)


d :: diameter:

G. Bending Stress(St)

St:: Me
~

.'

For rectangular beam:

l..

aM

St::

bh 2

"lhere:
M :::: moment
c :: distance of farthest fiber from neutral axis
:: moment of inertia aboutthe neutral axis
f ;;;; bh3112 (for rectangular cross section)

4 ==

sectio~ modulus

of rectangular shaft : :.:

,.

nd 3

=-16S

Z :: section modulus of circular shaft ::: -

*.

~Of~~ @ ~fAvK}
Strain and Elongation
A. Strain :::: y

S. Stress::::

c.

Stress
Modulus of elasticity, E :: - - Strain

FL
AY

D. Y:: FL

AE

where:

Y:: elongation due to applied load


L :::: original length
F :: force
For steel: E = 30 X 106 psi

A= area

= stress

DtN,"'-

nNz.

!it :. 0-N"Iv

OJ

D~-c.. (0.[

k ::: coefficient of thermal expansion, wJm-"C


1/
/'

h ::: final temperature, C


,

\ _I",

'-' ~ lIISX C ~I

Relation between shearing and tensile stress based on theory of failure:


Stmax ::

Variable Stress

8m-:::

~1tth~::. ~~td~~~

~ .rk~ ~ ~ lei ot 61rCSS/~

_1_ '" 8 m + Sa
FS
Sy. Sn

where:

Sy. ::.: yield point

FS :: factor of safety

Sm ::: mean stress :::

So ::: endurance limit

Smax +SmltL

2
Smax -Smin

vo ::: variable component stress:::

t:;,

--"-"~-

Smax ::: maximum stress

Smin ::: minimum stress

" Poisson's Ratio(u) ::: is the ratio of lateral unit deformation to axial unit deformation.

where:

2~ -1

fll. Psteel ill> :!~!ii~~

G::;

shear modulus of elasticity

- I "

0:;;J4(;

r ~l~eJ ~

~ o.;/G !t>~

E ::: modulus of elasticity

~ pa)~:C l{~oY r~~eJ ~ D.'~r

h>

o.e_

ALCORCON ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER


Manila: 41i> Fir. Anacleta Bldg. 891 Galicia St. cor. Espana Ave. Sampaloc Manila (Tel. 742-56-00)
Cebu: 4TH Fir. Villacampa-Capuras Bldg., Sanciangco Sf. Cebu City (Tel # 254-33-84)

Machine Design Problems - DAY 1


MACHINE ELEMENTS
1. PROBLEM (ME Bd. Apr. 91) Two parallel shafts connected by pure rolling tum in the
same direction having a speed ratio of 2.75. What is the distance of the shafts if the smaller
cylinder is 22 em in diameter?
2. Two cylinders rolling in opposite direction has a speed ratio of 3 .. If center distance is 40
in, find the diameter of smaller cylinder.

, ','

l~

J:;

, ,

-= ',G, s X )6~ ~I.


.. , ( &t>';f) ( ::zq-~'t
",'jOr
xld

(cln
(J.

CXkf;

~ ~Slf1b

\w

Pr ~ O. 'db 'VI ~
~_

lOY)- tL

O=j;f

l.

Q l.\ I (g t ~ 38 ~ . ~ Q

t}.

&\ ~ -l= :: -

[-;:-

<rnYD
O.~( ,

: :- :70,00 ~
v

Z"::::. -;;.

z:::

U~Iin1-

W,n\)

-~"""<4--

cR~,Gi!S',3~(D2

g .) QS X }O-4-

-;::\Q ~2.4f~

STRESSES
1. PR08U~,M (!\ill! ed.Apr. 96) A steel tie rod on bridge must be made withstiilnd a pull of
5000 Ibs.'Findthe diameter of the rod assuming a factor of safety of 5 andWtimate stress of
64,000 psi. '
" - 2. PR06L.EM(ME Bd. Oct, 97) Determine the minimum mean!diameter ()f a taper pin for,
use to fix leverto a shaft. if itis transmit a maximum torque of 700 in-los, The shaft
'diameter is 2 inches and the material allowable stresses is 15,000 psi. Use factor of safety'"
of 2.
. , "
,3. PROBLEM (ME Bd. Ocl 95) A :2.5 in diameter by 2 in 16ng journal t-earing is to carry a
5500-lb load at 3600 rpmusing,SAE 40 ~ube oil at 200F through a sing1-e tlole at 25 psi.
. "
'
Compute the bearing pressure. .
.;4. PROBLEM (ME Bd. Apr.S,?] How many 5/16 inch holes
be puncb.in one motion in
, a steel plate made of SAl; 10,19 steel, 7/16 inch thick using a force of 55 tons. The ultimate
strength for shear is 50ksiand use 2 factor of safety.

can

5. PROBLEM {Oct. 2000) compute for the polar

"

w'modulus of a SAE 1060 shafting having a

:, diameter of 3 inches. Use a factor Of safety '" an design stress at 800 psi.
"
6. PROBLEM (ME Bd. Apr. 97) The shaft whose torque varies from.~QOOJo 6000 in-I~s
has 1 1/2 inches in diameter and 60,000 psi yield
strength. Compute for the shaft mean
.
average stress.
7. In a 2.0 m cantilevered I~beam;a 2 Mton weight is applied at free end. If the allowabl~
stress in beam is 110 Mpa, determine the section modulus.

STRESS AND STRAIN and Poisons Ratio.


1. (ME ad. Oct. 2000) Compute for the load in KN on a 3 em diameter. 100 em long steel
rod if its maximum elongation exceed 0.12 em.
2. (ME Bd. Oct. 2000) Compute the induced/compressive stress, inkpa, of a steel solid
shafting of 50 mm diameter and 800 mm in length that is subjected to an increase of
temperature by BOC.
3. (ME Bd. Ocl 2003) What is the decrease in latera! dimension due to an axial tensile
force of 50,000 Ibs in a bar 3 inch on each side and 6 feet long? The material is steel (E =
3.0 x 107 psi, tJ ::: 0.3).
SITUATIONAL PROBLEM (Oct 2003)
An 8 inches long bar is elongate to 8.0065 inches for an applied load of 5000 Ibs in which its
cross-sectional area is 0.25 in2.
.
.
.
1. Find the modulus of elasticity, psi.
. A. 22.62 X 106 psi
B. 24.62 x 106 psi
C. 26.62 x 106 psi
D. 28.82 x 106 psi
2. Find the tensiie stress. psi.
\
A 20,000 psi B. 15,000 psi C. 20,000 psi D. 25,000 psi
3. Find the strain.
A. 6.309 x 10-4 B. 8.12 X 10-4 C. 10.27 X 10-4 D. 12.09 X 10-4
4. Find the stress for a load of 5000 kg, kg/em 2.
A 2800
B. 2900
C. 3000
D. 3100
5. Find the stress if the bar is heated at a temperature change of 80F, psi.
A 15,08.45
B. 10,083.90 C. 5,088.40
D. 12,802.40

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ALCORC;ON ENGINEERING REVIEW CENTER


4th Fir. Anacleta Bldg. 891 Galicia St. cor. Espana Ave. Sampaloc Manila
Tel # 74256-00

STRESSES & MACHINE ELEMENTS


PROBLEM SET # 1
INSTRUCTION: Enchrcle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer of your choice.
MULTIPLE CHOICE:

1. Two cylinders r oIling in the opposite direction has a speed ratio of 3. If the diameter of driver is 10 inches,
find the center distance between cylinders.
A. 15 in
B. 10 in
C. 25 in
W20 in
2. Two cylinden; rolling in the same direction has speeMio of 2.5 and center distance of 50 cm. Find the
diameter of t' ne larger cylinder.
F\
A. 56.~ oM in
B. 263.45 in
C. 166.67 in \Q)66.67 in
.
3. Four cylind r ars rolling in opposite directions has a speed ratio of A:B:C:D =5:3:1:4. If center distance
betw~n C' flinder A and C is 70 inches, find the diameter of cylinder D.
.
A. 1/8.75 in
B. 26.34 in
C. 12.45 in
D. 16.37 in
4.A pu y ~ /las a tange~1 velocity of 75 fpm. If pulley diameter is 10 inches, find the speed of the speed.
A. '24.34 rpm @ 28.65 rpm C. 34.22 rpm D. 32.34 rpm
5. S,haft A with 12 inches diameter pulley running at 250 rpm is connected to shaft B by means of 26 inches
dlamet! er pulley. Another pulley on shaft B 16 inches diameter is connected to 10 inches diameter pulley on
sha~. Find the speed of shaftC.
184.61 rpm B. 284.56 rpm C. 173.45 rpm D. 197.44 rpm
6. A ste .el tie rod on brldg$ must be withstand a pull of 6200 Ibs. Find the diameter of the rod assuming a factor
of St Jfety of 4 and ultimate stress of ~oo psi.
.
A. 0.234 in
B. 0.534 in
C: 0.691 in
D. 0.734 in
7. If 11 ,1e ultimate shear strength of steel p ate is 45,000 psi, what force is necessary to punch a 0.9 in diameter
he II~'0.5 in thick plate using a faCtor of safety of 3.5,
A. 3,6171bs B. 61,5671bs C; 65,3781bs D. 69,3451bs .
8. l' \ 2. n diameter by 1.8 in long journal bearing is to carry 5000 Ib load at 320 rpm using SAE 40 lube oil at
. : .WOF through a single hole at 30 psi. Compute the bearing pressure.
. 1111.11 psi B.142.23 psi C. 123.34 psi D. 197.34 psi .
9 '. A jo
I bearing has 8 em diameter and length to diameter ratio of 3. Find the projected area in mm2.
A. 9,200
B. 20,009
C. 18,058
D. 17,017
, 1.0. A
e steel has a length of 100 m and stretch to 5 cm when the load is applied at both ends. If tensile
.
str~'s 50 psi, find the modulus of elasticity of the steel.
A. 100,000 psi B. 120,000 psi C. 110,000 psi D. 130,000 psi
11. A
whose torque varies from 2200 to 6400 in-lb. It has a diameter of 1.25 inches and yield stress of
63,000 psi. Find the variable component stress.
.
A. 6524.45 psi B. 4245.56 psi C. 5475.95 psi D. 7834.56 psi
12. How many 112 inch diameter hole that can be punch in one motion of a 1/8 inch thick plate using a force of'
50 tons. The ultimruear stress is 52 ksi and factor of safety of 3.
.
A. 7
B.
C. 8
D. 10
13. Determine the mini
diameter of a taper pin for use to fix a lever to a shaft, if it is to transmit a maximum
to~of 750 inlb. The shaft diameter is 1.5 inches and has a stress of 20,000 psi.
A. .252 in
B. 0.452 in
C. 0.642 in
D. 0.826 in
14. t;
m stud bolts is used to fastened on a 250 mm diameter cylinder head of diesel engine. If there are
1O~lts, determine the pressure inside the cylinder if bolt stress is 50 Mpa.
A. 88.8 KPa B. 2888 KPa C. 3426 KPa D. 4828 Kpa
.
15. A c mn supports a compressive load of 250 KN. Determine the outside diameter of column if inside
diameter is 185 m~ compressive stress of 50 Mpa.
A. 200.62 m B. 201.47 mm C.216.42 mm D. 208.41 mm
16. A steel hollow tube used to carry a tensile load of 500 KN at a stress of 140 Mpa. If outside diameter is
10 times the tube thickness of the tube.

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