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Grade 10 Science Test 2

1.

The bonds formed by sharing of electrons are known as covalent bonds. Carbon forms
four covalent bonds by sharing its four valence electrons with other atoms to attain the
noble gas configuration. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell. It shares all
these electrons and forms four bonds.
Distracter Rationale
A, B. Ionic bonds are formed by the transfer of electrons among bonding atoms. As
carbon has four valence electrons in its valence shell, to form ionic bonds, it either
has to lose four electrons or gain four electrons. In both cases, a large amount of
energy is required, which is not possible. Therefore, carbon completes its octet by
sharing its four electrons with other atoms forming covalent bonds.
C.

Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons.

The correct answer is D.


2.

Diamonds act as an insulator i.e., they do not conduct electricity. In diamonds, the shared
electron pairs between the carbon atoms are held tightly between adjacent atoms. As a
result, they cannot move within the diamond. Hence, they cannot conduct electricity.
Distracter Rationale
The diamond is the hardest known natural substance. In a diamond, each carbon atom is
covalently bonded to four others in a tetrahedral arrangement. As it is very hard, it is used
to make cutting tools. The melting and boiling point of carbon is also very high.
The correct answer is A.

3.

A divalent atom can share two electrons. A covalent bond is formed by a sharing of
electrons between two atoms. Since the atom is divalent, it can share its two electrons
with two electrons of carbon atoms. Hence, only two covalent bonds will be formed.
The correct answer is B.

4.

Dobereiners law of triads states that when elements are placed in the increasing order of
their atomic masses, groups of three elements with similar properties are obtained, where
the atomic mass of the middle element of the triad is the mean of the atomic masses of
the other two elements.
Among the given elements, P, Q, and R form a Dobereiners triad.
The mean mass of P and R is

Grade 10 Science Test 2

32 128
2
160

2
= 80

This is almost equal to the atomic mass of Q (79). Hence, P, Q, and R form a Dobereiner
triad.
Distracter Rationale
A.

The atomic masses of S, R, and T are 23, 128, and 137 respectively. As the sum
of the atomic masses of S and T is not equal to the atomic mass of R, these
elements do not form a Dobereiner triad.

C.

The atomic masses of S, Q, and R are 23, 79, and 128 respectively. As the sum of
the atomic masses of S and R is not equal to the atomic mass of Q, these elements
do not form a Dobereiner triad.

D.

The atomic masses of S, P, and T are 23, 32, and 137 respectively. As the sum of
the atomic masses of S and T is not equal to the atomic mass of P, these elements
do not form a Dobereiner triad.

The correct answer is B.


5.

The classifications of elements done by Dobereiner and Newland involve the


arrangement of elements in the ascending order of their atomic masses.
Dobereiners law did not hold good for lighter or very heavy elements e.g. F (18), Cl
(35.5), Br (79). The atomic mass of Cl is not an arithmetic mean of the atomic masses of
F and Br.
Newlands octave law was applicable to lighter elements only. For example, iron (which
is a heavy element) resembles cobalt and nickel in its properties. However, it is placed far
away from these elements.
The correct answer is A.

6.

Mendeleev classified the elements on the basis of their atomic masses. He arranged all
the 63 elements known in his time in a periodic table. In this table, the vertical columns
are called groups and the horizontal columns are called periods. The elements having
similar properties were placed in the same group.

Grade 10 Science Test 2


Distracter Rationale
A.

Triad is a group of three elements in the ascending order of their atomic masses as
arranged by Dobereiner. Mendeleevs periodic table has groups comprising more
than three elements. Hence, it cannot be called a triad.

B, D. Mendeleev found that there is a periodicity in the properties of the elements if


they are arranged in the ascending order of their atomic masses and not their
atomic numbers.
As suggested by Newland, in an octave, the properties of the first and the eighth
elements are similar. This is true for Mendeleevs table as well but the term
octave was used by Newland.
The correct answer is C.

7.

The centre of curvature (C) of a spherical mirror is the centre of that sphere from which
the mirror is obtained. The focus (F) of a spherical mirror lies midway between the pole
(P) and the centre of curvature of the mirror, as shown in the following figure.

Hence, the distance between C and P is twice the distance between F and P, i.e.,
Radius of curvature = 2 Focal length
R = 2f
The correct answer is B.

8.

When an object is placed before a concave mirror at its centre of curvature (C), an image
is formed at the centre of curvature that is inverted, real, and of the same size as the
object. This image is formed on the same side as the object, as shown in the given figure.

Grade 10 Science Test 2


Distracter Rationale
A.

An erect image is formed when an object is placed at the centre of curvature (C)
of a convex mirror, as shown in the given ray diagram.

C.

An erect image is formed when an object is placed between the pole and the focus
of a convex mirror, as shown in the given ray diagram.

D.

An erect image is formed when an object is placed between the pole (P) and the
focus (F) of a concave mirror, as shown in the given ray diagram.

The correct answer is B.

9.

When a source of light is placed at the focus of a concave mirror, a parallel beam of light
is obtained after reflection. In car headlights, a bulb is placed at the focus of a concave
mirror. Hence, an intense, parallel, and well focused beam of light is obtained, as shown
in the following figure.
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Grade 10 Science Test 2

Distracter Rationale
A.

Although a concave mirror causes a parallel beam of light to converge at a point,


this property is not the reason why it is used in car headlights.

B.

A concave mirror does not cause a parallel beam of light to diverge.

D.

A curved beam of light cannot be obtained by the reflection from a concave


mirror.

The correct answer is C.


10.

A real image is formed by the eye lens on the retina. The cells present on the retina
convert this image into electric impulses and these impulses are sent to the brain via
optical nerves. Hence, light energy is converted into electrical energy by the retina.
Distracter Rationale
B.

The optical nerves transmit electrical signals to the brain.

C.

The blind spot is a place on the retina where no image is formed. It connects the
retina with the optical nerves.

D.

Cornea is a thin transparent membrane that envelops the human eye. It provides
the focusing power to the eye.

The correct answer is A.


11.

When a beam of white light passes through a glass prism, it splits into seven colours of
light called the spectrum of white light. The phenomenon of splitting of white light into
seven colours is called the dispersion of light.
Distracter Rationale
A.

Refraction is the bending of light when it travels from one medium to another
medium.
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Grade 10 Science Test 2

C.

Scattering is the diffused reflection of light rays when they collide with tiny
atmospheric particles.

D.

Reflection is the bouncing off of light rays from reflecting surfaces.

The correct answer is B.

12.

The rainbow is formed by the dispersion and internal reflection of sunlight by the tiny
water droplets that remain suspended in the atmosphere after a rain. It is not formed by
the atmospheric refraction of light.
Distracter Rationale
A.

The sun remains visible for about 2 minutes after the actual sunset. This is
because of the continuous atmospheric refraction of sunlight. As sunlight enters
the atmosphere, it continuously bends toward the normal because the refracting
index of air gradually increases with decrease in altitude and vice versa.

B.

The amounts of light that comes from distant stars vary in accordance with the
variation of the paths of light rays. This is caused by the continuous atmospheric
refraction of starlight. This results in the twinkling of stars.

C.

At every sunrise, the light from the sun has to travel a longer distance as
compared to when the sun is overhead at noon. The sunlight from both ends of the
horizontal diameter has to travel a longer distance than the light coming from the
top and the bottom points. As a result, these light rays refract more than the light
rays that come from the top and the bottom. Hence, the shape of the sun appears
flattened horizontally at every sunrise.

The correct answer is D.


13.

DNA is the genetic material in humans. It is present inside the nucleus of the cell in the
form of thread-like structures called chromosomes.
Distracter Rationale
B.

The genetic material in humans i.e., DNA is not found inside the ribosome.

C, D. RNA is not the genetic material in humans.


The correct answer is A.

Grade 10 Science Test 2


14.

The ovule containing the embryo develops a tough coat around itself and becomes a seed.
Distracter Rationale
A, D. Stigma and style do not give rise to any structures. They shrivel and gradually fall
off after fertilization.
B.

Ovary gives rise to the fruit.

The correct answer is C.


15.

White flowers and dwarf plants are the recessive traits in pea plants.
Distracter Rationale
Round seeds and tall plants are the dominant traits in pea plants.
The correct answer is D.

16.

During sexual reproduction, when a male gamete carrying X chromosome unites with a
female gamete carrying X chromosome, a girl child is born.
Distracter Rationale
Normal gametes contain either X or Y chromosome. During sexual reproduction, when a
male gamete carrying X chromosome unites with a female gamete carrying X
chromosome, a girl child is born. When a male gamete carrying Y chromosome unites
with a female gamete carrying X chromosome, a boy is born.
The correct answer is A.

17.

Vegetable peels can be degraded by the action of bacteria or other saprophytes. Hence, it
is a biodegradable waste.
Distracter Rationale
Bubble packs, plastic bottles, and polythene bags cannot be broken down into simpler
compounds by the activity of bacteria, fungi, or other saprophytes. Hence, they are nonbiodegradable wastes.
The correct answer is D.

18.

Paper is made from trees. Many trees are cut down to make paper, thereby causing
environmental degradation. The best way of managing paper waste is by recycling them.
In this manner, trees can be saved and paper waste can be effectively managed.

Grade 10 Science Test 2


Distracter Rationale
A.

Valuable paper that can be recycled will be wasted if paper waste is burnt. Also,
the burning of paper waste will release pollutants in the atmosphere, which will
further add to pollution.

C.

The throwing of paper waste in water will pollute the water.

D.

Although paper is decomposable, it alone cannot be used for making manure.


Manure contains all types of animal and plant wastes, which are biodegradable in
nature. Hence, decomposing is not the best method of managing paper waste.

The correct answer is B.

19.

Resources present in our environment are limited. Every component in the environment
is important for its stability. When natural resources decrease, it damages the
environment.
Distracter Rationale
A.

An increase in the population has increased the demand for natural resources.

B.

The increase in the population has increased the utilization of natural resources.

C.

The availability of natural resources in the environment is limited.

The correct answer is D.

20.

Forests are biological hot spots because of the presence of different types of living
organisms.
Distracter Rationale
B.

Biodiversity of a forest includes all the organisms living in it and not only the
migratory animals.

C.

The animals and plants present inside the national parks and wild life sanctuaries
represent the biodiversity of the forest; the presence of parks and sanctuaries per
se, does not constitute biodiversity.

D.

The animal and plant population represent the biodiversity of a forest. The
presence of humans does not contribute to biodiversity.
The correct answer is A.
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