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Ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because

Select one:

it pleased their god Indra.

b. blood was considered taboo.

the flow of blood terrified their enemies.

d. it was associated with rain and agriculture.
e. they had copied the technique from the earlier Aztecs.

Which of the following was successful in achieving its goal of conquering the Holy Land?
Select one:
a. Seventh Crusade
b. First Crusade
c. Third Crusade
d. Fifth Crusade

The Olmecs traded with other Mesoamerican peoples for

Select one:
a. bronze.
b. wheat.
c. steel.
d. jade.
e. horses.

Osiris judged whether or not sours were worthy of immortality by

Select one:
a. considering their completion of a journey full of tests.
b. considering their adherence to the Code of Hammurabi.
c. examining the holiness at the moment of their death.
d. examining each individual's level of sincere faith in Osiris as a redeemer.
e. weighing their hearts against a feather, symbolizing justice

The profitable merchandise that Vasco da Gama purchased in India was made up of
Select one:
a. gold and silver.
b. slaves and weapons.
c. silk and artwork.
d. silk and ceramics.
e. pepper and cinnamon.

Mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce
Select one:
a. silver.
b. bronze.
c. iron.
d. obsidian.
e. steel.

An alliance with Portugal brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo, as well as
Select one:
a. an inroad into European politics.
b. the right to limit the slave trade.
c. a diplomatic connection to the Spanish.
d. the eventual destruction of the kingdom.
e. a later alliance with the English.

Christopher Columbus's decision to sail west to reach Asia was based on

Select one:
a. secret information on trade routes that he had received indirectly from Chinese sources.

b. . assistance from an experienced Muslim sailor.

c. his miscalculation of the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan.

d. legends left over from the earlier Viking voyages.
e. information that he had gathered after inventing his own astrolabe.

The Islamic leader who converted to Twelver Shiism was

Select one:
a. Shah Abbas.
b. Zahir al-Din Muhammad.
c. Shah Ismail.
d. Akbar.
e. Selim the Grim.

When he reached ________, Columbus sent delegates to seek the court of the emperor of China.
Select one:
a. Nova Scotia
b. Brazil
c. Japan
d. Cuba
e. modern-day Florida

Mesopotamia developed into a

Select one:
a. society where the sexes enjoyed relative equality.
b. strict patriarchal society.

c. society with few social distinctions

d. predominantly matriarchal society.
e. society dominated by a growing mercantile middle class.

Central to the belief of Twelver Shiism was the idea that

Select one:
a. any true believer could be the leader of the Islamic world.
b. there were twelve principle manifestations of Allah.
c. there were Twelve Commandments.
d. Ali had betrayed the prophet Muhammad and therefore his descendants could not rule.
e. the twelfth infallible imam was still alive and would return to spread his faith.

The Safavids traced their ancestry back to the leader Safi al-Din, who observed what religion?
Select one:
a. . Buddhism

b. Judaism
c. Hinduism
d. Christianity
e. Sufism

Shah Ismail received the greatest support for his conversion to Twelver Shiism from the
Select one:
a. Abbasids.

b. Ottomans.
c. Sunnis.
d. Mughals.
e. qizilbash.

The first European colony in sub-Saharan Africa was

Select one:
a. Mozambique.
b. Kongo.
c. Zimbabwe.
d. Angola.
e. Kanem-Bornu.

The first circumnavigation of the world was completed in 1522 by

Select one:
a. Vasco Nuez de Balboa.
b. Ferdinand Magellan.
c. Vasco da Gama.
d. Ferdinand Magellan's crew.
e. Francis Drake.

In an effort to drive the Portuguese out of Ndongo, Queen Nzinga formed an alliance with the
Select one:
a. kingdom of Zimbabwe.
b. Kongolese.

c. Dutch.
d. . kingdom of Mali.
e. kingdom of Axum.

Ferdinand Magellan established a trade route between Mexico and

Select one:
a. the Philippines.
b. Hawai`i.
c. the Canary Islands.
d. Spain.
e. Portugal.

The Israelites belief that there was only one god had its origins with
Select one:
a. Solomon.
b. Joseph.
c. Moses.
d. Abraham.
e. David.

At the battle of Chaldiran in 1514,

Select one:
a. . Zahir al-Din Muhammad conquered the leading Indian princes and unified India.

b. the Byzantines temporarily captured Constantinople.

c. Mehmed II captured the southern Italian port of Otranto.

d. the Ottomans defeated the Safavids.
e. the Ottomans suffered a devastating defeat by the Spanish navy.

Which of the following mathematical concepts, essential for positional

notation and the manipulation of large numbers, was invented by Maya
Select one:
a. long division
b. zero
c. exponential notation
d. infinity
e. negative numerals

The leader of the fully revitalized Safavid empire, who moved the capital to the central location
of Isfahan, was
Select one:
a. Shah Ismail.
b. Akbar.
c. Shah Abbas.

d. Ibrahim the Crazy.

e. Aurangzeb.

What was the massive fortified city in southern Africa that dominated the gold trade in the goldbearing plain between the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers until the late fifteenth century?
Select one:
a. Ndongo
b. . Jenne
c. Great Zimbabwe
d. Cape Town
e. Mbanza

Zahir al-Din Muhammad's main inspiration for conquering India was likely to
Select one:
a. win converts for his own dream of a universal world religion.
b. form a united Indian and Chinese trading network.
c. use India's wealth to build a vast empire.
d. act as a champion of Shiism.
e. . be recognized as a ghazi.

The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires were all

Select one:
a. Zoroastrian.
b. Christian.
c. Islamic.
d. animistic.
e. Buddhist.

Which of the following was NOT one of the main inspirations for European exploration?
Select one:
a. the search for lands suitable for cultivation of cash crops
b. the desire to conquer China and India
c. the desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets
d. the desire to spread Christianity
e. the search for basic resources

The center of Islamic learning in west Africa was

Select one:
a. Timbuktu.
b. Jenne.
c. Gao.
d. Kilwa.
e. Mbanza.

The author of the Ninety-Five Theses was

Select one:
a. Erasmus
b. Martin Luther.
c. Henry VIII
d. Voltaire.
e. John Calvin.

The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires all originally came from
Select one:
a. offshoots of the older Mongol empires.
b. direct descendants of the powerful Indian conqueror Chandragupta Maurya.
c. descendants of the prophet Muhammad.
d. renegade Byzantine generals.
e. nomadic, Turkish-speaking tribes.

The city that stood as John Calvin's model Protestant community was
Select one:
a. Wittenberg.
b. London.
c. Geneva.
d. Paris.

e. Avignon.

The only successful slave revolt in history took place in

Select one:
a. Cuba.
b. Brazil.
c. Virginia.
d. Saint-Domingue.
e. Mexico.

The industrial revolution began in

Select one:
a. France.
b. Russia.
c. Great Britain.
d. the United States.
e. Italy.

Theodore Herzl was the founder of

Select one:
a. modern anti-Semitism.
b. the first Zionist Congress.
c. modern conservatism.
d. German nationalism.

e. the Seneca Falls conference.

Mohenjo-daro was
Select one:
a. the mother goddess of the earliest Indian society.
b. a collection of early Indian religious texts.
c. one of the two main cities of the Harappan society.
d. an important early thinker in the rise of Hinduism.
e. a collection of early Indian religious texts.

The only place where a slave revolt actually brought about an end to slavery was
Select one:
a. Peru.
b. Virginia.
c. Brazil.
d. Cuba.
e. Saint-Domingue.

The rise in maritime trade in the early modern era in Africa

Select one:
a. led to the consolidation in the largest imperial states in African history.
b. ironically led to a decrease in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
c. resulted in regional kingdoms replacing the imperial states of west Africa.
d. resulted in a new pattern in which the village became the principal political entity.
e. led to political chaos and the destruction of the traditional African balance of power.

James Watt invented a more efficient steam pump when he

Select one:
a. restructured the engine's compressor.
b. copied and consolidated several important American inventions.
c. figured out how to make a piston turn a wheel for rotary motion.
d. invented a more efficient method of steel production.
e. redesigned the flying shuttle.

Which of the following was NOT a reason for European interest in finding a maritime trade
Select one:
a. the high prices charged by Muslim merchants
b. that the spread of the bubonic plague made the silk roads more dangerous
c. the desire to expand the boundaries of Christianity
d. the demand in Europe for items such as Indian pepper and Chinese ginger
e. that Mongol domination had caused trade along the silk roads to stop

This ideology was concerned with a common identity, language, history and
Select one:
a. Socialism
b. Nationalism
c. Conservatism
d. Liberalism

The word ghazi refers to

Select one:
a. the law codes of Sleyman.
b. the tax that non-Muslims paid in Islamic countries.
c. Muslim religious warriors.
d. Islamic merchants with protected social status in Ottoman society.
e. Akbar's universal religion.

Cheaper iron was produced after 1709 when British smelters began to use what substance as a
Select one:
a. wood
b. coke
c. kerosene
d. charcoal
e. gasoline

Marx and Engels suggested that music, art, and literature

Select one:
a. served the purposes of the capitalists because they diverted the workers from their misery.
b. should be used by the communists to facilitate the revolution.
c. represented the peasants and were thus useless.
d. were the "opiate of the masses."
e. were the only aspects of the modern world that had not been contaminated by the capitalists.

The Ptolemaic universe was based on

Select one:
a. the idea that the earth rested on the back of a giant turtle.
b. motionless earth surrounded by nine hollow spheres.
c. the unifying principle of gravity.
d. a heliocentric structure.
e. the observations of Galileo.

In organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the
Select one:
a. Romans.
b. Lydians.
c. Chinese.
d. Mesopotamians.
e. Egyptians.

The theory of universal gravity is associated with

Select one:
a. Isaac Newton.
b. Johannes Kepler.
c. Nicolaus Copernicus.
d. Galileo Galilei.
e. Denis Diderot.

The Ming and Qing dynasties followed which of the following policies regarding
foreign trade?
Select one:
a. They encouraged foreign trade.
b. They forbade trade entirely.
c. They restricted foreign trade.
d. They allowed foreign trade in all of China's coastal cities.

In America the petroleum monopoly, Standard Oil Company, was owned by

Select one:
a. Andrew Carnegie.
b. John D. Rockefeller.
c. George Stephenson.
d. Robert Owen.
e. Henry Bessemer.

The mandate of heaven

Select one:
a. gave the Chinese emperors unlimited power.
b. originated with the Indo-Europeans before they reached China.
c. positioned China as a theocracy ruled by priests.
d. allowed the ruler to serve as a link between the heavens and the earth.
e. created the notion of the Chinese emperors as gods.

Hernn Corts was responsible for the conquest of the

Select one:
a. Moche.

b. Taino.
c. Incas.
d. Chimu.
e. Aztecs.

According to the Manifesto of the Communist Party, all of human history had been a history of
Select one:
a. the search for freedom.
b. the search for equality.
c. class struggle.
d. the quest for religious self-awareness interfering with the development of the peasantry.
e. industrial integration.

After the death of Muhammad, political leadership fell to a caliph by the name of
Select one:
a. Harun al-Rashid.
b. Abu Bakr.
c. Abu al-Abbas.
d. Khadija.
e. Ali.

Lateen sails had the advantage of

Select one:
a. being cheaper because their basic component was jute.
b. being so colorful that they could be seen from many miles away.
c. being able to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind.

d. working better in crosswinds.

e. allowing for faster travel than anything available in the Islamic world.

Which best describes the Zionist Movement

Select one:
a. Nationalist movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
b. Hitlers method of promoting Aryanism.
c. Britains process of removing Africans from their land.
d. A feminist movement popularized during the Industrial Revolution.

The astrolabe was designed to measure

Select one:
a. velocity.
b. depth.
c. latitude.
d. distance.
e. longitude.

In the sixteenth century, the Ottomans captured

Select one:
a. Turkey and Persia.
b. Constantinople and Otranto.
c. Egypt and Syria.

d. Greece and Italy.

e. Isfahan and Delhi.

What supplied the fuel that fed the growth of Capitalism in Europe?
Select one:
a. Greedy Monarchs
b. Europe's ballooning money supply
c. Demand for spices
d. Religious duty

The Government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus' 1492

Select one:
a. All of the above
b. Great Britain
c. Spain
d. Portugal

Potatoes, sugar and tobacco were products introduced to Europe from

Select one:
a. Trade with India
b. Pacific Islands
c. Africa
d. The Americas
e. Asia

What is the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)?

Select one:

a. Spain's claim to Columbus' discovery

b. The Dutch's new territory claim
c. England's new territory claim
d. Portugal's new territory claim

In 1500, the most religious believers were

Select one:
a. Followers of the Dominicans
b. Members of the middle class
c. Humanist reformers
d. Illiterate
e. Members of the nobility

Indulgences were
Select one:
a. Sacraments of the Catholic Church
b. Petitions to the local priest
c. Individual repentances for sins
d. Sacrifices made to atone for sins
e. Sold by churchmen as guarantees of release from purgatory

Luther's Ninety-Fives Theses were written

Select one:
a. As arguments against heresay

b. To cause a rebellion within the Catholic Church

c. On the subject of abuses within the Catholic Church
d. To incite the peasants to revolt
e. In defense of transubstantiation

Which of the following is NOT consistent with Luther's early church?

Select one:
a. Church services conducted in German
b. Salvation can occur only through faith
c. Monasteries were abolished
d. Humans must maintain a subordinate loyalty to earthly governments
e. Clerical celibacy enforced for all clergy members

All of the following countries became heavily Lutheran EXCEPT

Select one:
a. France
b. Germany
c. Sweden
d. Norway
e. Denmark

In England, the break with Rome was led by the

Select one:
a. Parliament
b. Archbishop of Canterbury
c. King

d. People
e. Archbishop of York

The immediate reason for the English Reformation was

Select one:
a. The pope's refusal to allow Henry VIII to divorce his wife
b. Refusal to accept papal infallibility
c. Disagreement over the number of sacraments
d. All of the above
e. Henry VIII"s demand to control religious appointments

Huguenots were
Select one:
a. English Catholics
b. Swiss Anabaptists
c. German Protestants
d. French Catholics
e. Dutch Lutherans

The founder of the Society of Jesus was

Select one:
a. Cardinal Ximenes
b. Ignatius Loyola
c. St. Augustine

d. Savonarola
e. Saint Theresa

The most influential justification for absolutism was composed by the

Select one:
a. Thomas Hobbes
b. Jacques Bossuet
c. Rene Descartes
d. John Locke
e. Voltaire

What Mariners developed the caravel?

Select one:
a. The Dutch
b. The English
c. The Spanish
d. The Portuguese

Cardinal Richelieu did NOT use which of the following to centralize royal
authority in France?
Select one:
a. Restriced traditional courts
b. Outlawing dueling
c. Construction of fortified castles of nobles

d. Royal civil service

e. Strong milirary and naval forces

According to Thomas Hobbes, absolutism is favorable because

Select one:
a. God is the source of power for rulers
b. People create government to enrich society
c. People are not capable of governing themselves
d. Absolute rulers have no limiting power
e. Government exists to protect property

To claim authority over the French church, Louis XIV

Select one:
a. Denounced the infallibility doctrine of the Catholic Church
b. All of the above
c. Expelled the Jesuits from France
d. Declared himself as head of an independent French church
e. Revoked the Edict of Nantes

To inspire awe of the monarchy, Louis XIV built a great palace at

Select one:
a. Blois
b. Chambord
c. Versailles
d. Paris

e. Lyon

In a joint-stock company
Select one:
a. More money is available for investment
b. Smaller nations are offered little economic incentive
c. Only the aristocracy benefits
d. The state has more regulatory ability
e. The monarch directs the investment policies

What is the Age of Discovery?

Select one:
a. The search for slaves
b. Exploring Antarctica
c. Europeans intensely explored the New World
d. Columbuss journey

What turns the Age of Discovery into the Age of Exploitation?

Select one:
a. Use of new technologies like the Astrolabe
b. Mutinies on ships
c. The search for new wealth
d. Use of new ships

Why would some consider Christopher Columbus a failure when he died?

Select one:
a. His crew killed him

b. He brough diseases to the New World

c. He didn't find gold
d. He did not actually find a new route to the fabled Indies

Marco Polo is considered an indirect discoverer of the New World. True or False
Select one: