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CHAPTER 11

RESISTANCE IN OPEN CHANNELS

11.1. Water is flowing in a trapezoidal earthen channel width 2 m and side slopes 1.5 H/1
V. The channel is carrying a discharge of 50 m3/s and is running on a slope of 0.0025
m/m. If the roughness coefficient is 0.030, what is the normal depth in the channel?
Solution:

2 y + 1.5 y 2
o
o
(2 y o + 1.5 y o2 )
2 + 2 y o 1 + t 2
2 y + 1.5 y o2
( 2 y o + 1 .5 y ) o

2 + 3.605 y o

2/3

0.03(50)
(0.0025) 0.5

2/3

= 30

2
o

Therefore, yo = 3.207 m
11.2. A 3-m wide rectangular irrigation channel carries a discharge of 25.3 m3/s at a
uniform depth of 1.2 m. Determine the slope of the channel with n = 0.02. If the
discharge is increased to 40 m3/s, what is the normal depth of flow?
Solution:

A = b y = 3 x 1.20 = 3.6 m2, and P = b + 2y = 3 + 2 x 1.20 = 5.4 m

A 3.6
R= =
= 0.667 m
p 5.4
2

Qxn
S = 2 / 3 = 0.041
R A
A = b yo = 3yo, and P = b + 2yo = 3 + 2yo
3 yo
A
R= =
p (3 + 2 y o )
1 3 y o
Q=
0.022 3 + 2 y
o

2/3

(0.041)1 / 2 (3 y o )

Hence yo = 1.69 m
11.3. A trapezoidal earthen channel with bottom width 5 ft and 2 H on 1 V side slope is
carrying a discharge of 200 ft3/s at a normal depth. If the channel is running a slope of
0.001 ft / ft and has a Manning n value of 0.025, find the normal depth.
Solution:

5y + 2y2
o
o
(5 y o + 2 y )
5 + 2 y o 1 + 2 2
2
o

2/3

0.025(200)
1.49(0.0001)1 / 2

Elementary Hydraulics

5 y o + 2 y o2
(5 y o + 2 y )

5 + 4.47 y o
yo = 7.183 ft.

2/3

= 335.57

2
o

11.4. An earthen canal in good condition having a bottom width of 4 m and side slopes of
2 H on IV is designed to carry a discharge of 6 m3/s. If the slope of the canal is 0.39
m/km, what is the normal depth?
Solution:

So = 0.39 m/km = 0.00039 m/m, and n = 0.03

4y + 2y2
o
o
(4 y o + 2 y o2 )
4 + 2 y o 1 + t 2
4 y o + 2 y o2
(4 y o + 2 y )

4 + 4.47 y o
2
o

2/3

0.03(6)
(0.00039)1 / 2

2/3

= 9.11

yo = 1.405 m
11.5. Determine the normal depth in a trapezoidal channel with side slope of 1.5:1,
bottom width of 25 ft, and channel bed slope of 0.00088, if the discharge is 1510 ft3/s and
n = 0.017.
Solution:

1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
1.49 5 / 3 2 / 3 1 / 2
R s A=
A p s
n
n
0.017 x 1510
25 y + 1.5y 2 2 / 3
2
= 580.76
25y + 1.5y x (
) =
25 + 3.6y
1.49 x (0.00088)1/2
yo = 6.2 ft.
Q=

11.6. A rectangular concrete lined 1.5 m wide is carrying 15 m3/s at a normal depth. If the
channel is laid on a slope of 0.01 m /m, what would be the normal depth?
Solution:

1.5 y o
1.5 y o

1.5 + 2 y o

2/3

0.015(15)
= 2.25
(0.01)1 / 2

yo = 2.209 m

188

11.7. A trapezoidal channel is to be designed to carry a discharge of 250 ft3/s at a normal

depth of 3.5 ft. The channel is running on a slope of 0.005 ft/ft and the side slopes can be
no steeper than 2.5 H on IV. The channel is earthen and will have an estimated Manning
n value of 0.03. What is the minimum bottom width to affect the required normal depth?
Solution:

3.5(b) + 2.5(3.5) 2
(3.5(b) + 2.5(3.5)2)
b + 2(3.5) 1 + 2.5 2
3.5(b) + 30.625
(3.5b + 30.625)

b + 18.84
b = 4.206 ft.

2/3

0.03(250)
1.49(0.005)1 / 2

2/3

= 71.18

11.8. A trapezoidal channel has a bed width of 10 ft and a side slope 2:1. The channel is
paved with smooth cement surface of n = 0.011. If the channel is laid on a slope of 0.001
and carries a uniform flow of depth 2 ft, determine the discharge.
Solution:

A = by + ty2 = 10 x 2 + 2 (2)2 = 28 ft2

P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 10 + 2 x 2 (1 + 2) 2 = 18.94 ft
28
A
R= =
= 1.478 ft
p 18.94
1.49
2/3
1/ 2
3
Q = 28
(1.478) (0.0001) = 49.21 ft /s
0
.
011

11.9. Water flows uniformly in a 2-m-wide rectangular channel at a depth of 45 cm. Find
the flow rate in m3/s; discus the result for the following cases.
a) The channel slope 25 cm / km and n = 0.025
b) The channel slope 5 cm / km and n = 0.025
c) The channel slope 25 cm / km and n = 0.05
Solution:

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
R S
n
a) A = 0.9 m2 , P = 2.9 m and R = A/P = 0.3 m
1
Q = 0.9(
) (0.31) 2 / 3 (0.00025)1 / 2 = 0.261 m 3 / s
0.025
1
b) Q = 0.9(
) (0.31) 2 / 3 (0.00005)1 / 2 = 0.1166 m 3 / s
0.025
1
) (0.31) 2 / 3 (0.00025)1 / 2 = 0.13 m 3 / s
c) Q = 0.9(
0.05
Therefore, the discharge is directly proportional to the bed slope and inversely
proportional to Manning Coefficient.
By using Manning Equation Q A

189

Elementary Hydraulics

11.10. A particularly filled pipe 1.0-m in diameter laid on a uniform slope 1:2000,
calculate the maximum flow that can run through this pipe (n = 0.016).

Using Chezy equation,

Solution:

Q = AC R So = C

A3
So
P

For a given channel cross section, C and So will be constant. The maximum velocity is
satisfied when the value of (A3/P) is maximum. Therefore, differentiating with respect to
, and knowing that
r2
A=
(-sin), and P = r , then
2
d
d

Then,

A3

= 0

dA
3 dP
P 3A2
A

d
d = 0

P2

r2
Or, A r 3r
(1- cos) = 0, which can be written as,
2
r2
r2
(-sin) r - 3r
(1- cos) = 0, hence
2
2
- sin - 3 + 3 cos = 0, or 3 cos - sin 2 = 0
Solving the above equation we get = 308o (5.37 rad).
r2
So, A =
(-sin) = 0.7705 m2
2
r sin
R = , 1
= 0.2866 m , Then:

2
1
Q = A R 2 / 3 S 1 / 2 = 0.4681 m3/s
n
11.11. A rectangular channel 15 ft wide flow at a normal depth of 6 ft. The discharge is
530 ft3/s and the Manning n value is 0.025. What is the rate of energy dissipation feet per
feet channel length in this channel?
Solution:

A = 15 x 6 = 90 ft2, P = 15 + 2 x 6 = 27 ft2 , R = 3.33 ft

530
V=
= 5.89 ft / s
90
1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
R So
, or
V=
n
For uniform flow So = Sf

190

Chapter 11. Resistance in Open Channels

(0.025 x 5.89)
nV
= 0.00196 ft/ft

Sf =
=

2/3
2/3
1
.
49
x
(
3
.
33
)
1.49 R

11.12. A rectangular canal with a bed slope 8 cm/km ad a bed width of 100 m. If at a
depth of 6 m, the canal carries a discharge of 860 m3/s, find the Mannings roughness, n,
Chezy coefficient, C, and the coefficient of friction, f. Also find the average shear stress
on bed.
Solution:

A = b x y = 100 x 6 = 600 m2, P = b + 2y = 100 + 2 x 6 = 112 m

A 600
R= =
= 5.36 m
P 112
Q = AC RS
Hence, C = 69.22
Q=A

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
R S
n

1
Hence, n = 0.019
(600)5/3 (112)2/3 (0.00008)1/2
n
8g
Hence, f = 0.016
C=
f
o = RS = 9810 x 5.36 x 8 x 10-5 = 4.2 N/m2
860 =

11.13. Show that for a circular culvert of diameter D the velocity of flow will be the
maximum when the depth of flow y at the center is 0.81 D. Use the Chezy formula.
Solution:

Using Chezy equation,

Q = C R So = C

A
So
P

For a given channel cross section, C and So will be constant. The maximum velocity is
satisfied when the value of (A/P) is maximum. Therefore, differentiating with respect to
,
r2

(
sin )

d 2
d r ( sin )

= 0 , or

=0
d
r
d
2

Then,

2r ( sin ) 2 (1 cos )
4 2

=0

- sin + cos = 0. Hence, cos = sin, or = tan

Solving the above equation we get = 257o (4.485 rad). Hence,

191

Elementary Hydraulics

(360 257)
= 51.5 o , and then
2
D
y
2 = cos , Hence, y = 0.81 D
D
2

11.14. A sewer of diameter D = 0.6 m has a bed slope of 1:200. What is the possible
maximum velocity of flow in this pipe? What is the discharge ay this velocity? Take C =
55.
Solution:

For maximum velocity, = 257o (4.485 rad) , as shown in Problem 11.13.

r2
( sin ) = 0.246 m 2
A=
2
r sin
R = 1
= 0.183 m , Then:

2
V = C RS = 1.662 m/s and Q = AV = 0.409 m3/s

11.15. It is desired to design a trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 10 ft and 2 H

on 1 V side slope. Sieve analysis revealed a grain size distribution, which result in an
allowable bed shear stress of 0.5 lb/ft2 and a Manning n value of 0.03. If the channel is to
be designed to run at normal depth of 5 ft, what will be the resulting discharge?
Solution:

A = 10(5) + 2(5)2 = 100 ft2, P = 10 + 2(5) 1 + (2) 2 = 32.36 ft, and R = A/P = 3.09 ft.
o = 0.5 = R(So) = (3.09) (So) = 62.4 (3.09) (So), hence So = 0.00259 ft/ft
Q = 100

1.49
(3.09) 2 / 3 (0.00259)1 / 2 = 536.6 ft 3 / s
0.03

11.16. It is desired to design a trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 15 ft and 2 H

on 1 V side slopes. Sieve analysis has revealed a grain size distribution that results in
maximum allowable bed shear stress of 0.75 lb/ft2. The channel must be designed to carry
a discharge of 1000 ft3/s at a normal depth of 7 ft.
a) At what slope should the channel be laid?
b) What is the Manning n value for this channel?
Solution:

A = 15(7) + 2(7)2 = 203 ft2, P = 15 + 2(7) 1 + (2) 2 = 46.3 ft, and R = A/P = 4.38 ft.

192

Chapter 11. Resistance in Open Channels

1000
= 4.926 ft/s
203
o = RSf = 0.75 = 62.4(4.38) (So), hence So = 0.00274 ft/ft
V = Q/A =

n(4.926)
nV
= 0.00274 =

So =
2/3
2/3
1.49( R )
1.49(4.38)

n = 0.0424
11.17. A 20 ft wide rectangular channel carries a discharge of 400 ft3/s at a normal depth
of 10 ft. If the roughness coefficient is 0.03, what shear stress in lb/ft2 is imparted to the
channel boundary by this flow?
Solution:

A = 200 ft2 , V = 400/200 = 2 ft/s, P = 20 + 2(10) = 40 ft.

200
= 5 ft , o = RS
R=
40
2

nV
0.03(2)
=
= 0.0001897 ft/ft
So =
2/3
2/3
1.49(5)
1.49 R
o = 62.4 lbs/ft3 (5) (0.0001897) = 0.0591 lbs/ft2
11.18. Design a channel (assuming a rigid boundaries) to irrigate 54,430 hectares at a rate
of 60 m3/ha/day. The soil allows side slope of 1:1, n = 0.025, and the bed slope is 10
cm/km. Find the channel dimensions for each of the following cases:
a) The maximum allowable velocity being 0.7 m/s
b) The maximum allowable boundary shear stress = 0.05 lb/ft2
c) V = 0.36 y0.64
Solution:
a)

For maximum allowable velocity being 0.7 m/s

Q 37.8
=
= 54.0 m 2
A=
V 0.7
(1)
A = by + ty2 = 54 m2
1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V = 0.7 = R s
So, R = 2.315 m and then P = 23.33 m
n
(2)
b + 2 y 1 + 12 = b + 2.828 y = 23.33 m
From (1) and (2) get b = 14.8 m and y = 3.0 m

b)

For maximum allowable boundary shear stress o = 0.05 Ib/ft2

0.05 x 453.6
=
= 0.024 gm / cm 2 = 2.4 N/m2
2
(30.48)

193

Elementary Hydraulics

= Rs

So, 2.4 = 9810 x R x 10-4

R = 240 cm = 2.4 m
Q=

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
1
R s A=
(2.4) 2 / 3 (10 4 ) 0.5 A
n
0.25

So, A = 52.72 m2

Then, P = 21.96
A = by + ty2 = 52.72 m2

(1)

b + 2 y 2 = 21.96

(2)

c)

For v = 0.36y0.64 and Q = 37.8 m3/s

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
v=
R s = 0.4 R 2 / 3
n
So,

0.64

v = 0.36y

by + y 2

= 0.4

b
+
2
y
2

2/3

(1)
(2)

From (1) and (2) get b = 14.30 and y = 3.0 m

11.19. Water is flowing in rectangular channel with a bed slope of 0.005 ft/ft. The
channel width is 10 ft and the discharge is 300 ft3/s. Now, suppose that the depth at a
given place in the channel is observed at a spot 1000 ft downstream is observed to be 4.5
ft. Estimate the value of Manning coefficient n of this channel.
Solution:

A1 = 6 (10) = 60 ft2
P1 = 12 + 10 = 22 ft
60
R1 =
= 2.73 ft.
22
300
= 5 ft/s
V1 =
60
(5) 2
= 6.39 ft.
E1 = 6 +
2g
E = 6.39 5.19 1.2 ft.
1.2
Sf =
= 0.0012 ft/ft
1000

A2 = 4.5 (10) = 45 ft2

P2 = 9 + 10 = 19 ft
45
R2 =
= 2.37 ft.
19
300
V2 =
= 6.67 ft/s
45
(6.67) 2
E2 = 4.5 +
= 5.19 ft.
2g

194

Chapter 11. Resistance in Open Channels

2.73 + 2.37
= 2.55 ft/s
2
5 + 6.67
Vavg =
= 5.835 ft/s
2
1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
1.49
V=
R S = 5.835 =
(2.555) 2 / 3 (0.0012)1 / 2
n
n
0.09646
5.835 =
. Hence n = 0.0165
n
Ravg =

11.20. A trapezoidal channel is designed to carry 25 m3/s on a slope of 0.0015 m/m. The
channel is unlined, and in order to prevent erosion, the maximum allowable velocity is
1.5 m/s. The side slope must be no steeper than 2 H on 1 V and the Manning n value is
0.03. In order to meet these requirements, what flow depth and bottom width should be
used?
Solutions:

Q = 25 m3/s, V = 1.5 m/s , and A = Q/V =

25
= 16.67 m2
1.5

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
1
R S =1.5 =
( R 2 / 3 ) (0.0015)1 / 2
0.03
n
1.5 = 1.29 R2/3, then R = 1.25 m

V=

A 16.67
=
P =13.33 m
P
P
A ty 2 16.67 ty 2
=
A = by + ty 2 b =
y
y

R = 1.25 m =

P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = b + 2 y 5 = b + 4.47 y , therefore
16.67 2 y 2
+ 4.47 y = 13.33 , or 16.67-2y2 + 4.47 y2 = 13.33 y
y
16.67 + 2.47 y2 = 13.33 y, or 2.47 y2 13.33 y + 16.67 = 0

y=

2
b b 2 4ac 13.33 (13.33) 4(2.47) (16.67)
=
2a
2(2.47)

y=

13.33 12.99 13.33 3.6

=
4.94
4.94

y = 3.43 m or 1.97 m
16.67 2(1.97) 2
= 4.52 m
1.97
If y = 3.43 m, then b is negative and hence not possible.

If we let y = 1.97 m, then b =

195

Elementary Hydraulics

11.21. Show that for the most coefficient trapezoidal channel, the side slope must be
equal to 1/ 3 .
Solution:
A ty 2
hence, b =
y

A = by + ty

P = b + 2y 1 + t 2
P
A ty 2
= 0 =
+ 2y 1+ t2
t
t y
1
= y + 2 y ( 1 + t 2 ) 1 / 2 (2t )
2
= y+
t=

2ty
1+ t 2

= 0. Then

2ty
1+ t 2

A
= ty + 2 y 1 + t 2
t y

=y

1
3

11.22. Show that the most efficient trapezoidal channel section will have a hydraulic
radius equal to one-half the depth.
Solution:

Eq. 11.20:

b = 2y ( 1 + t 2 t )
R=
R=
=

A
by + ty 2
=
P b + 2y 1+ t2

2 y 2 ( 1 + t 2 - t) y + ty 2
2 y ( 1 + t 2 - t) + 2y 1 + t 2
y 2 (2 1 + t 2 - 2t + t)
2 y( 1 + t - t + 1 + t )
2

y
2

11.23. A rectangular flume is to be built to carry a discharge of 120 ft3/s on a slope of

0.001 ft/ft. If the flume is constructed of corrugated metal, what should be its dimensions
to minimize the cost of the material?
Solution:

A = by = 2y2
P = b + 2y = 2y + 2y = 4y
R = A/P = 2y2/4y = 0.5 y
1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
1.49
Q=A
R S o = 2y 2
(0.5y) 2 / 3 (0.001)1 / 2
0.025
n
120 = 2.3745 y8/3
50.5369 = y8/3
y = 4.35 ft; b = 2y = 8.7 ft.

196

Chapter 11. Resistance in Open Channels

11.24. Find the best hydraulic section for a rectangular section with cross-sectional area
of 12 m2.
Solution: For the best hydraulic section dP/dy = 0
A
A = by, and P = b + 2y = + 2 y
y
dp
A
= 2 +2=0
dy
y
A 12
So, y2 = =
=6
2
2
y = 2.45 m and b = 4.9 m

One may also check the result through the following table.
A = by
P = b + 2y

6 x 2 = 12
10

3 x 4 = 12
11

1 x 12 = 12
25

12 x 1 = 12
14

4.9 x 2.45 = 12
9.8

11.25. A concrete lined canal having one side vertical and other side is sloping at 2:1
carries a discharge of 10 m3/s with velocity of 0.715 m/s. Determine the dimensions of
the canal and the bed slope for the minimum cost of construction if the cost of excavation
is 2.0 \$/m3 and the cost of lining is 6.0 \$/m2(n = 0.014).
Solution:

Q
= 14.0 m 2
V
y(b+y) = 14.0 m2
1
v = R 2 / 3 s1 / 2
n
A=

(1)

2/3

1 (b + y ) y

s1 / 2
0.715 =
(2)
0.014 b + 3.24 y
Cost = A x 125 + P x 750 per meter length of the canal
= y(b+y) x 125 + 750 x (b+3.24y)
14
y
But from (1) b =
y
14
14
Cost = y ( y + y ) x125 + 750 x ( y + 3.24 y )
y
y
d (cos t )
= zero
For minimum cost
dy
Hence, y = 2.5 m and b = 3.1 m
Therefore, A = 14m2, P = 11.2 m and R = 1.25 m
And then from equation (2) we can get S = 7.44 cm/km

197

Elementary Hydraulics

11.26. A trapezoidal channel is designed to carry a discharge of 1800 ft3/s at a normal

depth on a slope of 0.0005 ft/ft. The side slopes of the channel must be 1.5 H/1 V and the
Manning n value is 0.035. If the channel is to be a regular earthen canal in good
condition, what should be its dimensions for maximum hydraulic efficiency?
Solution:

For the best hydraulic section

b = 2y ( 1 + t 2 t ) = 2y ( 1 + (1.5) 2 1.5 ) = 0.605 y
P = b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 0.605 y + 2y 1 + (1.5) 2 = 4.21 y
A = by + ty2 = 0.605y2 + 1.5 y2 = 2.105 y2
y
R=
2
1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
Q=A
R So
n
2/3

1.49 y
1/ 2
1800 = 2.105 y
(0.0005)
0.035 2
8/3
1425.95 = y
Therefore, y = 15.23 ft and b = 9.2 ft.
2

11.27. Due to the topography of the ground surface, a 2-km-long circular water tunnel is
proposed to replace 20 km-long escape channel of trapezoidal section, side slope 1:1.
The tunnel section is best discharging section ( = 308o) and the trapezoidal section is
best hydraulic section (R = y/2) and both have the same roughness and bed slope.
Determine whether the construction of the tunnel instead of the channel will reduce or
increase the total cost of the project.
Solution:

For trapezoidal channel of best cross section:

The top width is equal to twice the side length
Therefore, B = 2 2 y , and
Bottom width, b = 2 2 y -2y
B+b
y = 1.828 y 2
A=
2
Discharge of trapezoidal section QT,
QT = A x C RS

y
S
2
= 1.293 y2.5 x C S
For circular channel
r2
( sin ) = 3.082 r 2
A =
2
r sin
R =
1
= 0.574 r
2

= 1.828 y2 x C

198

(1)

Chapter 11. Resistance in Open Channels

Q = AxV
QC = 3.082 r2.5 x C S
QT
1.293 y 2.5 x C S
=
= 1 (same discharge)
QC
2.225 r 2.5 x C S
Then: r = 0.7896 y

Total volume
For trapezoidal channel: (Vol)h = AT x LT = 1.828y2 x 20 x 1000 = 36560y2 m3
For circular channel: (Vol)C = AC x LC = p(0.7896y)2 x 2 x 1000 = 3917.4y2 m3
Cost of excavation of the trapezoidal channel = 36560y2 x 4 = 146240y2
Cost of excavation of the circular tunnel = 3917.4y2 x 20 = 78347y2
Reduction in the cost = 146240y2 78347y2 = 67893 y2
11.28. A trapezoidal channel is to design to carry a discharge of 75 m3/s at maximum
hydraulic efficiency. The side slope of the channel is 2 H/1 V and the Manning n value is
0.030.
a) If the maximum allowable velocity in the channel is 1.75 m/s, what should be the
dimensions of the channel?
b) What should be the slope of the channel?
Solution:

A = Q/V =
a)

75
= 42.857 m 2
1.75

b
A
A
y2
y

=
=
=
=
=

2y ( 1 + t 2 t ) = 0.472 y
by + ty2 = 0.472 y2 + 2y2 = 2.472 y2
42.857 = 2.472 y2
17.336
4.16 m and b = 0.472 y = 1.96 m

b + 2y 1 + t 2 = 1.96 + 2(4.16) 1 + 2 2 m = 20.56 m

42.85
A/P =
= 2.08 m
20.56
1
(2.08) 2 / 3 S o1 / 2
1.75 =
0.03
54.315 S 01 / 2
0.00104 m/m

1.75 =
So =

11.29. A trapezoidal channel is designed to convey a discharge of 30 m3/s and runs on a

slope of 10 cm /km. Determine the dimensions of the most efficient section. Take
Chezys C as 40 (metric).
Solution:
For the most efficient trapezoidal section, b = 1.155 y, t = 1/(3)0.5, and R = y/2.
Then,

199

Elementary Hydraulics

Q = ACR1/2 S 1o/ 2
y 1/2
) (0.0001)1/2
2
y
75 = (1.155 y2 + 0.577 y2) ( )1 / 2
2
5/2
106.67 = 1.732 y
y = (61.24)2/5 = 5.186 m ; b = 1.155 y = 6.0 m

30 = (by + ty2) 40 (

11.30. A rough timber flume (n = 0.016) with a cross section of a most efficient triangular
section conveys water at a depth of 1.5 ft under uniform conditions. The channel has a
bed slope of 0.001. Calculate the discharge.
Solution:

A = y2 , P = 2y 1 + t 2 = 2 2 y , R =
Q=A

2 2

1.49 2 / 3 1 / 2
1
y 2/3
R S o = y 2( ) (
) (0.0001)1 / 2
n
n 2 2

1.49 1.5
= (1.5)

0.016 2 2
2

2/3

200