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ELL Support

Patterns and Expressions

**Choose the word from the list that best matches each sentence.
**

algebraic expression

consecutive

diagram

pattern

variable

consecutive

**1. Following one another in order.
**

2. A symbol, usually a letter, that represents one or more numbers.

variable

3. A drawing that is included with a math problem.

diagram

algebraic expression

4. An expression that contains one or more variables.

pattern

5. The same type of change between any two shapes or numbers.

**Use a word from the list above to complete each sentence.
**

6. The numbers 21 and 22 are

consecutive

numbers.

**7. In the algebraic expression 5x2 2 2x 1 9, x is called the
**

8. The picture included with a problem is called a

variable

diagram

.

.

**9. 2x 2 10 is called an algebraic expression .
**

10. The

pattern

in a list of numbers is that each one is 5 more than the last one.

**Describe the pattern for each group of figures. What would the next consecutive
**

figure in the pattern look like?

11.

**Answers may vary. Sample: a black square in the
**

corner of a larger square moves clockwise from one

corner to the next corner; a square with a black

square in the lower right corner

12.

**Answers may vary. Sample: equilateral triangles
**

alternating pointing up, then down; an equilateral

triangle pointing up

13.

**Answers may vary. Sample: alternate a circle inside a
**

square with a square inside a circle; a circle inside a

square

14.

**Answers may vary. Sample: a stack of small squares,
**

ﬁrst one square, then two squares, then 3 squares; a

stack of 4 small squares

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1

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1-1

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**Think About a Plan
**

Patterns and Expressions

Use the graph shown.

y

15

**a. Identify a pattern of the graph by making a table of the
**

Output

**inputs and outputs.
**

b. What are the outputs for inputs 6, 7, and 8?

1. What are the ordered pairs of the points in the graph?

(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9), (4, 12), (5, 15)

12

9

6

3

O

x

1

2

3

4

Input

**2. Complete the table of the input and output values shown in the ordered pairs.
**

Input

Output

1

3

2

6

3

9

4

12

5

15

3. Complete the process column with the process that takes each input value

and gives the corresponding output value.

4. output 5

Input

Process

Column

Output

1

1( 3 )

3

2

2( 3 )

6

3

3( 3 )

9

4

4( 3 )

12

5

5( 3 )

15

input ∙ 3

5. Complete the process column for inputs 6, 7, and 8. Then find the outputs for

inputs 6, 7, and 8.

Input

Process

Column

Output

6

6( 3 )

18

7

7( 3 )

21

8

8( 3 )

24

18, 21, 24

6. The outputs for inputs 6, 7, and 8 are

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Practice

Form G

Patterns and Expressions

**Describe each pattern using words. Draw the next figure in each pattern.
**

1.

Answers may vary. Sample: Rotate

the previous ﬁgure 90° clockwise.

2.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Each
**

ﬁgure is obtained by moving the

previous corner block up one row

and right one column, shading this

block and all blocks to the left of

and below this new corner block.

Answers may vary. Sample:

With the center of the middle

of the three consecutive blocks

as pivot, each ﬁgure is a 90°

counterclockwise rotation of the

previous ﬁgure.

3.

**Copy and complete each table. Include a process column.
**

4.

Input

Output

P. C.

1

4

2

5.

Input

Output

P. C.

5(1) ⫺ 1

1

22

9

5(2) ⫺ 1

2

3

14

5(3) ⫺ 1

4

19

5

6.

Input

Output

P. C.

⫺2(1)

1

0.5

0.5(1)

24

⫺2(2)

2

1.0

0.5(2)

3

26

⫺2(3)

3

1.5

0.5(3)

5(4) ⫺ 1

4

28

⫺2(4)

4

2.0

0.5(4)

24

5(5) ⫺ 1

5

210

⫺2(5)

5

2.5

0.5(5)

6

29

5(6) ⫺ 1

6

212

⫺2(6)

6

3.0

0.5(6)

n

5n 2 1

5n ⫺ 1

n

22n

⫺2n

n

0.5n

0.5n

7. Describe the pattern using words.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Draw a square. For each subsequent ﬁgure in the
**

pattern, make a new square having vertices at the midpoints of the sides of

the previous innermost square, shading all but the new innermost square.

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Practice (continued)

Form G

Patterns and Expressions

**A gardener plants a flower garden between his house and
**

a brick pathway parallel to the house. The table at the right

shows the area of the garden, in square feet, depending on

the width of the garden, in feet.

Width

Area

1

3.5

2

7

3

10.5

4

14

**8. What is the area of the garden if the width is 8 feet?
**

28 ft²

9. What is the area of the garden if the width is 15 feet? 52.5 ft²

**Identify a pattern and find the next three numbers in the pattern.
**

10. 25, 210, 220, 240, c

Each term is double the previous term;

280, 2160, 2320

11. 5, 8, 11, 14, c

Each term is 3 more than the previous

term; 17, 20, 23

12. 3, 1, 21, 23, c

Each term is 2 less than the previous

term; 25, 27, 29

2 3 4 5

14. 3, 4, 5, 6, c

The numerator and denominator of

each term are each one more than the

previous term; 67, 78, 89

13. 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, c

Each term is n 1 1 more than the previous

term where n is the difference between

the previous two terms; 21, 28, 36

15. 10, 9, 6, 1, 26, c

Each term is n 1 2 less than the previous

term where n is the difference between

the previous two terms; 215, 226, 239

**The graph shows the cost depending on the
**

number of DVDs that you purchase.

$80

$64

Cost

16. What is the cost of purchasing 5 DVDs? $80

17. What is the cost of purchasing 10 DVDs? $160

$48

$32

$16

18. What is the cost of purchasing n DVDs? $16n

0

1

2

3

4

Number of DVDs

**Keesha earns $320 a week working in a clothing store. As a bonus, her employer
**

pays her $15 more than she earned the previous week, so that at the end of the

second week she earns $335, and after 3 weeks, she earns $350.

19. How much will Keesha earn at the end of the fifth week? $380

**20. How much will Keesha earn at the end of the tenth week? $455
**

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Practice

Form K

Patterns and Expressions

**Describe each pattern using words. Draw the next figure in each pattern.
**

1.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Start with a row of two squares. Add a row of two squares
**

below the previous ﬁgure for each new ﬁgure.

2.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Start with one square. Add a row of squares below the
**

previous ﬁgure that has one more square than the row above it for each new ﬁgure.

3.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Start with an isosceles triangle that points upward. Rotate
**

the triangle 90° clockwise for each new ﬁgure.

**Make a table with a process column to represent the pattern. Write an
**

expression for the number of circles in the nth figure. The table has been started

for you.

4.

**The expression for the
**

number of circles in

the nth ﬁgure is 2n.

Figure Number

(Input)

Process

Column

Number of

Circles (Output)

1

1(2)

2

2

2(2)

4

3

3(2)

6

4

4(2)

8

■

■

■

n

n(2)

2n

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Practice (continued)

1-1

Form K

Patterns and Expressions

Number of cups of flour

**The graph shows the number of cups of flour needed for
**

baking cookies.

5. How many cups of flour are needed for baking 4 batches

of cookies?

8 cups

6. How many cups of flour are needed for baking 30 batches

of cookies?

10

Baking Cookies

8

6

4

2

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Number of batches of cookies

60 cups

7. How many cups of flour are needed for baking n batches

of cookies?

2n cups

Identify a pattern by making a table. Include a process column.

(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7)

**Hint: To start, list the points on the graph. Make a table of input and
**

output values shown in the ordered pairs. Use the process column to

figure out the pattern.

10

10

9.

8

8

6

6

Output

Output

8.

4

2

4

Input

6

0

8

2

4

Input

6

8

**Identify the pattern and find the next three numbers in the pattern.
**

10. 1, 4, 16, 64, . . .

11. 3, 6, 12, 24, . . .

**Each term is 4 times the previous term;
**

256, 1024, 4096

**Each term is 2 times
**

the previous term;

48, 96, 192

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Process

Column

(Output)

1

113

4

2

213

5

3

313

6

4

413

7

n

n13

n13

(1, 1.5), (2, 3), (3, 4.5), (4, 6)

2

2

0

4

(Input)

(Input)

Process

Column

(Output)

1

1(1.5)

1.5

2

2(1.5)

3

3

3(1.5)

4.5

4

4(1.5)

6

n

n(1.5)

1.5n

Name

Class

1-1

Date

**Standardized Test Prep
**

Patterns and Expressions

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–5, choose the correct letter.

1. What is the next figure in the pattern at the right? C

2. Which is the next number in the table? H

14

15

16

20

Input

Output

1

1

2

3

3

6

4

10

5

■

3. How many toothpicks would be in the tenth figure? A

21

20

4. What is the next number in the pattern?

21

23

2, 7, 12, 17, c G

22

5. What is the next number in the pattern?

23

11

23

27

1, 21, 2, 22, 3, c A

0

3

4

Short Response

6. Ramon has 25 books in his library. Each month, he adds 3 new books to his

collection. How many books will Ramon have after 12 months?

61 books

[2] correct number of books

[1] incorrect number of books

[0] no answer given

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Enrichment

Patterns and Expressions

**Often identifying and expressing patterns using algebraic expressions is difficult
**

because the pattern is not immediately obvious. Organizing information into a

table and looking at the common differences provide a clue.

1. Copy and complete the table below to find the first differences between

consecutive terms.

1

4

Figure Number

Number Pattern

2

10

6

6

First Difference

3

16

4

22

5

28

6

6

6

34

6

7

40

6

8

46

6

9

52

6

10

58

6

2. Because the first difference is constant in the pattern above, the algebraic

**expression will have degree 1. Degree 1 expressions will not have any
**

exponents larger than 1. What is the algebraic expression for the nth term in

this pattern? (6n 2 2)

3. Copy and complete the table below by finding the first and second differences

**between consecutive terms.
**

1

4

Figure Number

Number Pattern

2

10

6

First Difference

8

2

Second Difference

3

18

4

28

10

2

5

40

14

12

2

6

54

2

7

70

16

2

8

88

18

2

20

2

4. Since the second difference is constant in the pattern above, the algebraic

**expression will have degree 2. In an expression of degree 2, the largest
**

exponent is 2. Therefore, we know that the expression for this pattern must

include n2. What is the algebraic expression for the nth term in this pattern?

(n2 1 3n)

**Write an algebraic expression for the nth term in each pattern.
**

5. 23, 2, 7, 12, 17, c (5n 2 8)

6. 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, c (2n2)

7. 0, 7, 26, 63, 124, c (n3 2 1)

8. 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, c (n2 1 1)

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9

108

10

130

22

2

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1-1

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Reteaching

Patterns and Expressions

**Identifying patterns is an important skill in algebra. Identify the underlying
**

structure of a group of numbers, a set of data, or a sequence of figures to express a

rule describing the relationship.

Problem

**Look at the figures from left to right. What is the pattern? What would the next
**

figure in the pattern look like?

**First, identify the basic properties of the figure. The number of elements in each
**

figure increases by one from each figure to the next.

Second, determine whether the figures change in size. Notice that the arrows

decrease in length by about 13 at each step.

Third, observe whether there is displacement or rotation from one figure to the

next. Each arrow is a 908 clockwise rotation from the previous arrow.

The pattern begins with an arrow pointing to the right. Each subsequent figure adds

a new arrow that is shorter than the previous arrow by about 13 and is rotated 908

clockwise from the previous one. The next figure in the pattern is shown at the right.

Exercises

Describe the pattern in words and draw the next figure in the pattern.

1.

**Each ﬁgure is twice the size of
**

the one before it.

2.

**Each ﬁgure adds a
**

new triangle whose

dimensions are 50%

of the dimensions of

the previous smallest

triangle and is inside

it, rotated 180°. The

color alternates white

to black from biggest

to smallest triangle,

respectively.

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(continued)

Patterns and Expressions

Problem

$15

Charge

**You tell your parents that you will pay the text messaging
**

portion of your cell phone bill. The graph shows the monthly

charge depending on the number of text messages you send and

receive during the month. How much do you owe if you send and

receive a total of 100 text messages during the month?

$12

$9

$6

$3

**First, identify several points on the graph. Three points on the
**

graph are (10, 3), (20, 6), and (50, 15). Make a table of values for the

given inputs.

Input

Process Column

Output

10

10 3 $.30

$3

20

20 3 $.30

$6

50

50 3 $.30

$15

0

10 20 30 40 50

Number of Text Messages

**Identify the pattern in the process column. Each output is equal to the product
**

of the input and $.30. To summarize the result in words, each text message

costs $0.30.

Therefore, if you send and receive 100 text messages during the month, then

you owe 100 3 $.30 5 $30.

Exercises

Use the graph at the right to answer the questions.

3. What is the cost to send 10 text messages? 20 text messages?

50 text messages? $5; $10; $25

Charge

4. What is the cost to send one text message? $.50

$25

$20

$15

$10

$5

**5. How much do you owe your parents if you send and
**

receive 75 text messages during the month? $37.50

0

10 20 30 40 50

Number of Text Messages

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ELL Support

Properties of Real Numbers

**Choose the word from the list that best matches each description.
**

integers irrational numbers natural numbers rational numbers whole numbers

whole numbers

1. the natural numbers and zero

integers

**2. the natural numbers, their opposites, and zero
**

3. the numbers that can be written as a quotient of integers

rational numbers

4. the numbers used for counting

natural numbers

irrational numbers

5. the numbers that cannot be written as quotients of integers

**Write all of the numbers from the list that are examples of each subset.
**

27

6. whole numbers

212

"81

5

7

0

2105

"44

93

27, !81 , 0, 93

7. natural numbers 27, !81 , 93

5

8. rational numbers 27, 212, !81 , 0, 7 , 2105, 93

9. irrational numbers !44

10. integers 27, 212, !81 , 0, 2105, 93

11. Draw a diagram showing the relationship of whole numbers, natural numbers, rational

**numbers, integers, irrational numbers, and real numbers.
**

Real Numbers

Natural numbers

Whole numbers

Irrational

numbers

Integers

Rational numbers

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**Think About a Plan
**

Properties of Real Numbers

**Five friends each ordered a sandwich and a drink at a restaurant. Each sandwich
**

costs the same amount, and each drink costs the same amount. What are two

ways to compute the bill? What property of real numbers is illustrated by the two

methods?

**Understanding the Problem
**

1. There are

5

sandwiches and

5

drinks on the bill.

**2. What is the problem asking you to determine?
**

two ways to represent the cost of 5 sandwiches and 5 drinks, and the property of real

numbers illustrated by the two representations

**Planning the Solution
**

3. How can you represent the cost of five sandwiches?

Answers may vary. Sample: 5s

4. How can you represent the cost of five drinks?

Answers may vary. Sample: 5d

5. How can you represent the cost of the items ordered by one friend?

Answers may vary. Sample: d 1 s

Getting an Answer

6. Write an expression that represents the cost of five drinks and the cost of five

sandwiches.

Answers may vary. Sample: 5d 1 5s

7. Write an expression that represents the cost of the items ordered by five

friends.

Answers may vary. Sample: 5(d 1 s)

8. What property of real numbers tells you that these two expressions are equal?

Explain.

Distributive Property; the Distributive Property states a(b 1 c) 5 ab 1 ac.

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Practice

Form G

Properties of Real Numbers

**Classify each variable according to the set of numbers that best describes
**

its values.

1. the area of the circle A found by using the formula pr2 irrational number

2. the number n of equal slices in a pizza; the portion p of the pizza in one slice

natural number; rational number

3. the air temperature t in Saint Paul, MN, measured to the nearest degree

Fahrenheit integer

4. the last four digits s of a Social Security number natural number

1

⫺2 2

Graph each number on a number line.

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

5. 21

6. "3

√ 3 2.8

⫺1

0

7. 2.8

1

2

1

8. 22 2

3

**Compare the two numbers. Use + or *.
**

10. 4, !17 *

9. 2!2, 22 +

11. !29, 5 +

12. !50, 6.8 +

13. 11, !130 *

14. 26, 2!30 *

1

15. 72, !67 *

16. 2!10, 2!12 +

**Name the property of real numbers illustrated by each equation.
**

17. 2(3 1 !5) 5 2 ? 3 1 2 ? !5

18. 16 1 (213) 5 213 1 16

Distributive Property

1

19. 27 ? 27 5 1

Inverse Property of Multiplication

**Commutative Property of Addition
**

20. 5(0.2 ? 7) 5 (5 ? 0.2) ? 7

Associative Property of Multiplication

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Practice (continued)

Form G

Properties of Real Numbers

**Estimate the numbers graphed at the labeled points.
**

A

B

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

C

0

1

D

2

3

21. point A Answers may vary. Sample: 22.7

22. point B Answers may vary. Sample: 21.2

23. point C Answers may vary. Sample: 0.9

24. point D Answers may vary. Sample: 3.0

**Geometry To find the length of side b of a rectangular prism with a
**

square base, use the formula b 5 ÅVh , where V is the volume of the

prism and h is the height. Which set of numbers best describes the

value of b for the given values of V and h?

25. V 5 100, h 5 5

irrational numbers

26. V 5 100, h 5 25

natural numbers

27. V 5 100, h 5 20

irrational numbers

28. V 5 5, h 5 20

rational numbers

h

**Write the numbers in increasing order.
**

4 5

29. 2"2, 5, 24, 0.9, 21

2 54, 21, 45, 0.9, 2"2

5

2

30. 8, 26, 3, 2p, 20.5

26, 2π, 20.5, 58, 23

**Justify the equation by stating one of the properties of real numbers.
**

31. (x 1 37) 1 (237) 5 x 1 (37 1 (237)) Associative Property of Addition

32. x ? 1 5 x Identity Property of Multiplication

33. x 1 (37 1 (237)) 5 x 1 0 Inverse Property of Addition

34. x 1 0 5 x Identity Property of Addition

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b

b

Name

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Date

Practice

Form K

Properties of Real Numbers

**Classify each variable according to the set of numbers that best describes
**

its values.

1. the number of students in your class natural numbers

**To start, make a list of some numbers that could describe the number of
**

students in your class.

2. the area of the circle A found by using the formula A 5 pr2 irrational numbers

To start, make a list of some numbers that could describe the area of a circle.

3. the elevation e of various land points in the United States measured to the nearest foot integers

To start, make a list of some numbers that could describe elevation levels.

**Graph each number on a number line.
**

1

4. 5 2

6. 2.25

5

⫺4

5. 24

1

2

⫺8⫺7⫺6⫺5⫺4⫺3⫺2⫺1 0 1 2

⫺1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2.25

1

7. 26 3

⫺1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

⫺6

1

3

⫺8⫺7⫺6⫺5⫺4⫺3⫺2⫺1 0 1 2

8. !8

√ 8 ⬇ 2.83

To start, use a calculator to approximate the square root.

ⴚ1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

**Compare the two numbers. Use R or S .
**

9. !50 and 8.8 R

10. 5 and !23 S

11. 6.2 and !40 R

12. 2!3 and 23 S

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Practice (continued)

Form K

Properties of Real Numbers

**Name the property of real numbers illustrated by each equation.
**

2 3

13. 3 ? 2 5 1

Inverse Property of Multiplication

14. 6(2 1 x) 5 6 ? 2 1 6 ? x

Distributive Property

15. 2 ? 20 5 20 ? 2

Commutative Property of Multiplication

16. 8 1 (28) 5 0

Inverse Property of Addition

17. 2(0.5 ? 4) 5 (2 ? 0.5) ? 4

Associative Property of Multiplication

**18. 211 1 5 5 5 1 (211)
**

Commutative Property of Addition

**Estimate the numbers graphed at
**

the labeled points.

C

A

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

19. point A Answers may vary. Sample: 22

B

0

1

D

2

3

4

5

20. point B Answers may vary. Sample: 1.5

21. point C Answers may vary. Sample: 24.75 22. point D Answers may vary. Sample: 2.25

**To find the length of the side b of the square base of a rectangular prism, use the
**

formula b 5 ÅVh , where V is the volume of the prism and h is the height. Which

set of numbers best describes the value of b for the given values of V and h?

23. V 5 100, h 5 1

24. V 5 100, h 5 10

natural numbers

irrational numbers

**Write the numbers in increasing order.
**

5

5

25. 6, !28, 22, 20.8, 1

2

26. 3, 24, !32, !13, 20.4

24, 20.4, 23, !13, !32

252, 20.8, 56, 1, "28

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**Standardized Test Prep
**

Properties of Real Numbers

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–5, choose the correct letter.

1. Which letter on the graph corresponds to !5? C

2. Which letter on the graph corresponds to 21.5? F

A

⫺1

BC

0

1

F

2

G

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

D

3

H

0

4

5

2

3

I

1

**What property of real numbers is illustrated by the equation?
**

3. 26 1 (6 1 5) 5 (26 1 6) 1 5 D

Identity Property of Addition

Commutative Property of Addition

Inverse Property of Addition

Associative Property of Addition

4. 2(24 1 x) 5 2(24) 1 2 ? x G

Associative Property of Multiplication

Associative Property of Addition

Distributive Property

Closure Property of Multiplication

2

5. Which of the following shows the numbers 13, 1.3, 17, 24, and 2!10 in

order from greatest to least? B

13, 1.3, 127, 24, 2!10

13, 127, 1.3, 2!10, 24

13, 1.3, 127, 2!10, 24

24, 2!10, 127, 1.3, 13

Short Response

Geometry The length c of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with legs having

lengths a and b is found by using the formula c 5 "a2 1 b2 . Which set of

numbers best describes the value of c for the given values of a and b?

6. a 5 3, b 5 4 [2] natural numbers [1] incorrect set of numbers [0] no answer given

1

1

7. a 5 3, b 5 4 [2] rational numbers [1] incorrect set of numbers [0] no answer given

8. a 5 !3, b 5 !4 [2] irrational numbers [1] incorrect set of numbers [0] no answer given

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Enrichment

Properties of Real Numbers

**There are four words beginning with the letter “I” that describe certain types of
**

operations:

a. Identity: an operation that does not change anything. For example, adding

**0 to a number is an identity operation, because adding 0 does not change the
**

original number.

b. Inverse: an operation that can be undone by another operation. For instance,

**the operation of adding 2 to a number can be undone by subtracting 2 from
**

the number. However, the operation of multiplying a number by 0 cannot be

undone.

c. Idempotent: an operation that, when done twice, is the same as doing it once.

**For example, multiplying a number by 1 and then multiplying the result by 1
**

again has exactly the same effect as multiplying the number by 1 only once.

d. Involutory: an operation that, when done twice, leaves a number unchanged.

**For instance, multiplying a number by 21 and then multiplying the result by
**

21 again returns the original number.

For each of the following operations, state which of the “I” words apply. If none

apply, write none.

1. finding the absolute value of a number idempotent

2. dividing a number by 1 identity, inverse, idempotent, involutory

3. multiplying the absolute value of a number by 21 idempotent

4. finding the reciprocal of a nonzero number inverse, involutory

5. dividing a number by 21 inverse, involutory

6. multiplying a number by 0 idempotent

7. adding 0 to the reciprocal of a nonzero number inverse, involutory

8. multiplying the reciprocal of a nonzero number by 2 inverse, involutory

9. adding the absolute value of a nonzero number to the absolute value of its

reciprocal none

10. finding the reciprocal of the absolute value of the reciprocal of a nonzero

number idempotent

11. finding the absolute value of 21 times a nonzero number, then taking the

reciprocal none

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Reteaching

Properties of Real Numbers

**The Properties of Real Numbers are relationships that are true for all real numbers
**

except zero.

The additive identity for real numbers is 0. This gives the Identity Property of

Addition, which states for any real number a:

a 1 0 5 a and 0 1 a 5 a

The additive inverse of a real number a is 2a. By the Inverse Property of Addition:

a 1 (2a) 5 0

There are two similar properties for multiplication. These use the multiplicative

identity 1 and the multiplicative inverse a1 for any nonzero real number a.

Identity Property of Multiplication: a ? 1 5 a and 1 ? a 5 a

1

Inverse Property of Multiplication: a ? a 5 1

Problem

**Using the Properties of Real Numbers, what is the missing number in the
**

equation?

a.

u1055

According to the Identity Property of Addition, the missing number is 5.

b. 7 ?

u51

**The Inverse Property of Multiplication shows that the product of a real
**

number and its multiplicative inverse is 1. The missing number is the

multiplicative inverse of 7, or 17 .

Exercises

Find the missing number in the equation.

1.

0 1 (24) 5 24

u

2. 22 1

u

3. 1 ? 22 5 22

4.

2 50

u

u ? 32 5 1

2

3

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(continued)

Properties of Real Numbers

**The Commutative and Associative Properties of Addition and Multiplication are
**

properties that help you simplify calculations.

The Commutative Property states that the order of addition or multiplication

does not change the sum or product.

a1b5b1a

ab 5 ba

**The Associative Property states that the grouping of three or more addends or
**

factors does not change the sum or product.

(a 1 b) 1 c 5 a 1 (b 1 c)

(ab)c 5 a(bc)

Problem

**What property does the equation illustrate?
**

1

1

5 ? Q 5 ? 85 R 5 Q 5 ? 5 R ? 85

This equation shows that the product of three numbers is the same regardless of

the order of multiplication. Only the grouping of the factors is different. Therefore,

the equation illustrates the Associative Property of Multiplication.

Exercises

Name the property that the equation illustrates.

1

5. Q 5 ? 5 R ? 85 5 1 ? 85

Inverse Property of Multiplication

6. 1 ? 85 5 85

Identity Property of Multiplication

**The Distributive Property combines addition and multiplication: a(b 1 c) 5 ab 1 ac.
**

Problem

**What are the missing values in the equation?
**

4 ? (6 1 3) 5 4 ?

u14?u

**By the Distributive Property, the sum of two numbers multiplied by a third
**

number is equal to the sum of each multiplied by the third number. Because the

third number is 4, the missing numbers are 6 and 3.

Exercises

Name the missing values in each equation.

3 ?2

u1u

2 5u

9 ( y 1 2)

9. 9 ? y 1 9 ? u

22 ? 5 2 2 ? 1

u 1 1b 5 u

7. 3(a 1 2) 5 3 ? a

8. 22 a 5

z

z

1x b

10. 8(23) 1 8 ? x 5 8 a 23

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ELL Support

Algebraic Expressions

**Use the chart below to review vocabulary. These vocabulary words will help you
**

complete this page.

Addition (1)

Subtraction (2)

Multiplication (3)

Division (4)

sum

difference

product

quotient

more than

less than

times

divided by

increased by

fewer than

total

subtracted from

added to

Circle the word or words in each word phrase that tell you what operations

to use. Write the operation symbol word (1, 2, 3, 4) next to the algebraic

expression.

1. the sum of a number m and 212 1

2. the product of b and c 3

3. 14 less than p 2

4. the total of 275 and t 1

5. the quotient of d and 28 4

**Match each word phrase in Column A with the matching algebraic expression
**

in Column B.

Column A

Column B

6. the difference of a number p and 36

A. y 1 9

7. 15 more than the number q

B. 10(r)

8. the product of 10 and a number r

C. q 1 15

9. the total of a number y and 9

D. p 2 36

**Match each algebraic expression in Column A with the matching word phrase
**

in Column B.

Column A

10. m 1 45 C

m

Column B

A. 45 less than a number m

11. 45 D

B. 45 times the sum of a number m and 1

12. m 2 45 A

C. a number m increased by 45

13. 45(m 1 1) B

D. a number m divided by 45

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**Think About a Plan
**

Algebraic Expressions

**Write an algebraic expression to model the situation.
**

The freshman class will be selling carnations as a class project. What is the class’s

income after it pays the florist a flat fee of $200 and sells x carnations for $2 each?

1. What does the variable represent?

the number of carnations sold

2. How will the class’s income change for each carnation sold?

It will increase by $2.

3. Will paying the florist increase or decrease their income? By how much?

decrease; $200

4. Will the expression include both the income for each carnation and the

**florist’s fee? Explain.
**

Yes; the class’s proﬁt is a function of the proceeds from carnation sales

and the ﬂorist’s fee.

5. Write the expression in words.

The

income

z 2200

z

is

and

2 z

z

times

x z .

z

6. Write the expression using symbols.

income

5

z 2200

z

1 z

z

2 z

z

. z

z

x z

z

7. Check your expression by substituting 300 for the number of carnations. Does

**your answer make sense? Explain.
**

2200 1 2(300) 5 2200 1 600 5 400; yes; the class has an income of $400 after they

make $600 and pay the ﬂorist $200.

z

z

220012x

8. The algebraic expression

models the freshman class income.

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Practice

Form G

Algebraic Expressions

**Write an algebraic expression that models each word phrase.
**

1. seven less than the number t t 2 7

2. the sum of 11 and the product of 2 and a number r 11 1 2r

**Write an algebraic expression that models each situation.
**

3. Arin has $520 and is earning $75 each week babysitting. 520 1 75w

4. You have 50 boxes of raisins and are eating 12 boxes each month. 50 2 12m

**Evaluate each expression for the given values of the variables.
**

5. 24v 1 3(w 1 2v) 2 5w; v 5 22 and w 5 4 212

6. c(3 2 a) 2 c2 ; a 5 4 and c 5 21 0

7. 2(3e 2 5f ) 1 3(e2 1 4f ); e 5 3 and f 5 25 35

**Surface Area The expression 6s2 represents the surface area of a cube with edges
**

of length s. What is the surface area of a cube with each edge length?

8. 3 inches 54 in.2

9. 1.5 meters 13.5 m2

**The expression 4.95 1 0.07x models a household’s monthly long-distance
**

charges, where x represents the number of minutes of long-distance calls during

the month. What are the monthly charges for each number of long-distance

minutes?

10. 73 minutes $10.06

11. 29 minutes $6.98

**Simplify by combining like terms.
**

3(a 2 b)

1 49 b 13a 1 19b

9

12. 5x 2 3x2 1 16x2 13x2 1 5x

13.

t2

14. t 1 2 1 t2 1 t 32t2 1 2t

15. 4a 2 5(a 1 1) 2a 2 5

16. 22( j2 2 k) 2 6( j2 1 3k) 28j2 2 16k

17. x(x 2 y) 1 y(y 2 x) x2 2 2xy 1 y2

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Form G

(continued)

Algebraic Expressions

18. In a soccer tournament, teams receive 6 points for winning a game, 3 points

**for tying a game, and 1 point for each goal they score. What algebraic
**

expression models the total number of points that a soccer team receives in a

tournament? Suppose one team wins two games and ties one game, scoring a

total of five goals. How many points does the team receive? 6w 1 3t 1 1g; 20 points

Evaluate each expression for the given value of the variable.

19. 2t2 2 (3t 1 2); t 5 5 242

20. i2 2 5(i3 2 i2); i 5 4 2224

a⫺b

21. Perimeter Write an expression for the perimeter of the figure

c

**at the right as the sum of the lengths of its sides. What is the
**

simplified form of this expression?

a 1 (a 2 b) 1 c 1 b 1 (a 2 2c) 1 b 1 c 1 (a 2 b); 4a

b

a ⫺ 2c

a

b

**22. Simplify 2(2x 2 5y) 1 3(4x 1 2y) and justify each step in
**

your simplification. 22x 1 5y 1 12x 1 6y, Opposite of a

c

Difference and Distributive Property; 10x 1 11y; Combine like terms

a⫺b

using the Distributive Property

23. Error Analysis Alana simplified the expression as shown. Do you agree

2(x

x + 4) - (5x

x - 7)

with her work? Explain. No; Dist. Prop. and Opp. of a Diff.

x + 4 - 5x

x-7

2x

incorrectly applied. Correct simpliﬁcation: 2x 1 8 2 5x 1 7 5 23x 1 15

-3x

x-3

24. Open-Ended Write an example of an algebraic expression that always

has the same value regardless of the value of the variable. Answers may vary. Sample: any

expression that results in the variable having a coefﬁcient of 0; sample: x 2 x

**Match the property name with the appropriate equation.
**

25. Opposite of a Difference E

A. 2f(2r) 1 2pg 5 2(2r) 2 2p

26. Opposite of a Sum A

B. 16d 2 (3d 1 2)(0) 5 16d 2 0

27. Opposite of an Opposite F

C. 5(2 2 x) 5 10 2 5x

28. Multiplication by 0 B

D. 2(4r 1 3s) 1 t 5 (21)(4r 1 3s) 1 t

29. Multiplication by 21 D

E. 2(8 2 3m) 5 3m 2 8

30. Distributive Property C

F. 2f2(9 2 2w)g 5 9 2 2w

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Practice

Form K

Algebraic Expressions

**Write an algebraic expression that models each word phrase.
**

1. six less than the number r r 2 6

**To start, relate what you know. “Less than” means subtraction.
**

Describe what you need to find. Begin with the number r and subtract 6.

2. twelve more than the number b b 1 12

3. five times the sum of 3 and the number m 5(3 1 m)

**Write an algebraic expression that models each situation.
**

4. Alexis has $250 in her savings account and deposits $20 each week for w weeks. 250 1 20w

5. You have 30 gallons of gas and you use 5 gallons per day for d days. 30 2 5d

**Evaluate each expression for the given values of the variables.
**

6. 22a 1 5b 1 6a 2 2b 1 a; a 5 23 and b 5 2 29

**To start, substitute the value
**

for each variable.

22(23) 1 5(2) 1 6(23) 2 2(2) 1 (23)

7. y(3 2 x) 1 x2; x 5 2 and y 5 12 16

8. 3(4e 2 2f ) 1 2(e 1 8f ); e 5 23 and f 5 10 58

**The expression 6s2 represents the surface area of a cube with edges of length s.
**

What is the surface area of a cube with each edge length?

9. 4 centimeters 96 cm2

10. 2.5 feet 37.5 ft2

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Practice (continued)

Form K

Algebraic Expressions

**Write an algebraic expression to model the total score in each situation.
**

Then evaluate the expression to find the total score.

11. In the first half, there were fifteen two-point shots, ten three-point shots and

5 one-point free throws. T 5 2w 1 3r 1 1f; 65

**To start, define your variables. Let w 5 the number of two-point shots,
**

r 5 the number of three-point shots, and f 5 the number of one-point free throws.

12. In the first quarter, there were two touchdowns and 1 extra point kick. T 5 6t 1 1e; 13

Hint: A touchdown is worth 6 points. An extra point kick is worth 1 point.

**Simplify by combining like terms.
**

13. 10b 2 b 9b

14. 12 1 8s 2 3s 12 1 5s

15. 3a 1 2b 1 6a 9a 1 2b

16. 5m 1 2n 1 6m 1 4n 11m 1 6n

17. 8r 2 (3s 2 5r) 13r 2 3s

18. 2.5y 2 4y 21.5y

**The expression 19.95 1 0.05x models a household’s monthly Internet charges,
**

where x represents the number of online minutes during the month. What are

the monthly charges for each number of online minutes?

19. 65 minutes $23.20

20. 128 minutes $26.35

**Evaluate each expression for the given value of the variable.
**

21. 3a 1 (2a 1 6); a 5 2 16

22. x 2 5(x 1 2); x 5 25 10

23. 2r 1 (3r2 1 1); r 5 4 45

24. x2 2 5(3x 2 12); x 5 10 10

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**Standardized Test Prep
**

Algebraic Expressions

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–3, choose the correct letter.

1. The expression 2p(rh 1 r2) represents the total surface area of a cylinder with

**height h and radius r. What is the surface area of a cylinder with height
**

6 centimeters and radius 2 centimeters? C

16p cm2

32p cm2

28p cm2

96p cm2

2. Which expression best represents the simplified form of

3(m 2 3) 1 m(5 2 m) 2 m2 ? F

22m2 1 8m 2 9

22m2 2 2m 2 9

8m 2 9

22m 2 9

**3. The price of a discount airline ticket starts at $150 and increases by $30 each
**

week. Which algebraic expression models this situation? D

30 1 150w

30 2 150w

150 2 30w

150 1 30w

Extended Response

4. Members of a club are selling calendars as a fundraiser. The club pays $100

for a box of wall and desk calendars. They sell wall calendars for $12 and desk

calendars for $8.

a. Write an algebraic expression to model the club’s profit from selling w wall

calendars and d desk calendars. Explain in words or show work for how you

determined the expression

b. What is the club’s profit from selling 9 wall calendars and 7 desk calendars?

Show your work.

a. The income from wall calendars is 12w. The income from desk calendars is 8d. The

total income is 12w 1 8d. The club must pay $100 from the total income, so the proﬁt

is 12w 1 8d 2 100. (OR equivalent explanation)

b. 12w 1 8d 2 100 5 12(9) 1 8(7) 2 100 5 108 1 56 2 100 5 64; $64

[4] appropriate methods and correct expression with no computational errors

[3] appropriate methods and correct expression, but minor computational error

[2] incorrect expression or multiple computational errors

[1] correct expression and proﬁt, without work shown

[0] no answer or no attempt made

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Enrichment

Algebraic Expressions

Math Puzzle

Algebraic expressions can help reveal the secret behind number puzzles that

appear to be magic. Start by trying the puzzle below. Complete the puzzle two

times and record each step in the table.

First Guess

Directions

Second Guess

Think of a number.

Add 1 to your number.

Multiply your answer by 2.

Subtract 2 from your answer.

Finally, subtract your original number.

**What did you notice about your final answer each time?
**

Answers may vary. Sample: The ﬁnal number is the same as the original number.

**By writing and simplifying algebraic expressions, you can explain the puzzle.
**

Let n represent your number. Write an algebraic expression for each of the steps

in the puzzle above.

1. Add 1 to your number. n 1 1

2. Multiply your answer by 2. 2n 1 2

3. Subtract 2 from your answer. 2n

4. Subtract your original number. n

5. Explain how your algebraic expressions show why the puzzle always ends with

**the original number.
**

Answers may vary. Sample: The ﬁnal expression is the same as the original expression.

**Write and simplify algebraic expressions for the puzzle below.
**

6. Think of a number. n

7. Multiply your number by 4. 4n

8. Subtract 2. 4n 2 2

9. Divide your number by 2. 2n 2 1

10. Add 1. 2n

11. Subtract your original number. n

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1-3

Algebraic Expressions

**You can model words with algebraic expressions. In a word problem, look for
**

words and word phrases that indicate mathematical operations.

Addition

added to

plus

sum

more than

longer than

increased by

total

in all

Subtraction

subtracted from

minus

difference

less than

shorter than

decreased by

fewer than

Multiplication

multiplied by

product

times

of

Division

divided by

quotient

fraction of

per

Problem

**What is an algebraic expression that models the given word phrase?
**

The quotient of 4 more than the number z and the number y decreased by 3

division

4

addition

z

4

(4

1

z)

(41z)

y subtraction 3

(y

4

2

3)

(y23)

(41z)

(y23)

Exercises

Write an algebraic expression that models each word phrase.

1. nine less than 5 multiplied by the number p 5p 2 9

2. the product of 2 divided by the number h and 8 more than the number k Q h2 R (k 1 8)

3. two decreased by the quotient of the number a and 7 and increased by a

multiplied by 3

2 2 a7 1 3a

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(continued)

Algebraic Expressions

**To simplify an algebraic expression, combine like terms using the basic properties
**

of real numbers. Like terms have the same variables raised to the same powers.

To evaluate an algebraic expression, replace the variables in the expression with

numbers and follow the order of operations.

Problem

**What is the value of the algebraic expression 3(4x 1 5y) 2 2(3x 2 7y) when
**

x 5 3 and y 5 22?

Simplify the algebraic expression using the basic properties of real numbers.

3(4x 1 5y) 2 2(3x 2 7y) 5 12x 1 15y 2 2(3x 2 7y)

Distributive Property for Addition

5 12x 1 15y 2 (6x 2 14y)

Distributive Property for Subtraction

5 12x 1 15y 2 6x 1 14y

Opposite of a Difference

5 12x 2 6x 1 15y 1 14y

Identify like terms.

5 (12 2 6)x 1 (15 1 14)y

Distributive Property

5 6x 1 29y

Combine like terms.

**Evaluate the expression, replacing x with 3 and y with 22 in the simplified
**

expression.

6(3) 1 29(22)

5 18 2 58

5 240

Exercises

Simplify the algebraic expression. Then evaluate the simplified expression for

the given values of the variable.

4. (4x 1 1) 1 2x; x 5 3

5. 7(t 1 3) 2 11; t 5 4

6x 1 1; 19

7t 1 10; 38

6. 3y 1 4z 1 6y 2 9z; y 5 2, z 5 1

7. 2(u 1 v) 2 (u 2 v); u 5 8, v 5 23

9y 2 5z; 13

8. 5a2

u 1 3v; 21

9. 6p2 2 (3p2 1 2q2); p 5 1, q 5 5

3p2 2 2q2; 247

s

1

r

r

11. 2 1 3 2 4 1 5; r 5 21, s 5 0

1 5a 1 a 1 1; a 5 22

5a2 1 6a 1 1; 9

3

1

10. 4(m 1 n) 2 4(m 2 n); m 5 6, n 5 2

1

2m

r

4

1 n; 5

1

1 3s 1 15; 220

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Solving Equations

**The column on the left shows the steps used to solve a problem with an equation.
**

Use the column on the left to answer each question in the column on the right.

Problem

1. Read the title of the Problem. What

**Solve by Setting up and
**

Solving an Equation

**Two planes leave San Antonio at the
**

same time. The northbound plane travels

70 mi/h faster than the southbound plane.

The planes are 1940 mi apart in 2 h. How

fast is the southbound plane flying?

Relate

**process are you going to use to solve
**

the problem?

Answers may vary. Sample: setting up

and solving an equation

2. What is the formula that relates

total

distance the distance the

distance

southbound northbound

1

5 between the

plane travels plane travels

planes after

in 2 h

in 2 h

2h

Deﬁne

**distance, rate, and time?
**

d 5 rt

3. Why can you represent the rate

**Let x 5 the rate of the southbound plane.
**

Let x 1 70 5 the rate of the northbound

plane.

**of the northbound plane with the
**

algebraic expression x 1 70?

It travels 70 mi/h faster than the

southbound plane.

Write

4. What does the expression 2x represent?

2x 1 2(x 1 70) 5 1940

2x 1 2x 1 140 5 1940

4x 1 140 5 1940

4x 1 140 2 140 5 1940 2 140

4x 5 1800

It represents the distance the

Dist.

Property

Combine

like terms.

Subtract.

Simplify.

Calculate

**southbound plane travels in 2 h.
**

5. Why do you divide both sides by 4?

to isolate x

6. What does x represent?

4x

1800

4 5 4

the speed of the southbound plane

Divide.

x 5 450

Answer the question asked.

7. How can you find the speed of the

northbound plane?

**The southbound plane is flying at
**

450 mi/h.

**Add 70 mi/h to the speed of the
**

southbound plane.

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**Think About a Plan
**

Solving Equations

**Geometry The measure of the supplement of an angle is 208 more
**

than three times the measure of the original angle. Find the measures

of the angles.

Know

z

z

1808 .

1. The sum of the measures of the two angles is

**2. What do you know about the supplemental angle?
**

It is 208 more than three times the measure of the original angle.

Need

3. To solve the problem, I need to define:

the measure of the original angle 5 x

the measure of the supplemental angle 5 3x 1 20

Plan

4. What equation can you use to find the measure of the original angle?

x 1 (3x 1 20) 5 180

5. Solve the equation.

x 5 40

6. What are the measures of the angles?

original angle: 408; supplemental angle: 1408

7. Are the solutions reasonable? Explain.

Yes; three times the measure of the ﬁrst angle plus 208 is 1408; the sum of

the measures of the angles is 1808, so they are supplementary.

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1-4

Class

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Practice

Form G

Solving Equations

**Solve each equation.
**

1. 7.2 1 c 5 19 11.8

2. 8.5 5 5p 1.7

d

3. 4 5 231 2124

4. s 2 31 5 20.6 51.6

**Solve each equation. Check your answer.
**

5. 9(z 2 3) 5 12z 29

6. 7y 1 5 5 6y 1 11 6

7. 5w 1 8 2 12w 5 16 2 15w 1

8. 3(x 1 1) 5 2(x 1 11) 19

**Write an equation to solve each problem.
**

9. Two brothers are saving money to buy tickets to a concert. Their combined

savings is $55. One brother has $15 more than the other. How much has each

saved? Variable may vary. Sample: s 1 s 1 15 5 55

10. Geometry The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 5 : 12 : 13. What is the length

**of each side of the triangle if the perimeter of the triangle is 15 inches?
**

Variable may vary. Sample: 5x 1 12x 1 13x 5 15

11. What three consecutive numbers have a sum of 126?

Variable may vary. Sample: n 1 (n 1 1) 1 (n 1 2) 5 126

**Determine whether the equation is always, sometimes, or never true.
**

12. 6(x 1 1) 5 2(5 1 3x) never

13. 3(y 1 3) 1 5y 5 4(2y 1 1) 1 5 always

**Solve each formula for the indicated variable.
**

14. S 5 L(1 2 r), for r

2 lh

15. A 5 lw 1 wh 1 lh, for w w 5 Al 1

h

r 5 1 2 SL

**Solve each equation for y.
**

4

16. 9 (y 1 3) 5 g y 5 94 g 2 3

18.

c (a 1 b)

17. a(y 1 c) 5 b(y 2 c) y 5 b 2 a , a u b

y13

2

3

t 5 t y 5 t 2 3, t u 0

19. 3y 2 yz 5 2z y 5 3 2z

2 z, z u 3

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Practice (continued)

Form G

Solving Equations

**Solve each equation.
**

20. 0.5(x 2 3) 1 (1.5 2 x) 5 5x 0

21. 1.2(x 1 5) 5 1.6(2x 1 5) 21

22. 0.5(c 1 2.8) 2 c 5 0.6c 1 0.3 1

u

u

u

23. 5 1 10 2 6 5 1 15

2

**Solve each formula for the indicated variable.
**

p

24. V 5 3 r2h, for h h 5 3V2

πr

25. D 5 kA c

T2 2 T1

DL

d for T1 T1 5 T2 2 kA

L

**Write an equation to solve each problem.
**

26. Two trains left a station at the same time. One traveled north at a certain

**speed and the other traveled south at twice that speed. After 4 hours, the
**

trains were 600 miles apart. How fast was each train traveling?

Variable may vary. Sample: 4r 1 4(2r) 5 600

27. Geometry The sides of one cube are twice as long as the sides of a second

**cube. What is the side length of each cube if the total volume of the cubes is
**

72 cm3? Variable may vary. Sample: s3 1 (2s)3 5 72

28. Error Analysis Brenna solved an equation

**for m. Do you agree with her? Explain your
**

answer.

No; there is an m on both sides of the equation;

v2

mv1 = (m

M)v

mv

m +M

mv2 + M

Mv

v2

m=

v1

Mv

the correct result should be m 5 v1 2 2v2

**Solve each problem.
**

29. You and your friend left a bus terminal at the same time and traveled in

**opposite directions. Your bus was in heavy traffic and had to travel 20 miles
**

per hour slower than your friend’s bus. After 3 hours, the buses were 270 miles

apart. How fast was each bus going? Your bus: 35 mi/h; Your friend’s bus: 55 mi/h

30. Geometry The length of a rectangle is 5 centimeters greater than its width.

The perimeter is 58 centimeters. What are the dimensions of the rectangle? w 5 12 cm, l 5 17 cm

**31. What four consecutive odd integers have a sum of 336? 81, 83, 85, 87
**

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Class

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Practice

Form K

Solving Equations

**Solve each equation.
**

1. 5x 1 4 5 2x 1 10 2

2. 10w 2 3 5 8w 1 5 4

To start, subtract 2x from each side.

To start, subtract 8w from each side.

3. 4(d 2 3) 5 2d 6

4. s 1 2 2 3s 2 16 5 0 27

**Solve each equation. Check your answer.
**

5. 9(z 2 3) 5 12z 29

6. 7y 1 5 5 6y 1 11 6

7. 5w 1 8 2 12w 5 16 2 15w 1

8. 3(x 1 1) 5 2(x 1 11) 19

**Write an equation to solve each problem.
**

9. Lisa and Beth have babysitting jobs. Lisa earns $30 per week and Beth earns

**$25 per week. How many weeks will it take for them to earn a total of $275?
**

To start, record what you know.

Describe what you need to find.

**Lisa earns $30 per week.
**

Beth earns $25 per week.

Total earned: $275

an equation to find the number of

weeks it takes to earn $275 together

**Variable may vary. Sample: 30w 1 25w 5 275
**

10. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 2 : 12 : 16. The sum of all the angles in a

**triangle must equal 180 degrees. What is the degree measure of each angle of
**

the triangle? Let x 5 the common factor.

2x 1 12x 1 16x 5 180

**11. What two consecutive numbers have a sum of 53?
**

Variable may vary. Sample: n 1 (n 1 1) 5 53

**Determine whether the equation is always, sometimes, or never true.
**

12. 3(2x 2 4) 5 6(x 2 2)

always

13. 4(x 1 3) 5 2(2x 1 1)

never

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Date

Practice (continued)

1-4

Form K

Solving Equations

**Solve each formula for the indicated variable.
**

1

14. A 5 2bh, for b

b 5 2A

h

15. P 5 2w 1 2l, for w

1

16. A 5 2h(b1 1 b2), for h

h 5 b 2A

1 b

17. S 5 2prh 1 2pr2 , for h

1

w 5 P 22 2l

2pr2

h 5 S 22pr

2

**Solve each equation for y.
**

18. ry 2 sy 5 t

y 5 r 2t s, r u s

3

19. 7(y 1 2) 5 g

y 5 73 g 2 2

y

20. m 1 3 5 n

y 5 m(n 2 3), m u 0

21.

3y 2 1

5z

2

2z 1 1

y5 3

**Solve each equation.
**

22. (x 2 3) 2 2 5 6 2 2(x 1 1)

3

23. 4(a 1 2) 2 2a 5 10 1 3(a 2 3)

7

24. 2(2c 1 1) 2 c 5 213

25

25. 8u 1 2(u 2 10) 5 0

2

26. The first half of a play is 35 minutes longer than the second half of the play. If

the entire play is 155 minutes long, how long is the first half of the play? Write

an equation to solve the problem.

Variable may vary. Sample: (m 1 35) 1 m 5 155; m 5 60

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Standardized Test Prep

1-4

Solving Equations

Gridded Response

Solve each exercise and enter your answer in the grid provided.

1. A bookstore owner estimates that her weekly profits p can be described

by the equation p 5 8b 2 560, where b is the number of books sold that

week. Last week the store’s profit was $720. What is the number of books

sold?

2. What is the value of m in the equation 0.6m 2 0.2 5 3.7?

3. Three consecutive even integers have a sum of 168. What is the value of the

largest integer?

4. If 6(x 2 3) 2 2(x 2 2) 5 11, what is the value of x?

5. Your long distance service provider charges you $.06 per minute plus a

**monthly access fee of $4.95. For referring a friend, you receive a $10 service
**

credit this month. If your long-distance bill is $7.85, how many long-distance

minutes did you use?

Answers

1.

–

160

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 0

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

–

6 . 5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

3.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 0

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

–

58

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

4.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 0

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

–

6 . 25

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5.

0 0

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

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–

215

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0 0

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

6 6

7 7

8 8

9 9

Name

1-4

Class

Date

Enrichment

Solving Equations

**Equations can be subdivided into three distinct types:
**

a. conditional equations, or equations that are true for some values of x. For

**example, the equation x 1 1 5 0 is true only for x 5 21.
**

b. identities, for which every possible value of the variable belongs to the

**solution set. For example, the equation x 5 x is an identity, as it is true for all
**

values of x.

c. impossibilities, for which no possible values of the variable belong to the

**solution set. For example, the equation x 5 x 1 1 is an impossibility, as it is
**

never true.

For each of the following equations, find the solution if it is a conditional

equation, or classify the equation as an identity or an impossibility.

1. x 1 (2x 2 4) 5 11 5

2. x 5 x 1 2 impossibility

3. x 1 (2x 2 1) 5 3x 2 1 identity

4. x 5 (2 1 2x) 2 x impossibility

5. (x 2 2) 1 (2x 1 4) 5 x 21

6. x 1 2 5 x 1 3 impossibility

7. 2x 5 3x 0

2

8. 2x 1 8 5 6 2 x 23

1

9. 2x 2 4 1 3x 5 8x 2 5 3

10. 2x 1 5 5 5 1 2x identity

11. 2(x 1 3) 5 5x 2 (3x 2 6) identity

12. x 1 3(x 1 3) 5 3(x 2 3) 218

13. (x 1 3) 1 (x 2 3) 5 3 3

2

14. (x 1 3) 2 (x 2 3) 5 3 impossibility

15. 2(x 1 5) 2 4 5 3(x 1 2) 2 1 1

16. 1 2 (x 2 5) 5 3 2 (x 2 5) impossibility

17. 4(x 2 1) 1 3 5 4x 2 (x 1 1) 0

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Reteaching

1-4

Solving Equations

**To solve an equation that contains a variable, find all of the values of the variable
**

that make the equation true. Use the equality properties of real numbers and

inverse operations to rewrite the equation until the variable is alone on one side of

the equation. Whatever remains on the other side of the equation is the solution.

Subtraction Property of Equality

**Addition Property of Equality
**

To isolate w on one side of the equation, add

**To isolate 5z on one side of the equation,
**

subtract 3 from each side.

2

7 to each side.

w

2 7 5 11

2

17

5z 1 3 5 13

2 3 23

5z

5 10

17

w

5 18

2

Division Property of Equality

**Multiplication Property of Equality
**

To isolate w on one side of the equation,

multiply each side by 2.

**To isolate z on one side of the equation, divide
**

each side by 5.

w

5 18

2

32

5z

10

5 5 5

32

z52

w 36

Exercises

Solve each equation.

1. y 1 12 5 8 24

2. p 2 9 5 12 21

3. 23 1 r 5 20 23

4. 8 5 15 1 k 27

5. 9q 5 27 3

t

6. 6 5 24 224

d

7. 5 5 2 7 235

8. 49 5 10m 4.9

n

10. 8 1 19 5 3 2128

9. 3g 2 14 5 13 9

c

11. 27 5 25 2 4 2128

12. 12 5 2f 1 9 1.5

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Reteaching (continued)

Solving Equations

**To solve an equation for one of its variables, rewrite the equation as an equivalent
**

equation with the specified variable on one side of the equation by itself and an

expression not containing that variable on the other side.

Problem

ax 2 b

The equation 2

5 x 1 2b defines a relationship between a, b, and x. What is

x in terms of a and b?

Use the properties of equality and the properties of real numbers to rewrite the

equation as a sequence of equivalent equations.

ax 2 b

5 x 1 2b

2

2Q

ax 2 b

2 R 5 2(x 1 2b)

Multiply each side by 2.

ax 2 b 5 2(x 1 2b)

Simplify.

ax 2 b 5 2x 1 4b

Distributive Property

ax 2 2x 5 4b 1 b

**Add and subtract to get terms with x on one side and terms
**

without x on the other side.

ax 2 2x 5 5b

Simplify.

x(a 2 2) 5 5b

Distributive Property

5b

x5a22

Divide each side by a 2 2.

**The final form of the equation has x on the left side by itself and an expression not
**

containing x on the right side.

Exercises

Solve each equation for the indicated variable.

13. 3m 2 n 5 2m 1 n, for m m 5 2n

14. 2(u 1 3v) 5 w 2 5u, for u u 5 w 27 6v

b

15. ax 1 b 5 cx 1 d, for x x 5 da 2

2c

1 20

16. k (y 1 3z) 5 4(y 2 5), for y y 5 23kz

k24

1

17. 2 r 1 3s 5 1, for r r 5 2 2 6s

5

2

12 2 5g

18. 3 f 1 12 g 5 1 2 f g , for f f 5

8 1 12g

19.

3j 2 4k

x1k

3

5 4 , for x x 5 4

j

20.

a 2 3y

2 ab

1 4 5 a 1 y, for y y 5 a 1b4b

1 3

b

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ELL Support

Solving Inequalities

**is greater than is greater than or equal to is less than is less than or equal to
**

S

L

R

K

**To write an inequality from a sentence, first identify the operation and then identify
**

the inequality.

Example What inequality represents the sentence “6 more than a number is at least 20”?

“more than” means addition

“is at least” means is greater than or equal to

**6 more than a number is at least 20
**

6 1 x $ 20

Underline the word or words that indicate an operation.

1. the product of 12 and a number

2. 8 less than a number

3. the difference between a number and 24

4. the sum of a number and 7

**Circle the word phrase that identifies the inequality to use. Then write
**

the inequality that represents the sentence.

5. The product of 12 and a number is more than 190. 12x S 190

6. 8 less than a number is at least 34. x 2 8 L 34

7. The difference between a number and 24 is no more than 4. x 2 24 K 4

8. The sum of twice a number and 7 is less than 25. 2x 1 7 R 25

**Some word phrases are very similar, but have different meanings.
**

Example Does the sentence indicate an operation or an inequality?

A number is four 5

greater than 15.

x

5 4

Four is 5

greater than a number.

1

15

operation

4

x

.

inequality

**Does the sentence indicate an operation or an inequality?
**

9. 22 is 7 greater than a number.

**10. A number is greater than 99.
**

inequality

operation

11. A number is 8 less than another number.

**12. 50 is less than a number.
**

inequality

operation

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Think About a Plan

1-5

Solving Inequalities

**Your math test scores are 68, 78, 90, and 91. What is the lowest score you can earn
**

on the next test and still achieve an average of at least 85?

**Understanding the Problem
**

1. What information do you need to find an average of scores? How do you find

an average?

The sum of the scores and the total number of scores;

divide the sum of the scores by the total number of scores.

5

2. How many scores should you include in the average? ___________

z

z z

z

greater than or

equal

to what score?

3. You want to achieve an average that is

85

**Planning the Solution
**

4. Assign a variable, x.

x 5 the score on the next test

5. Write an expression for the sum of all of the scores, including the next test.

327 1 x

6. Write an expression for the average of all of the scores.

327 1 x

5

7. Write an inequality that can be used to determine the lowest score you can

**earn on the next test and still achieve an average of at least 85.
**

327 1 x

5

L 85

Getting an Answer

8. Solve your inequality to find the lowest score you can earn on the next test and

still achieve an average of at least 85. What score do you need to earn? at least 98

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Practice

Form G

Solving Inequalities

**Write the inequality that represents the sentence.
**

1. Four less than a number is greater than 228. x 2 4 + 228

**2. Twice a number is at least 15. 2x # 15
**

3. A number increased by 7 is less than 5. x 1 7 * 5

4. The quotient of a number and 8 is at most 26. x8 K 26

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

5. 3(x 1 1) 1 2 , 11 x * 2

3 2 1

0

1

2

6. 5t 2 2(t 1 2) $ 8 t # 4

1

1

8. 3(7a

3

7. 2f(2y 2 1) 1 yg # 5( y 1 3) y " 17

9. 5 2 2(n 1 2) # 4 1 n n # 21

0

1

2

4

3

5

6

7

2 1) # 2a 1 7 a " 22

19 20 21 22 23 24 25

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

3 2 1

2

10. 22(w 2 7) 1 3 . w 2 1 w * 6

3

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

**Solve each problem by writing an inequality.
**

11. Geometry The length of a rectangular yard is 30 meters. The perimeter is at

most 90 meters. Describe the width of the yard. at most 15 m

12. Geometry A piece of rope 20 feet long is cut from a longer piece that is at least

**32 feet long. The remainder is cut into four pieces of equal length. Describe
**

the length of each of the four pieces. at least 3 ft

13. A school principal estimates that no more than 6% of this year’s senior class

**will graduate with honors. If 350 students graduate this year, how many will
**

graduate with honors? no more than 21 students

14. Two sisters drove 144 miles on a camping trip. They averaged at least 32 miles

**per gallon on the trip. Describe the number of gallons of gas they used.
**

at most 4.5 gal

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Practice (continued)

Form G

Solving Inequalities

**Is the inequality always, sometimes, or never true?
**

15. 3(2x 1 1) . 5x 2 (2 2 x) always true

16. 2(x 2 1) $ x 1 7 sometimes true

17. 7x 1 2 # 2(2x 2 4) 1 3x never true

18. 5(x 2 3) , 2(x 2 9) sometimes true

**Solve each compound inequality. Graph the solution.
**

19. 3x . 26 and 2x , 6 x + 22 and x * 3

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

20. 4x $ 212 and 7x # 7 x # 23 and x " 1

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

21. 5x . 220 and 8x # 32 x + 24 and x " 4

6 4 2

0

2

4

6

22. 6x , 212 or 5x . 5 x * 22 or x + 1

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

23. 6x # 218 or 2x . 18 x " 23 or x + 9

6 3

3

6

9

12

24. 2x . 3 2 x or 2x , x 2 3 x + 1 or x * 23

4 3 2 1

0

1

2

0

**Solve each problem by writing and solving a compound inequality.
**

25. A student believes she can earn between $5200 and $6250 from her summer

job. She knows that she will have to buy four new tires for her car at $90 each.

She estimates her other expenses while she is working at $660. How much can

the student save from her summer wages? between $4180 and $5230

26. Before a chemist can combine a solution with other liquids in a laboratory,

**the temperature of the solution must be between 39°C and 52°C. The chemist
**

places the solution in a warmer that raises the temperature 6.5°C per hour. If

the temperature is originally 0°C, how long will it take to raise the temperature

to the necessary range of values? between 6 and 8 h

27. The Science Club advisor expects that between 42 and 49 students will attend

**the next Science Club field trip. The school allows $5.50 per student for
**

sandwiches and drinks. What is the advisor’s budget for food for the trip?

between $231 and $269.50

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Date

Practice

1-5

Form K

Solving Inequalities

**Write the inequality that represents the sentence.
**

1. Five less than a number is at least 228. x 2 5 L 228

2. The product of a number and four is at most 210. 4x K 210

3. Six more than a quotient of a number and three is greater than 14. x3 1 6 S 14

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

4. 5a 2 10 . 5 a S 3

5. 25 2 2y $ 33 y K 24

**To start, add 10 to each side.
**

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

6. 22(n 1 2) 1 6 # 16 n L 27

7. 2(7a 1 1) . 2a 2 10 a S 21

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

4 3 2 1

0

1

2

**Solve the following problem by writing an inequality.
**

8. The width of a rectangle is 4 cm less than the length. The perimeter is

**at most 48 cm. What are the restrictions on the dimensions of the rectangle?
**

To start, record what you know.

width: length 2 4

perimeter: at most 48 cm

Describe what you need to find.

restrictions on the width and

w S 0, l 2 4 S 0

length of the rectangle

2(l 2 4) 1 2l K 48; 4 R l K 14; 0 R w K 10

The length is more than 4 cm and at most 14 cm.

The width is more than 0 cm and at most 10 cm.

**Is the inequality always, sometimes, or never true?
**

9. 5(x 2 2) $ 2x 1 1 sometimes

10. 2x 1 8 # 2(x 1 1) never

11. 6x 1 1 , 3(2x 2 4) never

12. 2(3x 1 3) . 2(3x 1 1) always

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Practice (continued)

1-5

Form K

Solving Inequalities

**Solve each compound inequality. Graph the solution.
**

13. 2x . 24 and 4x , 12 x S 22 and x R 3

To start, simplify each inequality.

x . 22 and x , 3

2 1

0

1

2

3

4

5 4 3 2 1

0

1

4

5

6

5 4 3 2 1

0

1

5 4 3 2 1

0

1

2 1

3

4

Remember, “and” means that a solution makes BOTH inequalities true.

14. 3x $ 212 and 5x # 5 x L 24 and x K 1

15. 6x . 6 and 9x # 45 x S 1 and x K 5

0

1

2

3

**Solve each compound inequality. Graph the solution.
**

16. 3x , 29 or 8x . 28 x R 23 or x S 21

To start, simplify each inequality.

x , 23 or x . 21

Remember, “or” means that a solution makes EITHER inequality true.

17. 7x # 228 or 2x . 22 x K 24 or x S 21

18. 3x . 3

or

5x , 2x 2 3 x S 1 or x R 21

0

1

**Write an inequality to represent each sentence.
**

19. The average of Shondra’s test scores in Physics is between 88 and 93.

88 R x R 93 OR x S 88 and x R 93

20. The Morgans are buying a new house. They want to buy either a house more

the 75 years old or a house less than 10 years old. x S 75 or x R 10

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**Standardized Test Prep
**

Solving Inequalities

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–5, choose the correct letter.

1. What is the solution of 4t 2 (3 1 t) # t 1 7? B

t # 52

t#5

t#2

t#1

r , 24

r . 24

2. What is the solution of 217 2 2r , 3(r 1 1)? I

r.4

r . 220

3

3. Which graph best represents the solution of 4(m 1 4) . m 1 3? A

1

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

1

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

8

9

10 11 12

1

3 2 1

0

1

6

7

4. What is the solution of the compound inequality 4x , 28 or 9x . 18?

x , 2 or x . 22

x.2

x , 22

x , 22 or x . 2

2

3

I

5. What is the solution of the compound inequality 22x # 6 and 23x . 227? C

x # 23 and x . 9

x $ 23 and x , 9

x $ 3 and x , 29

x # 3 and x . 29

Short Response

6. Geometry The lengths of the sides of a triangle are in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5.

Describe the length of the longest side if the perimeter is not more than 72 in.

**Solve the inequality 3x 1 4x 1 5x " 72 or 12x " 72 or x " 6. The longest side,
**

5x, is not more than 5 ∙ 6 5 30 in. [2] All student calculations are correct.

[1] minor incorrect calculation [0] no answer given

7. Between 8.5% and 9.4% of the city’s population uses the municipal transit

**system daily. According to the latest census, the city’s population is 785,000.
**

How many people use the transit system daily?

[2] between 66,725 and 73,790 people [1] minor incorrect miscalculation of

one or both values in the range [0] no answer given

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Enrichment

1-5

Solving Inequalities

F

R

I

E

D

R

I

C

H

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

B

E

S

S

E

L

11

12

13

14

15

16

**He was the first person to measure the distance to a star successfully. He also
**

discovered that certain mathematical functions play a key role in models of

physical phenomena. These functions were named after him.

To find his name, solve each of the following inequalities.Then use the solutions and

the table below to determine the position in which to write the associated letter.

Solutions

Position

Solutions

Position

x1

1

1

x

2

6

x4

11

x2

2

x5

7

x0

12

x 1

3

5

x

2

8

x 2

4

x0

9

4

x

3

x 1

2

all real numbers

5

10

x2

15

x3

16

B

2(x 1 1) 2 (2 2 x) , 12 x R 4

C

3x 1 6 , 16 2 x x R

Solutions

5

2

**D 3x 1 5 1 3(x 1 5) . 6x 1 15 all real numbers
**

E

8x 2 2 2 6(x 2 3) , 16 x R 0

E

3(x 1 2) 1 2x . 24 x S 22

E

(3 1 x) 1 (3 2 3x) , x x S 2

F

3x 2 5 1 (x 1 9) . 8 x S 1

H 5x 2 3(x 2 1) . 3 x S 0

I

5x 2 3 2 3 Q x 1 73 R . 0 x S 5

I

2(x 1 4) 2 (5 2 x) . 0 x S 21

L

(x 1 1) 2 (1 2 x) , (x 2 1) 2 (2 2 2x) x S 3

R

7x 2 5 2 (21 2 x) . 0 x S

R

2x 1 5 1 2(x 1 5) , 23 x R 2

S

2(x 2 1) , 2 1 2(1 1 7x) x S 2 12

S

3 2 x , 5 1 2(x 1 1) x S 2 43

1

2

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Reteaching

Solving Inequalities

**As with an equation, the solutions of an inequality are numbers that make it true.
**

The procedure for solving a linear inequality is much like the one for solving linear

equations. To isolate the variable on one side of the inequality, perform the same

algebraic operation on each side of the inequality symbol.

The Addition and Subtraction Properties of Inequality state that adding or

subtracting the same number from both sides of the inequality does not change

the inequality.

If a , b, then a 1 c , b 1 c.

If a , b, then a 2 c , b 2 c.

**The Multiplication and Division Properties of Inequality state that multiplying or
**

dividing both sides of the inequality by the same positive number does not change

the inequality.

If a , b and c . 0, then ac , bc.

a

If a , b and c . 0, then c , bc .

Problem

**What is the solution of 3(x 1 2) 2 5 # 21 2 x? Graph the solution.
**

Justify each line in the solution by naming one of the properties of inequalities.

3x 1 6 2 5 # 21 2 x

3x 1 1 # 21 2 x

4x 1 1 # 21

4x # 20

x#5

Distributive Property

Simplify.

Addition Property of Inequality

Subtraction Property of Inequality

Division Property of Inequality

**To graph the solution, locate the boundary point. Plot a point at x 5 5. Because the
**

inequality is “less than or equal to,” the boundary point is part of the solution set.

Therefore, use a closed dot to graph the boundary point. Shade the number line to

the left of the boundary point because the inequality is “less than.”

Graph the solution on a number line.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Exercises

Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.

2. 4 2 (2x 2 4) $ 5 2 (4x 1 3) x # 23

1. 2x 1 4(x 2 2) . 4 x + 2

3 2 1

0

1

2

5 4 3 2 1

3

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Reteaching (continued)

Solving Inequalities

**The procedure for solving an inequality is similar to the procedure for solving an
**

equation but with one important exception.

The Multiplication and Division Properties of Equality also state that, when you

multiply or divide each side of an inequality by a negative number, you must

reverse the inequality symbol.

If a , b and c , 0, then ac . bc.

a

If a , b and c , 0, then c . bc .

Problem

**What is the solution of 2x 2 3(x 2 1) , x 1 5? Graph the solution.
**

Justify each line in the solution by naming one of the properties of inequalities.

2x 2 3(x 2 1) , x 1 5

2x 2 3x 1 3 , x 1 5

2x 1 3 , x 1 5

22x , 2

x . 21

Distributive Property

Simplify.

Subtraction Property of Inequality

Division Property of Inequality

**The direction of the inequality changed in the last step because we divided both
**

sides of the inequality by a negative number.

Graph the solution on a number line.

1

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

Exercises

Solve each inequality.

3. x 2 1 # 24(22 2 x) x # 23

4. 7 2 7(x 2 7) . 24 1 5x x * 5

5. 7(x 1 4) 2 13 $ 12 1 13(3 1 x) x " 26

6. 4x 2 1 , 6x 2 5 x + 2

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ELL Support

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

Concept List

»x… R 3

»x… S 3

»x… K 3

»x… L 3

»x… 5 3

**Choose the concept from the list below that best represents the item in
**

each box.

1. numbers more than

2. numbers three units

3 units away from zero

3.

**away from zero or more
**

than three units away

from 0

»x… S 3

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

0

2

4

6

»x… R 3

»x… L 3

5.

4. numbers less than

6. numbers 3 units away

3 units away from zero

from zero

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

»x… R 3

0

2

4

6

7.

8. numbers three units

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

»x… L 3

»x… 5 3

»x… S 3

0

2

4

6

**away from zero or less
**

than three units away

from 0

9.

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

»x… K 3

»x… K 3

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2

4

6

Name

Class

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Date

**Think About a Plan
**

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Write an absolute value inequality to represent the situation.
**

Cooking Suppose you used an oven thermometer while baking and discovered

that the oven temperature varied between 15 and 25 degrees from the setting. If

your oven is set to 350°, let t be the actual temperature.

1. How do you have to think to solve this problem?

If I subtract the set temperature from the real temperature, the result

should be between 25° and 5°.

**2. Write a compound inequality that represents the actual oven temperature t.
**

345 K t K 355

3. It often helps to draw a picture. Graph this compound inequality on a

number line.

345

350

355

t

**4. What is the definition of tolerance?
**

Tolerance is the difference between a desired measurement and its

maximum and minimum allowable values. It equals half of the difference

between the maximum and minimum values.

5°

5. What is the tolerance of the oven? _________

**6. Use the tolerance to write an inequality without absolute values.
**

25 K t 2 350 K 5

7. Rewrite the inequality as an absolute value inequality.

»t 2 350… K 5

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Practice

Form G

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Solve each equation. Check your answers.
**

1. u23x u 5 18 x 5 6 or x 5 26

2. u 5y u 5 35 y 5 7 or y 5 27

3. u t 1 5 u 5 8 t 5 3 or t 5 213

4. 3u z 1 7 u 5 12 z 5 23 or z 5 211

5. u 2x 2 1 u 5 5 x 5 3 or x 5 22

6. u 4 2 2y u 1 5 5 9 y 5 4 or y 5 0

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

7. u x 1 5 u 5 3x 2 7 x 5 6

8. u 2t 2 3 u 5 3t 2 2 t 5 1

5

9. u 4w 1 3 u 2 2 5 5 w 5 1 or w 5 22

10. 2u z 1 1 u 2 3 5 z 2 2

z 5 21

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

11. 5u y 1 3 u , 15 26 R y R 0

⫺8 ⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

0

2

12. u 2t 2 3 u # 5 21 K t K 4

⫺2 ⫺1

4

1

14. 2 u 2w

13. u 4b u 2 3 . 9 b < 23 or b > 3

⫺9 ⫺6 ⫺3

0

3

6

0

1

2

1

2

3

4

2 1u 2 3 $ 1 w K 272 or w L

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

9

1

15. 2u 4x 1 1 u 2 5 # 1 21 K x K 2

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

0

2

4

9

2

6

2

16. u 3z 2 2 u 1 5 . 9 z R 23 or z S 2

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

3

0

1

2

3

**Write each compound inequality as an absolute value inequality.
**

17. 27.3 # a # 7.3 »a» K 7.3

18. 11 # m # 19 »m 2 15» K 4

19. 28.6 # F # 29.2 »F 2 28.9» K 0.3

20. 0.0015 # t # 0.0018 »t 2 0.00165» K 0.00015

**Write an absolute value equation or inequality to describe each graph.
**

21.

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

0

2

4

22.

6

»x» 5 6

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

1

»x» S 2.5

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3

Name

1-6

Class

Practice

Date

Form G

(continued)

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Solve each equation.
**

23. 3u 2x 1 5 u 5 9x 2 6 x 5 7

3

24. u 4 2 3m u 5 m 1 10 m 5 7 or m 5 2 2

25. 2u 4w 2 5 u 5 12w 2 18 w 5 2

3

26. 4 u8t 2 12 u 5 6(t 2 1) t 5 5

4

27. u 5p 1 3 u 2 4 5 2p p 5 13 or p 5 21

28. u 7y 2 3 u 1 1 5 0 no solution

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

29. 23u 2t 1 1 u , 9 all real numbers

30. u 22x 1 4 u $ 4 x K 0 or x L 4

0

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

y 1 2

31. ` 3 ` 2 1 , 2

1

1

32. 7 u 4z 1 5 u 1 2 . 5

⫺16 ⫺12 ⫺8 ⫺4

0

2

⫺1

3

211 R y R 7

4

0

1

⫺9 ⫺6 ⫺3

8

2

0

3

3

4

5

z R 213

2 or z S 4

6

9

**Write an absolute value inequality to represent each situation.
**

33. To become a potential volunteer donor listed on the National Marrow Donor

**Program registry, a person must be between the ages of 18 and 60. Let a
**

represent the age of a person on the registry. »a 2 39» K 21

34. Two friends are hiking in Death Valley National Park. Their elevation ranges

**from 228 ft below sea level at Badwater to 690 ft above sea level at Zabriskie
**

»x 2 231» K 459

Point. Let x represent their elevation.

35. The outdoor temperature ranged between 37°F and 62°F in a 24-hour period.

Let t represent the temperature during this time period. »t 2 49.5» K 12.5

**The diameter of a ball bearing in a wheel assembly must be between 1.758 cm and
**

1.764 cm.

36. What is the tolerance? 0.003 cm

**37. What absolute value inequality represents the diameter of the ball bearing?
**

Let d represent the diameter in cm. »d 2 1.761» R 0.003

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Practice

Form K

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Solve each equation. Check your answers. Graph the solution.
**

1. u 22x u 5 12 x 5 6 or x 5 26

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

0

2

4

2. u 7y u 5 28 y 5 4 or y 5 24

⫺6 ⫺4 ⫺2

6

0

2

4

6

**Solve each equation. Check your answers.
**

3. u t 1 7 u 5 1 t 5 26 or t 5 28

t 1 7 5 1 or t 1 7 5 21

**To start, rewrite the absolute value
**

equation as two equations.

4. 4u z 1 1 u 5 24 z 5 5 or z 5 27

5. u 2w 1 1 u 5 5 w 5 2 or w 5 23

6. u 2x 2 2 u 5 4 x 5 3 or x 5 21

7. u 5 2 2y u 1 3 5 8 y 5 0 or y 5 5

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

8. u 2z 2 9 u 5 z 2 3 z 5 6 or z 5 4

To start, rewrite as two equations.

2z 2 9 5 z 2 3 or 2z 2 9 5 2(z 2 3)

9. u x 1 6 u 5 2x 2 3 x 5 9

10. u 2t 2 5 u 5 3t 2 10 t 5 5

11. 2u 4y 1 1 u 5 4y 1 10 y 5 2 or y 5 21

12. u w 1 1 u 2 5 5 2w w 5 22

**Write an absolute value equation to describe each graph.
**

13.

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0

1

2

3

14.

4

Variable may vary. Sample: »x… 5 3

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

Variable may vary. Sample: »x 1 3… 5 1

**Is the absolute value equation always, sometimes, or never true? Explain.
**

15. u w u 5 22

16. u z u 1 1 5 z 1 1

**never; the distance between a number
**

w and 0 is never negative

**sometimes; the equation is true only
**

for z L 0

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Practice (continued)

Form K

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

17. 2u x 1 5 u # 8

29 K x K 21

⫺9 ⫺8 ⫺7 ⫺6 ⫺5⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

ux 1 5u # 4

To start, divide each side by 2.

x 1 5 is greater than or equal to 24 and less than or equal to 4.

18. u x 1 1 u 2 3 # 1 25 K x K 3

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0

1

2

0

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0

3

0

1

2

3

21. u y 2 3 u 1 2 $ 4 y K 1 or y L 5

0

1

22. u 2t 1 2 u 1 5 # 9 23 K t K 1

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

z R 23 or z S 1

19. u 2z 1 2 u 2 1 . 3

20. 2u w 1 3 u 2 1 , 1 24 R w R 22

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

24 # x 1 5 # 4

1

2

3

4

5

6

23. u 2s 1 1 u . 3 s R 22 or s S 1

⫺5 ⫺4 ⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1 0

1

1

2

3

**Write each compound inequality as an absolute value inequality.
**

24. 1.2 # a # 2.4 »a 2 1.8… K 0.6

To start, find the tolerance.

2.4 2 1.2

1.2

5 2 5 0.6

2

25. 22 , x , 4 »x 2 1… R 3

26. 1 # m # 2 »m 2 1.5… K 0.5

27. 20 # y # 30 »y 2 25… K 5

28. 23 , t , 17 »t 2 7… R 10

**Write an absolute value inequality to represent each situation.
**

29. In order to enter the kiddie rides at the amusement park, a child must be

**between the ages of 4 and 10. Let a represent the age of a child who may go
**

on the kiddie rides.

»a 2 7… K 3

30. The outdoor temperature ranged between 42°F and 60°F in a 24-hour period.

**Let t represent the temperature during this time period.
**

»t 2 51… K 9

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**Standardized Test Prep
**

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–5, choose the correct letter.

1. What is the solution of u 5t 2 3 u 5 8? C

t 5 8 or t 5 28

t 5 11

5 or t 5 21

t 5 1 or t 5 211

5

t 5 5 or t 5 23

8

**2. What is the solution of u 3z 2 2 u # 8? F
**

10

22 # z # 3

10

23 #z#2

8

10

z # 22 or z $ 3

10

z # 2 3 or z $ 2

1

**3. What is the solution of 2 u 2x 1 3 u 2 1 . 1? B
**

7

22 , x , 12

7

x , 22 or x . 12

7

x . 2 or x , 212

7

x , 12 or x . 22

**4. Which absolute value inequality is equivalent to the compound inequality
**

23 # T # 45? I

u T 2 11 u # 34

u T 2 45 u # 22

u T 2 24 u # 1

u T 2 34 u # 11

**5. Which is the correct graph for the solution of u 2b 1 1 u 2 3 # 2? C
**

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

1

2

3

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

1

2

3

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

1

2

3

⫺3 ⫺2 ⫺1

0

1

2

3

Short Response

6. An employee’s monthly earnings at an electronics store are based on a salary

**plus commissions on her sales. Her earnings can range from $2500 to $3200,
**

depending on her commission. Write a compound inequality to describe

E, the amount of her monthly earnings. Then rewrite your inequality as an

absolute value inequality.

2500 K E K 3200,»E 2 2850… K 350

[2] correct compound inequality and correct absolute value inequality

[1] incorrect compound inequality OR incorrect absolute value inequality

[0] no answer given

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Enrichment

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

When is the distance from six to ten less than the distance from one to two? When

the distance is traveled on a word ladder! A word ladder is a sequence of words in

which only one letter in each word changes. To find a word ladder beginning with

the word ONE and ending with the word TWO, solve each of the following

absolute value inequalities. Write the solutions in the form a , x , b, where a

and b are integers.

Associated with each inequality is a pair of letters. Fill in the word ladder by

placing the first letter of the pair on the line numbered by a and the second letter

on the line numbered by b.

O ____

W ____

E

____

3

2

1

O ____

W ____

L

____

5

4

6

L

O ____

I ____

____

8

7

9

I ____

L

A ____

____

10 11 12

I ____

R

A ____

____

13 14 15

I ____

R

F ____

____

16 17 18

F ____

I ____

N

____

19 20 21

T ____

I ____

N

____

22 23 24

N

T ____

O ____

____

26

25

27

O

T ____

O ____

____

28 29 30

O

N

E

OO

u 3x 2 51 u , 39 4 R x R 30

WL

3 , 10 2 u 11 2 2x u 2 R x R 9

RI

u 95 2 5x u 1 3 , 23 15 R x R 23

EF

u 4x 2 38 u 2 14 , 12 3 R x R 16

IO

u x 2 20 u , 9 11 R x R 29

II

2 , 5 2 u x 2 17 u 14 R x R 20

WO

u 93 2 6x u , 63 5 R x R 26

LL

u 2x 2 18 u 1 4 , 10 6 R x R 12

II

u 8x 2 100 u , 36 8 R x R 17

AA

26 , 2u 46 2 4x u 10 R x R 13

RF

u 4x 2 74 u 1 7 , 9 18 R x R 19

NN

5 , 20 2 u 225 2 10x u 21 R x R 24

TT

3 1 u 106 2 4x u , 9 25 R x R 28

ON

20 , 70 2 u 5x 2 85 u 7 R x R 27

OT

u 92 2 8x u 2 40 , 44 1 R x R 22

T

W

O

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Reteaching

1-6

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**Solving absolute value equations require solving two equations separately. Recall
**

that for a real number x, u x u is the distance from zero to x on the number line. The

equation u x u 5 p means that either x 5 p or x 5 2p because both are p units

from 0.

Problem

**What is the solution set for the equation u 5x 1 1 u 2 3 5 4?
**

The first step in solving an absolute value equation is to isolate the absolute value

on one side of the equal sign.

u 5x 1 1 u 2 3 5 4

u 5x 1 1 u 2 3 1 3 5 4 1 3

Add 3 to each side.

u 5x 1 1 u 5 7

Simplify.

**Next, rewrite the absolute value as two equations and solve each of them
**

separately.

5x 1 1 5 7

5x 5 6

or

or

x5

or

6

5

5x 1 1 5 27

5x 5 28

x5

285

**Deﬁnition of absolute value
**

Addition Property of Equality

Division Property of Equality

**Notice that the same operations are performed in the same order on each of the
**

two equations. However, do not try to “simplify” the process by solving a single

equation. This leads to errors.

The solutions are x 5 65 or x 5 285 . Check each solution in the original equation:

Check

6

P5 ? 5 1 1P 2 3 5 4

u6 1 1u 2 3 5 4

4 5 43

8

P 5 ? Q25 R 1 1 P 2 3 5 4

u 28 1 1 u 2 3 5 4

4 5 43

Exercises

Solve each absolute value equation. Check your work.

1. u 2x 2 3 u 2 4 5 3 x 5 22 or x 5 5

2. u 3x 2 6 u 1 1 5 13 x 5 6 or x 5 22

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Name

Class

1-6

Date

Reteaching (continued)

Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

**To solve an absolute value inequality, keep in mind that u x u is the distance from
**

zero to x on the number line. So, if u x u , p, then x is less than p units from 0, so

u x u , p 1 2p , x , p.

And, if u x u . p, then x is greater than p units from 0, so

u x u . p 1 x , 2p or x . p.

In this case, we need to rewrite the absolute value inequality as two separate

inequalities. Do not try to combine them into one inequality.

Problem

**What is the solution set for the inequality u 2x 1 3 u . 11?
**

Because the inequality is ., use u x u . p 1 x , 2p or x . p.

Begin by rewriting the absolute value as two equations and solve each of them

separately.

2x 1 3 , 211

or

2x 1 3 . 11

2x , 214

or

2x . 8

x . 27

or

x.4

**Rewrite as a compound inequality.
**

Subtract 3 from each side.

Divide each side by 2.

The solution set is x , 27 or x . 4.

Exercises

Complete the steps to solve the inequality P 2x 2 4 P K 3 .

3.

4.

5.

23

u

1

u

2

u

#

x

224

#

#

x

2

#

#

x

#

3

u

7

u

14

u

Rewrite as a compound inequality.

u

Add 4 to each part.

u

Multiply each part by 2 .

6. What is the solution? 2 K x K 14

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60

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Date

Chapter 1 Quiz 1

Form G

Lessons 1-1 through 1-3

Do you know how?

1. Describe a rule for the pattern.

Answers may vary. Sample: Stack one

triangle on top of the leftmost triangle;

add two triangles to the right of the

rightmost triangle.

3

18

2. Name all the integers in the list: 0, 22, 5 , p, !7 , 121, !9 ,2 6 .

0, 22, 121, !9,218

6

**Name the property of real numbers illustrated by each equation.
**

3. 2(3x 2 y) 5 6x 2 2y

Distributive Property

4. 3 1 p 5 p 1 3

Commutative Property of Addition

**Write an algebraic expression to model the word phrase.
**

5. the sum of g and the quotient of 3 and h

g1

**6. six times the difference of x and 22
**

6(x 2 22)

3

h

**Evaluate the expression for the given value of the variable.
**

t(2t 1 3)

1

8. t 1 6 ; t 5 22 2

7. 12x 2 9(x 2 1); x 5 2 15

**Do you understand?
**

9. Writing How can you use a graph to find a pattern?

Answers may vary. Sample: Choose some points on the graph; use these points to

make a table of input and output values; look for a pattern in the process column.

10. Vocabulary What is another name for an additive inverse? opposite

11. Reasoning Is there a Multiplication Property of Closure that applies to

**irrational numbers? Justify your answer.
**

No. Answers may vary. Sample: !2 ? !2 5 2 , which is not irrational.

12. Compare and Contrast What is the difference between simplifying an

**expression and evaluating an expression?
**

Answers may vary. Sample: Simplifying an expression is rewriting it using the properties

of real numbers and combining like terms, resulting in a simpler expression. Evaluating

an expression is substituting values for the variables, resulting in a numeric value.

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Name Class

Date

Chapter 1 Quiz 2

Form G

Lessons 1-4 through 1-6

Do you know how?

Solve each equation. Check your answer.

1

2. 2 (3 2 w) 5 w 1 9 w 5 25

1. 3(t 2 2) 5 2t 1 11 t 5 17

3. Write an equation to solve the problem. Then solve the equation.

**Maria is 3 years older than her brother, Luis. Luis is 2 years older than their
**

younger sister, Karla. The sum of their ages is 55. How old are the three siblings?

Let L be Luis’ age: (L 1 3) 1 L 1 (L 2 2) 5 55; Maria is 21, Luis is 18, Karla is 16

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

5. 26a # 18 and 5 2 3a . 2 23 " a * 1

4. 2(3 2 2n) , 2 2 (n 1 5) n + 3

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

4 3 2 1

0

1

2

6. The city’s registrar of voters estimates that not less than 48% and no more

**than 63% of voters will vote in the next mayoral election. Currently, there are
**

238,000 registered voters in the city. How many people will vote in the next

election? between 114,240 and 149,940, inclusive

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

7. |2p 2 7| 1 6 5 11 p 5 1 or p 5 6

9. Solve the inequality

8. |m 2 2| 5 2m 1 5 m 5 21

u t 22 3 u 1 1 . 4 and graph the solution.

t * 23 or t + 9

6 3

0

3

6

9

12

10. In a chemical process, between 77 g and 85 g of carbon is added to a mixture.

**Let C be the amount of carbon. Write an absolute value inequality describing
**

the amount of carbon added. |C 2 81| * 4

**Do you understand?
**

11. Writing Suppose the sum of three consecutive even integers is given. How

**can you find the three numbers?
**

Answers may vary. Sample: Let n be the first integer. Even integers differ by 2, so the next

one is n 1 2 and the third is n 1 4. Therefore, n 1 (n 1 2) 1 (n 1 4) 5 the given sum. Solve

the equation for n to get the first number. The other two numbers are n 1 2 and n 1 4.

**12. Compare and Contrast How do the solutions to |x| # 1, |x| # 0, and |x| # 21
**

differ? Answers may vary. Sample: |x| " 1 has an infinite number of solutions,

21 " x " 1; |x| " 0 has a single unique solution, x 5 0; and |x| " 21 has no solution.

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Chapter 1 Chapter Test

Form G

**Do you know how?
**

Identify a pattern and find the next three numbers in the pattern.

1. 24, 21, 2, 5, . . .

2. 3, 21, 147, 1029, . . .

Each term is 3 more than the previous

Each term is 7 times more than the

term; 8, 11, 14

previous term; 7203; 50,421; 352,947

3. Justify each step by naming the property used.

a.

b.

c.

d.

4 Q 23 ? 14 R 5 4 Q 14 ? (23) R

Commutative Property of Multiplication

1

5 Q 4 ? 4 R ? (23) Associative Property of Multiplication

5 1 ? (23)

Inverse Property of Multiplication

5 23

Identity Property of Multiplication

**Evaluate the expression for the given value of the variable.
**

4. 2a2 1 4a 2 17; a 5 5 222

5.

6(s 2 2) 2 4(s 1 1)

; s 5 3 21

3s 1 1

6. The expression 19.95 1 0.02x models the daily cost in dollars of renting a car.

**In the expression, x represents the number of miles the car is driven. What is
**

the cost of renting a car for a day when the car is driven 50 miles? $20.95

Solve each equation.

7. 3r 1 3.7 5 5r 2 2.5 3.1

8. 3(5t 1 2) 5 36 2

**Solve each equation for x. State any restrictions on the variables.
**

3t

9. tx 2 ux 5 3t x 5 t 2 u , t u u

10.

x23

6 1 3 5 a x 5 6a 2 15

**Solve each formula for the indicated variable.
**

1

11. R 5 2 (r1 1 r2), for r2 r2 5 2R 2 r1

p

12. P 5 2/ 1 2w, for / < 5 2 2 w or < 5 P 22 2w

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63

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Chapter 1 Chapter Test (continued)

Form G

**Write an equation and solve the problem.
**

13. Two buses leave Dallas at the same time and travel in opposite directions. One

**bus averages 58 mi/h, and the other bus averages 52 mi/h. When will they be
**

363 mi apart? 3 h 18 min later

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

3

15. 4a . 3(a 1 1) 2 Q 7 2 2a R a R 8

14. 3m 1 7 $ 4 m L 21

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

5

6

7

8

9

10 11

**Solve each compound inequality. Graph the solutions.
**

16. 3x 2 1 # 5 or 2x 2 4 $ x

17. 23t # 12 and 22t . 26

x K 2 or x L 4

0

1

2

3

24 K t R 3

4

5

6

6 4 2

0

2

4

6

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

18. u 2x 1 3 u 5 5 x 5 1 or x 5 24

19. u x 1 6 u 5 2x x 5 6

20. The temperature T of a refrigerator is at least 35°F and at most 41°F. Write a

**compound inequality and an absolute value inequality for the temperature of
**

the refrigerator. 35 " T " 41; |T 2 38| " 3

**Do you understand?
**

21. Open-Ended There is no Closure Property of Division that applies to integers.

**For example, 2 4 3 is not an integer. What is another example of a set of
**

real numbers that does not have a Closure Property for one of the basic

operations? Give a specific example to illustrate your claim.

Answers may vary. Sample: Closure Property of Multiplication for negative numbers;

(22) ? (24) 5 8, which is not a negative number.

22. Reasoning Explain in words why |x| , 0 has no solution.

Answers may vary. Sample: |x| * 0 represents the set of numbers x that are fewer than

0 units from 0 on the number line. Since there are no numbers less than 0 units from 0

on the number line, the inequality |x| * 0 has no solution.

23. Writing Explain the difference between the solution(s) to an equation and

**the solutions to an inequality.
**

Answers may vary. Sample: Equations generally have a finite (or countable) number of

solutions, whereas inequalities typically have an infinite number of solutions.

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Name Class

Date

Chapter 1 Quiz 1

Form K

**Lessons 1–1 through 1–3
**

Do you know HOW?

1. Describe a rule for the pattern.

**Answers may vary. Sample: Start with a
**

column of two circles. Add one circle to

the right of the top row; add two circles to

the right of the bottom row.

7

6

2. Identify the integers in the list: 21, 9, 0, p, !25, 81, !5, 22. 21, 0, !25, 81, 2 62

**Name the property of real numbers illustrated by each equation.
**

3. 3(2 ? 5) 5 (3 ? 2) ? 5

4. 5(x 1 2) 5 5 ? x 1 5 ? 2

Associative Property of Multiplication

Distributive Property

**Write an algebraic expression to model the word phrase.
**

5. the sum of y and the product of 7 and x y 1 7x

6. eight more than the quotient of t and 2 2t 1 8

**Evaluate the expression for the given value of the variable.
**

7. 2b 1 6(b 2 4); b 5 8 40

8. x 1 2(x 2 1); x 5 24 214

**Do you UNDERSTAND?
**

9. Writing Give an example of a number that is an irrational number. Explain

why it is irrational.

Answers may vary. Sample: π ; π is an irrational number because 3.141592 . . . neither

terminates nor repeats; π cannot be written as a quotient of integers.

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Date

Chapter 1 Quiz 2

Form K

**Lessons 1–4 through 1–6
**

Do you know HOW?

Solve each equation. Check your answer.

1. 2(x 2 1) 5 4x 2 12 5

2. 3(2 2 2y) 5 y 2 8 2

3. Write an equation to solve the problem. Then solve the equation.

**Brandon has 3 more dollars than Mark. Ashley has 10 dollars less than Mark.
**

They have 35 dollars together. How many dollars does each person have?

Variable may vary. Sample: Let d be the number of dollars Mark has:

(d 1 3) 1 d 1 (d 2 10) 5 35; Brandon has $17, Mark has $14, Ashley has $4.

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

4. 18 2 2a $ 26 a K 24

6 5 4 3 2 1

5. 5x , 215 or 3x . 23 x R 23 or x S 21

0

5 4 3 2 1

0

1

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

7

7. u 2x 1 2 u 5 x 1 5 x 5 3 or x 5 23

6. 3u z 1 1 u 5 21 z 5 6 or z 5 28

**8. Solve the inequality 3u w 1 1 u 2 2 , 1 and graph the solution. 22 R w R 0
**

5 4 3 2 1

0

1

9. Carla buys a package of flower seeds to plant in her garden. The flower seed

**package advertizes there are between 75 and 83 seeds in each package. Let
**

s be the number of seeds in the package. Write an absolute value inequality

describing the number of seeds in the package. »s 2 79… K 4

**Do you UNDERSTAND?
**

10. Writing Write an inequality that has no solution. Explain why it does not have

a solution.

Answers may vary. Sample: 6x 1 1 R 3(2x 2 4); Using the Distributive Property,

6x 1 1 R 6x 2 12; subtract 6x from each side; 1 R 212. Since 1 R 212 is never true,

the inequality has no solution.

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66

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Date

Chapter 1 Chapter Test

Form K

**Do you know HOW?
**

Identify a pattern and find the next three numbers in the pattern.

1. 25, 21, 3, 7, c

Each term is 4 more than the previous

term; 11, 15, 19

2. 64, 32, 16, 8, c

Each term is half of the previous

term; 4, 2, 1

**3. What properties of real numbers are illustrated by each equation below?
**

a. 28 1 3 5 3 1 (28) Commutative Property of Addition

b. 4 1 (24) 5 0 Inverse Property of Addition

c. 2(8 1 t) 5 2 ? 8 1 2 ? t Distributive Property

7

8

d. 8 ? 7 5 1 Inverse Property of Multiplication

**Evaluate the expression for the given value of the variable.
**

4. a2 2 2(a 1 1); a 5 3 1

5. 5(2s 2 1) 2 3(s 1 2); s 5 4 17

6. The expression 15 1 5x models the daily cost in dollars of renting scuba gear

**from the water sports store. In the expression, x represents the number of
**

hours the scuba gear is used. What is the cost of renting scuba gear for a day

when the gear is used for 3 hours? $30

**Solve each equation.
**

7. 2r 1 2 5 3r 2 5 7

8. 8(t 1 1) 5 64 7

**Solve each equation for x. State any restrictions on the variables.
**

9.

xt 2 1

1 3 5 a

8

10.

x 5 8a 2t 23 ; t u 0

6x 2 1

5y

5

x5

5y 1 1

6

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Chapter 1 Chapter Test (continued)

Form K

**Write an equation and solve the problem.
**

11. Two buses leave Columbus, Ohio at the same time and travel in opposite

**directions. One bus averages 55 mi/h and the other bus averages 48 mi/h.
**

When will they be 618 mi apart? 6 h

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

13. 2a 1 5 , 6a 1 1 a S 1

12. 2n 1 1 $ 7 n L 3

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

**Solve each compound inequality. Graph the solutions.
**

14. 3x # 26 or 2x 1 1 $ 3 x K 22 or x L 115. 22t 1 2 , 4 and 2t , 6 21 R t R 3

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

3 2 1

0

1

2

3

**Solve each equation. Check for extraneous solutions.
**

16. u 3x 1 3 u 5 18 x 5 5 or x 5 27

17. u b 1 2 u 5 2b b 5 2

18. The weatherman announced that the temperature T over the next few weeks

**will be at least 648F and at most 788F. Write an absolute value inequality for the
**

temperature over the next few weeks. »T 2 71… K 7

**Do you UNDERSTAND?
**

19. What is another name for the multiplicative inverse? reciprocal

**20. Reasoning Explain in words why 2u x u , 24 has no solution.
**

Answers may vary. Sample: Dividing both sides by 2 gives |x| R 22. The absolute value

of any number must be nonnegative, so the inequality has no solution.

21. Open-Ended What is the difference between simplifying an expression and

evaluating an expression?

Answers may vary. Sample: Simplifying an expression is rewriting it using the

properties of real numbers and combining like terms, resulting in a simpler expression.

Evaluating an expression is substituting values for the variables, resulting in a

numerical value.

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Chapter 1 Performance Tasks

**Give complete answers.
**

Task 1

Write an algebraic expression that requires each of the following properties of real

numbers to simplify, in the order given: the Distributive Property, the Associative

Property of Addition, the Commutative Property of Addition, and the Distributive

Property. Simplify the expression showing the use of each property.

Answers may vary. Check students’ work.

[4] Student writes an algebraic expression satisfying the conditions and correctly simplifies

the expression, labeling each step with the appropriate property.

[3] Student writes an algebraic expression satisfying the conditions. Simplification contains

only minor errors.

[2] Student writes an algebraic expression that satisfies only two or three of the conditions.

Simplification contains errors.

[1] Student writes an algebraic expression that satisfies one or none of the conditions.

Simplification contains significant errors or is missing.

[0] Response is missing or inappropriate.

Task 2

a. Explain how you determine the total number of points scored by a basketball

**player who makes free-throws (worth 1 point), two-point goals (2 points), and
**

three-point goals (3 points) in a game.

b. Use your method from part a to find the total points scored by each of the

**following three players.
**

Free-throws

2-Point Goals

3-Point Goals

Player A

3

5

1

Player B

0

7

3

Player C

2

6

0

**a. The total number of points is the sum of 1 times the number of free-throws, 2 times the
**

number of two-point goals, and 3 times the number of three-point goals.

b. A: 16 points, B: 23 points, C: 14 points

[4] Student gives a detailed explanation of how to find the total. Steps in finding the total

for three players are correct.

[3] Student gives an adequate explanation of how to find the total. Steps in finding the

total for three players contain minor errors.

[2] Student does not fully explain how to find the total. Steps in finding the total for three

players contain errors.

[1] Student does not correctly or completely explain how to find the total. Steps in finding

the total for three players contain major errors.

[0] Response is missing or inappropriate.

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**Chapter 1 Performance Tasks (continued)
**

Task 3

Explain how the properties of inequalities differ from the properties of equality

and how the solutions of an inequality differ from the solutions of an equation.

Use the following equation and inequality as part of your explanation.

25x 5 10

25x . 10

Answers may vary. Sample: When multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a

negative value, the inequality symbol must reverse direction. The solution of the inequality

is x * 22, whereas the solution of the equation is x 5 22. The solutions of the inequality

do not include the solution of the equation, but consist of all numbers less than it.

[4] Student gives specific details of the differences and effectively uses the examples to

illustrate these differences. Steps in solving the equation and inequality are correct.

[3] Student gives adequate details of the differences and makes reference to the examples.

Steps in solving the equation and inequality contain minor errors.

[2] Student solves the equation and the inequality but does not explain the differences.

Steps in solving the equation and inequality contain errors.

[1] Student does not correctly or completely solve the equation and inequality. Steps in

solving the equation and inequality contain major errors.

[0] Response is missing or inappropriate.

Task 4

a. Write an inequality using an absolute value that can be rewritten as a

**compound inequality with or.
**

b. Solve and graph the inequality in part a.

c. Write an inequality using an absolute value that can be rewritten as a

**compound inequality with and.
**

d. Solve and graph the inequality in part c.

a. Answers may vary. Sample: |x| + 2

b. Answers may vary. Sample: x + 2 or x * 22;

6 4 2 0 2 4 6

c. Answers may vary. Sample: |x| * 2

d. Answers may vary. Sample: 22 * x * 2;

6 4 2 0 2 4 6

[4] Student writes and solves inequalities using an absolute value with no mistakes. Graphs

are accurate and detailed.

[3] Student correctly creates inequalities using an absolute value. Graphs or solutions

contain minor errors.

[2] Student makes significant errors in writing or solving the inequalities. Graphs contain

major errors.

[1] Student does not write or solve all inequalities. Graph is incomplete or missing.

[0] Response is missing or inappropriate.

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**Chapter 1 Cumulative Review
**

Multiple Choice

For Exercises 1–10, choose the correct letter.

1. What is the next number in the pattern? 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, … D

12

13

15

16

**2. Which of the following numbers is an integer but not a natural number? G
**

223

0

!9

7

**3. Which of the following lists of numbers is ordered from least to greatest? C
**

3

3

3

0, 21, 22, 23, 24

21, 22, 0, 1, 2

0, 1, !2, 2, !3

0, 21, 1, 22, 2

4. Which of the following expressions is not equivalent to 4(1 2 2x) 1 2(5 2 x)? H

14 2 10x

4 2 8x 1 10 2 2x

4 2 8x 1 10 2 x

4 1 10(1 2 x)

5. What is the value of |x 1 3| 1 5x 2 7 for x 5 29? A

246

258

240

64

6. The expression 20,000 2 1250t models the value, in dollars, of a piece of

**equipment t years after purchase. What is the value of the equipment after
**

8 years? I

$15,000

$0

$150,000

$10,000

**7. What is the solution of 4[x 2 (3 2 2x)] 1 5 5 3(x 1 11)? B
**

31

40

3

9

2

5

**8. Which number is not a solution of the inequality 227 # 3(1 2 2x) # 3? G
**

0

21

12

4

9. Which number is not a solution of the equation |x 1 5| 5 x 1 5? D

5

0

210

25

10. Which of the following equations have more than one solution? F

I. |x 2 3| 5 4

I and II only

1

II. 2 Q x 1 2 R 5 2x 1 1 III. |x 12| 5 21

I and III only

IV. 3x 1 5 5 14

II and III only

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I, II, III, and IV

Name Class

Date

**Chapter 1 Cumulative Review (continued)
**

Short Response

Number of Teachers

11. Derek has noticed there are fewer students per class at

**his friend’s private school than at his public school. He
**

talks to the principal of the private school and learns that

the number of students is the same in every class. Derek

surveys the classes and makes the graph at the right,

comparing the number of students and the number of

teachers.

a. How many teachers are required for 85 students at the

private school? 5

b. How many teachers are required for 153 students? 9

4

3

2

1

17 34 51 68 85

Number of Students

√ 11 5 13

1

12. Graph the numbers 23, 53, and !11 on a number line.

1

13. What are the opposite and the reciprocal of 224 ?

5

9 6 3

0

3

6

9

opposite: 214; reciprocal: 249

**14. Write an equation to solve the problem. Find three consecutive even numbers
**

whose sum is 144. n 1 (n 1 2) 1 (n 1 4) 5 144

15. Solve ax 2 3x 1 5 5 a 1 b for x. State any restrictions on the variables. x 5

a 1 b25

a23 ,

au3

**Solve each inequality. Graph the solution.
**

1

16. 3(t 2 2) 1 5 # 4t 1 2

t L 232

3 2 1

0

1

2

17. 2x 1 5 , 3 or 6 2 x # 5

x R 21 or x L 1

3

3 2 1

0

1

2

18. u 3x 2 1 u , 7

3

22 R x R 83

3 2 1

0

1

2

19. Write the compound inequality 3.1 # m # 4.7 as an absolute value inequality. |m 2 3.9| K 0.8

Extended Response

1

**20. Writing What is the value of the expression 0 ? 0? Explain.
**

It is undefined; because division by 0 is undefined, the entire expression is undefined.

[4] appropriate methods and explanation with no computational errors

[3] appropriate methods and explanation, but with one computational error

[2] incorrect value OR correct value without explanation

[1] correct value, without work shown or explanation

[0] answer missing or no attempt made

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3

T eacher I nstructions

**Chapter 1 Project Teacher Notes: Buy the Hour
**

About the Project

The Chapter Project gives students an opportunity to use expressions, equations,

inequalities, and graphs to model real-life situations. Students write and simplify

expressions by using the Distributive Property and combining like terms, evaluate

expressions, and write and solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

**Introducing the Project
**

• Encourage students to keep all project-related materials in a separate folder.

• Ask students what the term minimum wage means.

• Have students explain the similarities and differences among the terms

expression, equation, and inequality. Remind students that it is important to

define the variable when writing expressions, equations, and inequalities.

Activity 1: Researching

Students research federal and state minimum wages.

Activity 2: Modeling

Students write and evaluate expressions modeling amounts of money earned

based on minimum wages found in Activity 1.

Activity 3: Solving

Students write and solve equations and inequalities that model relationships

between amounts of money earned. Students also graph the solutions of their

inequalities.

**Finishing the Project
**

You may wish to plan a project day on which students share their completed

projects. Encourage students to explain their processes as well as their results.

• Have students review their methods for writing and evaluating expressions;

for writing and solving equations; and for writing, solving, and graphing

inequalities.

• Ask groups to share their insights that resulted from completing the project,

such as shortcuts they found for solving equations and inequalities or for

researching data.

**Prentice Hall Algebra 2 • Teaching Resources
**

Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

73

Name Class

Date

**Chapter 1 Project: Buy the Hour
**

Beginning the Chapter Project

Have you had your first job yet? If so, you were probably paid an hourly wage. The

amount of money you earned for each hour you worked may have been the minimum

wage. This amount, set by the U.S. Department of Labor, is the minimum amount for

one hour of work an employer is allowed to pay to employees who meet certain specific

criteria. Each state may set its own minimum wage, but where federal and state laws

set different rates, the employer is required to pay the greater of the two amounts to all

employees to whom the conditions of the federal law apply.*

In this project, you will write expressions that model amounts of money earned. You will

write equations and inequalities to determine the number of hours that must be worked

to satisfy certain conditions. You will also research the current federal and state minimum

wage laws.

Activities

Activity 1: Researching

Research the current federal minimum wage. Then find out whether the state in

which you live has set its own minimum wage. If so, what is that wage? Select a

state other than the state in which you live. Research the minimum wage for that

state. You might find it helpful to contact the U.S. Department of Labor and state

labor commissioners, or to use the Internet to find this data. Check students’ work.

Activity 2: Modeling

Suppose you earn the minimum wage determined in Activity 1 for the state other than your own.

• Suppose that next week you plan to work h hours. Write an expression that models the

amount of money you will earn. Answers may vary. Sample (based on minimum

wage of $7.25 effective July 24, 2009): 7.25h

• Suppose that your friend earns the same hourly wage that you earn, but works

in a job for which he receives tips. Write an expression that models your

friend’s total earnings for a week during which he works n hours and receives

$15 in tips. Then, evaluate the expression for n 5 10 and explain what this

number means. 7.25n 1 15, $87.50, the total earned when your friend works 10 h

• Write an expression that models the sum of your earnings for 3 weeks and your friend’s

earnings for 2 weeks if you each work r hours per week and your friend receives $15 in

tips per week. Simplify the expression. 3(7.25r) 1 2(7.25r 1 15) 5 36.25r 1 30

• Write an expression that models the difference between your earnings

and your friend’s earnings for a week during which you work h hours, your

friend works n hours, and your friend earns t dollars in tips. (Hint: Be sure to

consider the fact that you do not know who earns more money!) |7.25h 2 (7.25n 1 t)|

*Source: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/wages/minimumwage.htm

**Prentice Hall Algebra 2 • Teaching Resources
**

Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

74

Name Class

Date

**Chapter 1 Project: Buy the Hour (continued)
**

Activity 3: Solving

Round numbers of hours to the nearest tenth if necessary.

• Suppose that last week your employer gave you a $.50/h raise and a $20

bonus as a reward for good work. You earned a total of $80 for the week. Let

x represent the number of hours you worked that week. Write an equation to

model this situation. Then solve your equation and explain the meaning of

your solution. Answers may vary. Sample (based on minimum wage of $7.25 effective

July 24, 2009): 7.75x 1 20 5 80; 7.7; you worked about 7.7 h last week to earn $80.

**• Suppose your friend (still earning minimum wage) receives $20 in tips, and that you
**

(earning $.50/h more than your friend) have earned the same amount of money at the

end of a week during which you worked the same number of hours as your friend. Write

an equation to model this situation. Then solve your equation and explain the meaning

of your solution. 7.25h 1 20 5 7.75h, where h is the number of hours each worked; 40;

each worked 40 h.

**• Suppose that your friend wants to earn at least $95 next week and he expects
**

to earn $15 in tips. Write an inequality that models this situation. Then solve

and graph your inequality. Explain the meaning of your solution.

7.25x 1 15 # 95; x # 11.0; your friend must work at least 11.0 h to earn at least

$95 next week.

Finishing the Project

8

9

10 11 12 13 14

**The answers to the activities should help you to complete your project. You
**

should prepare a presentation for the class describing your results. Your

presentation should include the data you researched; the expressions, equations,

and inequality you used to model the given situations; and the graph of your

inequality.

Reflect and Revise

Ask a classmate to review your project. After you have reviewed each other’s

presentations, decide if your work is clear, complete, and convincing. If needed,

make changes to improve your presentation.

Extending the Project

Research the minimum wages set by other states. If they differ from the minimum

wage of your state, determine possible factors that might contribute to the

differences. Find out what conditions might exist that would allow an employer to

pay an employee less than the federal minimum wage.

**Prentice Hall Algebra 2 • Teaching Resources
**

Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

75

Name Class

Date

**Chapter 1 Project Manager: Buy the Hour
**

Getting Started

Read the project. As you work on the project, you will need a calculator and

materials on which you can record your results and make calculations. Keep all of

your work for the project in a folder.

Checklist

Suggestions

☐ Activity 1: researching

minimum wages

☐ Select a state in which you are interested.

**☐ Activity 2: writing algebraic
**

expressions

**☐ Substitute reasonable values for the variables to
**

determine if the expressions make sense.

**☐ Activity 3: writing and solving
**

equations and inequalities

☐ Check that your answers are reasonable.

☐ algebraic models

**☐ Have you defined the variables in your expressions,
**

equations, and inequality? How does the graph of an

equation differ from the graph of an inequality? What

does this mean in terms of your solution?

Scoring Rubric

4

**The expressions, the equations, and the inequality are correct. The graph and
**

all calculations are accurate. Explanations are thorough and well thought

out. The presentation is clear and complete.

3

**The expressions, the equations, and the inequality have minor errors. The
**

graph and calculations are mostly correct. The explanations and presentation

lack detail or contain small errors.

2

**The expressions, the equations, and the inequality have major errors.
**

The graph and calculations contain minor errors. The explanations and

presentation contain minor inaccuracies.

1

**The expressions, the equations, and the inequality are not correct. The graph
**

is not accurate. Calculations contain major errors or are incomplete. The

explanations and presentation are inaccurate or incomplete.

0

Major elements of the project are incomplete or missing.

Your Evaluation of Project Evaluate your work, based on the Scoring Rubric.

Teacher’s Evaluation of the Project

**Prentice Hall Algebra 2 • Teaching Resources
**

Copyright © by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

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