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# 8.

## 107, 108, 116, 126, 129, 130, 136

8.107 Assume that in orthogonal cutting, the rake angle is 10. Plot the shear plane
angle and cutting ratio as a function of the friction coefficient.
Note from Eq. (8.12) that = tan1 . The shear angle can be estimated, either from
Eq. (8.20) or (8.21), as

## The cutting ratio is given by Eq. (8.1) on p. 420 as

The two expressions for _ can be used to obtain the cutting ratio as a function of ,
which is plotted below. This can be compared to the results for Problem 8.103.

## 8.108 Derive Eq. (8.12).

From the force diagram in Fig. 8.11a on p. 428, we express the following:

8.116 An 8-in-diameter stainless-steel bar is being turned on a lathe at 600 rpm and at a
depth of cut, d = 0.1 in. If the power of the motor is 5 hp and has a mechanical efficiency of
80%, what is the maximum feed that you can have at a spindle speed of 500 rpm before the
motor stalls?
From Table 8.3 on p. 435, we estimate the power requirement for this material as 1.5 hpmin/in3 (a mean value for stainless steel). Since the motor has a capacity of 5 hp, the
maximum volume of material that can be removed per unit time is 5/1.5 = 3.33 in 3/min.
Because the depth of cut is much smaller than the workpiece diameter and referring to Fig.
8.42, we note that the material removal rate in this operation is
Thus, the maximum feed can now be calculated as

or f = 0.0022 in./rev.

8.126 Show that the distance lc in slab milling is approximately equal to Dd for
situations where D d.

Referring to the figure given above, the hypotenuse of the right triangle is assigned
the value of x. From the triangle sketched inside the tool,

## From the lower triangle,

8.129 A slab-milling operation is being carried out on a 20-in.-long, 6-in.-wide highstrength-steel block at a feed of 0.01 in./tooth and a depth of cut of 0.15 in. The
cutter has a diameter of 2.5 in, has six straight cutting teeth, and rotates at 150 rpm.
Calculate the material removal rate and the cutting time, and estimate the power
required.
From the data given we can calculate the workpiece speed, v, from Eq. (8.43) as
v = fNn = (0.01)(150)(6) = 9 in./min
Using Eq. (8.45) on p. 484, the material removal rate is
MRR = wdv = (6)(0.15)(9) = 8.1 in3/min
Since the workpiece is high-strength steel, the specific energy can be estimated from
Table 8.3 as 3.4 hp-min/in3, as this is the largest value in the range given. Therefore,
P = (3.4 hp-min/in3)(8.1in3/min)= 27.5 hp
The cutting time is given by Eq. (8.44) in which the quantity lc can be shown to be
lc = Dd = (2.5)(0.15) = 0.61 in.
Therefore the cutting time is

8.130 Referring to Fig. 8.54, assume that D = 200 mm, w = 30 mm, l = 600 mm, d =
2 mm, v = 1 mm/s, and N = 200 rpm. The cutter has 10 inserts, and the workpiece
material is 304 stainless steel. Calculate the material removal rate, cutting time, and
feed per tooth, and estimate the power required.
The cross section of the cut is wd = (30)(2) = 60 mm2
Noting that the workpiece speed is v = 1 mm/s, the material removal rate can be
calculated as
MRR = (60 mm2)(1 mm/s) = 60 mm3/s
The cutting time is given by Eq. (8.44) in which the quantity lc can be shown to be
lc = Dd = (200)(2) = 20 mm
Therefore, the cutting time is

The feed per tooth is obtained from Eq. (8.43). Noting that N = 200 rpm = 3.33 rev/s
and the number of inserts is 10, we have

For 304 stainless steel, the unit power can be estimated from Table 8.3 as 4 Ws/mm3. Therefore,
P = (4 W-s/mm3)(60 mm3/s) = 240 W
8.136 An orthogonal cutting operation is being carried out under the following
conditions: depth of cut = 0.020 in., width of cut = 0.1 in., cutting ratio = 0.3, cutting
speed = 300 ft/min, rake angle = 0_, cutting force = 200 lb, thrust force = 150 lb,
workpiece density = 0.26 lb/in3, and workpiece specific heat = 0.12 BTU/lb_F. Assume
that (a) the sources of heat are the shear plane and the tool-chip interface; (b) the
thermal conductivity of the tool is zero, and there is no heat loss to the environment;
(c) the temperature of the chip is uniform throughout. If the temperature rise in the
chip is 155_F, calculate the percentage of the energy dissipated in the shear plane
that goes into the workpiece.
The power dissipated in the shear zone is given as

## Therefore, from Problem 8.135 above,

Note that because all the necessary data is given, we should not use the shear-angle
relationships in Section 8.2.4 to estimate the friction angle. Instead, to find , we use
Eq. (8.11) to obtain

## or Pshear = 59.6 BTU/min. The volume rate of material removal is (300)(0.020)(0.10)

(12)=14.4 in3/min. Thus, the heat content, Q, of the chip is

## The total power dissipated is

Ptotal = (200)(300)(1/778) = 77.1 BTU/min.
Hence, the ratio of heat dissipated into the workpiece is (77.1-70)=7.1 BTU/min. In
terms of the shear energy, this represents a percentage of 7.1/59.6=0.12, or 12%.