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EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Early Emotions
In first 2 years, infants progress from reactive pain and pleasure to complex patterns of social awareness
o Period of high emotional responsiveness
At first, there is pleasure and pain
Newborns happy and relaxed when fed and drifting off to sleep
About 20% of babies cry excessively defined as more than 3 hrs. /day for more than 3 days/wk. for more than
3wks.
Smiling and Laughing
Additional emotions become recognizable
Happiness expressed by the social smile, evoked by a human face at about 6wks.
Infants worldwide express social joy, even laughter between 2 and 4 months
Laughter builds as curiosity does
Anger and Sadness
Joy and contentment soon joined by negative emotions more frequent in infancy than later on
Anger is evident at around 6 months, usually triggered by frustration
In infancy, anger is a healthy response to frustration unlike sadness, which also appears in the first months
Sadness indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by bodily increase in cortisol, primary stress hormone
Anger relieves stress but some babies learn to their sorrow, how to suppress their anger
Sadness produces physiological stress, sorrow negatively impacts the infant
Too much sadness early in life correlates with depression later
Fear
Fear in response to some person, thing or situation is evident around 9 months old
Two kinds of social fear are typical:
o Separation anxiety
Clinging and crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave
o Stranger Wariness
Fear of unfamiliar people, especially when they move too close, too quickly
Separation anxiety normal at age 1 and intensifies by age 2 and usually subsides after that
Separation fear interferes with sleep
Some babies become accustomed to a Transitional object such as a teddy bear or blanket that comforts them as
they transition from sleeping in their parents arms to sleeping alone
Transitional objects not pathological; infants way of coping with anxiety
Separation anxiety after age 3 is considered an emotional disorder and accompanied with signs of distress
Strangers who dont move like or resemble family members get stares form infants instead of smiles
o This is good because it shoes that infant memory is active and engaged
Many 1 YOs fear strangers as well as unexpected/sudden events
Every aspect of early emotional development interacts with cultural beliefs expressed in parental actions
Toddlers Emotions
Emotions take on new strength during toddlerhood
Laughing and crying are louder and more discriminating
New strength of emotions visible in temper tantrums
Soon sadness comes to the fore, and then comfort (not acquiescence or punishment) is helpful
Social Awareness
Temper can be seen as an expression of selfhood
Pride shame embarrassment, disgust and guilt require social and self awareness
o Emerges from family interactions shaped by the culture
Disgust is strongly influenced by other people and age
By age 2, most children display the entire spectrum of emotions and they begin to regulate their actions with more
dear or boldness depending on experience

Self-Awareness
Self-awareness, the realization that ones body mind and activities are distinct from those of other people, is
another foundation for emotional growth
Very young infants have no sense of self
Margaret Mahler: for the first 4 months, infants see themselves as part of their mothers
In an experiment with a mirror
o Babies younger than 12 months didnt show any type of self recognition, although sometimes smiled and
touched the dot on the other baby in the mirror
o Between 15 and 24 mos. babies became self aware
Self recognition in the mirror usually emerges around 18 months along with pretending and using first person
pronouns (me, myself, I, mine, my)
**KEY POINTS**
A newborns emotions are distress and contentment, expressed by crying or looking relaxed
Older babies exhibit curiosity, laughter, anger (when they are kept from something they want) and fear (when
something unexpected occurs)
Toddlers express many emotions that indicate awareness of themselves and others
Cultural expectations and parental actions influence emotions
BRAIN AND EMOTIONS
Growth of the Brain
Brain maturation is involved in the aforementioned developments because all emotional reactions begin in the
brain
Experience and culture promote specific connections between neurons and emotions
Links between expressed emotion and brain growth are complex & difficult to assess/describe
Growth of synapses and dendrites is a likely explanation, the result of past experiences and growing maturation
for the reason that infant emotions may erupt, increase or disappear for unknown reasons
Many specific aspects of brain development support social emotions
The maturation of a particular part of the cortex is directly connected (the anterior cingulate gyrus) is directly
connected to emotions of self-regulation, allowing a child to express or hide feelings
Cultural differences may become encoded in the infant brain called by some scientists as the cultural sponge
Researchers find that there is neuroimaging evidence that culture shapes the functional anatomy of selfrepresentation
Memory
All emotional reactions, particularly those connected with self-awareness depend partly on memory
Unlike young infants, toddlers have vivid memories of the previous time a sibling frustrated them or the doctor
gave them a shot.
Memory for events and places is evident but memory for people is even more powerful
Even in early weeks, faces are connected to sensations
Tentative social smile at every face, which occurs naturally as the brain reaches 6 weeks of maturity, soon
becomes a much quicker and fuller smile when an infant sees a familiar, loving caregiver
o This happens b/c neurons that fire together become more quickly and closely connected to each other
with repeated experience
Via neurotransmitters and dendrites
Social preferences form in early months and are connected with individuals face, touch, voice and smell
Stress
Emotions are connected to brain activity and hormones
o Complexly affected by genes, passed experience, NTs and other hormones not yet understood
The hypothalamus grows more slowly if an infant is often frightened
Impact of infant abuse on brain is hard to experimentally prove

Brain scans of children who were mistreated in infancy who abnormal responses to stress, anger, and other
emotions and even to photographs of frightened people
o Suspected that abnormal neurological responses are caused by early abuse
If parental hostility continues, toddlers who are mobile and talkative often become defiant, stubborn, thereby
causing their parents to blame them
Temperament
Genes and Emotions
Infant emotions are affected by alleles and prenatal events
o Uniqueness mans that some babies are more difficult from the moment they are born
Research has found that the 7 repeat allele of DRD4VNTR gene when combined with the 5-HTTLPR genotype
results in 6 MOs that are difficult
o Cry often, hard to distract, slow to laugh etc.
Infant emotions vary for genetic reasons
Temperament: is defined as the biologically based core of individual differences in style of approach and
response to the environment that is stable across time and situations.
Temperament is the not the same as personality
o Although temperamental inclinations may lead to personality differences
Personality traits are typically learned (honesty and humility) while temperamental traits are genetic (shyness and
aggression
Heredity and experience always interact
o Temperament may originate with genes, but expressions of emotions over the lifespan is modified by
experience- the result of child-rearing methods, culture and learning
Research on Temperament
NYLS was first large study to recognize that each newborn has distinct inborn traits
o By 3 mos. infants manifest 9 traits that are clustered into: (proportions)
Easy (40%)
Difficult (10%)
Slow to warm up (15%)
Hard to classify (35%)
Newborns differ temperamentally and some are unusually difficult
Generally only 3 dimensions of temperament are clearly present in early childhood
o Effortful Control: able to regulate attention and emotion, to self-soothe
o Negative Mood: fearful, angry, unhappy
o Surgency: active, social, not shy, exuberant
**KEY POINTS**
Brain maturation underlies much of emotional development in the first 2 years
The stress of early maltreatment probably affects the brain, causing abnormal responses later
Temperament is inborn, with some babies much easier than others
Difficult or fearful babies sometimes become successful, confident children
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL BONDS
Synchrony

Social context has powerful impact on development


o So does the age of the infant via brain maturation
How old the baby is determines specific emotional interactions that lead to growth
o First synchrony, then attachment then social referencing
Early parent-child interactions are described as synchrony
o Evident in the first 3 months becoming more frequent and elaborate as infant matures

Both Partners Active

Adults rarely smile at young infants until the infants smile at them several weeks after birth
o Then start to grin broadly and talk animatedly

Synchrony evident in direct observation and in computer calculation of the millisecond timing of smiles, arched eyebrows
and so on
In every episode, infants learn to read others emotions and develop social skills such as taking turns and watching
expressions
Some parents combine caregiving with emotional play which takes longer but also allows more synchrony
Synchrony usually begins with adults imitating infants
o With split second timing, tone and rhythm
Particularly apparent in Asian cultures perhaps because of a cultural focus on interpersonal sensitivity
In western cultures, parents become partners with infants
o Especially crucial when infants are at medical risk

Neglected Synchrony
Experiments involving the still-face technique address whether synchrony is present and what happens in its
absence
o Sometimes by 2 months and clearly by 6 months, infants are upset by still faces
Especially from parents, less so from strangers
o By 5 mos. they vocalize as if to say pay attention to me
Many studies agree that synchrony is vital
Particularly in the first year, babies of depressed mothers suffer unless someone else is a sensitive partner
Attachment
Toward end of first year face-to-face synchrony almost disappears
Another connection called attachment overtakes synchrony
Attachment is a lasting emotional bond
o Most evident at about age 1, attachment begins before birth and influences relationships throughout life
o Adults attachment formed to their parents formed decades earlier affects their behavior with their own
children as well as their relationships with their partner
Signs of Attachment
Infants show their attachment through proximity seeking and contact maintaining
Proximity seeking
o Approaching and following their caregivers
o If car seat blocks child, parents reach back to give a hand and reassure the baby
Contact maintaining
o Touching, snuggling and holding
o Need not be physical- visual or verbal connections are often sufficient
Attachment seems to be universal, part of the inborn social nature of the human species, but specific
manifestations may vary
Some scholars believe that attachment, not only of mother and infant, but also of fathers, grandparents and nonrelatives is the reason the Homo sapiens thrived when other species became extinct
Secure ad Insecure Attachment
Attachment classified into
o Insecure-Avoidant (A)
Characterized by fear, anxiety, anger or indifference
Insecure children play independently without maintaining contact
o Secure attachment (B)
Infants feel comfortable and confident
Caregiver is base of exploration providing assurance and enabling exploration
o Insecure-resistant/ Ambivalent (C)
Characterized by fear, anxiety, anger or indifference
Children unwilling to leave caregivers lap or are angry at being left
o Disorganized (D)
Infants may shift suddenly from hitting to kissing their mothers, from staring blankly to crying
hysterically, from pinching themselves to freezing in place
Ainsworth original schema only differentiated b/w A, B and C

o Later research discovered D


Among general populations almost 2/3 are type B
o Balanced reaction
o Being concerned not overwhelmed by comings and goings indicates security
1/3 of infants are insecure, either indifferent (A) or unduly anxious (C)
5-10% of infants fit into none of those categories and are labeled (D)
o Infants have no evident strategy for social interactions
o Sometimes become hostile and aggressive; difficult for anyone to relate to
o Elevated levels of cortisol in reaction to stress (unlike A, B and C)

Measuring Attachment
Ainsworth developed Strange Situation to measure attachment (1973)
o Infant observed for 8 episodes (3 mins. each)
First- child and mother
Next a mother and then a stranger come and go
o Infant response to mother indicates which type of attachment they have formed
To distinguish types A, B, C and D researchers focus on
o Exploration of the toys
A secure toddler plays happily
o Reaction to the caregivers departure
A secure toddler notices when the caregiver leaves and shows some sign of missing him/her
o Reaction to the caregivers return
A secure toddler welcomes the caregivers reappearance, usually seeking contact, and then plays
again
Surveys can also be used to determine attachment type
Some behaviors that might seem normal are in fact a sign of insecurity
Infants who seem dismissive or clingy may not always be insecure, as cultures differ
Everywhere however, parents and infants are attached to each other and everywhere secure attachment predicts
academic success and emotional stability
Insecure Attachment and Social Setting
Attached infants are more likely to become secure toddlers, socially competent preschoolers, high-achieving
schoolchildren and capable parents
o Attachment affects early brain development which is why these outcomes can occur
o A, B, C or D status may shift with family circumstances such as divorce, abuse or income loss
Harsh contexts (especially poverty stress) reduce incidence of secure attachment and insecure attachment
correlates with many later problems
o It may be a sign but not a direct cause of those problems
o Correlation is NOT causation
Many aspects of low SES make low school achievement, hostile children, and fearful adults more likely
Insights from Romania
Human relationships should develop within the first year of life and that lack of such relationships has direct
consequences
Romanian dictator forbade birth control and abortions
o Children experienced severe deprivation
o Virtually no normal interaction, play or conversation
Thousands of those children were then adopted by north America, western European and Australian families
o Those adopted before 6 mos. fared best
Synchrony established via play and caregiving
Most developed normally

Those after 6 mos. especially 12 mos. their emotions and cognition showed the clear early social
deprivation
Overly friendly to strangers (sign of insecure attachment)
These children now young adults many with serious emotional or conduct problems
Cause more social than biological
Stress of adolescence and emerging adulthood exacerbate the cognitive and social strains on these young people
and their families
Romanian infants no longer available for international adoption but some remain abandoned
Families usually care for their babies better than strangers
Children need responsive parents, biological or not
Preventing Problems
All infants need love and stimulation
All seek synchrony then attachment (secure if possible; insecure if not)
If biological parents cant care for their newborns, then foster or adoptive parents need to be found quickly so that
synchrony and attachment can develop
Social Referencing
Social referencing refers to seeking emotional responses or information from other people
After age 1, when infants are little scientist and can walk, their need to consult others becomes urgent
o Social referencing is constant
Infants are remarkably selective
o Even at 16 mos. they notice which strangers are reliable references and which are not
Social referencing has many practical applications
o Toddlers use social cues to understand the difference between real and pretend eating
o As well as which toys, emotions and activities are encouraged or forbidden
Fathers as Social Partners
Fathers enhance their childrens social and emotional development in many ways
Fathers elicit more smiles and laughter from their infants than mothers do
Close father-infant relationships can teach infants (especially boys) appropriate expressions of emotion,
particularly anger
Close relationships help the men too, reducing the risk of depression
In most cultures and ethnic groups, fathers spend much less time with infants than mothers
o Some find it unmanly to dote on an infant
Denmark has highest rates of father involvement (so the above isnt equally true everywhere)
Less rigid sex roles seem to be developing among parents in every nation
About of infant mothers in the US are not married and their employment rates are higher
Mothers engage in more caregiving and comforting and fathers in more high intensity play
Over the years father-infant research has tried to answer 3 questions
o Can men provide the same care as women?
o Is father-infant interaction different from mother-infant interaction?
o How do fathers and mothers cooperate to provide infant care
Many studies in past decades say yes to the first 2
3rd question- answer depends on the family
o Each couple given their circumstances (might include immigrant, low-income, same-sex parent) finds
their own way to complement each other to help their infant thrive
Constructive parental alliance cannot be assumed, whether or not the parents are legally wed
o One study showed that 7% of fathers of 1 YOs were pressed and were 4x more likely to spank as were
non-depressed fathers
Family members are affected by each others moods: paternal depression correlates with maternal depression and
with sad, angry and disobedient toddlers
When infants are depressed, anxious, or hostile, all members of the family triad (mother, father, baby) need help
o

**KEY POINTS**

Caregivers and young infants engage in split-second interaction, evidence of synchrony


Attachment b/w people is universal, apparent in infancy w/ contact-maintaining and proximity-seeking as 1 YOs
play
Toddlers use other people as social references, to guide them in their exploration
Fathers are as capable as mothers in social partnerships with infants, although they may favor physical, creative
play more than mothers do.

THEORIES OF INFANT PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT


Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic theory connects biosocial ad psychosocial development
Freud: Oral and Anal Stages
Oral stage
o First year of life
o Primary source of gratification is the mouth
Anal Stage
o Second year
o Infant main pleasure: anus
Sensual pleasure of bowel movements and psychological pleasure of controlling them
Oral and anal stages according to Freud, fraught with potential conflicts that have long term consequences
o If mother weans infant too early or prevents child from sucking thumb or pacifier, child can become
anxious and distressed and eventually become an adult that has an oral fixation.
This person is fixated at the oral stage and b/c of that they eat, drink, chew, bite or talk
excessively in quest of the mouth related pleasure that was denied in infancy
o If toilet training is very strict similarly, child can develop an anal personality and as an adult will seek self
control, an unusually strong need for regularity in all aspects of life.
Erikson: Trust and Autonomy
Erikson says that the first crisis of life is trust vs. mistrust
o Infants learn if world can be trusted to satisfy the basic needs
If social interaction inspires trust, the child, later adult, confidently explores the social world
Second crisis is autonomy vs. shame and doubt
o Starts at 18 mos. when self awareness emerges
o Toddlers want autonomies over their bodies and actions
o Like Freud, Erikson thought that problems in early infancy could last a lifetime and create adults who are
mistrusting and lacking autonomy and are easily shamed
Erikson was aware of cultural variations and depending on norms/expectations mistrust and shame could or could
not be destructive
Because of dozens of cues, guidelines, and norms, toddlers tend to manifest the traits their culture values
Behaviorism
According to behaviorism perspective, emotions and personality are modeled as parents reinforce or punish a child
Infants behavior also has an element of social learning where children learn from people around them
o Bandura experiment with the Bobo dolls
o Boys and girls pounded and kicked Bobo as the adult had done, showing they learned from observation
Social learning occurs throughout life

Social learning theories hold that gender roles, in particular, are learned
Social theorists acknowledge inborn temperament but stress that children follow the role models they see
Sometimes parents unwittingly encourage certain traits in their children by how they respond to their infants
o Evident in effects of proximal vs. distal parenting
Cognitive Theory
Holds that thoughts and values determine a persons perspective
Many cognitive theorists say that early experiences help infants develop a working model
o Set of assumptions that become a frame of reference for later life
Ideally infants develop a working model f the self as valued, loved, and confident and a working model of parents as
emotionally available, loving, sensitive and supportive.
Schema is an organized conception of something
o Likely schema is object permanence
Working models are similar to schemas in that they are comprised of thoughts and assumptions, but are more elaborate and
difficult to change
Crucial idea according to cognitive theory that an infants early experiences themselves are not necessarily pivotal, but the
interpretation of those experiences is.
Children can misinterpret their experiences, or parents may offer inaccurate explanations and these form ideas that affect later
thinking and behavior
Working models formed in childhood echo lifelong
o But people can rethink and reorganize their thoughts and develop new models

Humanism
Infants begin at the first level in the hierarchy of needs (from CH 1)
o Emotions serve to ensure that physiological needs are met
Humanism reminds us that caregivers needs influence how they respond to infants
o Breastfeeding mother example with self esteem problems
o Father with his daughter in the park who encourages her to play near the other toddlers
Evolutionary Theory
Evolutionary theory stresses survival and reproduction
Takes 20 years of maturation before human brain is fully functioning
Emotions for Survival
Infant emotions are part of evolutionary mandate
Men have the genetic potential to be caregivers but circumstances dictate what they do (cultures, expectations
etc.)
Reproductive nurturance depends on years of self-sacrificing investment and humans have evolved to provide it
Oxytocin does more than just trigger birth and promote breast feeding
o They increase the impulse to bond with others, especially ones children
Men and women both have oxytocin in their blood and saliva and continues to be produced as needed for
caregiving
Evolutionary theory holds that over human history, proximity seeking and contact-maintaining fostered species
survival by keeping toddlers near their caregivers and keeping caregivers vigilant
Bonding then synchrony then attachment are greater and more durable for humans than other animals
Toddlers attend to nuances of adult expressions (social referencing) to establish relationships between self and
others
Its part of human nature for babies to evoke caregiving and for caregivers to attend to babies
Allocare
Evolutionary social scientists say that if mothers were the exclusive caregivers of each child until they were adults
and able to provide for themselves and their own children, a woman could really only rear 1 or 2 children
o Not enough offspring for the species to survive
Allocare- the care of children by people other than the biological parents
Flexibility of allocare is necessary since someone has to do it and infants and mothers need to adapt to the
specifics of their situation
Infant Day Care

Most newborns will be cared for primarily or exclusively by their mothers with allocare increasing from ages 1 to
20.
Worldwide, only about 15% of infants (birth to 2YO) receive daily care from a non relative to is paid and trained
to provide it
Patterns of infant care are part of a complex web of rearing: it is difficult to connect any ne particular pattern with
one particular outcome
International Comparisons
Center-based care is common in France, Israel, china, and Sweden where it is heavily subsidized but the
governments
o Scarce in south Asia Africa, Latin America
o North America is in between these extremes
Worldwide, fathers are increasingly involved in baby care
Maternity leave, paternity leave and family leave are all policies that are different worldwide
When nations mandate paid leave, the belief is that the infant needs maternal care and that employers should
encourage that to occur
In US almost no company pays for paternal leave with one exception
o The US military allows for 10 days of paid leave for fathers
In the US only 20% of infants are cared for exclusively by their mothers throughout their first year (no other
relatives or babysitters)
In most nations, infants were more likely to survive if their grandmothers were nearby especially during the time
after weaning
o Grandmothers provided essential nourishment and protection
Types of Non-Maternal Care
In 21st century, most mothers prefer that their babys father become the chief alternate caregiver.
Grandmothers too are often caregivers in the first year, less so as children become more mobile and social
Most parents find family day care and the quality really varies
Ideally, each baby experiences many hours each day of personalized social interaction
Better option may be center day care where licensed and specially educated adults care of several infants in place
expressly designed for them
Preschoolers are not yet able to ignore their own needs when infants need care
Ideally an infant day-care center has ample safe space and trained providers
Regardless of TYPE of care chosen, responsive, individualized care with stable caregivers is best
The Effects of Infant Day Care
Overwhelming evidence that good pre-school education benefits children especially in cognition
Some babies seem far more affected than others by the quality of their care
NICHD followed more than 1300 children from birth to age 11
o Found many cognitive benefits of early day-care especially language development
o Confirms that mother-child relationship is pivotal
o Infant day care is detrimental when the mother is insensitive and the infants spends more than 20 hours a
week in a poor-quality program
Family income, culture, religion and education affect the choice of care and those same variables affect child
development
Not every study finds that boys are more affected
Maternal Employment in Infancy
Research from US indicates that children generally benefit if their mothers are employed
Maternal income reduces parental depression and increases family wealth, both of which correlate with happier
and more successful children
Marital relationships benefit from shared activities so couples who rarely spend time together are likely to be less
dedicated to each other
Father involvement correlates with child happiness and success.
o The opposite is also true

What is definite is that each infant needs responsiveness from at least one person- ideally from both mother and
father
o But another relative or non-relative can suffice
Someone needs to be a partner in the synchrony duet, a base for secure attachment and a social reference that
encourages exploration
If the baby has that, then infant emotions and experiences, cries and laughter, fears and joys, will ensure that
development goes well

**KEY POINTS**
All theories recognize that infant care is crucial
o Psychosocial development depends on it
Psychoanalytic theory stresses early caregiving routines, with Freud and Erikson differing in specifics
Behaviorists emphasize early learning, and cognitive theories emphasize early thinking
o In both cases, lifelong patters are said to begin in infancy
Humanists recognize that we all adults as well as infants- have basic needs we seek to fulfill
According to evolutionary theory, inborn impulses provide the interdependence that humans need for survival
Infant day car and maternal employment are now common in the united states, but worldwide, they remain
controversial

Chapter 4 Vocabulary:
Social Smile: a smile evoked by a human face, normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth

Cortisol: the primary stress hormone; fluctuations in the bodys cortisol level affect human emotion

Separation Anxiety: an infants distress when a familiar caregiver leaves, most obvious between 9 and 14 months

Stranger Wariness: an infants expression of concern- a quiet stare while clinging to a familiar person, or a look
of fear- when a stranger appears

Self-Awareness: a persons realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind and actions are
separate from those of other people

Temperament: inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity and self-regulation. It is
measured by the persons typical responses to the environment

Synchrony: a coordinated, rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and infant

Still-face technique: an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and
expressionless in the face-to-face interaction with an infant

Attachment: according to Ainsworth, an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver. A tie than binds
them together in space and endures over time

Secure Attachment: a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of
his or her caregiver

Insecure-avoidant attachment: a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver
as when the infants seem to not care about the caregivers presence, departure or return

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent Attachment: a pattern of attachment in which an infants anxiety and uncertainty


are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks
contact on reunion

Disorganized Attachment: a type of attachment that is marked by an infants inconsistent reactions to the
caregivers departure and return

Strange Situation: a laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants reactions to the stress of
various adults comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom

Social Referencing: seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by
observing someone elses expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference

Trust vs. Mistrust: Eriksons first crisis of psychosocial development. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a
secure place where their basic needs (for foo, comfort, attention and so on) are met

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Eriksons second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed
or fail in gaining a s sense of self-rule over their actions and bodies

Social Learning: the acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others

Proximal Parenting: caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby with frequent holding
and touching

Distal parenting: caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food and
face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching

Working Model: in cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and
experiences. For example, a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by an
incident that his working model of human behavior was erroneous

Allocare: Literally other-care; the care of children by the people other than the biological parents

Family Day Care: child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a
woman who is paid to provide it

Center day care: childcare that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults
care for many children. Usually, the children are grouped by age, the day-care center is licensed, and providers are
trained and certified in child development.